Daily Archives: January 3, 2016

Project 677 Lada Class Project Amur 950 / Amur 1650 Class Submarines

The Project 677 Lada Class diesel-electric submarines are being built by Admiralty Shipyard for the Russian Navy. The class is also called the Petersburg Class, after the lead submarine. The Lada Class succeeds the Kilo Class submarines.

The keel for the lead sub in class, Sankt-Petersburg (B-585), was laid down in December 1997 and launched in October 2004. The submarine was delivered to the Russian Navy in April 2010 and commissioned in May 2010.

B-585 St. Petersburg  –  kollektsiya.ru

The keel for the second submarine, Kronshtadt (B-586), was laid in July 2005 and the launching ceremony was held in September 2017. Commissioning of the Kronshtadt submarine is scheduled for 2019.

The keel-laying ceremony of the third submarine, formerly known as Sevastopol (B-587), was held in November 2006. The submarine was renamed as Velikie Luki and re-laid in February 2015 due to a redesign, after continuous delays. The launch of Velikie Luki is expected to take place in 2019, with commissioning slated for 2021.

The Russian Navy plans to procure a total of eight Lada Class submarines.

B-587 Velikiye Luki  –  Ruptly

Project 677 , code “Lada”
Project 677E


Pr.677 – St. Petersburg, “Admiralty Shipyards” – 1 + 2 units

Launched on the water
Entry into service
B-585 St. Petersburg
B-586 Kronshtadt
plan 2018
plan 2020
in the construction
B-587 Sevastopol
plan 2019
in the construction, from 27.01.2012? – B-587 Velikiye Luki

Pr.677E – St. Petersburg, “Admiralty Shipyards” – 0 + 1 unit

Launched on the water
Entry into service
in the construction

Source russianships.info

B-586 Kronshtadt – Новости на Первом КаналеB-586 Kronshtadt – Новости на Первом КаналеB-586 Kronshtadt – Новости на Первом Канале

Planned versions

The engineering office Rubin, in liaison with the Chantiers de l’Admiralty, is proposing, alongside the project 677 for the Russian Navy, an export version called AMUR, and available in several versions. They are all designed to accommodate the KRISTALL-27E anaerobic propulsion system. The engineering firm Rubin announces that it can also equip them with the Siemens AIP system that equips German U-212 / U-214 submarines. The tonnage varies from 550 to 1850t in surface, and the equipment is of course adaptable to the wishes of the customers. No orders seem to have been obtained for the time being.

In addition, there are many variants. We can retain the following principal:

Source soumarsov.eu

Amur 1650


Based on many years of experience in operation by the Russian Navy and fleets of other countries in various regions of the World Ocean of diesel-electric submarines of projects 613 (Whiskey), 641 (Foxtrot), 641B (Tango), class Kilo, TsKB MT “Rubin” developed projects of non-nuclear submarines of the fourth generation of the class “Amur” (Amur 1650 and Amur 950).

The submarine “Cupid 1650” has a smaller displacement compared to submarines of the “Kilo” class. Its distinctive features include the possibility of salvo missile fire at sea and ground targets of up to six missiles in a volley, the availability of modern radio-electronic weapons and a hydroacoustic complex with a unique noise-sending antenna that can detect particularly low-noise targets at a great distance.

Amur 1650 – ckb-rubin.ru

The level of the acoustic field of the submarine “Amur 1650” is several times lower than that of the “Kilo” class submarines, which are considered to be the lowest noise in the world today. The submarine is equipped with a new generation of electronic weapons, using the achievements of world radio electronics in recent years.


Amur 1650 aoosk.ru

It is possible to equip the submarine with an air-independent power plant with electrochemical generators, which makes it possible to significantly increase the underwater autonomy and range of navigation. Such an installation with reagent stocks is placed in a special compartment-module, which can be built into the submarine both during construction, and during repair or modernization.

The submarine can be operated in any areas of the World Ocean, except areas with a solid ice cover, under any weather conditions, in shallow and deep water areas.

When creating a submarine, equipment and armament of both Russian production and the customer country or equipment of third countries can be used. Amur-1650 data Translated by google – Source ckb-rubin.ru

Amur 950


The submarine “Amur 950″ has a smaller displacement compared to the submarines of the class ” Kilo ” and “Amur 1650″. The peculiarity of the submarine is the presence of 10 universal vertical launchers of the ” Club – S ” missile system , which makes it possible to carry out a 10-missile salvo with cruise missiles for maritime and land targets for no more than 2 minutes. For self-defense, there are small-sized hydroacoustic countermeasures devices placed in launchers in the superstructure of submarines.

The integrated combat control system with the latest radio electronic subsystems allows solving all the tactical tasks facing non-nuclear submarines. Due to the relatively small displacement, the submarine “Amur 950” will have an advantage over submarines of similar class by the criterion “efficiency-cost”.

Amur 950 – ckb-rubin.ru

The level of the acoustic field of the submarine “Amur 950” is several times lower than that of the “Kilo” class submarines, which are considered to be the lowest noise in the world today. The submarine is equipped with a new generation of electronic weapons, using the achievements of world radio electronics in recent years.


Amur 950 aoosk.ru

It is possible to equip the submarine with an air-independent power plant with electrochemical generators, which makes it possible to significantly increase the underwater autonomy and range of navigation. Such an installation with reagent stocks is placed in a special compartment-module, which can be built into the submarine both during construction, and during repair or modernization.

The submarine can be operated in any areas of the World Ocean, except areas with a solid ice cover, under any weather conditions, in shallow and deep water areas.

When creating a submarine, equipment and armament of both Russian production and the customer country or equipment of third countries can be used. Amur-950 data Translated by google – Source ckb-rubin.ru

B-585 St. Petersburg  –  kollektsiya.ru

Lada Class missions capabilities

The Project 677 submarine is an improved version of the Project 636 Kilo Class with much quieter, powerful propulsion and new combat systems. The fourth-generation submarines can be deployed in anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and anti-surface warfare (AsuW) operations, protection of naval bases, reconnaissance and patrol missions.

The export variant of the Lada Class, the Project 1650 Amur Class has been designed for markets such as India and China. Amur Class is offered in various configurations with a displacement of 550t to 1,850t, and different weapon systems.


The submarine is designed for antisubmarine/antiship/antiaircraft warfare, protection of naval bases, seashore and sea lanes, conducting of reconnaissance. Source rusnavy.com

Lira – Hull Sonar, Active/Passive

Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 27.8 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
Lira [Hull] – Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search
Max Range: 27.8 km

Source cmano-db.com

MGK-400 Rubikon Suite

The MGK-400EM modernised sonar system is designed for surveillance underwater and surface sea situation to enable actions and weapon application of a submerged submarine.


The MGK-400EM sonar system can be installed on nonnuclear submarines and to perform the following missions:

  • search, detection and taking bearing to submarines, surface ships and torpedoes by their noise emission;
  • automatic target tracking;
  • intercept of sonar signals transmitted from submarines, surface ships and torpedoes;
  • detection, localization of the target and distance measuring in active sonar mode;
  • mine search and detection of navigation obstacles;
  • automatic target classification and targeting to underwater weapons;
  • underwater communication in low frequency band, high-frequency band communication, identification “friend-or-foe” and measuring of the distance (MD) to correspondent;
  • monitoring of sonar background noise;
  • prediction of sonar operation range;
  • automatic testing and troubleshooting of sonar system.

MGK-400EM sonar system features advanced antennas with new piezoelectric ceramic compounds and electro acoustic transducers of improved design.

Source roe.ru

B-585 St. Petersburg – igorrgroup.blogspot.com

Squid Head MRP-25 (Bald Head + Rim Hat RWR Element)

Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 222.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1980s
Squid Head [MRP-25] – (Bald Head + Rim Hat RWR Element) ESM
Role: RWR, Radar Warning Receiver
Max Range: 222.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

Quad Loop DF – ESM

Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 1970s
Quad Loop DF – ESM
Role: HF/DF
Max Range: 926 km

Source cmano-db.com

Lada Class design features

Amur 1650 – ckb-rubin.ru

Lada Class diesel-electric submarines are designed by the Russian Rubin Design Bureau. The ship incorporates a mono-hull design. The surface displacement was reduced to 1,765t from 2,300t of the double-hulled Kilo Class submarine.

The full submerged speed has been increased from 19kt to 21kt, and crew complement has been decreased from 52 to 35.

B-585 St. Petersburg – igorrgroup.blogspot.comB-585 St. Petersburg – Vitaly V. Kuzmin
B-585 St. Petersburg – Vitaly V. KuzminB-585 St. Petersburg – igorrgroup.blogspot.com

The submarine has a trimmed profile equipped with sophisticated torpedo and missile systems. The hull is covered with a new anti-sonar coating for low acoustic signature.

Lada Class uses hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells generating electricity for low noise operation. The submarine is fitted with Litiy automated combat control system. The integrated system controls the combat and technical systems of the submarine.

Unique AIP design


The Russian AIP design is unique because hydrogen required for power generation is obtained by means of diesel fuel reforming onboard the submarine. Hydrogen is not stored onboard and is produced as much as needed, which increases the safety of the propulsion plant. Ordinary diesel fuel, which is standard for all diesel-electric submarines, is used for generating hydrogen. It needs no extra component and, hence, extra reservoir for storage. There is also no need for special infrastructure on shore to generate and store hydrogen. To cap it all, the AIP features low noise and high efficiency. Source strategic-culture.org


The Lada Class has a surface speed of 10kt and submerged speed of 21kt. The propulsion system provides a submerged cruising range of 7,500nmi at an economical speed of 3kt. The maximum diving depth is 300m. The submerged displacement of the boat is 2,700t.

Russia to Upgrade its First Project 677 Lada-class Submarine St. Petersburg: Here

Weapon systems onboard the Project 677 Lada Class diesel-electric submarines

Lada Class is armed with club-S submarine-launched cruise missiles. The missile can be fired from standard torpedo tubes.

Closeup of torpedo hatches on the B-586 Kronshtadt – Новости на Первом Канале

Club-S carries up to 400kg warheads and can strike land and naval targets within a range of 300km. The six 533mm torpedo tubes fitted on the ship can launch up to 18 torpedoes, tube-launched anti-submarine and anti-ship missiles.

Club-S Integrated missile systems


High-performance submarine-based Club-S and ship-based Club-N integrated missile systems are designed to engage surface ships and submarines in conditions of intensive enemy fire and electronic countermeasures. Both systems employ unified combat assets – two types of anti-ship cruise missiles and an anti-submarine ballistic missile. Club-N missile system features standardized launch units and transport-launch containers.


Integrated missile systems include:

  • 3M-54E anti-ship cruise missile (Club-S) comprises a booster, low-altitude subsonic sustainer, and a separable supersonic warhead. 3M-54TE ASM (Club-N) features a TLC to ensure vertical launch;
  • 3M-54E1 ASM (Club-S) comprises a booster and a low-altitude subsonic sustainer. 3M-54TE1 ASM (Club-N) differs from 3M-54E1 only by having a TLC;
  • 3M-14E land-attack cruise missile (Club-S system) consists of a booster and a low-flying subsonic sustainer. Launched from the Club-N system this missile is designated the 3M-14TE, with the only difference being a TLC;
  • 91RE1 anti-submarine ballistic missile (Club-S) performs a controlled flight to the target area. Its separable warhead is a high-speed homing torpedo with a sonar target seeker.

91RTE2 anti-submarine ballistic missile (Club-N) differs from 91RE1 missile in size and booster design Source roe.ru

SS-N-27 “Sizzler”

The SS-N-27 “Sizzler” is a Russian short-range ship-, and submarine-launched anti-ship missile. The Sizzler is part of the Kalibr family of missiles and has several export versions known as the ‘Klub’ missile series.

Originated From: Russia
Possessed By: Russia, Algeria, China, India, Iran, Vietnam
Alternate Names: SS-N-27, SS-N-27A, SS-N-27B, Sizzler, 3M54, 3M54M, 3M54E, 3M-54E1, 3M54TE, 3M54TE1, 3M54AE, 3M54AE1
Class: anti-ship cruise missile
Basing: submarine- ship-launched
Length: 8.22 m for 3M54 (6.2 m for 3M54M1)
Diameter: 0.534-0.645 m
Launch Weight: 1,920 kg for 3M54 (1,570 kg for 3M54M1)
Payload: single conventional warhead
Warhead: 1X200 kg HE for 3M54 (1X450 kg HE for 3M54M1)
Propulsion: solid propellant, turbojet (3M54 is three stage, 3M54M1 is two stage)
Range: 220 km (3M54), 300 km (3M54M1)
Status: Operational
In Service: 1987

Source missilethreat.csis.org

SS-N-30A (3M-14 Kalibr)

The SS-N-30 (3M-14 Kalibr) is a Russian land attack cruise missile (LACM), and improved version of the 3M-14E “Club” LACM. The SS-N-30A has an estimated range of around 1,500 to 2,500 km and has become a mainstay in the Russian Navy’s ground-strike capabilities.

Originated From: Russia
Possessed By: Russia
Alternate Name: 3M-54, Kalibr
Class: Sea-launched Land Attack Cruise Missile
Basing: Ship/Submarine-based
Length: 6.2 m
Payload: 450 kg warhead: High explosive, possibly nuclear capable
Propulsion: Turbojet
Range: 1,500-2,500 km
Status: Operational
In Service: 2015-present

Source missilethreat.csis.org

91RE1 anti-submarine ballistic missile

The 91RE1 Club-N is a submarine-based ballistic missile designed to engage submarines using its warhead which includes a small-size MPT-1UME torpedo fitted with an active homing head. It is suitable for engagements of hostile submarines located at 50 km. It utilizes an Inertial Navigation System (INS) based guidance system to reach the target area. The 91RE1 and 91RTE2 ballistic missiles differ in size and booster design. They are expected to replace the SS-N-15 and SS-N-16 missiles in the Russian Navy.

Diameter: 533 millimeter (21.0 inch)
Length: 8 meter (315 inch)
Max Range: 50,000 meter (27.0 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 830 mps (2,989 kph)
Warhead: 76 kilogram (168 pound)
Weight: 2,050 kilogram (4,519 pound)

Source deagel.com

Futlyar 533mm torpedo (UGST (Fizik-1)?)

Image: nevskii-bastion.ru


Caliber mm 533 – 534.4

Length, mm 7200 (6100)

Weight, kg: 1980 – 2200 (1680)

Weight of explosives, however, kg: 300

Speed, kt:

  • 1 mode: 50
  • 2-Mode : 30 – 35

Range of stroke, m: 50000 – 60000 (40000)

depth of stroke, m: up to 500

shooting depth with submarines, m: up to 400

Radius response CLO km:

  • on submarines: 2.5
  • NDT: 1.2

indication time wakefield NK track, from: 350

Length of wire telecontrol km:

  • • torpedo coil 25
  • • towable coil 5

Range fuse, m:

  • on the FL 2
  • NDT: 6 – 8

Источник: http://nevskii-bastion.ru/ugst-torpeda/ ВТС «НЕВСКИЙ БАСТИОН» A.V.Karpenko

USET-80 torpedo

USET-80 – Dawid Marczyński for large image: Here

The USET-80 is a multipurpose electric-propelled torpedo with both acoustic wake homing and active/passive acoustic homing. It truly multipurpose as it is launched by both submarines and surface ships against submarines and surface targets.


TYPE Multipurpose torpedo
PLATFORM Surface ships, submarines
LENGTH 7.9 m
WEIGHT 2.000 kg
WARHEAD 200 to 300 kg explosive charge
GUIDANCE 300 kg explosive charge
PROPULSION Twin propeller wakeless propulsion
POWER SUPPLY Silver zinc battery
SPEED 48 kt
RANGE 20 km
DEPTH Up to 400 m

Source weaponsystems.net

53-56 torpedo

The Type 53-56 is a non homing torpedo that was introduced in 1956 and is fired from surface vessels and submarines. The Type 53-56V and VA that were introduced in 1964 and 1966 respectively are export models that use air instead of oxygen. The V is a non homing torpedo while the VA is an acoustic wake following torpedo.


TYPE Anti-ship torpedo
PLATFORM Surface ships, submarines
LENGTH 7.70 m
WEIGHT 2.000 kg
WARHEAD 400 kg explosive charge
GUIDANCE Non-homing
POWER SUPPLY Kerosene oxygen wet heater
SPEED 50 kt
RANGE 8 km at 50 kt
13 km at 40 kt

Source weaponsystems.net

DM-1 sea mines

In 1957, the Navy received the IGDM-500 small bottom mine, and in 1959 it got the MDT tubular bottom mine and Serpei large bottom mine. In 1961 such unique bottom mines of the UDM family as the UDM large air-dropped mine (1961) and UDM-500 small bottom mine (1965) came into service. In 1979, the UDM-2 mine, featuring fundamentally new performance characteristics, was developed. Later, on the basis of the UDM family of mines, their successors, designated MDM-3, MDM-4 and MDM-5, were developed for export. At the same time, the DM-1 (MDM-1) mine, designed to be laid by submarines, entered service. The latest modification of this mine is the MDM-6.

All of the above mines can be air-dropped, scattered from surface warships and other vessels, and the MDM-1 and MDM-6 types can also be laid from submarines. As regards size and explosive charge, mines can be subdivided into superlarge (UDM-2, DM-1, MDM-5, MDM-1, MDM-6), large (IGDM, AMD-2M, Serpei, UDM, MDM-4) and small (IGDM-500, UDM-500, MDM-3). Source milit.ru


The mines are fitted with local three-channel influence exploders activated by target’s acoustic, electromagnetic and hydrodynamic fields sensed in a hemispherical danger zone. The exploders allow the mines to be deployed in both three- and two-channel configurations, with any combination of the channels possible. The mines possess effective anti-sweeping protection from modern influence sweepers and resistance to natural clutter owing to advanced exploder operating principle and anti-sweep device logic, as well as mine timing and ship counting devices employed. Intricate planting patterns and camouflage painting of the mines hinder their detection by sonars of surface ships and submarines, or by mine-hunting devices of remotely operated underwater vehicles.

MDM-1 Mod. 1 sea bottom mine

The mine can be laid by submarines equipped with 534mm torpedo tubes and ships fitted with mine-laying rails/ramps or mine-scattering systems. Surface ships can lay the mines at speeds of up to 15 knots, and submarines – at speeds of up to 8 knots.

When the assigned service life of the mine expires, it is self-destroyed.

Source roe.ru

9K38 Igla (Needle) Man-Portable Air Defense System (MANPADS)

Intended to defeat approaching and receding jet-engine, turboprop, propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters round the clock when they are visually observed against clutter background and in infrared countermeasure environment.
High counter-countermeasure resistance. Round the clock identification friend-or-foe. Main combat employment – shoulder-firing. Launch options include a 203-OPU Dzhigit support launching unit and 9S846 Strelets set of control equipment and launch modules.

Major features of Igla MANPADS:

  • two-colour seeker;
  • automatic entry of lead and elevation angles at launch;
  • target selection when it deploys IR decoys;
  • software-driven target adaptive guidance;
  • detonation of sustainer’s remaining propellant together with warhead activation;
  • disabling launches at friendly targets.

System specifications:

 Target altitude, m  10…3,500
 Target range, m  5,200
 Target speed, m/s:
            head-on engagement  Up to 360
            tail-chase engagement  Up to 320
 Combat equipment weight, kg (in combat position)  16.8
Major missile specifications:
 Missile calibre, mm  72.2
 Missile length, mm  1,655
 Missile launch weight, kg  10.6
 Booster  Solid-propellant
 Sustainer  Solid-propellant, two-thrust
 Warhead  Blast fragmentation
 Aerodynamic configuration  Canard
 Flight control  Aerodynamic surfaces, powder thruster at initial trajectory
 Seeker  Optical, two-colour, homing (passive)
 Control system  Single-channel

Source kbm.ru

The Lada Class submarines are fitted with modern sonar equipment such as bow, flank arrays and towed array sonars. The Lira sonar system with quasi-conformal (abutting the hull of the submarine) antenna can detect low-noise targets located at long ranges.

The ship has an inertial navigation system for safe navigation and determination of motion parameters. The system ensures the accuracy of on-board weapons by providing guidance during long underwater operations. The countermeasures are provided by the electronic support measures (ESM) system, radar warning receiver and direction finder.

Propulsion and power of the Russian subs

B-585 St. Petersburg – Russian Marshal YouTube

The submarine’s propulsion system integrates two diesel generators, a main electric propulsion motor, two air independent propulsion (AIP) systems, and a single shaft driving on a skewed seven-bladed propeller.

2 x 28DG Diesel-generator

The diesel engine is located in the fourth compartment. For the generation of electricity, two 28DG generators are used, coupled with rectifiers with a capacity of 1000 kW each. The energy is stored in two groups of storage batteries. In each of them there are 126 elements (they are in the first and third compartments). The total aggregate capacity of the entire plant in the peak state is 10580 kW / h. The working motor is electric, it is excited by permanent magnets. The SED-1 grade, the specific power is 4100 kW. Translated by google – Source kollektsiya.ru

Parameter Value
Full power, kW 1335
Engine speed at full power, rpm 1000
Dimensions, mm, max.
length 3475
width 1572
height 2600
Dry engine weight, kg 10800
Standard specific fuel consumption (accord. to ISO), g/kW·h 191
Standard specific burning oil consumption (accord. to ISO), g/kW·h, max 1,23
Specific burning oil consumption at full power, g/kW·h (g/hp∙h) 1,47
Oil replacement interval (main М-16DR), h 2500
Top end overhaul interval, h 7500
Major overhaul interval, h 30000
Decommissioning interval, h 80000

Source kolomnadiesel.com

The AIP system based on oxygen / hydrogen fuel cells increases the Lada Class submerged endurance from 15 to 45 days. It also reduces noise by avoiding the need for frequent battery recharge by diesel generators.


The diesel engine operating short time in the snorkelling mode increases the endurance of the submarine. The submarine also has a storage battery with an increased service life.

KRISTALL-27E anaerobic propulsion system


“The Lada project is an unconditional breakthrough and improvement of technologies that exist on traditional diesel submarines. Of course, there will be a certain continuity, all the best that we will get through the Lada, we will invest in a new large non-nuclear submarine, which will be created already within the framework of the formation of the next generation, “he said, answering the question whether Lada VNEU .  According to him, now there are two projects of air-independent plants. “One (installation – TASS comment) was carried out by CDB” Malakhit “, the other – TsKB” Rubin “. They use different principles, “Rakhmanov said. “But we hope that in the near future with the help of the Ministry of Industry and Trade we will go to mock testing in water,” he said. According to him, now both installations exist as stands and show good results. TASS.  Translated by google – Source bastion-opk.ru

Tactical and technical data

Displacement, t:
surface: 1450 (pr.677E – 1765)
underwater: 2100 (pr.677E – 2650)
Dimensions, m:
length: 58 (pr.677E – 66.8)
width: 7.2 (pr.677E – 7.1)
draft on KVL: 4.8
Full speed, knots:
surface water: 11 (pr.677E-10)
Underwater: 17 (pr.677E-21)
Range of navigation:
above the water
under the RDP 4000 miles (7 knots under the RDP) (pr.677E – 4000 miles)
under the water 650 miles (3 knots) (pr.677E – 650 miles (3 knots))
Depth of immersion, m:
working: 200 (pr.677E-300)
limiting: 250
Autonomy, days: 30 days (pr.677E – 45 days)
GEM, full power: 1×2700 hp electric motor PG-102M (pr.677E – 1×5575 hp), 2×140 hp electric motor, 1 VFSH, 2 VRK with a vfsh in nozzles
Armament: 6 533 mm NTA – 16 torpedoes 53-56B, SET-53M or 22 mines DM-1
6×1 PU “Igla-1M” missile system (6 missiles) – pr.677E
Radiotechnical fire: SJSC “Lira”, BIUS “Lithium”
Crew, person: 34 (pr.677E-35)

Tactical and technical data russianships.info

Main material source naval-technology.com

Main image roe.ru

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Revised Oct 08, 2018

Updated Oct 12, 2018

Sikorsky S-97 Raider Light Tactical Helicopter

The S-97 Raider is a light tactical helicopter being developed by Sikorsky to demonstrate the capabilities of the company’s X2 Technology. The technology claims to offer safer high-speed flights with improved efficiency and safety.

The S-97 Raider will be offered to the US Armed Forces for flight testing and evaluation for future combat missions. The helicopter is suitable for assault and armed reconnaissance missions. The technology is, however, scalable to a range of other missions such as close-air support, combat search and rescue and special operations. It can fly at speeds of more than 220kt at 10,000ft altitude.

X2 Technology™


The X2 technology demonstrator is a new coaxial rotor design (counter-rotating rotors) that aims to retain good hover performance as well as cruise speeds up to 460 km/h (250 kts). X2 Technology aircraft will hover, land vertically, maneuver at low speeds, and transition seamlessly from hover to forward flight like a helicopter. In a high speed configuration, one or more ‘pusher props’ are part of an integrated auxiliary propulsion system to enable high speed with no need to physically reconfigure the aircraft in flight.


Technologies to be used in the X2 design include:

  • new rotor blade designs with high lift-to-drag ratio
  • fly-by-wire system with advanced flight control laws
  • transmissions with greater horsepower to weight performance and the ability to seamlessly transfer power from the main rotor to the aft propulsor
  • active vibration control.

Contributing to the flight test effort are:

  • Aero Composites: six-blade pusher propeller
  • Chelton Flight Systems : cockpit displays
  • Eagle Aviation Technologies: rotor blade manufacture
  • Hamilton Sundstrand
  • Honeywell supplies the fly-by-wire control system
  • LHTEC with an T800-801 engine
  • Moog, providing the active vibration control

According to Sikorsky, the X2 technology is highly scalable from UAVs to heavy lifters. Examples mentioned in company leafleats in mid 2005 were:

  • UAV: 250 kts cruise to station, 5 hour plus endurance at 110 miles radius, full envelope weapons delivery
    • high speed attack helicopter
    • commercial intermediate transport
    • heavy lift crane helicopter with 25 ton external load
    • high-speed joint heavy lift transport with 25 ton internal load

Crew (Besatzung): 2

Power plant (Antrieb):
 1 x LHTEC T800 turboshaft, driving both the coaxial rotor and the six-bladed pusher propeller
Power (Leistung): 1000 – 1250 kW (1300 – 1680 shp)

Weights (Massen)
Take-off weight (Startmasse): about 3600 kg

Performance (Flugleistungen)
Max. cruise speed (max. Reisegeschwindigkeit): 460 km/h (250 kts)
Range (Reichweite): 1300 km

X2 specification flug-revue.rotor.com

Designed with a lower turning radius and acoustic noise signature, the S-97 is expected to be a game-changer in the light military helicopters segment. The first of two S-97 prototypes was unveiled in October 2014, with its maiden flight scheduled for the end of 2014.

Details of the S-97 Raider development programme

Sikorsky initiated the development of S-97 Raider in 2010 as an advancement of the applications of X2 Technology in next-generation rotor-wing technologies. The company will initially produce two S-97 Raider prototypes and send them to the US Armed Forces for testing and evaluation.

Sikorsky’s aim is to offer the X2-based aircraft for the Armed Aerial Scout (AAS) programme of the US Army. The AAS programme involves the procurement of armed reconnaissance aircraft for the US Army.

The first prototype of the S-97 Raider entered final assembly in September 2013 and was powered for first time in June 2014. The company has selected 35 suppliers for the prototype development, with the majority of them being based in the US. It will invest 75% of the project cost, while the suppliers will invest the remaining total.

Companies / contractors involved with the S-97 development


A number of the companies that Sikorsky has teamed-up for the development of the S-97 Raider include Rotating Composite Technologies (RCT), HEXCEL and Eagle Aviation Technologies for the blades; Fischer + Entwicklungen, Aurora, PPG Industries and others for the structure; and Fatigue Technology (FTI), Parker Aerospace, and others for rotors and transmission.

The S-97 Raider development is also being sponsored by a number of companies including GE, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, Northrop Grumman, Honeywell, Garmin, Parker Aerospace, and Hamilton Sundstrand.

PPG Aerospace was selected in June 2012 to supply the plastic transparencies for the S-97 Raider prototypes. As part of the supply agreement, PPG will develop and produce coated windshields for the pilot and co-pilot, side windows of the cockpit, as well as the lower observation and fuselage windows.

Design features of the S-97 Raider


The S-97 Raider armed scout helicopter is 37ft long and 16ft wide. It is fitted with a 34ft diameter rotor and a 7ft diameter propeller in the rear.


The fuselage of the helicopter will be built of composite materials. The cabin will have seating for a troop of six. The cockpit can accommodate two pilots in a side-by-side seating arrangement.


The helicopter will be fitted with twin rigid co-axial counter-rotating main rotors. An auxiliary internal fuel tank will be provided aft of the cockpit for extended mission support and operational flexibility. The helicopter features a retractable landing gear and fly-by-wire flight controls.

Retractable landing gear – LockheedMartinVideos

Additional design features of the S-97 include active vibration control, hub drag reduction, integrated thermal management system and split torque transmission.

Twin rigid co-axial counter-rotating main rotors

ERIC ADAMS – cropped

Armaments / weapons of the light tactical helicopter

The S-97 Raider will carry armament payloads including Hellfire missiles, 2.75in rockets, a .50 cal gun and a 7.62mm gun. It can also carry additional ammunition for extended missions. The armament space is located aft of the cockpit – towards the tail of the aircraft.

Hellfire missiles

Primary Function: Air-to-surface and surface-to-surface point target/anti-armor missile
Prime Contractor: Hellfire Systems, LLC – A Boeing – Lockheed Martin Joint Venture
Propulsion: ATK (now Orbital ATK) solid propellant rocket motor (IM HELLFIRE Propulsion System);
AGM-114A: ATK M120E3; AGM-114B: ATK M120E4; AGM-114L: ATK M120E4
Length: 5.33 ft (1.62 m); AGM-114L: 5.77 ft (1.76 m)
Diameter: 7 in (17.8 cm)
Wingspan: 28 in (0.71 m)
Weight: 98 to 109 lbs (44.5 to 49.4 kg); AGM-114R: 109 lbs (49.4 kg)
Speed: Subsonic
Range: AGM-114 K/L/M/N: 4.97 miles (8,000 m)
AGM-114R fired at 3,000 ft (914 m):
4.97 miles (8,000 m) – LOAL, high trajectory
4.41 miles (7,100 m) – LOAL, low/direct trajectory
Guidance: Semi-Active Laser (SAL) seeker; AGM-114L: Millimeter wave (MMW) radar seeker
Warhead: AGM-114 A/C/F/K/K-2/L/P/P+: Shaped charge warhead
AGM-114F-A/K-2A/P-2A: Shaped charge warhead with frag sleeve
AGM-114M/N: Blast fragmentation warhead (AGM-114N is a thermobaric version with metal augmentation charge)
AGM-114R: Multi-purpose Integrated Blast Frag Sleeve (IBFS) warhead

Source fi-aeroweb.com

2.75-inch/70mm DAGR missile


The 2.75-inch/70mm DAGR missile is a precision-strike, multi-role, multi-platform munition that effectively neutralizes lightly-armored and high-value targets close to civilian assets or friendly forces. DAGR offers strike capability with the reliability of a HELLFIRE II missile while further limiting collateral damage.

The DAGR system puts HELLFIRE II missile and Joint Air-to-Ground Missile technology in a 2.75-inch guidance section that integrates seamlessly with legacy Hydra-70 rockets. Like HELLFIRE, DAGR offers lock-on-after-launch (LOAL) and lock-on-before-launch (LOBL) capability, target handoff, enhanced built-in testing on the rail, and laser coding from the cockpit. The result is a laser-guided missile that offers capabilities beyond those of a simple guided rocket.

The DAGR rail-mounted canister (RMC) mounts to HELLFIRE-compatible digital and analog launchers (e.g., M299/M310 and M272). The RMC readily integrates with all HELLFIRE platforms, including unmanned aerial vehicles and Apache, Kiowa, Little Bird, Cobra, and Tiger helicopters.

Plug-and-play HELLFIRE II compatibility allows aircrews to mix loadouts between HELLFIRE and DAGR missiles on the same launcher, providing the flexibility to meet any challenge on an ever-changing battlefield. When increased loadout or reduced weight is a must, DAGR delivers. Source lockheedmartin.com

Diameter: 2.75 in (70 mm)
Length: 75 in (1.9 m)
Wingspan: 8.75 in (222 mm)
Weight: 35.0 lb (15.8 kg)
Guidance: Semi-active laser homing (SALH).
Range from Sea Level: Min: 1.5 km Max: 5 km
Range from 20,000 feet: 12 km.
Motor: Existing Hydra 70 motors.
Warhead: M151 warhead with M423 fuze

Source plus.google.com

FN HERSTAL Belgium manufactured machine gun pod

  • Specially-Designed Machine GunThe .50 cal FN® M3P machine gun has been especifically designed by FN Herstal for airborne applications.
  • High Hit Probability

    A high rate of fire guarantees short time on target (1,025 +/- 75 RPM, per pod, adjustable)
  • Improved Accuracy and SafetyThe FN® M3P machine gun features a Flash Hider and is installed on a soft mount that absorbs most recoil forces for increased accuracy.
  • Accurate suppressive and defensive fire against troops up to 3,000m
  • Suppressive fire against light armored vehicles up to 1,000m (.50 cal APEI round)
  • Ignition of fuel tanks and containers up to 2,500m (.50 cal APEI round)
  • Aerial threat suppression (.50 cal APEI round)

Source fnherstal.com

The helicopter can be armed with external weapons and will be equipped with a variety of sensors to support reconnaissance and light attack missions.

Engine / propulsion


The S-97 Raider will be powered by a single engine. The pusher type clutched propeller will enable the helicopter to fly at speeds up to 220kt. The dash speed will be more than 240kt, which is almost double that of a conventional helicopter. An auxiliary power unit will also be provided to start the engine.


General Electric YT706

The YT706-700 is a growth version of GE Aviation’s commercial CT7-8 turboshaft and produces 2,600shp (1,940kW) compared with 2,000shp for the T700-701D that powers the standard UH-60M Black Hawk utility helicopter.

GE won a competition in 2005 to supply 120 engines to power special-forces MH-60Ms, which need increased hot-and-high capability, says programme manager John Martin. Deliveries will begin next year.

Compared with the -701D, the YT706 has a 25% larger compressor, full-authority digital engine control and improved turbine cooling and materials. Development included 40h flying in an MH-60M test aircraft.

Changes from the commercial CT7-8A include revised “fail fixed” controls that ensure the engine maintains power if both FADEC channels fail. The CT7-8 shuts down if there is a dual failure, says Martin.

With the commercial designation CT7-8B5, the engine belongs to the family powering the Sikorsky S-92 (-8A) and Lockheed Martin/AgustaWestland VH-71 (-8E). The -8F5 has been selected to power Spain’s NH Industries NH90s, and the 3,000shp -8C is under development to power later VH-71s. Also under development is a FADEC-equipped T700-701E to power the upgraded, fly-by-wire version of the UH-60M. Source flightglobal.com




CT7-2 CT7-6/6A CT7-8 CT7-9
Compressor Stages 6 6 6 6
Low-Pressure Turbine / High-Pressure Turbine 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2
Nominal Diameter (Inches) 15.6 15.6 26 29
Length (Inches) 46 47 48.8 96
Take off rating at Sea Level 1,625 2,000 2,634 1,870-1,950
SFC at take-off rating 0.474 0.454 0.452 0.455

Source geaviation.com


Source lockheedmartin.com

Main material source army-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Revised Oct 07, 2018