Monthly Archives: January 2019

Kongō Class Guided Missile Destroyers

The Kongō Class guided missile destroyers were built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and IHI Corporation for the Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force (JMSDF). The destroyer is a modified version of the US Navy’s Arleigh Burke Class destroyer. The Escort Flotillas of JMSDF operate four vessels. The Kongō Class is preceded by Hatakaze Class and succeeded by Atago Class destroyers.

DDG-173 JS KONGO / Source Maritime Self-Defense Force homepage

The JMSDF built and commissioned four destroyers between 1990 and 1998. The keel for the lead vessel in class, JDS Kongō (DDG-173), was laid in May 1990. It was launched in September 1991 and commissioned in March 1993. JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) was laid down in April 1992, launched in August 1993 and commissioned in March 1995. JDS Myōkō (DDG-175) was laid down in April 1993, launched in October 1994 and commissioned in March 1996. The last vessel of class, JDS Chōkai (DDG-176), was laid down in May 1995. Chōkai was launched in August 1996 for the commissioning in March 1998.

JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) / Source Maritime Self-Defense Force homepage

Sejong the Great-class destroyer: Details

Ships in class

Kongō Class destroyer design

Based on the Arleigh Burke Class destroyer, the design of Kongō Class features a vertical mast and a bridge with sleek sides. The superstructure prevailed by the SPY-1 phased arrays incorporates stealth features to reduce radar cross section. The vessel is larger than traditional destroyers, featuring a longer helicopter deck aft than the Arleigh Burke Class destroyer. The deeper draught of the destroyer limits its capabilities to conduct operations in littoral environments.

The Kongō Class has a length of 161m, beam of 21m and draft of 6.2m. The full load displacement of the ship is 9,500t. The destroyer can accommodate a crew of 300.

Command and control

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The Kongō Class destroyers were the first vessels to be equipped with the Aegis combat system (ACS) after the US Navy warships.

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The system integrates an advanced command and control system, and a weapons control system (WCS). The high-performance phased array radar system combined with powerful computers can search, detect and track over 200 targets simultaneously.

JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) – AegisBMD

In July 2005, Lockheed Martin received a $124m contract under a foreign military sales (FMS) programme to supply the Aegis ballistic missile defence (BMD) system for four Kongō Class destroyers. Three destroyers were successfully modified with the Aegis BMD system. The system integration is expected to be complete by the end of 2010.

Kongō Class weapons layout

Kongō Class missiles

An SM-3 missile is launched from the JMSDF Aegis destroyer JS Kirishima (Kongo class) –

The destroyer is armed with the RIM-66 SM-2MR block II surface-to-air missiles and the RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles. The mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS) can carry a total of 90 SM-2MR missiles, of which, 21 missiles are housed in the bow cells and 61 missiles in the aft cells of the VLS.

RIM-66 SM-2MR block II surface-to-air missiles

RIM-66 SM-2MR Standard Missile was launched from the forward Mk-41 VLS aboard USS Mustin (DDG 89)

Standard Missile 2 (SM-2) is the U.S Navy’s primary surface-to-air air defense weapon. It is an integral part of the AEGIS Weapon System (AWS) aboard Ticonderoga-class cruisers and Arleigh Burke-class destroyers; and is launched from the Mark 41 vertical launcher system (VLS). Its primary missions are fleet area air defense and ship self-defense, but it also has demonstrated an extended area air defense projection capability. The SM-2 uses tail controls and a solid fuel rocket motor for propulsion and maneuverability. All variants are guided by inertial navigation and mid-course commands from AWS using semi-active radar or an infrared (IR) sensor for terminal homing.

SM-2 Blocks III, IIIA, IIIB and IV are in service with the U.S. Navy; these and other variants of Standard Missile are also in service with 15 allied navies.

Extended Range Active Missile (SM-6) provides an air defense force multiplier to the U.S. Navy to greatly expand the AWS battlespace. SM-6 provides an extended range anti-air warfare capability both over sea and over land by combining a modified advanced medium-range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM) active seeker onto the proven Standard Missile airframe. This low-risk approach, relying on non-developmental items, supported an FY 2011 initial operating capability. With integrated fire control support, SM-6 provides the Navy with an increased battlespace against anti-air warfare (AAW) threats over-the-horizon.

The Kirishima fires what appears to be an SM-2 missile from one of her stern VLS cells –

General Characteristics, SM-2 Block III/IIIA/IIIB Medium Range

Primary Function: Surface to air missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems.
Date Deployed: 1981 (SM-2 MR).
Propulsion: Dual thrust, solid fuel rocket.
Length: 15 feet, 6 inches (4.72 meters).
Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.3 cm).
Wingspan: 3 feet 6 inches (1.08 meters).
Weight: SM-2: 1,558 pounds (708 kg).
Range: Up to 90 nautical miles (104 statute miles).
Guidance System: Semi-active radar homing (IR in Block IIIB).
Warhead: Radar and contact fuse, blast-fragment warhead.


RIM-161 Standard Missile SM-3 ABM

RIM-161 Standard Missile SM-3 was launched from the Japanese Destroyer JS Kongou (DDG 173)

The RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) is a ship-based missile system used by the US Navy to intercept aircraft, ships, ballistic and cruise missiles as a part of Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System. Although primarily designed as an anti-ballistic missile, the SM-3 has also been employed in an anti-satellite capacity against a satellite at the lower end of Low Earth orbit. The SM-3 is primarily used and tested by the United States Navy and also operated by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force and in the future by the Royal Netherlands Navy.


The SM-3 evolved from the proven SM-2 Block IV design. The SM-3 uses the same solid rocket booster and dual thrust rocket motor as the Block IV missile for the first and second stages and the same steering control section and midcourse missile guidance for maneuvering in the atmosphere. To support the extended range of an exo-atmospheric intercept, additional missile thrust is provided in a new third stage for the SM-3 missile, containing a dual pulse rocket motor for the early exo-atmospheric phase of flight.

Initial work was done to adapt SM-3 for land deployment (“Aegis ashore”) to especially accommodate the Israelis, but they then chose to pursue their own system, the NATO code-name Arrow 3. A group in the Obama administration envisioned a European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) and SM-3 was chosen as the main vector of this effort because the competing U.S. THAAD does not have enough range and would have required too many sites in Europe to provide adequate coverage. Compared to the GMD’s Ground-Based Interceptor however, the SM-3 Block I has about 1⁄5 to 1⁄6 of the range. A significant improvement in this respect, the SM-3 Block II variant widens the missile’s diameter from 0.34 m (13.5 in) to .53 m (21 in), making it more suitable against intermediate-range ballistic missiles.

The Block IIA missile is largely new sharing only the first-stage motor with the Block I. The Block IIA was “designed to allow for Japan to protect against a North Korean attack with fewer deployed ships” but it is also the key element of the EPAA phase 3 deployment in Europe. The Block IIA is being jointly developed by Raytheon and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries; the latter manages “the third-stage rocket motor and nose cone”. The U.S. budgeted cost to date is $1.51 billion for the Block IIA.

Lenght: 6.55 meters (21 feet 6 inch)
Diameter: 34.3 cm (13.5 in) for Block I missiles / 53.3 cm (21 in) for Block II
Wingspan: 1.57 meters (62 in)
Operational range: 700 km (378 miles) Block IA/B / 2,500 km (1,350 miles) Block IIA
Flight ceiling: 500 km (311 miles) Block IA/B / 1,500 km (933 miles) Block IIA
Speed: 3 km/s (Mach 10.2) Block IA/B / 4.5 km/s (Mach 15.25) Block IIA
Guidance: GPS/INS/semi-active radar homing/passive LWIR infrared homing seeker (KW)


Mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS)

The Mk 41 is the standard Vertical Launch System employed by the US Navy fighting ships to store and launch a wide spectrum of naval missiles. It is installed below deck on surface ships in 13 different configurations ranging from a single module with 8-cell to 16 modules with 128-cell.

The Mk 41 Strike Length (Mk 41 SL) is the largest Mk 41 version currently deployed aboard US Navy ships. It can accommodate any existing missile in the US Navy Inventory.

The Mk 41 VLS has been adopted by the navies of Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, Republic of Korea (RoK), Norway, Spain, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

Mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS) Kongō Class Miyoko DDG 175 – 来島屋旗振男

As of early 2006, the Mk 41 VLS Baseline VII is the current production model and was introduced in 2004. More than 11,000 Mk 41 missiles cells have been ordered to date for 178 ships in 11 world navies.

Mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS) Kongō Class Miyoko DDG 175 – 来島屋旗振男

The BAE Systems Mk 14 canister is used to launch Tomahawk cruise missiles through the Mk 41 vertical launching system. The US Navy had ordered 1,036 Mk 14 canisters until April 2007.  Source

GM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The A/U/RGM-84 Harpoon is an all- weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system that provides the Navy with a common missile for air and ship launches.

The Harpoon’s active radar guidance, warhead design, low-level cruise trajectory, and terminal mode sea-skim or pop-up maneuvers assure high survivability and effectiveness. The missile is capable of being launched from surface ships, submarines, shore batteries, or aircraft (without the booster).

In late 2010, plans for an updated U.S. Navy version of the Harpoon Block II began to formalize. The Harpoon Block II+ provides a rapid-capability enhancement for the Navy that includes a new GPS guidance kit, reliability and survivability of the weapon, a new data link interface that enables in-flight updates, improved target selectivity, an abort option and enhanced resistance to electronic countermeasures. When fielded to the fleet in the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2017, Harpoon Block II+ will join the Joint Standoff Weapon C-1 as the Navy’s only two air-to-ground network-enabled weapons.

General Characteristics

Primary Function: Air, ship, and foreign submarine and land-based coastal defense battery launched anti-ship cruise missile.
Contractor: The Boeing Company.
Date Deployed: 1977.
Unit Cost: $1,200,000 for Harpoon Block II.
Propulsion: Teledyne Turbojet / solid propellant booster for surface and submarine launch. Thrust: greater than 600 pounds (greater than 272.2 kg).
Length: Air launched: 12 feet, 7 inches (3.8 meters); Surface and submarine launched: 15 feet (4.6 meters)
Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.3 cm).
Wingspan: 3 feet (91.4 cm) with booster fins and wings.
Weight: 1,523 pounds (690.8 kg) with booster.
Speed: High subsonic.
Range: Over-the-horizon, in excess of 67 nautical miles (124 km).
Guidance System: Sea-skimming cruise monitored by radar altimeter / active radar terminal homing.
Warhead: Penetration / high-explosive blast (488 pounds/224 kg).
Last Update: 10 March 2017



JMSDF DDG-173 JS KONGO – binmei jp

The main gun fitted is a 127mm / 54-calibre Oto-Breda compact gun. The gun can fire 40 rounds a minute within a range of 30,000m. There are two 20mm Phalanx close-in weapon systems (CIWS) mounted on the vessel.

127mm / 54-calibre Oto-Breda compact gun



Manufactured by OTO-Melara, these weapons have a higher rate of fire and a greater maximum elevation than their rough equivalent, the USA 5″/54 (12.7 cm) Mark 45. Both use USN standard semi-fixed ammunition including surface, air, pyrotechnic and chaff rounds. Mounting reaction time is five seconds from target designation. The reloading, feeding and firing sequence is controlled by a central console which is operated by a single crewmember.



The Compact is intended for use on frigate and destroyer type warships. This mounting uses a water-cooled barrel mounted in a water-tight fiberglass gunhouse and has 66 ready-to-fire rounds in three drums located just below the gun house. Each drum can hold a different ammunition type and each can be independently selected. A central elevator hoists the ammunition and delivers it to two oscillating arms which move the rounds into the loading trays. The drums are automatically reloaded via two hoists which are manually loaded in the lower magazine. Reloading can take place while the gun is firing. As an option, this mounting can be fitted with a stabilized line of sight local control system. Source


The Otobreda 127mm/54-caliber Compact (127/54C) gun is a dual purpose naval gun system.
It fires the 127mm (5″) rounds which are also in use in the US Mk-45 5-inch/ 54-caliber gun.

Technical data:
Builder: Oto-Melara (now OtoBreda)
In service: 1972
Caliber: 5 inches / 127 mm
Barrel lenght: 270 inches / 6,858 meters (= 54 caliber)
Weight: 37500 kg (without ammunition)
Elevation: -15° / + 83°
Rate of fire: 40 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocity: 808 meters per second
Range: 23000 meters, max. (47°) / 15000 meters effective / 7000 meters AA (83°)
Ammunition stowage: 66 rounds ready to fire in 3 loader drums / 500-600 in magazine
Ammunition: High Explosive, Illumination


2 x 20mm Phalanx close-in weapon systems

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

MK 15 Phalanx CIWS provides ships of the U.S. Navy with an inner layer point defense capability against anti-ship missiles (ASM), aircraft and littoral warfare threats that have penetrated other fleet defenses. Phalanx automatically detects, evaluates, tracks, engages and performs kill assessment against ASM and high speed aircraft threats. The current Phalanx variant (Block 1B) adds the ability to counter asymmetric warfare threats through the addition of an integrated, stabilized, Electro Optic sensor. These improvements give Phalanx the added ability to counter small high speed surface craft, aircraft, helicopters and unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Phalanx is the only deployed close-in weapon system capable of autonomously performing its own search, detect, evaluation, track, engage and kill assessment functions. Phalanx also can be integrated into existing ship combat control systems to provide additional sensor and fire-control support to other installed ship weapon systems.

General Characteristics, MK 15

Primary Function: Fast-reaction, detect-thru-engage, radar guided 20-millimeter gun weapon system.
Contractor: Raytheon Systems Company (preceded by Hughes Missile Systems Company and purchased from General Dynamics Pomona Division in 1992).
Date Deployed: Date Deployed: Block 0: 1980 (aboard USS Coral Sea)
Block 1: 1988 (aboard USS Wisconsin)
Block 1B: 1999 (aboard USS Underwood)
Weight: (Block 1B): 13,600 pounds (6,120 kg).
Type Fire: ASM & Aircraft: 4,500 rounds/min, Asymmetric Threats: 3,000 rounds/min.
Magazine Capacity: 1,550 rounds
Caliber: 20mm.
Ammunition: Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot.
Type: M-61A1 Gatling Gun.


The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force destroyer JDS Kongo (DDG 173) is underway in the Pacific Ocean. George Washington, the Navy’s only permanently forward deployed aircraft carrier, is participating in Annual Exercise, a yearly bilateral exercise with the U.S. Navy and the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. Photo by Seaman Apprentice Anthony R. Martinez

Torpedoes and ASW rockets

Two type 68 triple torpedo tubes are mounted on the destroyers for ASW roles. These tubes can launch six mk46 or Type 73 torpedoes. The ship is also equipped with RUM-139 vertically launched anti-submarine rockets. The RUM-139 rocket is powered by two-stage solid rocket fuel engines.

2 x Type 68 triple torpedo tubes

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

Mk-32 SVTT system was built under license for the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force as Type-68 (Model HOS-301, HOS-302A, HOS-303) torpedo tubes. Source

Mk46 torpedoes

Mk-46 Mod.5A recoverable exercise torpedo (REXTORP) was launched from Mk-32 torpedo tubes –

The Mk-46 torpedo, first introduced in 1965, is a surface ship and aircraft-launched anti-submarine weapon. It is presently identified as the NATO standard and has been acquired by more than 25 countries. Various modifications, including improved acoustics, guidance and control upgrades, and countermeasure-detection capability have been introduced into the weapon.

The resultant Mk-46 Mod 5A(S) torpedo, an active or passive/active, dual-speed torpedo, is the ASW weapon for surface ships and ASW fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft. The Mk-46 Mod 5A (SW) (Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) torpedo was introduced to the fleet in September 1996. The Mk-46 SLEP has improved counter-countermeasure performance, enhanced target acquisition, a bottom-avoidance preset, and improved maintainability and reliability. The Mk-46 Mod 5A (SW) also serves as the payload for the Vertical Launch Anti-Submarine Rocket (ASROC VLA).

General characteristics, Mark 46 Mod 5:
Primary Function: Air and ship-launched lightweight torpedo
Contractor: Alliant Techsystems
Power Plant: Two-speed, reciprocating external combustion; Mono-propellant (Otto fuel II)
Length: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) tube launch configuration (from ship), 14 ft 9 in (4.5 m) with ASROC rocket booster
Weight: 508 lb (231 kg) (warshot configuration)
Diameter: 12.75 in (324 mm)
Range: 12,000 yd (11 km)
Depth: > 1,200 ft (365 m)
Speed: > 40 knots (46 mph, 74 km/h)
Guidance System: Homing mode: Active or passive/active acoustic homing
Launch/search mode: Snake or circle search
Warhead: 96.8 lb (44 kg) of PBXN-103 high explosive (bulk charge)
Date Deployed: 1967 (Mod 0); 1979 (Mod 5)


Type 73 torpedoes

JMSDF Type 73 Light Weight torpedo in JMSDF Kure Museum – Wikimedia Commons

RUM-139 vertically launched anti-submarine rockets

ASROC (Anti-Submarine Rocket) combines a solid propellant rocket with a torpedo payload to achieve a quick reaction, all weather, intermediate range anti-submarine weapon. ASROC was designed to be installed on US Navy’s surface ships inside eight-cell sealed canisters which also performed as launch ramp. Originally the US Navy deployed ASROC carrying torpedoes armed with both conventional and nuclear warheads. After launch the ASROC rocket directs to the submarine area to deliver the torpedo payload. After entry the water the torpedo powers up and searches for the submarine using either active or passive sonar.

The RUM-139 Verical Launch ASROC (VLA) was designed to be fired from vertical launch system (VLS) such as the Mk-41. VLS offers greater weapons availability and quicker response than ramps that need to be directed to the target area before launch. The VLA program was launched in 1980 with Loral as the lead contractor. The RUM-139A weapon system achieved initial operational capability (IOC) in 1993 and RUM-139B in 1996. RUM-139B is an improved variant featuring Mark 46 Mod 5A(SW) in lieu of Mark 46 Mod 5(S). Mark 46 Mod 5A(SW) is more capable than its predecessor in the shallow water environment.

Diameter: 420 millimeter (16.5 inch)
Length: 5.04 meter (198 inch)
Wingspan: 680 millimeter (26.8 inch)
Max Range: 28,000 meter (15.1 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 330 mps (1,188 kph)
Warhead: 45 kilogram (98 pound)
Weight: 639 kilogram (1,409 pound)


Helicopter system

JS Myoko (DDG 175) –

Kongō Class destroyers have a large aft flight deck to accommodate two ASW or patrol helicopters, but no helicopter hangar and support equipment is provided on these ships.

Radars and sensors

JMSDF DDG-173 JS KONGO – binmei jp

The sensor suite includes an SPY-1D air search radar, an OPS-28 surface search radar and a missile director radar. The sonar is an OQS-102 bow-mounted low-frequency sonar. There is a NOLQ-2 intercept or jammer fitted on the destroyer.

SPY-1D air search radar

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The AEGIS Weapon System (AWS) is a centralized, automated, command-and-control (C2) and weapons control system that was designed as a total weapon system, from detection to kill. The heart of the system is the AN/SPY-1, an advanced, automatic detect and track, multi-function phased-array radar. This high-powered radar is able to perform search, track, and missile guidance functions simultaneously, with a track capacity of more than 100 targets. The first Engineering Development Model (EDM-1) was installed in the test ship USS Norton Sound (AVM 1) in 1973.  Source

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 60960 m
Range Max: 324.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 1.1 km Generation: Early 1990s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
AN/SPY-1D MFR – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air, Long-Range
Max Range: 324.1 km


JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) – AegisBMD

AN/SPG-62 Fire Control Radar

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The US Navy AN/SPG-62 is a fire control radar provided to the AEGIS-equipped warships allowing to guide surface-to-air missiles, primarily Standard Missile SM-2, to their intended targets. The SPG-62 has been ordered by the United States Navy as well as other international navies worldwide operating the AEGIS weapon system.

The radar system operates in the I and J bands and provides continuous illumination of the target operating along the SPY-1D fixed face radar. The SPG-62 radar was deployed in 1983 along the Ticonderoga-class destroyers with four such radars on each ship. The Burke class destroyers are provided with three such radars while other ships are equipped with either two or three radar antennas. The AN/SPG-62 is considered as the weak spot of the AEGIS weapon system because limits the number of missiles than can be guided simultaneously by a single ship.  Source

JMSDF DDG-173 JS KONGO – binmei jp

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 305.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Late 1980s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination
Sensors / EW:
AN/SPG-62 [Mk99 FCS] – Radar
Role: Radar Illuminator, Long-Range
Max Range: 305.6 km


OPS-28 surface search radar

日本語: 海上自衛隊 護衛艦くらま(DDH-144) OPS-28水上レーダー。 13年10月27日 神戸港にて。

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 203.7 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.7 km Generation: Early 1980s
Properties: Track While Scan (TWS), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
J/OPS-28C – (1983) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 2D Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface
Max Range: 203.7 km


OQS-102 bow-mounted low-frequency sonar


For illustration –

The Sonar Set AN/SQS-53C is a computer-controlled surface-ship sonar that has both active and passive operating capabilities providing precise information for ASW weapons control and guidance. The AN/SQS-53C is designed to perform direct path ASW search, detection, localization, and tracking from a hull mounted transducer array. The AN/SQS-53C retains the transducer assembly from either the AN/SQS-53A or 53B. The AN/SQS-53C provides greater range and detection capability with only half of the electronics footprint and less weight than earlier versions. The AN/SQS-53C is equipped with high source level, fully stabilized beams, and wide convergence zone annuli coupled with computer-aided detection and automatic contact management. Implemented in standard electronic modules, the AN/SQS-53C is an all digital system with stable performance, on-line reconfiguration in the event of a component failure, and performance monitoring/fault location software to quickly isolate failures. The AN/SQS-53C provides apparent range, bearing, and true bearing of contacts when employing active sonar and provides true bearing of contacts detected by passive means.

The AN/SQS-53 is the most advanced surface ship ASW sonar in the US Navy inventory. It is a high-power, long-range system evolved from the AN/SQS-26CX, used actively and passively to detect and localize submarine contacts. The SQS-53B, located in a large dome at the bow of the ship, will detect, identify, and track multiple underwater targets. With its higher power and improved signal processing equipment, this sonar is the first in the Navy to be linked directly to digital computers, thus ensuring swift, accurate processing of target information. Functions of the system are the detection, tracking, and classification of underwater targets. It can also be used for underwater communications, countermeasures against acoustic underwater weapons, and certain oceanographic recording uses. Source

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1990s
Sensors / EW:
J/OQS-102 – (AN/SQS-53C Equivalent) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km



The AN/SQR-19 Tactical Towed Array SONAR (TACTAS) provides very long-range passive detection of enemy submarines. TACTAS is a long cable full of microphones that is towed about a mile behind the ship. It is towed so far behind the ship so as to not let noise radiating from the shipitself interfere with the noise picked up from targets. Using that noise can determine exactly what ship or submarine is being tracked. The AN/SQR-19B Tactical Array SONAR (TACTAS) is a passive towed array system which provides the ability to detect, classify, and track a large number of submarine contacts at increased ranges. TACTAS is a component sensor of the AN/SQQ-89(V)6 ASW Combat System, and provides significant improvements in passive detection and localization, searching throughout 360 degrees at tactical ship speeds. Processing of complex TACTAS data is performed by the largest computer program assembly ever developed for surface ship anti-submarine warfare.

Meteorology and Oceanography Center Detachment TACTAS support products describe oceanographic and acoustic conditions (using range dependent models) in the prosecution area for towed array ships tasked by CTF-69 for ASW operations. This message is provided when own ship Sonar In-situ Mode Assessment System (SIMAS) or the Mobile Environmental Team’s Mobile Oceanographic Support System MOSS) are not available. It is tailored to the specific towed array carried onboard. The message is transmitted prior to the start of a prosecution and daily thereafter or as requested. Source

General data:
Type: TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 129.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 1980s
Sensors / EW:
J/OQR-2 TACTASS [AN/SQR-19A(V)] – TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System
Role: TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System
Max Range: 129.6 km


NOLQ-2 intercept or jammer

JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) –

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1990s
Sensors / EW:
J/NOLQ-2 [ESM] – (Kongo, Separate ESM Antenna) ESM
Role: ELINT w/ OTH Targeting
Max Range: 926 km


4 x Mk 36 SRBOC decoy RL

Decoy employment is used primarily to defend against anti-ship missiles which have avoided detection and penetrated to the terminal-defense area that represents an imminent threat to ownship. The MK 36 Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Countermeasures (SRBOC) Chaff and Decoy Launching System is an evolutionary development of the RBOC family with enhanced capability. The MK 36 is a deck-mounted, mortar-type countermeasure system that may be used to launch an array of chaff cartridges against a variety of threats. The purpose of the system is to confuse hostile missile guidance and fire control systems by creating false signals. The launching system is controlled from the Combat Information Center and is dependent on information provided by the detection and threat analysis equipment on the ship.

The DLS MK 36 Mod 12 is a morter-tube launched decoy countermeasures system that projects decoys aloft at specific heights and ranges. Each DLS launcher includes six fixed-angle (elevation) tubes: four tubes set at 45 degrees and two tubes set at 60 degrees. Decoy selection and firing is controlled from either the EW console of the bridge launcher control. The DLS launches the following types of decoys: SRBOC – which uses chaff to deceive RF-emitting missiles/radars, NATO Sea Gnat – which is similar to SRBOC but with extended range and a larget payload of chaff, and TORCH – which uses heat to deceive infrarad-seeking missiles. Source

AN/SLQ-25 Nixie

The Torpedo Countermeasures Transmitting Set AN/SLQ-25A, commonly referred to as Nixie, is a passive, electro-acoustic decoy system used to provide deceptive countermeasures against acoustic homing torpedoes. The AN/SLQ-25A employs an underwater acoustic projector housed in a streamlined body which is towed astern on a combination tow/signal-transfer coaxial cable. An onboard generated signal is used by the towed body to produce an acoustic signal to decoy the hostile torpedo away from the ship. The AN/SLQ-25A includes improved deceptive countermeasures capabilities. The AN/SLQ-25B includes improved deceptive countermeasures capabilities, a fiber optic display LAN, a torpedo alertment capability and a towed array sensor.

Modern acoustic towed decoys, such as the AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE and the older T-MK6 FANFAIR, employ electronic or electromechanical means to produce the required signals. The system provides an alternate target diversion for an enemy acoustic homing torpedo by stringing on cable a “noise maker”, aft of the ship, which has the capability of producing a greater noise than the ship; thereby diverting the incoming torpedo from the ship to the “fish”. The towed device receives the torpedoes ping frequency, amplifies it 2 to 3 times and sends it back to lure the torpedo away from the ship. They may be used in pairs or singularly. Source

Type: Decoy (Towed) Weight: 21 kg
Length: 0.94 m Span: 0.187 m
Diameter: 0.152 Generation: Late 1970s
Targets: Surface Vessel
AN/SLQ-25 Nixie – Decoy (Towed)
Surface Max: 1.9 km.



Kongō Class destroyers are equipped with a combined gas and gas (COGAG) propulsion system. Four Ishikawajima Harima / General Electric LM2500 gas turbines driving two shafts develop a power output of 75MW. The propulsion system provides a maximum speed of 30kt.

4 x Ishikawajima Harima / General Electric LM2500 gas turbines



LM2500PJ performance

System type Simple cycle Combined heat and power (cogeneration)
Fuel City gas/Natural gas City gas/Natural gas
Frequency 50Hz 60Hz 50Hz 60Hz
Power output 21,170kW 22,100kW 20,530kW 21,460kW
Fuel consumption rate 10.37MJ/kWh 10.01MJ/kWh 10.32MJ/kWh 10.20MJ/kWh
Thermal efficiency at the generator terminal 34.7% 36.0% 34.9% 35.3%
Total thermal efficiency 85.9% 86.8%
NOx(O2=16%) 21ppm 21ppm

Inlet air temperature: 15℃
Atmospheric pressure: 101.3 kPa
Boiler supply water temperature: 60℃
*The above performance values list average performance in New & Clean mode.
*Note that the above performance values may be subject to change without prior notice.


DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT


Source Maritime Self-Defense Force homepage

Main material source

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Updated Oct 10, 2021

C-5M Super Galaxy Transport Aircraft

The C-5M Super Galaxy strategic transport aircraft, a modernised version of the legacy C-5,  was designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin to extend the capability of the C-5 fleet to remain in service at least until 2040. The C-5M aircraft is operated by the US Air Force (USAF).

The USAF initiated a two-phase upgrade programme to transform the C-5 aircraft fleet into the C-5M Super Galaxy. Under the programme, Lockheed Martin modernised 52 C-5 aircraft, including 49 C-5Bs, two C-5Cs and one C-5A by 2017. The company delivered 16 C-5M aircraft by December 2013.

The C-5M Super Galaxy transport aircraft achieved initial operational capability (IOC) in February 2014. The aircraft set 89 world aeronautical records to date.

Details of the C-5 Galaxy modernisation programme

The C-5 Galaxy is being modernised in two phases involving the avionics modernisation programme (AMP), and reliability enhancement and re-engining programme (RERP). Lockheed Martin secured a $454m contract for the first phase of the upgrade in January 1999. The AMP is aimed at upgrading the cockpit of the C-5 fleet.

The contract for the second phase was awarded in December 2001. It includes the installation of new engines, pylons, thrust reversers and wing attachment fittings to the C-5 aircraft. The first C-5 aircraft upgraded as part of AMP completed its maiden flight in December 2002 and was delivered to the USAF in October 2004. The second phase began in October 2004 was concluded in May 2006, renaming the modernised aircraft C-5M Super Galaxy.

The first of the three C-5M test aircraft performed a maiden flight in June 2006 and was delivered to the USAF for operational testing and evaluation in December 2008. The second and third aircraft completed their first flights in November 2006 and March 2007 respectively.

The USAF approved the upgrade of 49 additional aircraft, including 47 C-5Bs and two C-5Cs, under the RERP in February 2008.

In February 2009, Lockheed Martin secured a $299m RERP contract for the production of nine C-5Ms. The company was also awarded a $25m Interim Contractor Support (ICS) contract for the familiarisation and operational testing and evaluation of the C-5M.

The low-rate initial production of the first C-5M transport aircraft was commenced in August 2009. The test aircraft piloted by a joint USAF and Lockheed Martin flight crew in September 2009 set 41 world aeronautical records in one flight.

The maiden flight of the first C-5M production aircraft took place in September 2010, and the operational testing and evaluation was completed in October 2010. Joint acceptance flight by the USAF and Lockheed Martin was concluded in October 2012.

The third C-5M production aircraft made its first flight in July 2011 and was delivered to the USAF in August 2011.The USAF took delivery of the 52nd and final C-5M Super Galaxy aircraft in August 2018. All 52 aircraft are operational with the Air Mobility Command and Air Force Reserve Command units.


The C-5M Super Galaxy is a strategic transport aircraft and is the largest aircraft in the Air Force inventory. Its primary mission is to transport cargo and personnel for the Department of Defense. The C-5M is a modernized version of the legacy C-5 designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin. Currently the U.S. Air Force owns and operates 52 C-5B/C/M. They are stationed at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware; Travis AFB, California; Lackland AFB, Texas; and Westover Air Reserve Base, Massachusetts.

Looking to the future, modernization efforts include incorporating advanced weather radar, mission computing, communication systems and air traffic management to meet FAA mandates and survivability in theaterSource

Lockheed Martin to new mission computers and weather radars 

Military avionics experts at the Lockheed Martin Corp. Aeronautics segment in Marietta, Ga., will upgrade the mission computer and weather radar systems in the giant C-5M Super Galaxy cargo jet under terms of an $84.3 million contract announced late Tuesday.

The avionics upgrade contract calls for Lockheed Martin to begin full-scale development of the C-5 Core Mission Computer/Color Weather Radar, which is part of a long-term program to extend the life of the Air Force C-5 fleet beyond 2040.

The new distributed-architecture core mission computer will have a 100-megabit-per-second Ethernet interface over copper wire, and will have several sources of supply for components such as MIL-STD-1553 interface chips, single board computers, and I/O cards.

The core mission computers for the C-5 also will have commercial standard video interfaces with VGA as a minimum, at least one additional expansion data bus for federated systems or new line-replaceable units (LRUs) covering Ethernet, MIL-STD-1553, and ARINC 429 avionics databuses.

The computer will separate classified and non-classified data for at least one data bus type for proper isolation of classified information, Air Force officials say. It will support the weather radar, flight management system (FMS), and communication navigation surveillance (CNS) and air traffic management (ATM) subsystems, including automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) Out, and identification friend or foe (IFF) Mode 5.

The new computers also will be able to accommodate future capability like the Joint Tactical Radio System into the communication system; memory expansion and processing necessary for the Joint Position Approach and Landing System algorithms; and memory and processing power necessary for new data links on the C-5M such as Link 16 or the conceptual Mobility Air Force Data Link. Source

C-5M Super Galaxy features


The C-5M Super Galaxy transport aircraft offers greater reliability and efficient performance at reduced operating and lifecycle costs. It integrates more than 70 enhancements and requires reduced maintenance per flight hour.


US Air Force

Lockheed Martin

Dewar tank

In May 2009, they put together a Dover Dewar Conference at Dover AFB that included two engineers from Robbins AFB, seven engineers from Lockheed Martin, C-5 community maintainers, and people from Parker Hannifin, the manufacturer.

“For two days we had the best and the brightest in one room talking about the system and what we needed to upgrade it,” Haller said .

The new system is putting liquid nitrogen, which is negative 320 degrees, into the Dewar tank. This not only helps with aircraft fires, but also puts a positive pressure on top of the wings and the fuel systems.

The Dewar and fire suppression system works by opening up the valves and letting the nitrogen flow through the plumbing into the non-manned areas of the aircraft. Oxygen is pushed out allowing the nitrogen to put out the fire. Also by placing nitrogen into the fuel itself there is no oxygen so there is less chance of having a fire inside the fuel tank.

What has been developed and improved through the AFSO21 process are re-designed valves, a universal wiring harness, an upgraded FSS control panel, and better seals and plumbing. Source

The aircraft has a length of 75.53m, height of 19.84m and wingspan of 67.91m. The operating and maximum take-off weights of the aircraft are 181,437kg and 381,018kg respectively. The aircraft has a fuel capacity of 150,819kg and payload-carrying capacity of 129,274kg.

The aircraft is equipped with five sets of landing gears with a total of 28 wheels.

The maintenance diagnostics system has the ability to record and analyze data from more than 7,000 test points, reducing maintenance and repair time.

The C-5M, with a cargo load of 281,001 pounds (127,460 kilograms), can fly 2,150 nautical miles, offload, and fly to a second base 500 nautical miles away from the original destination — all without aerial refueling. With aerial refueling, the aircraft’s range is limited only by crew endurance. Source

AiirSource Military

US Defense News

Underlining the capability of the C-5M are 89 FAI-certified records, the most held by any aircraft type. In operational terms, the C-5M is one of a tiny handful of aircraft that can carry main battle tanks, being able to haul two M1A1 Abrams tanks over intercontinental distances. With this capability, the Super Galaxy remains vital to the U.S. Air Force’s mission to rapidly deploy large equipment that would otherwise rely on sea transportation. Source

Cockpit and cargo compartment

The advanced glass cockpit integrates a multimode communications suite, a mission computer, enhanced navigation radios, digital autopilot, multifunctional display units, flight management system, safety equipment and surveillance components. It is also fitted with built-in controls and diagnostic systems for the identification of maintenance requirements.

Aero-News Network

Aero-News Network

Aero-News Network

Aero-News Network

The cockpit also features integrated datalink capabilities and situational awareness displays, and provides predictive flight performance cues. It also provides improved situational awareness to the crew.

New cockpit system features:

  • A digital flight-control system
  • A state-of-the-art communications and navigation suite, with satellite links and a GPS receiver.
  • An enhanced ground proximity warning system.
  • An ARINC-standard data bus.
  • Seven 15 x 20 centimeter (6 x 8 inch) color flat-panel displays, with six for the pilot and copilot, plus and one for the flight engineer.

The new scheme is built around Honeywell Versatile Integrated Avionics (VIA) processors. The Honeywell flight-management system permits electronic upload of preprepared flight plans and can store up to 200 navigation waypoints, compared to 10 in the old system. According to Lockheed Martin, which implemented the AMP program, all the new equipment was based on commercially-available products. Source

(U.S. Air Force photo/Lt. Col. Robert Couse-Baker)

US Defense News

US Air Force

The C-5M Super Galaxy can carry more air-transportable cargo than the C-5 aircraft, and can be loaded with cargo quickly and efficiently. The dedicated passenger compartment of the aircraft accommodates troops and their supplies.

Engine and performance of C-5M Super Galaxy

The C-5M Super Galaxy transport aircraft is powered by four GE CF6-80C2 turbofan engines developing a thrust of 50,580lb each. The length and diameter of the engine are 4.26m and 2.69m respectively. The dry weight of the engine is 9,860lb. The engines comply with Stage 4 noise and emission and provide the aircraft with 22% more thrust and 58% higher rate of climb.

GE F138 (CF6-80C2L1F)

The main feature of the RERP was the substitution of the original General Electric TF39 engines with the same company’s F138 (CF6-80C2L1F). De-rated to 50,000 lb thrust in the C-5M installation, the F138 provides 22 percent more thrust than the TF39, resulting in improvements in takeoff performance and climb rate, increased payload, and more economical cruise. The engines are also compliant with FAA Stage 4 noise requirements. Source

Source GE

Aero-News Network

The aircraft can fly at a normal cruise speed of 0.77 Mach. It has an un-refuelled range of about 4,800nm with 54,430kg of cargo and about 7,000nm with no load.

Lockheed Martin

General Characteristics 

Primary Function: Outsize cargo transport
Prime Contractor: Lockheed Martin-Georgia Co.
Power Plant: Four F-138-GE100 General Electric engines
Thrust: 51,250 pounds per engine
Wingspan: 222 feet 9 inches (67.89 meters)
Length: 247 feet 10 inches (75.3 meters)
Height: 65 feet 1 inch (19.84 meters)

Cargo Compartment:
Height: 13 feet 6 inches (4.11 meters)
Width: 19 feet (5.79 meters)
Length: 143 feet, 9 inches (43.8 meters)
Pallet Positions: 36
Maximum Cargo: 281,001 pounds (127,460 Kilograms)
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 840,000 pounds (381,024 kilograms)
Speed: 518 mph
Unrefueled Range of C-5M: Approximately 5,524 statute miles (4,800 nautical miles) with 120,000 pounds of cargo; approximately 7,000 nautical miles with no cargo on board.
Crew: Pilot, co-pilot, two flight engineers and three loadmasters

(Current as of February 2018)


Main material source

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Updated May 04, 2019