Monthly Archives: November 2016

Bolivia may purchase Brazilian Super Tucanos

By Ryan Maass   |   Nov. 28, 2016 at 3:46 PM

RIO DE JANEIRO, Nov. 28 (UPI) — Defense officials in Bolivia are exploring a potential procurement opportunity for Embraer A029 Super Tucano light attack aircraft from Brazil.

If the governments move forward with the buy, the planes will be used for cracking down on illegal activity around the countries’ shared border. Brazil’s defense ministry says Bolivia formerly expressed interest during a meeting to deepen bilateral relations between the two nations.

“Bolivia is a country with which we have an excellent relationship. Cooperation is important for the security of borders,” Brazilian Defense Minister Raul Jungmann said in a press release.

The meeting focused on pending trade agreements and border security. Jungmann invited his Bolivian counterpart to meet at the Super Tucano unit facility in São Paulo.

The Embraer A-29 Super Tucano is a light attack aircraft designed for counter-insurgency missions. The planes, used by the Brazilian air force, are equipped with a Missile Approach Warning System and tactical communications equipment. It can also be used for training purposes.

Original post upi.com

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Embraer A-29 Super Tucano: Details

New engine being designed for fifth-generation Russian fighter aircraft

By Nikolai Litovkin, Russia Beyond the Headlines   |   Nov. 28, 2016 at 10:20 AM

The United Engine Corp., part of Rostec state holding company, successfully conducted the first ground-based ignition of the second stage of the engine for the Prospective Airborne Complex of Frontline Aviation (PAK FA T-50 aircraft).

In order to carry out the testing, gas generators had to be prepared for it, in addition to the demonstrator engine.

What is the PAK FA flying with now?

Currently, the PAK FA is using a first stage engine, a modernized Al-41.

According to Pavel Bulat, avionics specialist and head of the Kupol Group of Companies, the AI-41 is an updated version of engines used for the Su-27, Su-30 and other models in that series.

“The engine for the T-50 was significantly upgraded from the original models, incorporating the latest control system, compressors, etc. Nevertheless, it still falls short of the fifth-generation model, and is very noticeable on radar screens,” he said.

The new second-stage engine is one of the most advanced in the world, said Bulat. It enables the T-50 to accelerate to supersonic speed, and maintain that velocity throughout the flight, without using afterburners.

“The speed will be as much as Mach 1.6 (about 1,200 mph), depending on the terrain over which the flight is taking place. The engine will also significantly improve the stealth properties of the PAK FA, thanks to the use of new composite materials,” said Bulat.

The designers expect to start testing the new engine on fighter jets in 2018 and for the motor to be fully integrated in 2020.

“In addition to the engine, a radar station also needs to be modified, and engineers need to remove the last deficiencies in the airframe concept, which, among all the aircraft flying today, is the most modern in the world,” said the analyst.

New fighter’s weapons: 30-mm cannon

The firing unit consists of one of the lightest cannon in its class, the 9-A1-4071K, which is designed to destroy armored vehicles or armored enemy targets. During one flight, the pilot can shoot 150 rounds from the 30-mm cannon.

This new weapon is a modified single-barrel GSh-301 aircraft cannon, used in Russian fighters and bombers.

Aircraft bombs

The future T-50 fifth-generation fighter will also carry high-explosive and volume-detonating bombs, Sergey Rusakov, general director of the Techmash Group, announced on Sept. 22.

Rusakov said they are now considering high-explosive incendiary OFZAB-500 aviation bombs for the PAK FA, and volume-detonating ODAB-500PMV, which are currently being used in Russian operations in Syria. Engineers have produced a set of warheads for future tests.

Operational principle and the use of bombs in Syria

According to the rearmament program, Russian Armed Forces will receive a batch of 12 T-50 fighters before the end of this year. A new contract for the supply of fifth-generation aircraft will be discussed with the Ministry of Defense at the end of 2016, after which the War Department will decide how many new aircraft are needed.

Competing with the Raptor

The newest Russian fighter aircraft was produced as the main competitor to the F-22 Raptor. The American stealth fighter distinguished itself during the Iraq War.

“The T-50 will go into serial production much later than the Raptor. This allows us to take into consideration all the pros and cons of the existing aircraft when constructing our own fighter. A similar situation existed when we were working on the multipurpose fourth-generation Su-27 fighter. The prototype of that domestic aircraft came out much later than the American F-16, and took into account the shortcomings of its precursor. As a result, the domestic Sukhoi was able to beat the ‘American,’ in terms of combat characteristics,” Vadim Kozyulin, professor at the Academy of Military Sciences, told RBTH.

The expert noted that the T-50 would be able to use the full range of existing high-precision air-to-air missiles, as well as all precision-guided munitions.

“As part of the ‘stealth’ concept, special missiles for the PAK FA are being developed, with a square cross section that will allow more warheads to be carried in hatches during combat missions,” Kozyulin added.

Original post upi.com

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AVIATION GUN 9A1-4071K

12-1-660x341Image: thefirearmblog.com

There were test firing 9A1-4071K aircraft cannon for the Russian fifth generation fighter T-50 (PAK FA) for scientific test range aircraft systems, located near the village of Faustovo Moscow region.

 Aerogun tests were on the test bench, loading 30-mm ammunition in the input tray, and test firing, according to “Rossiyskaya Gazeta “.
It is known that the gun 9A1-4071K for the Sukhoi PAK FA (PAK FA) has been developed by specialists of JSC “Instrument Design Bureau” in late 2014. Because open source is known, that it is an upgraded version of the high-velocity gun GS-30-1.
14-1-660x370Image: thefirearmblog.com

The gun is ideal for aircraft: its weight of only 50 kilograms, it is considered to be the easiest in the world of 30-millimeter cannon. Unique automation scheme has allowed the base to give 9A1-4071K highest for this type of weapon rate per barrel – up to 1,800 rounds per minute. Feature of the gun is also a stand-alone system vodoisparitelnogo cooling barrel. Its principle of operation is simple: the gun in the casing is water, which is heated in the barrel (during firing) is converted into steam.

16-1Image: thefirearmblog.com

Fire from the new gun will be conducted high-explosive-incendiary projectiles and armor-piercing tracer shells, capable of striking even lightly armored ground, surface and air targets. On ground targets gun is effective when shooting at a distance of 1800 meters, in the air – to 1200. Previously 9A1-4071K gun was tested in a multi-purpose fighter Su-27SM. T-50 (PAK FA project) – a fifth-generation aircraft equipped with a fundamentally new avionics suite and promising radar with a phased antenna array. Source gadgetstyle.com.ua

t-50-pak-fa-testing-its-new-9-a1-4071k-cannon-4Image: asian-defence-news.blogspot.com

OFZAB-500

ofzab500

High-explosive incendiary bomb aviation OFZAB-500 was established use in high speed with low altitudes against manpower and easily vulnerable field installations, warehouses and fuel depots. The bomb is intended to replace in the Russian Air Force obsolete FOZAB-500. It is used at altitudes of 300 – 20,000 m at speeds of 100 – 1200 km / h.

OFZAB-500 allows the wearer to carry out maneuvers with large congestion. The bomb can be used on a large number of combat aircraft of Soviet and Russian-made MiG-21, MiG-27, MiG-29, Su-17, Su-22, Su-24, Su-25, Su-27, Tu-95, Tu -16.

Length, m
Diameter, mm
span, m
weight bombs, kg
Weight of explosive, kg
2.5
450
0.5
500
250 kg incendiary + 37.5 kg PF

Source airwar.ru

ODAB-500PMV

ODAB-500PMV (ОДАБ-500ПМВ – Объемно-детонирующая авиационная бомба) thermobaric air bomb

ODAB_500-PMV_waxwork.JPG

Bomb manufactured by the Russian company basalts. Furthermore, the term thermobaric air bomb can meet even the names vacuum bomb, fuel, bomb, aerosol bomb, v detonujúca bomb or a high-explosive bomb.

The bomb is designed to control industrial zones, unprotected or protected by live force (eg. In enclosures, tunnels, caves), nepancierovanej technology and military equipment. The bomb is scheduled for troop (front) airplanes and helicopters. It can be used for the destruction of anti-personnel mines and anti-tank.Planes can toss a bomb from a height of 200 to 12,000 m at speeds of 500-1500 km / hr. Helicopters can toss a bomb from a height of 1100 – 4000 M at speeds of 50-300 km / h.

Bomb has built a lighter.
Diameter Bomb: 500 mm
Length: 2380 mm
Weight bombs: 525 kg
Weight of filling: 193 kg
equivalent of TNT explosions: 1000 kg

Source valka.c

Sukhoi Su-57: Details

UK to reduce number of Main Battle Tanks

“British Army To Reduce Frontline Tanks By A Third”

2016-11-28 10:02

The British Army is reportedly planning to reduce its number of frontline tanks by to up 33%.
The move, which would see all of the Challenger 2s in one of the three tank regiments replaced with Ajax fighting vehicles, could leave the UK with fewer tanks than Serbia, according to the Times newspaper.
Russia, meanwhile, is said to have 2,700 frontline tanks, although it has many more in reserve and is currently bringing the T-14 Armata into service.
The plan, which would leave the British Army with around 40 more tanks than the traditionally neutral Switzerland, is reportedly set to be announced in coming months.
Colonel Bob Stewart, who commanded British forces in Bosnia, said:
“You should only reduce your main battle tank numbers with great caution. Reducing your tank strength may well be misconstrued by our potential opponents and be perceived as weakness in our will to properly defend our country.”
The decision would see Britain’s tank numbers fall from 227 to 170.
112 would serve on frontline duty, with the remainder used for domestic training or in Canada.
Germany, by comparison, has 306 battle tanks, France 200, Poland 971 and Serbia 212.
It comes after the Defence Secretary rejected reports that defence insiders thought the Ajax would be “useless” against anything more than “incompetent enemies”.
Rumours of delays were widely circulated, due to issues with the vehicle’s gun, including the integration of the cannon with a specially-built turret, and a shortage of funds.
However, Sir Michael Fallon denied that the £3.5 billion programme to build the vehicles could be delayed due to the alleged glitches with the weapons system.
The Ajax is lighter and faster than the Challenger 2, with a top speed of 44mph, but is more lightly armoured and has a 44mm gun, as opposed to the Challenger’s 120mm. The vehicle does, however, have a longer range and can cover a wider area.
In response to the reports, an MoD spokesperson told Forces TV the plan would see the Army go from having three to two Armoured Infantry Brigades – plus two Strike Brigades which would have the Ajax.
They added that it’s still being decided how many tanks the two remaining Armoured Infantry Brigades will have, so it can’t be assumed all those in the lost regiment will be scrapped.
The Army, meanwhile, feels that adding the Ajax to capability will make it more relevant and of more use as part of NATO. The MoD said in a statement:
“The Challenger 2 fleet is due to have a £700 million life extension project that will ensure capability until 2035. We are also investing in the transformational, multi-role Ajax armoured vehicle and the Warrior infantry fighting vehicle.
“The project is not fixed and could potentially include upgrades to the main gun, ammunition or armoured protection. We’re open to innovative, cost effective proposals that could improve the capability.”
Original post forces.tv

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Related post:

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British Army’s new fighting vehicles to be built in SPAIN using SWEDISH steel

RUSSIAN ARMY CAN OUTGUN BRITISH TROOPS, LEAKED REPORT WARNS

Russian Airborne Forces to Receive T-72 Tanks

Russia deployed 2,950 main battle tanks in four military districts

Ajax Scout SV CT40

Ejder Yalçin 4×4 Armored Combat Vehicle

Ejder Yalçin, a new member of the Ejder family of vehicles, is a 4×4 tactical armoured combat vehicle designed and manufactured by Nurol Makina. Design studies on the vehicle were initiated in the last quarter of 2012 and a pre-prototype of the base vehicle was exhibited at the IDEF in 2013. Mass production of the vehicle began in May 2014.

35_dImage: takvim.com.tr

Ejder Yalçin offers high-ballistic protection and can be used in diverse missions, including reconnaissance, command and control, and homeland security applications. The vehicle is primarily intended for use by Turkish military and security forces.

Design

2_d.jpgImage: takvim.com.tr

The Ejder Yalçin vehicle features a V-shaped hull design, integrating floating floor plates and blast mitigation seating to provide protection against mines and improvised explosive devices (IED). The vehicle features an ergonomic and comfortable seating layout, which can accommodate up to 11 personnel.

45_d.jpgImage: takvim.com.tr

The vehicle features easy-to-enter and exit door configurations for the crew. Other optional equipment includes a rescue winch, day or night-vision systems, rear ramp, and explosion suppression and fire-fighting systems for the crew compartment.

16_dImage: takvim.com.tr30_dImage: takvim.com.tr

The vehicle can be reconfigured as a reconnaissance, command and control, internal security, ambulance, chemical biological radiological nuclear (CBRN) vehicle, weapon carrier and combat vehicle, so that it meets the multiple mission requirements of the users.

The base vehicle has a length of 5.42m, width of 2.48m and height of 2.3m. Its gross weight ranges between 12,000kg and 14,000kg, and payload carrying capacity is up to 4t.

screenshotAtUploadCC_1507617199086

Armament and self-protection

21_dImage: takvim.com.tr

The vehicle is equipped with optionally integrated, remote-controlled and manually-operated weapon stations. It is fitted with two gun ports on the roof. The optional armament mounted on the vehicle includes 7.62mm and 12.7mm machine guns, a 25mm anti-aircraft gun and a 40mm automatic grenade launcher.

SARP Remote Controlled Stabilized Weapon System

kfbpdce17_dImage: takvim.com.tr

ASELSAN SARP Remote Controlled Stabilized Weapon System, tactical land vehicles and fixed installations in the air and land and used threats against asymmetric threats. 

Operational requirements in accordance with the system can be installed in different weapons. Day and night surveillance, target acquisition and provide follow-up opportunity SARP System bears the safety of the operating personnel with advanced remote command capabilities to the highest level. 

Gun Options

  • 12.7mm Machine Gun 
  • 7.62mm Machine Gun 
  • 40mm Automatic Grenade Launcher

Capacity Ammunition

  • 400 (12.7mm)
  • 1000 (7.62mm)
  • 96 (40mm)

Weight & Dimensions

  • Top of the platform : <165kg (armor, except for arms and ammunition)
  • Six platforms : <50kg
  • Height : <70cm

Movement Limits

  • Rise : -30 ° / + 60 °
  • Side : nx360 °

Turret Maximum Speed

  • Rise :> 60 ° / sec
  • Side :> 60 ° / sec

Maximum acceleration of Turret

  • Rise :> 90 ° / s2
  • Side :> 90 ° / s2 

other Features

  • And moving target shooting on the move
  • Day / night vision
  • Automatic target tracking
  • ballistic calculations
  • distance measurement
  • Computer-based fire control functions
  • last warning Ammunition
  • manual operation
  • compliance with MIL-STD-810F for environmental conditions
  • EMI / EMC compliance with MIL-STD-461E
  • Integration with external sensors and command and control systems

Source aselsan.com.tr

7.62mm M240 machine gun for loader

*Note for example only maybe any other model

Length: 49.7 in
Barrel length: 24.8 in
Caliber: 7.62×51mm
Action: Gas-operated, open bolt
Max Rate of Fire: 950 rpm
Muzzle velocity: 2,800 ft/s
Max Range: 3,725 m

M2 .50-cal machine gun

*Note for example only maybe any other model

Performance
Rate of Fire Single shot
Sustained: Less than 40 rds/min, in bursts of five to seven rounds
Rapid: More than 40 rds/min, fired in bursts of five to seven rounds
Cyclic: 450-550 rds/min
Maximum Range 7,440 yd (6,800 m)
Maximum Effective Range Area Target: 2,000 yd (1,830 m)
Point Target (single shot): 1,640 yd (1,500 m)

Source inetres.com

40-mm automatic grenade launcher

IRA011514_REPLICA_RIGHT_MK19_40MM_AutoGrenadeLauncher_864x465.jpgMK-19 40mm grenade launcher – Image: iracllc.com

MK19 40mm Machine Gun, MOD 3

The MK19 Mod3 40mm Grenade Machine Gun was first developed by the Navy in the early 1960’s. TACOM-ARDEC has since suggested modifications to this system which has enabled the Army to deploy the MK19 in the harsh environments encountered during world-wide operations and has therefore enhanced its performance. The MK19 firing rate is over 350 grenades per minute and it is effective to ranges of over 2200 meters. The system was deployed in Southwest Asia during Operation Desert Storm and devastated enemy infantry.

*Note for example only maybe any other model

Mk19Image: sinful-illusions.com

Manufacturer: Saco Defense Industries
Length: 43.1 inches (109.47 centimeters)
Weight:
Gun: 72.5 pounds (32.92 kilograms)
Cradle (MK64 Mod 5): 21.0 pounds (9.53 kilograms)
Tripod: 44.0 pounds (19.98 kilograms)
Total: 137.5 pounds (62.43 kilograms)
Muzzle velocity: 790 feet (240.69 meters) per second
Bore diameter: 40mm
Maximum range: 2200 meters
Maximum effective range: 1600 meters
Rates of fire:
Cyclic: 325-375 rounds per minute
Rapid: 60 rounds per minute
Sustained: 40 rounds per minute

MK-19 data fas.org

The V-shaped hull of Ejder Yalçin offers a high level of protection against IEDs, mines and ballistic threats. The ballistic protection can be further increased with the integration of add-on armour, where an optional cage armour is offered for protection against rocket attacks. The vehicle can be further fitted with smoke grenade launchers for increased survivability.

ezd5zzjImage: trmilitary.com

Engine and performance

perfo1-enEjder Yalçin is fitted with a Cummins engine which produces a maximum power of 300hp at 2,100rpm. The engine is coupled to fully automatic transmission with hydrodynamic torque converter.

The vehicle features a three-speed gear box and a power-assisted steering. It is also fitted with a secondary emergency steering pump that operates in the event of engine failure.

Mobility

9_d.jpgImage: takvim.com.tr

Ejder Yalçin has a maximum speed of 110km/h and a cruising range of 600km. It can accelerate from 0km/h to 40km/h within six seconds. It comes with a double wishbone, and independent suspension system for all wheels. It is equipped with latitudinal and longitudinal differential locking systems as well as large diameter and wide tires. The central tire inflation system regulates the pressure according to the terrain conditions.

52_dImage: takvim.com.tr

The vehicle has a wheel base of 3,100mm and ground clearance of 400mm. It has the capability to climb obstacles of 0.5m, can cross 1.1m-wide trenches and ford a depth of 0.7m. It has a gradient of 70% and a side slope of 30%. The turning radius of the vehicle is 7.5m.

19_dImage: takvim.com.tr

screenshotAtUploadCC_1507617199087

Main material source army-technology.com

Updated Oct 10, 2017

THE KRA CANAL AND THE REFORM OF THAILAND

Thailand needs to turn its crisis into a situation of opportunity. It is important that Thailand accelerate its economic growth, assuring more economic stability in the long term.

Therefore, a large-scale infrastructure project is key to instigate significant change in the Thai economy:

  1. The Kra Canal Project, during the first ten years following the construction of the canal itself, will be able to create around 3 million jobs. 30,000 persons will be employed in the management of the Canal. Within 5 years, 150,000 persons is expected to be employed in the development of industrial projects in the area, of these will be middle and high level echelons. This number will increase to 400,000 within 10 years. Once the Special Economic Zone is set up, there will be employment for at least one million workers. In reality, the multiple spin-off effect of this large-scale infrastructure project is likely to create employment on all levels for approximately 3 million people. Within 10-20 years following the opening of the Kra Canal, workers that would have been employed in the first phase of the Kra Canal project would naturally act as the catalyst for change in the Thai labor force, changing it from an unqualified and backward labor force to one with high qualifications, from an uneducated work force to one with a high level of education.
  1. The national revenue for the country would be higher because of the ability to collect more taxes from the industrial sector and investments in the Special Economic Zone. As a result, increase in government revenue would necessarily follow. It is interesting to note that the 70% of the national budget that is used to pay monthly salaries of civil servants would drop to only 30%. While the other 70% of the national budget would be used to finance the development of the country, the reversal of the present situation.
  1. Thailand would become more competitive thanks to added value coming from maritime cargo transportation. Thailand would become an important link in the international sea lane of communication. Logistics costs would drop to the level of 8% of the GDP, a rate similar to that of developed countries.
  1. Develop national competitiveness in 4 areas

4.1 Economic Performance

4.2 Efficiency of the Public Sector

4.3 Efficiency of the Business Sector

4.4 Efficiency of the Infrastructures

  1. Development of Special Economic Zone within the Kra Canal Zone would
    lead to a major reform in the administrative system, creating a new administration within the present system. Once recognised as workable, it is likely that the new administrative system would be brought in to bring about reform in other parts of the country, a major reform that would be there to stay. This would be change based on reason and without conflict and violence.
  1. By investing in the Kra Canal project in order to bring about modern reform in Thailand, the country’s educational system would be forced to undergo major change to upgrade the general educational level of the Thai population. There would lead to a generation change, a new generation of Thai people, modern and internationalized world citizens at the same time.

es-1Es-2Es-3Es-4

Partially reporduced from original post kracanal-maritimesilkroad.com

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A Thai Canal to Be Part of China’s Silk Road

Published Wed, Jan 27, 2016  |  , Senior Correspondent

t was an idea that first emerged in the 17th century; but it may take 21st century technology to turn it into reality.

The idea is to build a canal across the less-than-30 mile Kra Isthmus in Thailand – connecting the Andaman Sea in the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea.

The logic supporting the Thai Canal, or Kra Canal, is solid – ships would no longer have to go the long way around Singapore, through the pirate-infested chokepoint known as the Strait of Malacca.

Shippers could shave off three or four days from their travel time, translating to a $300,000 savings on the cost of a 100,000 ton cargo ship voyage.

More than 15 million barrels of oil per day – about 17% of the world’s daily production – are transported through the Strait alone.

The Kra Canal would also alleviate congestion. The Strait can currently accommodate about 122,000 ships. However, by 2025, roughly 140,000 ships will be plying the waters.

Delay, Delay, Delay

So why hasn’t this project moved forward yet?

One reason is money. The canal is estimated to cost at least $20 to $30 billion to build.

And of course, there’s the matter of complicated Thai politics. Some in Thailand say the canal will divide the nation into two countries.

Then there’s the debate over how the economic benefits of the canal will be divvied up.

From a practical viewpoint, there are 13 proposed routes through the Kai Isthmus as to where the canal would actually go. And no surprise – neighboring countries, Singapore and Malaysia, who want to keep benefiting from the ship traffic through the Strait, are strongly opposed to the canal.

China’s Maritime Silk Road

Overlaying this is the geopolitical battle between China and the United States. for influence in the region.

China would like to make the proposed canal a part of its Maritime Silk Road. This was suggested in the ambitious plan unveiled in 2013 by Chinese President Xi Jinping – a plan to create the modern-day equivalent of the historic Silk Road. The plan aimed at having new land and water routes tying China to trading partners all the way to Europe.

The China-led Asian Infrastructure Bank is the perfect financing tool for such a project. I expect the project to get a push, as China needs to play a little catch-up.

In neighboring Vietnam, the government has given the go-ahead for a new $2.5 billion deep water port – the Hon Khoai Port – to be built in Vietnam’s southern most province, Ca Mau. It’s believed that 85% of the funding for it will come from the U.S. Export-Import Bank and that the project will be led by American engineering giant Bechtel.

The Vietnamese port could stand on its own merits as a port for coal. But half of its berths are slated for non-coal items. Ironically, that means it will absolutely flourish with the building of a China-backed Kra Canal. See the map below.

Proposed Map of Kra Canal project

Will It Be Built?

There was a supposed agreement this past summer between Thailand’s Asia Union Group and China-led China-Thailand Kra Infrastructure & Development to build the canal. The Chinese company is already building other infrastructure in Thailand.

But within days, there were denials of any deal. Thailand likely backed away under intense diplomatic pressure from the United States.

But sooner or later, the Thai government will give a China-led project the thumbs-up. The economic opportunity to become a regional maritime center, surpassing Singapore and Malaysia, is going to be too good to pass up. And China is patient enough to wait for Thailand’s approval.

Good investing,

Tim Maverick

Source wallstreetdaily.com

Chinese ships to be deployed at Gwadar

Chinese ships to be deployed at Gwadar: Pak navy official

Sat, 26 Nov 2016-09:16am , Karachi , PTI

Pakistan’s plan could be alarming for India

China would deploy its naval ships along with Pakistan Navy to safeguard the strategic Gwadar port and trade routes under the $46 billion China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, a navy official here has said, shedding light on a plan likely to alarm India. China and Pakistan are currently building the nearly 3,000-km-long economic corridor linking Pakistan’s Gwadar port on the Arabian Sea with Xinjiang to improve connectivity between the two countries.

The move would open up a new and cheaper cargo route for transporting oil to China as well as export of Chinese goods to the Middle East and Africa.

A Pakistan Navy official said the role of maritime forces has increased since the country has made the Gwadar port operational and speeded up economic activities under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

“China would also deploy its naval ships in coordination with Pakistan Navy to safeguard the port and trade under the CPEC,” the unnamed official was quoted as saying by The Express Tribune.

In the past, China has shied away from saying that it plans to deploy its naval ships in Gwadar, a move which could raise alarm in the US and India.

Experts feel that CPEC and the Gwadar port would enhance the military capabilities of both China and Pakistan, and make it possible for the Chinese Navy to easily access the Arabian Sea.

Having a naval base in Gwadar could allow Chinese vessels to use the port for repair and maintenance of their fleet in the Indian Ocean region. Such a foothold would be the first overseas location offering support to the Chinese navy for future missions. Pakistani defence officials are keen for the Chinese navy to build up its presence in the Indian Ocean and the Arabia sea, mainly to counterbalance India’s formidable naval force.

The Pakistani official also said that the Navy is considering buying super-fast ships from China and Turkey for its special squadron to be deployed at the Gwadar port for the security purpose. “A squadron may have four to six warships,” he said on the sidelines of the on-going defence exhibition, IDEAS 2016, at the Karachi Expo Centre.

The ships would be bought soon keeping in view their immediate need in the fleet, he said, adding that two defence ships have already been deployed at Gwadar. Another official of the naval force added that Pakistan has kicked off the process of establishing the largest shipyard of the region in Gwadar. A similar ship-building project is being deliberated at Port Qasim in Karachi.

The two advanced shipyards would design and develop ships and other security equipment for Pakistan Navy. “The existing shipyard, the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation, lacks capacity to meet new requirements of the force. Its (PNSC) performance, however, would improve in competition with the two under consideration,” he said.

Original post dnaindia.com

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China Pakistan Economic Corridor: Gwadar Port

The China Pakistan Economic Corridor is a harbinger of good fortune for the region. It promises to boost Pakistan’ss economy and provide employment and business opportunities for locals, foreign investors can be attracted to invest along the long route of the corridor.

The China Pakistan Economic Corridor is of huge significance, it runs through one of the most important and vital geostrategic locations in South Asia. Gwadar port is one of China,s String of Pearls planned by China in Central, South and South East Asia to expand its political and economic influence and get these regions in its grip.

The US has its pivot to Asia, to contain China’s economic and military expansion in the Asia-Pacific. The US allies are India, Japan, Indonesia and Singapore in its endeavour to ‘slay the Chinese dragon.’

img_20150516_203301

In this tense scenario, Pakistan emerges as a major player of great value to both China and the U.S., it has the potential to balance Sino-US rivalry and expand trade in this region.

China makes huge gains once Gwadar port is fully functioning, its previous shipping route passed through the Strait of Malacca, taking 45 days to reach destinations in Europe via the Middle East. Once the CPEC reaches completion, it will take Chinese shipments just 10 days to reach the same places.

The Malacca route also carried risks of a blockade by United States Pacific Command if hostilities peak so the CPEC is a dream come true for China in all its aspects.
A major portion of CPEC is reserved for power projects, extensive road networks and major infrastructure. The three trade routes are all inter-connected, starting from the Arabian Sea up till the Himalayas, they have inter-linked transportation.

Pakistan will also make immediate gains from its membership of the SCO, of which it became a member in its summit this year. This year it has signed a series of landmark agreements with China, worth an estimated $46 billion, to secure investment for the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) which is a network of roads, railways and pipelines that connect Gwadar port in Pakistan’s southern province of Baluchistan to Kashgar in China’s western province of Xinjiang.

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It as an integral part of China’s ambitious Silk Road and Economic Belt initiative, it is endorsed by the SCO and will highlight Pakistan’s role as a vital regional hub in the economic development of Central Asian states which have strong presence in the SCO.

The CPEC connects the whole region and gives Pakistan focal importance for world trade, it holds promise to make Pakistan an economic power in the world.

Gwadar port will directly affect Dubai port, which will lose 70% business once Gwadar becomes fully functional. It will also affect Chahbahar port, as Gwadar is the worlds largest deepwater sea port where ships of large tonnage can also anchor.

The CPEC has met some opposition at home and abroad, mainly because it destroys business for some countries. For some other countries, CPEC is like a bad dream as China finally finds access to warm waters and starts encircling India to begin with. At home, some sycophants have been creating a brouhaha regarding the CPEC, but in fact instead of wasting time they should help find more investors, CPEC offers unlimited opportunities and everyone can benefit.

A proper spanner in the works was when suddenly this same coterie started saying the route had been changed to mostly within Punjab. The government reiterated that no change had taken place, after the whole anti- CPEC club went wild on print and television media.

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It is being feared that Chinese products and goods will flood Pakistani markets due to heightened accessibility, Pakistan only needs to keep good quality standards to continue its trade unhindered.

The more competition the better, Pakistan is benefiting much more from the CPEC.
It will generate thousands of jobs and revenue worth billions of dollars for both countries, only an enemy would want Pakistan to lose that.

Publications with Western or Indian leanings have been spreading pure vitriol and disinformation against this project, even propagating the final assessment that the project would never materialise, or of it did, never subsist or survive.

Before this, rumours had been spread that Gwadar would never be developed, today it has already been functioning some months. Indian Prime Minister almost asked the Chinese directly not to go ahead with CPEC as India hated the very idea and found it ‘unacceptable’, while on a visit to China.  He was refused pointblank by the Chinese, after that India must be planning more insurgencies and buying more proxies.

China is working on a very large scale, building Gwadar city and bringing state of the art speed-trains and motorways. Chinese Ambassador Sun Weidong recently reiterated China’s support to the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and said that the project will be completed at every cost.

Just some weeks ago, General Raheel Sharif visited Gwadar and drove down the CPEC himself, parts of it are complete. He expressed the resolve that the China Pakistan Economic Corridor would be completed at any cost.

There has been some concern regarding security of Gwadar specially. A special security force is being formed to ensure smooth operations of Chinese development projects in Pakistan by the military.

“A special security division comprising army battalions and Civil Armed Forces (CAF) wings (is) being raised as a dedicated force for Pakistan-China economic projects,” said Maj-Gen Asim Saleem Bajwa on Twitter, he is Director General Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR), the military’s media wing.

He further added that the special division, to be commanded by a military officer of Maj-Gen rank, would have nine army battalions and six wings of CAFs to start with.

In the past, an insurgency had been funded by India and the some arab countries to stop the construction of Gwadar, lately it has greatly diminished as nearly a thousand rebels have given up arms and vowed to mend their ways. This year, Baluchistan province was way ahead of the other provinces in celebrating Pakistans Independence Day, special events took place for three days, rallies were taken out.

Foreign countries used these rebels to scare off investors and developers who were working with the Pakistani government,such as the Chinese, to sabotage Gwadar.
They misquided the rebels that the demographics of Baluchistan would be upset with the advent of people from all over the world, now they have understood that prosperity awaits them.

The CPEC is a holistic, comprehensive package of competitive economic initiatives from China, just the energy projects once initiated will kick-start an industrial boom in Pakistan.
$15.5bn worth of coal, wind, solar and hydropower projects will come on-line by 2017 and add 10,400MW of electricity to Pakistan’s national grid, a $44m fiber-optic cable will also be built.

A collaboration in space technology has also been announced very recently between Pakistan and China under the Karamay declaration of the CPEC. Bilateral collaboration on space technology will take Pakistan-China relations to new heights, joint space missions will take place.

The CPEC is the gamechanger that Pakistan has waited for since quite some time, yet Pakistan needs to secure its own national interests first and achieve a balance.

We have to balance relations with both China and the West instead of relying on one lobby and rejecting the other. Pakistan has to use a lot of diplomacy and balance China, Russia and the U.S., it should explore and utilise all its options.

In this aspect itself, CPEC will prove to be a gamechanger, not just for Pakistan but for the world, in a way the CPEC could bridge the gap between China and America specially.

CPEC should complete its short term goals pretty soon, the long- term goals will be realised once Pakistan discovers its true potential and emerges as a power to reckon with, both economically and militarily.

By: Sabena Siddiqi 

Source thelondonpost.net

From the above article it is claimed that Indonesia has joined the USA sphere of influnce which is shrinking fast really odd that Indonesia has taken the stance similar to Singapore!

Related post:

Heritage Foundation Report: US Military Power “Marginal” and Trending Toward “Weak”

Military Might: India vs Pakistan & China – indiatimes.com

America’s Doomed China Strategy

China’s Troops in Pakistan May Be an Attempt to Bypass US at Sea

Chinese Troops Will Be Positioned In Pakistan, Security Agencies To Government

Gwadar East Bay.jpg

Kolkata Class Guided Missile Destroyer (Project 15A)

The Kolkata-class guided missile destroyers are the new stealth destroyers being built by Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) for the Indian Navy, under Project 15A. The destroyers are preceded by Type 15 Delhi-class destroyers and succeeded by the Project 15B destroyers.

The Indian Government approved the construction of three Kolkata-class destroyers in May 2000. The first steel was cut for the lead ship in class, INS Kolkata, in March 2003. Her keel was laid in September 2003.

1526527_-_mainINS Kolkata (D63) – Image: indiatimes.com

The ship was launched in March 2006 at Mazagon Dock, Mumbai, and delivered to the Indian Navy in July 2014. The vessel was commissioned in August 2014. The Indian Navy successfully test-fired a BrahMos supersonic cruise missile from the INS Kolkata destroyer using the UVLM launcher in February 2015.

The keel of INS Kochi was laid in October 2005. It was launched in September 2009 and commissioned in September 2015.

rtx1sv0f_1443595483INS Kochi (D64) – Image: indiatimes.in

The last vessel in the class, INS Chennai, was laid in February 2006. It was launched in April 2010 and is due for commissioning in late-2016. The project has been delayed due to the complex warship building process.

INS Chennai commissioned: Indian Navy gets another indigenous Kolkata-class guided missile destroyer: Here

ins-chennaiINS Chennai (D65) – Image: financialexpress.com

In January 2011, the MDL was awarded a follow on order for the construction of four P-15B destroyers. The P-15B ship will retain the hull form of Kolkata-class and will feature a stealthier flush deck and advanced weapon systems.

Project 15B Visakhapatnam-class destroyer

project_15_b_destroyer_visakhapatnam_class_indian_navy_2Image: navyrecognition.com
Class overview
Name: Visakhapatnam class
Builders: Mazagon Dock Limited
Operators:  Indian Navy
Preceded by: Kolkata class
Cost: ₹29,340 crore (US$4 billion)
In commission: 2018
Building: 2
Planned: 4
General characteristics
Type: Stealth guided missile destroyer
Displacement: 7,400 t (7,300 long tons; 8,200 short tons)
Length: 163 m (535 ft)
Beam: 17.4 m (57 ft)
Draft: 6.5 m (21 ft)
Propulsion:
  • Combined gas and gas system: Twin Zorya M36E gas turbine plants with 4 × DT-59 reversible gas turbines and 2 × RG-54 gearboxes
  • 2 × Bergen/GRSE KVM-diesel engines, 9,900 hp (7,400 kW) each
  • 4 × 1 MWe Wärtsilä WCM-1000 generator sets driving Cummins KTA50G3 engines and Kirloskar 1 MV AC generators
Speed: In excess of 30 knots (56 km/h)
Range: 4,000 nautical miles (7,400 km; 4,600 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph)
Crew: 300 (50 officers and 250 sailors)
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • IAI EL/M-2248 MF-STAR S-band AESA multi-function radar
  • Thales LW-08 D-band air search radar
  • BEL HUMSA-NG bow sonar
  • BEL Nagin active towed array sonar
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Elbit Systems Deseaver MK II counter-measures systems and defensive aids suite
Armament:
  • Anti-air missiles:
  • 2 × 16-cell VLS, for a total of 32
  • Barak 8 missiles (Range: 0.5 km (0.31 mi) to 100 km (62 mi))
  • Anti-ship/Land-attack missiles:
  • 2 x 8-cells UVLM for 16 BrahMos anti-ship and land-attack cruise missiles
  • Guns:
  • 1 × 127 mm gun Oto Melara SRGM
  • 4 × AK-630 CIWS
  • Anti-submarine warfare:
  • 4 × 533 mm Torpedo tubes
  • 2 × RBU-6000 anti-submarine rocket launchers
Aircraft carried: 2 × Sea King or HAL Dhruv helicopters
Aviation facilities:
  • Flight deck
  • Dual Enclosed hangar for a combination of 2 Seaking, Chetak or HAL Dhruv helicopters

Technical data Project 15B wikiwand.com

Ships of the class

Initially in 2008, the total program cost with long-term spare parts was expected to cost ₹3,800 crore (US$560 million), but the construction costs escalated about 225%, and by 2011, cost of the program became ₹11,662 crore (US$1.7 billion), with each ship costing ₹3,900 crore (US$580 million). The Defense Minister A. K. Antony cited the causes being the delay in supply of warship-grade steel by Russia, increase in costs of Russian specialists due to inflation during the build period, wage revision due from October 2003 and delay in finalisation of cost of weapons and sensors.

Name
Pennant
Yard No.
Builder
Laid Down
Launched
Sea Trials
Commissioned
Homeport
Status
INS Kolkata
D63
701
Mazagon Dock Limited
27 March 2003
30 March 2006
2013
16 August 2014
Mumbai
Active
INS Kochi
D64
702
25 October 2005
18 September 2009
2014-15
30 September 2015
Active
INS Chennai
D65
702
21 February 2006
1 April 2010
2015-16
21 November 2016
Active
Source wikiwand.com

Design and features of the Kolkata-class

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Conceptualised by the Indian Navy, the detailed design phase for the class was completed by MDL. Kolkata-class is a follow-on model of the Delhi-class and is fitted with modern weapons and sensor systems. The propulsion system of the Delhi-class was also retained with minor upgrades. Most of the systems integrated in the ships are designed and built in India.

kochi2_zpsse8x1yceINS Kochig5INS Kochi – Image: ndtv.com

The destroyers are also equipped with an action information system and an atmospheric control system. The modern stealth destroyers demonstrate superior anti-surface warfare (ASuW) capabilities. The vessel has an overall length of 163m, a beam of 17.4m and a draft of 6.5m. The full load displacement of the ship is 6,800t.

1252606_wallpaper1INS Kolkata (D63)

Type 052D destroyer: Here

Kolkata-class missile systems

xepugr8INS Kochi

The 16-cell universal vertical launcher module (UVLM) fitted on the ship can launch BrahMos missiles.

There are two vertical launching systems (VLS) for Barak SAM (surface-to-air missile).

16 x Universal vertical launcher module (UVLM)

l-t-built-brahmos-uvl

BrahMos missile

Sputnik

The BrahMos PJ-10 is distinguished by its reported supersonic speed of between Mach 2.0-2.8, depending on the cruising altitude used. In addition to making it difficult to intercept, this speed also imparts a greater strike power. In addition, the BrahMos is equipped with stealth technology designed to make it less visible to radar and other detection methods. It has an inertial navigation system (INS) for use against ship targets, and an INS/Global Positioning System for use against land targets. Terminal guidance is achieved through an active/passive radar.

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Originated From: Russia and India
Possessed By: Russia, India, Vietnam
Alternate Names: PJ-10
Class: Supersonic Cruise Missile
Length: 8.0-8.2 m
Diameter: 0.67 m
Launch Weight: 2,200-3,000 kg
Payload: 200-300 kg
Warhead: HE, submunitions
Propulsion: Liquid-fueled ramjet
Range: 300-500 km, 290 km export version
Basing: Ground-launched, Air-launched, Sub-launched, Ship-launched
Status: Operational

Source missilethreat.csis.org

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.03.23-15-54-53

2 x Vertical launching systems (VLS)

kolkata-10Image: iadnews.in

The ship’s main air-defence armament is composed of two 4×8-cell vertical launching systems (VLS) allowing for up to 32 Barak 8 (medium-long range) air-defence missiles.

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Barak 8 is an Indian-Israeli surface-to-air missile (SAM), designed to defend against any type of airborne threat including aircraft, helicopters, anti-ship missiles, and UAVs as well as cruise missiles and combat jets at a range of 70-90 Kms. Barak 8 as “an advanced, long-range missile defense and air defense system” with its main features being:

  • Long Range
  • Two way data link
  • Active Radar Seeker Missile
  • 360 degree coverage
  • Vertical Launch
  • Multiple Simultaneous Engagements

Source iadnews.in

Barak SAM (LR-SAM)

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Barak 8 (the Hebrew word for Lightning) also known as LR-SAM is an Indian-Israeli surface-to-air missile (SAM), designed to defend against any type of airborne threat including aircraft, helicopters, anti-ship missiles, and UAVs as well as cruise missiles and combat jets out to a maximum range of 70 km,  however, reports suggest the missile has been increased to a maximum range of 90 km following “range upgrade discussions” between India and Israel during November 2014. Some news agencies have referred to the missiles range at 100 km. Both maritime and land-based versions of the system exist.

Barak 8 was jointly developed by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), India’s Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), Israel’s Administration for the Development of Weapons and Technological Infrastructure, Elta Systems, Rafael and other companies. Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) will produce the missiles. The Israeli Navy has commenced equipping its Sa’ar 5 corvettes with the system, the first re-fitted vessel being the INS Lahav. The Sa’ar 4.5 flotilla will be next for the upgrade. The first 32 missile array will be fitted on the Indian Navy stealth guided-missile destroyer INS Kolkata (D63).

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Barak 8/ LR-SAM/ MR-SAM
Type Long-range surface-to-air missile
Place of origin IsraelIndia
Service history
In service Induction Phase
Used by Israeli NavyIndian NavyIndian Air Force
Production history
Designer Israel Aerospace Industries
Defence Research and Development Organisation
Manufacturer Rafael Advanced Defense Systems
Bharat Dynamics Limited
Specifications
Weight 275 kg (606 lb)
Length 4.5 m (180 in)
 length 123 cm (48 in)
Diameter 0.225/0.54 m
Detonation
mechanism
Proximity (60 kg warhead)
Engine Two stage, smokeless pulsed rocket motor
Wingspan 0.94 m
Operational
range
0.5–90km some media reports indicate a capability of 100km
Flight ceiling 0–16 km
Speed Mach 2 (680 m/s)
Guidance
system
  • Two way data link
  • Active RF/IIR seeker
Launch
platform
8 cell VLS module

Source wikiwand.com

India Successfully Test Fires Surface-To-Air Missile Developed With Israel

Indian Navy had also successfully test launched the long range surface to air missile (LR-SAM). The test was undertaken on the Western Seaboard by INS Kolkata on December 30, 2015. These missiles would be inducted in all the three services after trials were completed.

Many Indian industries like BEL, L&T, BDL, and TATA group of companies besides other private industries have contributed to the development of a number of subsystems which have been put into use in this flight test, the official said. Source ndtv.com

BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile developed by BrahMos Aerospace, a joint venture between India-based Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Russia-based NPO Mashinostroyenia (NPOM).

BrahMos missile has a top speed of Mach 2.5 to Mach 2.8 and a maximum range of 290km.

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Naval gun systems onboard the Indian destroyers

The main gun fitted forward is a 130mm gun (error it is a 76mm gun). Four AK-630 close-in weapon systems (CIWS) are being provided for close-in air defence. The AK-630 CIWS can defend the ship from incoming anti-ship missiles and other guided weapons. It has a rate of fire of 5,000 rounds a minute.

1 × 76 mm gun Oto Melara SRGM

screenshotAtUploadCC_1503840787840

Technical data:

Caliber: 3 inches / 76,2 mm
Barrel lenght: 186 inches / 4,72 meters (= 62 caliber)
Weight: 7900kg, empty (Super Rapid)
Shell: 76 x 900 mm / 12,34 kilograms
Elevation: – 15° to + 85°
Traverse: 360°
Rate of fire: Compact: 85 rpm / Super Rapid: selectable from single shot up to 120 rpm
Muzzle Velocity: 925 m/s (1100 m/s – DART)
Magazine: Compact: 80 rounds / SR: 85 rounds
 
Range:
16 kilometers with standard ammunition
20 km with extended range ammunition
up to 40 km with VULCANO ammunition

Ammunition:
HE (high explosive) – 6,296kg / Range 16km / effective range 8km (4km vs. air targets at elev. 85°)
MOM (multi-role OTO munition)
PFF (pre-formed fragmentation) – anti-missile ammunition
SAPOM (semi-armored piercing OTO munition) – 6,35kg / Range 16km
SAPOMER (semi-armored piercing OTO munition, extended range) – Range 20km
DART (driven ammunition reduced time of flight) – sub-calibre guided ammunition against multiple targets
(missiles and maneuvering targets at sea) 4,2kg in barrel / 3,5kg in flight / 660mm lenght / effective range >8km
VULCANO (76mm unguided and guided extended range ammunition) – under development

Source seaforces.org

INSKOCHI_B_300915

4 × AK-630CIWS

AK-630 on the INS Kolkata (D63)

The gun itself is a 6 barrel Gatling gun designated as AO-18.  The barrels are in a single block, having exhaust-driven joint automatics.  They are belt fed with a flat magazine in the AK-630 and a drum magazine in the AK-630M.  These weapons form a part of a complete self-defense system called A-213-Vympel-A, which includes gun, radar, optical and TV control systems.  A single MP-123 Vympel system can control two 30 mm guns or one 30 mm and one 57 mm gun.  This system can engage air targets at ranges up to 4,000 m (4,400 yards) and surface targets at ranges up to 5,000 m (5,500 yards).  The TV control system can detect MTB sized ships at the distance of 75 km (40 nm) and the fighter-size air targets at 7,000 m (7,600 yards).  This system is completely automatic and does not require human supervision although it can be directed from optical control posts in case of damage or for firing on shore targets.

6 barrel Gatling gun AO-18

Image

Date Of Design 1963
Date In Service AK-630:  1976
Gun Weight AO-18 (for AK-630):  under 452 lbs. (under 205 kg)
Gun Length oa 64.13 in (1.629 m)
Bore Length 63.78 in (1.620 m)
Rifling Length 57.48 in (1.46 m)
Grooves 16
Lands N/A
Twist N/A
Chamber Volume N/A
Rate Of Fire AK-630:  4,000 – 5,000 rounds per minute

Ammunition

Type Fixed
Weight of Complete Round 1.834 – 1.839 lbs. (0.832 – 0.834 kg)
Projectile Types and Weights HE-FRAG (OF-84) – 0.86 lbs. (0.39 kg)
FRAG tracer (OP-84) – 0.86 lbs. (0.39 kg)
Bursting Charge HE-FRAG (OF-84) – 0.107 lbs. (0.0485 kg)
FRAG tracer (OP-84) – 0.026 lbs. (0.0117 kg)
Projectile Length up to 11.54 in (293 mm)
Propellant Charge N/A
Muzzle Velocity All:  2,953 fps (900 mps)
3M87:  2,822 fps (860 mps)
Palash:  3,609 fps (1,100 mps)
Working Pressure N/A
Approximate Barrel Life AK-630:  8,000 rounds (automation resource)
Ammunition stowage per gun AK-630:  2,000 rounds

Range

Elevation With 1.2 lbs. (0.54 kg) HE/Frag Shell
Max Ballistic Range 8,860 yards (8,100 m)
Self Liquidation range 5,470 yards (5,000 m)
Effective Targeted Range 4,375 yards (4,000 m)

Data navweaps.com

Anti-submarine warfare

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.03.23-15-53-58Twin-tube torpedo launchers INS Kolkata (D63)

The anti-submarine warfare is provided by twin-tube torpedo launchers and RBU-6000 smerch-2 ASW rocket launchers. The rockets can be launched against submarines within a range of 6km.

2 x Twin-tube torpedo launchers for Mark 46 torpedo

mk-46-lightweight-torpedo-3d-model-max-obj-3ds-mtl

Mark 46, Mod 5

  • Primary Function: Air and ship-launched lightweight torpedo
  • Contractor: Alliant Techsystems
  • Power Plant: Two-speed, reciprocating external combustion; Mono-propellant (Otto fuel II)
  • Length: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) tube launch configuration (from ship), 14 ft 9 in (4.5 m) with ASROC rocket booster
  • Weight: 508 lb (231 kg) (warshot configuration)
  • Diameter: 12.75 in (324 mm)
  • Range: 12,000 yd (11 km)
  • Depth: > 1,200 ft (365 m)
  • Speed: > 40 knots (46 mph, 74 km/h)
  • Guidance System: Homing mode: Active or passive/active acoustic homing
  • Launch/search mode: Snake or circle search
  • Warhead: 96.8 lb (44 kg) of PBXN-103 high explosive (bulk charge)
  • Date Deployed: 1967 (Mod 0); 1979 (Mod 5)

* according to wikiwand (may not be this model)*

Source wikiwand.com 

RBU-6000 smerch-2 ASW rocket launcher

ins_kochi_759Image: indianexpress.com

Depth-Charge Rocket Launcher RBU-6000

  • It is possible to modernize the RBU Launcher using the electric servo drive with the up-to-date cell base.
  • It is an effective combat device for protection of Naval ships against submarines and attack torpedoes. It is possible to use new rockets 90R with underwater gravitation homing projectile.
rpk890R rocket – Image: warefare.be001.jpgfea40392-c39d-424c-882c-dd7e6be0b54fOriginal

SPECIFICATIONS:

Calibre, mm

213

Number of Barrels

12

Launcher Weight, kg

3500

Weight of  Rocket RGB-60, kg

113,6

Range of Fire by Rocket RGB-60, m
– maximum
– minimum
5230
210
Weight of  Rocket 90R, kg

112,5

Range of Fire by Rocket 90-R, m
– maximum
– minimum

4300
600

Laying Speed, deg/s
– in elevation
– in training

27
27

Data zavod9.com

ins-chennai5Image: financialexpress.com

Sensors / radar systems on the Kolkata-class guided missile destroyers

ins-kochi-special-page_1300x670_51443495247

Kolkata-class is equipped with Thales LW-08 long range volume search radar, EL/M-2248 MF-STAR multimission radar and EL/M-2238 L-band STAR surveillance radar from Israel Aerospace Industries.

Thales LW-08 long range volume search radar

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Functional Aspects

The LW08 is an operationally proven radar system. LW radars have been installed on board ships in several configurations.

All systems are provided with solid-state components, a TWT transmitter, a video extractor for automatic target tracking and built-in test equipment. Optionally a back-up solid state transmitter can be offered for reduced TWT use and improved performance in littoral environment. They are simple to operate and easy to maintain. IFF can be integrated by mounting an IFF antenna with interrogation path side-lobe suppression (ISLS) capability and by adding synchronized IFF interrogators.

Performance Data

Detection range

  • Small missile : 100 km
  • Fighter aircraft : 230 km
  • Target speed : up to Mach 4
  • Surface targets : radar horizon
  • Minimum range : 2 km
  • Instrumented range : 135/270 km
  • Tracking capacity : 400

Technical Data

Antenna parameters

  • Type : horn-fed parabolic reflector
  • Beamwidth

– horizontal : 2.2º

– vertical : cosec2 up to 40º

  • Polarization : linear/circular
  • Rotation speeds : 7.5 and 15 rpm

Transmitter parameters

  • Type : TWT
  • Frequency : D-band
  • Frequency modes : fixed frequency and frequency agility
  • Transmission modes : full scan and sector transmission
  • Average power : 5.2 kW

Receiver parameters

  • Receiver channels

– air surveillance : MTI and LIN

– surface surveillance : LIN or LOG

  • Video processing : MTI: digital canceller and

video correlator

Digital ISU and LOG with

PLD

  • Compressed pulse length : 0.6 µs

Source thales7seas.com

Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 333.4 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 5.4 km Generation: Early 1980s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
LW.08 – (RAWL-2, LAR-2, Type 1022, SPQ-502) Radar
Role: Radar, Air Search, 2D Long-Range
Max Range: 333.4 km

EL/M-2248 MF-STAR multimission radar

ins-kolkataINS Kolkata – Image: ibtimes.co.in

mf-star

MF-STAR – Multi-function Surveillance, Track And Guidance Radar

General
The MF-STAR (ELM-2248) is a multi-function solid-state digital active phased array radar system for the new generation of naval platforms. The radar system delivers high quality situation picture and weapon support, under severe target/environmental conditions in the current and future naval arena. Incorporating advanced technology and robust system architecture, the MF-STAR employs multi-beam and pulse Doppler techniques as-well-as cutting edge ECCM techniques to extract low RCS targets from complex clutter and jamming environments. MF-STAR’s basic TR element digital output enables software only adaptive beam forming and mode variations to form a software defined radar. The MF-STAR antenna includes 4 active arrays in S-Band frequency. The hardware architecture and technology ensures high system availability, low maintenance and low life cycle cost. The MF-STAR incorporates a lightweight antenna that can be tailored to fit even relatively small ship sizes (corvettes and above).

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Features

  • Fast threat alert response time
  • Very high tracking update rate and accuracy for priority targets
  • Short search frame/TWS revisit time
  • Mid-course guidance of active/semi-active anti-air missiles
  • Illuminator enslavement for semi-active missiles
  • Automatic splash detection and measurement for gunnery support
  • Instantaneous multi-beam
  • Advanced beam forming techniques for ECCM
  • Lightweight antenna
  • Scalable, modular active solid-state phased array
  • High reliability and high availability

screenshotAtUploadCC_1518059839425

Source iai.co.il

EL/M-2238 L-band STAR surveillance radar

Elta EL-M 2238 3D StarImage: iai.co.il

The STAR is a fully coherent S-band pulse Doppler 3D multibeam and multimode search radar. The radar performs long range air surveillance combined with surface surveillance and, at the same time, provides fast detection and automatic threat alert of air targets with an extremely low false alarm rate.

screenshotAtUploadCC_1518060295194

Main Objectives

  • Long range detection
  • Missile detection and designation/indication
  • Automatic threat alert
  • Automatic track-while-scan (TWS)
  • Anti-air missile (AAM) weapon systems designation and support
  • Surface gunnery engagement support

Main advantages

  • Pulse Doppler coverage
  • Simultaneous air and surface channels
  • 3D multibeam elevation coverage
  • Very low false alarm rate
  • Integral IFF antenna
  • Cost effective solution for medium size ships and up

screenshotAtUploadCC_1518060211326screenshotAtUploadCC_1518060211327

Source iai.co.il

Sonar systems include HUMSA-NG (hull mounted sonar array – new generation) and Nagin active towed array sonar.

HUMSA-NG (hull mounted sonar array – new generation)

Humsa_Sonar_1Image: iadnews.in

HUMSA-NG is the third generation indigenous, ship borne, hull mounted, Sonar system designed by Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory, DRDO, Kochi and productionised by Bharat Electronics, Bangalore. HUMSA-NG is a state of the art Active cum Passive Integrated Ship Sonar system designed to be installed on a variety of naval surface platforms such as Frigates, Destroyers, ASW Corvettes and other classes of ships. Source drdo.gov.in

HUMSA-NG is an advanced Active cum Passive integrated sonar system proposed to be fitted on a wide variety of Indian Navy platforms such as the Project 17, Project 15A and Project 28 class ships. HUMSA-NG is an advanced version of the existing HUMSA sonar presently fitted on P16, P15, Ranjit and Talwar Class of ships.

The HUMSA (NG) is designed for enhancing the system performance, reliability and maintainability employing the following broad principles:

  • Sub systems / interfaces based on open standards architecture
  • Modular hardware / software blocks
  • Standard back planes for simple and reliable inter-connection
  • Efficient packaging of electronics.
  • Efficient chilled air-cooling arrangements for the cabinets
  • Extensive facilities for Fault Detection & Fault Localization/ maintenance support.

The Human Machine Interface (HMI) for the HUMSA (NG) is through dual console re-configurable user- friendly displays manned by two operators and requiring minimum operator intervention. In addition to the operating consoles HUMSA (NG] system a workstation to provide auxiliary functions like classificatioaid, simulator functions and recording facility, etc. The system also shares the common display console(s), ESI, and video recording facilities.

The sonar is capable of simultaneous operation in active and passive modes. It is capable of detecting, localizing, classifying and tracking sub-surface targets in both active and passive modes.

The system provides simultaneous long-range detection in active and passive modes. The sonar is capable of localization and automatic tracking of up to eight targets in both active and passive modes.

The sonar integrates the operation of the UWT and XBT systems. The UWT functions are controlled from the main sonar console. The data received from the XBT is processed and presented on the workstation and also displayed on the sonar console.

The sonar provides target classification facility with advanced classification features in passive mode of operation.

The system is integrated with FCS systems such as IAC MOD ‘C and CAIO for exchange of relevant information. The sonar provides interface to the torpedo defence system to provide raw data for TD processing. Interfaces are also provided to obtain other ship house holding data such as course, speed, roll, pitch and GPS data.

FEATURES

  • Hull / Bow mounted single array medium range, low frequency SONAR system
  • Cylindrical transducer array to permit panoramic search capability
  • Electronic Beam tilt and Beam Stabilization capability.
  • Dual frequency of operation
  • Simultaneous active/passive search and track capability
  • Automatic target tracking to a maximum of 8 targets in both end Passive modes with Map overlay.
  • Advanced detection and classification features.
  • In built simulator and health monitoring facility.
  • In built facility to record and replay the raw & video data.
  • Standardized direct digital output for external systems.
  • Non Real time OS (LINUX) with C++
  • VME based COTS hardware with a modular concept.
  • Bi-static/Multi-static modes of operation
  • Intercept Processing
  • Fault Tolerant System

Source bel-india.com

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 29.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
Sensors / EW:
HUS-003 – Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 29.6 km

Nagin active towed array sonar

A Nagin active towed array sonar and a bow-mounted sonar HUMSA-NG (hull-mounted sonar array – new generation) are carried for sub-surface surveillance. To protect against anti-ship missiles coming from multiple directions, the ship carries the Elbit Systems Deseaver MK-II decoy control and launching system. Source nyanglish.com

300d27009d15de8dfa36a708ac2bc0c6b6899791-tc-img-originalImage: asianage.com

The Kolkata-class has a flight deck and enclosed hangar to embark up to two medium-lift helicopters such as HAL Dhruv advanced light helicopter (ALH) and AgustaWestland Sea King helicopter.

HAL Dhruv advanced light helicopter (ALH)

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The HAL Dhruv (Advanced Light Helicopter) is a twin-engined fourteen-seat medium utility helicopter produced by the Indian manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).

Crew 2
Passengers 12-14
Propulsion 2 Turboshaft Engines
Engine Model Turbomeca Ardiden 3G
Engine Power (each) 1032 kW 1384 shp
alternative Engine Variant
Engine Model Turbomeca / HAL TM 333 2B2
Engine Power (each) 825 kW 1106 shp
Speed 300 km/h 162 kts
186 mph
Service Ceiling 4.500 m 14.764 ft
Range 659 km 356 NM
410 mi.
Empty Weight 3.335 kg 7.352 lbs
max. Takeoff Weight 5.500 kg 12.125 lbs
Rotor Blades (main/tail) 4/4
Main Rotor Diameter 13,20 m 43 ft 4 in
Tail Rotor Diameter 2,55 m 8 ft 4 in
Rotor Disc Area 136,8 m² 1473 ft²
Length (Fuselage) 13,43 m 44 ft 1 in
Length 15,87 m 52 ft 1 in
Height 4,98 m 16 ft 4 in
First Flight 1992
Production Status in production
ICAO Code ALH
Data for (Version) HAL Dhruv

Source flugzeuginfo.net

The ship is equipped with Elbit Systems Deseaver MK II decoy control and launching system. Deseaver can launch decoys against anti-ship missiles coming from different directions.

‘Kavach’ chaff decoy system

ins-chennai2Image: financialexpress.com

INS Chennai comes equipped with ‘Kavach’ chaff decoy system. It is also fitted with ‘Mareech’ torpedo decoy system for defence against torpedoes. Both of these decoy systems have been developed indigenously. Source financialexpress.com

KAVACH MOD-II CHAFF ROCKET LAUNCHER

The KAVACH MOD-II system is designed to counter the threat of various anti-ship missiles by using chaff decoys. The system provides soft kill defense in a three-layered defense scheme.

kavach-1Image: bel-india.com

MAIN FEATURES:

1. Multi barrel chaff rocket launcher of Long Range and Short Range .
2. Trainable limits – ± 180 degrees at the rate of 60 degrees per second (max).
3. Elevatable limits � 0 to 60 degrees at the rate of 60 degrees per second (max).
4. Configuration of launcher – 4 x 4 barrels.
5. Firing selection of rockets � Auto and Manual.
6. Modes of Operation � Confusion, Distraction and Seduction.
7. Compensation for Pitch, Roll and Yaw.
8. Accepting, analyzing and prioritizing up to 5 threats.
9. On-line capturing inputs from ship systems.
10. Suggests Course- to-Steer.

TECHNICAL FEATURES OF LRMR LAUNCHER:

1. Overall weight 1680 kgs
2. Overall Height 2690 mm
3. Overall Width 1300mm(dia)
4. Overall Length 1300mm(dia)
5. Mode of operation Power and Manual
6. Bore of barrel 105.6 + 0.4 mm

TECHNICAL FEATURES OF SR LAUNCHER:

1. Overall weight 1350 Kgs
2. Overall Height 2460 mm
3. Overall Width 1300 mm (diameter)
4. Overall Length 1300mm (diameter)
5. Mode of operation Power and Manual
6. Bore of barrel 98.0 + 0.4 mm

Source ofbindia.gov.in

Kolkata-class propulsion, power and speed

The combined gas and gas (COGAG) propulsion system integrates twin Zorya M36E gas turbine plant. Four DT-59 reversible gas turbines drive the two propellers via two RG-54 gearboxes.

Ukrainian Zorya Production Association M36E gas turbine systems, producing more than 64,000 HP. The M36 gas turbine system compromises four DT-59 reversible gas turbine grouped in two pairs, driving two propellers through two RG-54 gearboxes. There will be 4 separate Russia-made gas turbine electrical generators, two in each engine room. Fresh air for the turbine will be drawn through two large stacks, one after the bridge superstructure and one aft. Source network54.com

DT-59 reversible gas turbine

download

Engine

UGT1 6 000R

  D T5 9
application   M *
GTE Power, kW   1 655 0
GTE efficiency,%   3 0 0
The specific fuel consumption of gas (Hu = 8555 kcal / Nm 3 ), Nm 3 / (kWh)  
Specific consumption of fuel oil (Hu = 10 200 kcal / kg), kg / (kW h)   0.2 81
The total pressure ratio compressors   1 3 , 5
The gas flow rate at the outlet of GTD, kg / s   10 0.0
The gas temperature at the outlet of the gas turbine engine, a C   38 0
power turbine speed, rev / min   36 00

Technical data zmturbines.com

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The two KVM diesel motors are provided by Bergen and Garden Reach. Four Wartsila WCM-1000 generators and Kirloskar AC generators supply onboard electricity. The propulsion system provides a maximum speed of 30kt.

Name: INS Kolkata
Namesake: Kolkata
Operator: Indian Navy
Builder: Mazagon Dock Limited
Yard number: 701
Way number: D63
Laid down: September 2003
Launched: 30 March 2006
Acquired: 10 July 2014
Commissioned: 16 August 2014
Homeport: Mumbai
Identification: Pennant number: D63
Motto: “Yudhay Sarvasannadh”(Sanskrit)”Always Prepared for Battle”
Status: in active service
Badge:
General characteristics
Class and type: Kolkata-class destroyer
Displacement: 7,500 tons
Length: 163 m (535 ft)
Beam: 17.4 m (57 ft)
Speed: In excess of 30 kn (56 km/h; 35 mph)
Range: 8,000 nmi (15,000 km; 9,200 mi)+
Crew: 250 (estd)
Sensors and
processing systems:
·IAI EL/M-2248 MF-STARAESA multi-function radar

·Thales LW-08 D-band air search radar

·IAI EL/M-2238 L-band STAR surveillance radar

·BEL HUMSA-NG bow sonar

·BEL Nagin active towed array sonar

·BEL Electronic Modular Command & Control Applications (EMCCA Mk4) combat management system

Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Elbit Systems Deseaver MK II counter-measures systems and defensive aids suite
Armament: ·Anti-air missiles:

·4 × 8-cell VLS, for a total of 32

·Barak 8 missiles (Range: 0.5 km (0.31 mi) to 90 km (56 mi))

·Anti-ship/Land-attack missiles:

·2 × 8-cell UVLM for 16 BrahMos anti-ship and land-attack missiles

·Guns:

·1 × 76 mm gun Oto Melara SRGM

·4 × AK-630 CIWS

·Anti-submarine warfare:

·4 × Mark 46 torpedo Torpedo tubes

·2 × RBU-6000 anti-submarine rockets

Aviation facilities: ·Flight deck

·Enclosed hangar

Technical data wikiwand.com

Main material source naval-technology.com

Updated Feb 08, 2018

Russia launching new ‘nuclear trains’ that can fire SIX ballistic missiles which are hidden inside carriages

When the system is used the roof of a train carriage opens and a missile is raised vertically into the air before it is fired at its target

BY CHRIS KITCHING

11:19, 23 NOV 2016

UPDATED11:57, 23 NOV 2016

Russia is strengthening its military arsenal by bringing back “nuclear trains” which can launch intercontinental missiles that are hidden in carriages.

Plans for the Barguzin “railway-based combat rocket system” are moving to the next stage as escalating tensions between Russia and Nato countries have sparked fears of a new war.

Military sources told Russian news agencies that the trains will be able to carry up to six Yars or Yars-M thermonuclear ballistic missiles and launchers.

Once the system is fully operational the roof of a carriage will open and a missile will be raised vertically into the air before it is fired at its target.

Plans for the mobile missile system were announced around two years ago, and early testing has been hailed as a success.

The missile trains could enter service as early as 2018 once further tests are completed.

A source told Moscow-based Interfax that the early tests were conducted at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in north-western Russia two weeks ago.

The source said: “They were fully successful, paving the way for the start of flight tests.”

Flight tests are likely to begin in 2017, the source added.

Last year the government-owned daily newspaper Rossiyskaya Gazeta reported that the trains could travel up to 600 miles a day and be hidden in tunnels so they couldn’t be detected by planes or satellites.

Colonel General Sergei Karakayev, commander of Russia’s Strategic Missile Forces, previously told the country’s media that the Barguzin system would be far better than its predecessor in terms of accuracy, range and missiles.

He said the system could remain in service until 2040.

The Barguzin system is based on a similar Cold War-era system which could launch RT-23 Molodets missiles from a silo or train carriage which looked like a refrigerator car.

Twelve trains could carry three missiles each and were stationed in the Kostroma, Perm and Krasnoyarsk regions.

Production in Ukraine stopped after the Soviet Union broke apart in 1991. The silo-based missiles were deactivated a few years later and the last of the rail-based missiles were withdrawn from service in Russia in 2005.

Meanwhile, Russia and President Vladimir Putin have been accused of stoking tensions after moving anti-ship missiles to disputed Pacific islands off Japan and Kaliningrad, which borders Nato countries Lithuania and Poland.

Original post mirror.co.uk

****-END-****

Topol-M ICBM: Details

RS-28 Sarmat: Details

Related post:

Sketches of Russia’s railway-based missile system ready — missile force chief – RT-23 Molodets (SS-24 Scalpel) 

Type 054A (Jiangkai II) Class Frigate

The Type 054A (Nato reporting name: Jiangkai-II) Class of missile frigates are being built by Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard and Huangpu Shipyard for the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN).

The new-generation multi-mission frigate, derived from the Type 054 (Jiangkai Class), integrates advanced weapons and sensor systems. The first frigate in class, Xuzhou (530), was commissioned into service in January 2008 and the last ship is scheduled to enter service in 2015.

Type 054 (Jiangkai I)

ffg525马鞍山/ Ma’anshan (525) Type 054 – Image: jeffhead.com

The Type 054 (NATO Codename Jiangkai I) frigate is a Chinese multi-role warship that were commissioned in the People’s Liberation Army Navy Surface Force in 2005. They superseded the Type 053H3 frigates. Two ships, 525 Ma’anshan, and 526 Wenzhou, were completed before production switched to the improved Type 054A frigate.

Number Pennant number Name Builder Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
1 525 马鞍山/ Ma’anshan Hudong September 2003 February 2005 East Sea Fleet Active
2 526 温州 / Wenzhou Huangpu November 2003 September 2005 East Sea Fleet Active
Builders:
Operators:  People’s Liberation Army Navy Surface Force
Preceded by: Type 053H3 frigate
Succeeded by: Type 054A frigate
Completed: 2
Active: 2
General characteristics
Type: Frigate
Displacement: 3,900 tons (full)
Length: 134 m (440 ft)(CCTV)
Beam: 16 m (52 ft) (CCTV)
Draught: 5 m (16 ft)
Propulsion: Combined diesel and diesel (CODAD), 4× SEMT Pielstick16 PA6 STC diesels, 5700 kW (7600+ hp @ 1084 rpm) each
Speed: 27 kn (50 km/h) estimated
Range: 8,025 nautical miles (14,900 km) estimated
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Armament:
Aircraft carried: 1 Kamov Ka-28 ‘Helix’ or Harbin Z-9C
Aviation facilities: hangar

Source wikiwand.com

xuzhouclassType 054A Xuzhou (530) – Image: jeffhead.com

China offered the sale of three Type 054A frigates to Thailand in 2013, but lost to South Korea, which offered its modified Gwanggaeto the Great-class destroyers.

Export Potential

A slightly modified version of the Type 054A has been promoted by Dalian China Shipbuilding and Offshore International (CSOC) for export to Pakistan and Thailand, as well as potentially Bangladesh and Algeria. Pakistan became China’s first customer for the frigates: in 2005 China and Pakistan signed a contract for four Chinese-built Type 054A frigates that included some modifications specified by the Pakistani Navy. The new frigate model is called the “F-22P,” and one was recently commissioned in Karachi in April 2013. Apparently three of the four ships were built in China, and the fourth is being constructed in Pakistan after China transferred the technology needed to build the ship.

While the Chinese courted the Thai Navy heavily and reportedly came close to selling three frigates to Thailand, the story ended with Bangkok ultimately choosing South Korea’s Daewoo as a more reliable and cost-effective option for the frigate purchase (the Chinese price was $255 million per frigate). This decision was made despite rumored pressure placed on the Thai Navy by Thailand’s executive branch to purchase a frigate from China. According to Thai media, several naval officers voiced concerns about the capacity and quality of frigates from China being lower than other options. Another complaint was that the ship’s steel structure is not durable.

According to Chinese sources, the weapon systems and radar on the export edition of the Type 054A are not exactly the same as the 054A currently in service in the PLAN. The export edition has a standard displacement of 3,800t, full load displacement 4,200t, length 136m, and height 8.6m. It can navigate on the sea for 90 days and nights, navigation range 4,000nm at a speed of 18 knots. It needs an operating crew of 160 and is powered by 4 diesel engines. This model of the FFG has a maximum speed of 26 knots, which is supposed to be one of the weaknesses of 054A. Modern FFGs and DDGs normally have a navigation speed of 30 knots. Source chinasignpost.com

F-22P Zulfiquar-class frigate

gxelwPNS Saif (253)

The F-22P or Zulfiquar-class frigate (Urdu: ذوالفقار ‎ English: Sword class), is a general purpose frigate built by Pakistan under license from China for the Pakistan Navy (PN). They are an adaptation of the Type 053H3 frigates of China but include elements of the Type 054 frigates as well.

The first ship, PNS Zulfiquar, was handed over to the PN on 30 July 2009 and the second, PNS Shamsheer, on 23 January 2010. The third frigate, PNS Saif was commissioned on 15 Sep 2011. The fourth and last frigate of F-22P series, PNS Aslat was inducted on 17 April 2013

Name Pennant Laid down Launched Commissioning
PNS Zulfiquar 251 12 October 2006 5 April 2008 19 September 2009
PNS Shamsheer 252 13 July 2007 31 October 2008 19 December 2009 
PNS Saif 253 4 November 2008 28 May 2009 15 September 2010
PNS Aslat 254 10 Dec 2009 16 June 2011  17 April 2013
Class overview
Name: Zulfiquar (Sword) class
Builders: Karachi Shipyard & Engineering Works, Karachi
Operators:

Pakistan Navy (PN)

Preceded by: Type 053H3 frigate
Cost: USD$175 million
Planned: 4
Completed: 4
Active: 4
General characteristics
Type: Frigate
Displacement:
  • 2,500 tonnes (standard)
  • 3,144 tonnes (full load)
Length: 123.2 m (404 ft)
Beam: 13.8 m (45 ft)
Draught: 3.76 m (12.3 ft)
Propulsion:
  • CODAD (Combined Diesel and Diesel)
  • 4 × Pielstick 16PA6STC @ 5,1 MW
  • 4 × MTU diesels generator set 8V396TE54 @ 680 kW
Speed: 29 kn (54 km/h) maximum
Range: 4,000 nmi (7,400 km)
Complement: 170 crew
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Armament:
Aircraft carried: 1 × Harbin Z-9EC ASW helicopter
Aviation facilities: Flight deck and enclosed hangar
Notes:
  • Ships in class include:
  • PNS Zulfiquar (251)
  • PNS Shamsheer (252)
  • PNS Saif (253)
  • PNS Aslat (254)

Source wikiwand.com

Royal Thai Navy’s DW-3000F Frigate: Here

Chinese Assessments of the Type 054A

Much of the open source coverage of the Type 054A as it has participated in the above missions has been positive, as are assessments by Chinese analysts as well as those who have commanded or otherwise sailed on the ships. Major problems from the Gulf of Aden deployments are not mentioned in Chinese publications or by foreign analysts, who almost certainly would have noted and reported on major problems such as engine failures or other mechanical issues that would require towing back to port and lengthy repair.

Some of the areas cited by Chinese defense analysts where the Type 054A design is vastly improved over the Type 054 include: 

–Improved air defense: The Type 054A’s medium-range HQ-16 VLS SAM system now provides area air defense from all engagement angles up to a range of 50km, a considerable upgrade from the limited engagement angle, short range SAM system of the Type 054.

–Improved reaction time against close-in threats: The Type 054’s four AK-630 close-in weapon systems (CIWS) were replaced with two Type 730 CIWS on the Type 054A, which has far better reaction time for anti-aircraft and anti-missile engagements.

–More capable radar systems: A Russian-derived MR331 Mineral-ME fire-control radar (for anti-ship missile and for the main gun as its secondary mission), capable of over the horizon targeting, has been installed on the Type 054A frigate.

–Better stealth design: The V-shaped hull design combined with stealth radar capabilities makes the 054A a quieter and stealthier ship.

While coverage of areas for improvement of the Type 054A is sparse, a few sources did note that improvements to the next iteration of stealth frigates, the Type 054B, would be focused on the electronic equipment used in the combat information command system as well as changes to the weapons configuration. This could indicate that the Type 054B will be equipped with new air defense and anti-ship missiles.

Type 054B

054b_force

The upgraded capabilities of the Type 054A reflect its expanded mission sets and enhance the ability of the ship to defend itself against a range of threats that it might encounter in both the regional seas and missions abroad, to include potential conflicts with regional navies as well as pirates in distant waters. Given the Type 054A’s success to date and the strong likelihood that the PLAN will seek improved follow on variants, it is important to analyze the research, development, and procurement process that the PLAN used to bring the Type 054A into the fleet. Source chinasignpost.com

Type 054A design and features

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The stealthy hull design of the Type 054A features sloped sides and reduced superstructure for minimising the radar cross section. Designed primarily for anti-air warfare, the frigates are also equipped to conduct anti-surface and anti-submarine warfare missions.

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The Type 054A has a length of 134m and abeam of 16m. The standard displacement is 3,600t, while the full displacement is around 4,000t. Each vessel can complement a crew of 165.

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–The lack of reporting to date in Chinese or foreign sources regarding engine failures or other major mechanical problems suggests that the Type 054A has recorded decent operational reliability in the six and a half years (and counting) that the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) has maintained its Gulf of Aden anti-piracy mission.

–While the Type 054A represents an exponential improvement in the quality and capability of the PLAN’s frigate force, it nonetheless remains a distinctly limited design, certainly in terms of its size and armament but most especially in terms of its electronics outfit. The Chinese appear to recognize this fact and view the 054A as an intermediary design intended to play a specific, limited role in fleet defense.

–Notwithstanding its physical shortcomings, the Type 054A has performed well handling lower intensity long-range mission In this regard, it has arguably surpassed the capabilities of the French Lafayette-class frigate that influenced its original design. Source chinasignpost.com

type-054abc-hq-16-a-b-cvertical-launch-system-vls-harbin-z-9c-jiangkai-ii-c-802a-type-730-ciws-yj-83-sea-skimming-anti-ship-cruise-missile-codad-shanghai-based-1

Type 054A missiles

The Type 054A is armed with HQ-16 medium-range surface-air missiles fired from 32-cell Vertical Launch System (VLS) developed by Luoyang Electro-Optics Technology Development Centre (EOTDC). The HQ-16 missile can engage aerial targets from all angles up to a range of 50km. The VLS is also expected to launch anti-submarine missile.

HQ-16 medium-range surface-air missile

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The HongQi-16 (HQ-16) is a third generation Chinese land-based mid-range surface-to-air missile defense system. It is similar to Russia’s SA-11 Gadfly or SA-17 Grizzly, and seems to be an evolved, Chinese version of those system.  Not much else is known about this new system, but there are reports stating that it can intercept very low-flying targets at maximum distance of 40km.  The HQ-16 is said to be more accurate than previous mid-range defense systems and fills in the performance gaps of the HQ-7 and HQ-9.

China Type 054A Jiangkai-II class frigate of the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLA Navy) test fires HQ-16 surface to air missile during an exercise intercept an (1).jpgHQ-16 Anti Air Missile – Image: chinesemilitaryreview.blogspot.complantype-054abc-test-firing-hq-16-a-vertical-launch-system-vls-harbin-z-9c-jiangkai-ii-c-802a-type-730-ciws-yj-83-sea-skimming-anti-ship-cruise-missile-codad-shangType 054A Jiangkai-II class frigate of the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLA Navy) test fires HQ-16 surface to air  missile during an exercise.Type 054A frigate is equipped a 32-cell vertical launching system (VLS) which allows the HQ-16 to be launched at rapid rate. – Image:  chinesemilitaryreview.blogspot.comhhq-16-launch-gifVideo capture of an HHQ-16 launch intercepting what appears to be a low altitude target drone – Image: plarealtalk.com

Chinese news websites report that the HQ-16’s performance data is roughly:

  • Effective range of 1.5-30 km
  • Effective Altitude of 10-6000 meters
  • Single hit probability of 0.7-0.98
  • Reaction time 5-8 seconds
  • 9 m long missile
  • Projectile diameter 0.232 m
  • Weighs 165 kg
  • Warhead weight of 17 kg
  • Maximum flight speed of Mach 2.8.

Data missilethreat.com

CY-5 (Chiang Ying, Long Tassel) ASROC-type missile

1639542_-_mainA PLAN naval drill in July saw the likely first images of an ASROC-type torpedo-carrying missile, fired from the vertical launch system of a Type 054A ‘Jiangkai II’-class frigate. The official designator of this missile is uncertain, although some sources suggest nomenclature of CY-5 (Chiang Ying , Long Tassel). Source: Screengrab from CCTV @janes.comcy-possible-launch-gifImage: plarealtalk.com

CY-5 is the vertically launched version of CY-4 with folding control surfaces to fit into VLS. The range is reported to be 30 km. The existence of CY-5 type weapon was first officially revealed in 2012 when Type 054A frigate was opened to public in Hong Kong, when the governmental explanation described the modular VLS at the bow of the ship can launch both air defense missiles and rocket propelled ASW torpedoes armed with various Chinese and western torpedoes. However, the exact designation of the rocket propelled ASW torpedo was not revealed. Because CY series was also first intended for export and armed with torpedoes of western origin, CY-5 is thus also most likely armed with Chinese Y-7, or other western light torpedoes such as A244-S. CY-5 is reportedly also deployed onboard Type 052D destroyer. Source wikipedia.org

Yu-8 anti-submarine missile launched from VLS of 054A Xiangtan

Yu-8 torpedo is a rocket propelled ASW torpedo similar to CY-5, but with a different payload. The exact type of the light weight torpedo (LWT) carried by Yu-8 has not been officially released by the Chinese governmental sources (as of 2016), but many military analysts and enthusiasts have concluded it is the Russian APR-3E torpedo based on other information released officially by the Chinese government in 2015, namely, the incorporation of data link on Yu-8:[8][9]

The Russian torpedo is approximately a meter, or a third longer than its western counterparts, such as A244-SSting Ray, or Mk 54, and is also nearly twice the weight of its western counterparts, but more importantly, the range of Russian APR-3E LWT is only a third of that its western counterparts. If a very fast nuclear submarine is targeted by Yu-8 near its maximum range, then from the time Yu-8 is launched to its point of entry, the target might have already opened up the gap and thus has successfully escaped by getting out of the range of APR-3E. Just as in the case of CY-3 development from CY-2, to ensure the point of entry of Yu-8 is within the 3 km range of APR-3E, a datalink is also incorporated to enable the weapon to receive target update from other platforms such as surface ships and aircraft.[8][9] This feature is not a must for western LWT torpedoes with a range that is approximately three times of that of Russian LWT, and hence when the Chinese official sources have revealed the existence of datalink on Yu-8, it suggests the LWT Yu-8 delivers is Russian APR-3E or similar Chinese copies. Many military analysts and enthusiasts have also postulated that since the Russian LWT is larger and heavier, to maintain the same range of CY-5 armed with lighter and shorter torpedoes of western origin, the rocket motor of Yu-8 would have to be either larger or more powerful.

The existence of Yu-8 designation was first revealed in March 2014,[10] and confirmed more than a year later by CCTV-7 in August 2015, when it aired a footage of Chinese naval war game that contained the launch of rocket propelled ASW torpedo from VLS of a Chinese warship, with designation Yu-8 torpedo assigned.[5] Yu-8 is designed by the 705th Research Institute in Kunming, with program begun in 2002 and completed in 2006. Source wikiwand.com

The primary Anti-Surface Warfare (ASuW) system of the Type 054A is the YJ-83 (C-803) sea-skimming anti-ship cruise missile. The missile is launched by two quadruple launchers mounted at the mid-ship position. The YJ-83 missile can carry a 165kg conventional warhead to an operational range of 250km.

2011-054a-04

YJ-83 (C-803) sea-skimming anti-ship cruise missile

yj8-antiship-missile

The YJ-83 (YingJi-83 meaning Eagle Strike) was designed by the Third Academy of the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation “CASIC” (HiWING Mechanical & Electrical Technology Corporation). The programme begun in the mid nineties and procurement with the PLAN begun in the late nineties. YJ-83 is a subsonic missile with a reported range of 150 Km (in its surface-launched version). It is a sea skeaming capable missile fitted with an active radar seeker. Source navyrecognition.com

dsc07376Yuncheng(571) – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

The YJ-83 is a long-range anti-ship missile designed to meet the requirements of the PLA Navy (PLAN). The YJ-83 has a range of 150 to 200 kilometers and introduces a data-link to receive target updates from airborne assets such as helicopters or fixed-wing aircraft. The YJ-83 can fly at supersonic speeds (Mach 1.5) during the terminal phase of the flight (approx 15 kilometers). The PLAN is deploying the YJ-83 missile as the standard anti-ship missile onboard frigates and destroyers.

Dimensions

Diameter: 0.36 meter

Length: 6.39 meter (21.0 foot)

Wingspan: 1.22 meter

Performance

Max Range: 200 kilometer (108 nautical mile)

Speed

Cruise Speed: 0.90 mach (1,076 kph)

Top Speed: 1.50 mach (1,793 kph)

Weight

Warhead: 165 kilogram (364 pound)

Source deagel.com

ffg547临沂/Linyi (547)  YJ-83 (C-803) sea-skimming anti-ship cruise missile

New “missile” ASW

[​IMG]Image: sinodefenceforum.comYU_10TORPEDOImage: sinodefenceforum.com

Naval gun systems and ASW weapons

The main gun fitted on the bow deck is a single-barrel 76mm gun. The frigate is armed with two indigenous Type 730 seven-barrel 30mm close-in weapon systems (CIWS) for close-point defence against aerial threats. The CIWS can fire 4,600 to 5,800 rounds per minute for a maximum range of 3,000m.

1 × PJ26 76 mm dual purpose gun

ffg-gun

The 713th Institute (also known as Zhengzhou Electrical Engineering Research Institute) of China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (CSIC) of the People’s Republic of China has developed a Chinese variant of AK-176, with Mr. Chen Dingfeng (陈汀峰) as the general designer. Design begun in 2000 and was completed in 2003. The primary difference between this H/PJ-26 and AK-176 is that the Chinese variant adopts a stealthy turret design, and more composite material is used in the construction of the turret. In addition, ready rounds for the H/PJ-26 are doubled to 150 rounds from the original 75 of the AK-176. Source wikiwand.com

PJ26 single tube 76MM stealth gun

PJ26 single tube 76MM gun stealth based AK176 single tube 76.2 mm gun stealth modifications on the Russian ship. In early 2000 determined by the Zhengzhou Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (713) as chief engineer units, and thus responsible for the development, general contracting, Chen Ting Feng served as the chief architect and was completed in 2003.

Performance parameters (Russia AK176 type):
total weight: 11500kg (including the lower deck loader)
Range: 11.5 ~ 15.5km
Rate of fire: 60 to 120 rounds / min
reserve ammunition: 152 Hair
barrel tilt range: -15 to +85 degree
level cyclotron range: about 175 degrees

Source haijun360.com

Type 730 seven-barrel (PJ-12) 30mm close-in weapon systems (CIWS)

dsc07378Type 730 CIWS Yuncheng (571)  – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

The Type 730 is a Chinese-made close-in weapon system (CIWS) based on a seven-barrel 30mm gun with a maximum rate of fire of approximately 4,600 to 5,800 rounds per minute. This CIWS weapon system provides short-range air defense to the latest ships commissioned by the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). Source deagel.com

18th 054A onwards the seven barrel PJ-12 was replaced by the PJ-11 (H/PJ-14)

730-1130Left: seven barrel PJ-12 30mm CIWS installed on 054A hulls 1-17, Right: eleven barrel PJ-11 30mm CIWS installed on 054A hulls 18 and onwards – Source plarealtalk.com

A pair of PJ-12 (also known as Type 730) close in weapon systems (CIWS) provide a robust last ditch anti air, anti missile and anti surface capability. The PJ-12 is a 7 barrel, 30mm calibre gatling gun featuring its own fire control radar and electro-optic targeting system. PJ-12 is similar in arrangement to the Dutch Goalkeeper CIWS, but is reportedly actually influenced by the aborted French SAMOS CIWS. The seven barrel PJ-12 equips 054A hulls 1 to 17, from the 18th 054A onwards, the seven barrel PJ-12 was replaced by the more formidable PJ-11, an eleven barrel variant of the PJ-12 that had previously only been fitted aboard the aircraft carrier Liaoning. Source plarealtalk.com

Properties: Capable vs Seaskimmer
Targets: Aircraft, Helicopter, Missile, Surface Vessel
Weapons:
30mm China H/PJ-14 [Type 1130, 500 rnds] – (China, 11 Barrels, Upgr Goalkeeper Copy) Gun
Air Max: 1.9 km. Surface Max: 2.8 km.

Source cmano-db.com

The anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capabilities are provided by two Type 87 six-tube ASW rocket launchers and tow 324mm YU-7 ASW torpedo launchers. Each rocket has a 34kg warhead and can strike under-water targets within the range of 1,200m.

2 x Type 87 six-tube ASW rocket launcher

DSC07361.JPGType 87 six-tube ASW rocket launcher Yuncheng (571)  – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

There are two Type 87 six-tube anti-submarine rocket launchers installed on the bow deck, with 36 rockets (240mm calibre, 34kg warhead). The maximum range is 1,200m. Source defensetiger.blogspot.com

Targets: Submarine
Weapons:
China Type 87 ASW Rocket Salvo [6 rnds] – Rocket
Subsurface Max: 3.7 km.

Source cmano-db.com

2 324mm YU-7 ASW torpedo launchers

sailors-on-chinese-navy-ship-054a-sword-xuzhou-nanhai-practicing-antisubmarine-routines-5Type-054A Frigate Anti-submarine Exercises – Image: errymath.blogspot.com

YU-7 ASW torpedo

The Yu-7 is a lightweight torpedo of Chinese origin. Since 1984 China tried to copy and later produce under license the US Mk 46 torpedo. This proved to be difficult and a batch of Italian A.224S torpedoes was ordered and the two designs were mated. An electrically powered Yu-7 offspring called the ET-52 was developed and put into service before the development of the Yu-7 was finished.

sailors-on-chinese-navy-ship-054a-sword-xuzhou-nanhai-practicing-antisubmarine-routines-3Type-054A Frigate Anti-submarine Exercises – Image: errymath.blogspot.com

The Yu-7 is a mixture of the Mk 46 Mod 1 and Mod 2 with various components from the A.224S torpedo. The Yu-7 retains the complex Otto fuel engine which provides it with a better performance than the electrically powered ET-52. The layout is conventional with the seeker in the nose, the warhead in the middle and the fuel and engine at the rear.

The Yu-7 uses a combination of passive and active acoustic guidance. It is believed that the Mk 46 seeker design is retained but several components have been replaced by those from the A.224S.

Type Anti-submarine torpedo
Platform Aircraft, surface ships
Diameter 324 mm
Length 2.6 m
Weight 235 kg
Warhead 45 kg
Guidance Active/passive acoustic seeker
Propulsion Twin propeller
Power supply Otto Fuel II
Speed 43 kt
Range 10 km
Depth 6 to 400 m depth

Source weaponsystems.net

Variable depth sonar from hull 18 onwards

The 054A class also fields a comprehensive undersea sensor suite for ASW roles. All 054As are equipped with a bow sonar and a towed array sonar as well as a towed torpedo decoy system, and from all ships from hull 18 onwards have also been equipped with an additional variable depth sonar, appearing to be the same type mounted on the 056A class corvette. Such a comprehensive sonar suite, combined with a hangar and helipad for a helicopter, makes the 054A a very viable and competent ASW surface combatant within the Chinese Navy’s order of battle. Source plarealtalk.com

CymT9bWUAAA8DiS

General data:
Type: VDS, Active/Passive Sonar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 14.8 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1970s
Sensors / EW:
China SJD-X [Unknown VDS] – (Type 054++, Type 056 ASW) VDS, Active/Passive Sonar
Role: VDS, Active/Passive Variable Depth Sonar
Max Range: 14.8 km

Source cmano-db.com

Type 054A Towed Torpedo Decoy

Photography of a Type 054A frigate with a streamed tow cable has recently been seen on Chinese websites. The accompanying discussions on the blog sites state this is evidence of a towed array. Source admiraltytrilogy.com

2

Flight deck

sailors-on-chinese-navy-ship-054a-sword-xuzhou-nanhai-practicing-antisubmarine-routines-2Kamov Ka-28 Helix on Type-054A Frigate Anti-submarine Exercises – Image: errymath.blogspot.com

The stern helicopter deck features a single landing spot for supporting the missions of a medium size helicopter. The heli-deck is fitted with helicopter handling system and can accommodate a Kamov Ka-28 Helix or a Harbin Z-9C helicopter.

Kamov Ka-28 Helix

sailors-on-chinese-navy-ship-054a-sword-xuzhou-nanhai-practicing-antisubmarine-routines-4Kamov Ka-28 Helix on Type-054A Frigate Anti-submarine Exercises – Image: errymath.blogspot.com
Kamov Ka-27PL ‘Helix-A’
Entered service 1982
Crew 3 men
Dimensions and weight
Length 11.27 m
Main rotor diameter 15.9 m
Height 5.45 m
Weight (empty) 6.1 t
Weight (maximum take off) 12.6 t
Engines and performance
Engines 2 x Klimov TV3-117V turboshaft engines
Engine power 2 x 2 190 hp
Maximum speed 250 km/h
Cruising speed 230 km/h
Service ceiling 5 km
Range 800 km
Payload
Maximum payload 5 t
Typical load ?
Armament
Torpedoes 4 x APR-2E homing torpedoes
Bombs 4 x groups of S3V guided anti-submarine bombs in place of torpedoes
Image: combataircraft.com

Data military-today.com

Harbin Z-9C helicopter

type-054a-frigate-jiangkai-ii-class-ffg-546-yancheng-ffg-546-mediterranean-4Chinese Type 054A Jiangkai II class FFG-546 Yancheng Guided Missile Frigate on patrol in Mediterranean Sea. Image: Chinese Military Review

Z-9C: Version for PLA Naval Air Force, for deployment aboard certain classes of destroyers and frigates; in service by late 2000. Believed to be equivalent to Arriel 2-engined Eurocopter AS 565 Panther, but equipped with Thales HS-12 dipping sonar and KLC-11/J-band (Chinese version of Agrion 15) surface search radar; armament includes two Yu-7 torpedoes or TV-guided C-701 anti-surface vessel missiles. Source aviastar.org

Specifications (Z-9B)

Data from

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1 or 2 pilots
  • Capacity: 10 passengers or 1,900 kg (4,189 lb) payload internal, 1,600 kg (3,527 lb) payload slung
  • Length: 12.11 m (39 ft 9 in)
  • Height: 4.01 m (13 ft 2 in)
  • Empty weight: 2,050 kg (4,519 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 4,100 kg (9,039 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Zhuzhou Aeroengine Factory WZ-8A turboshaft, 632 kW (848 hp) each
  • Main rotor diameter: 11.94 m (39 ft 2 in)
  • Main rotor area: 111.98 m2 (1,205.3 sq ft) swept area

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 305 km/h (190 mph; 165 kn)
  • Cruising speed: 260 km/h (162 mph; 140 kn)
  • Ferry range: 1,000 km (621 mi; 540 nmi) with internal auxiliary tank
  • Endurance: 5 hours
  • Service ceiling: 4,500 m (14,764 ft) * Hovering Ceiling in ground effect: 2,600 m (8,530 ft)
  • Hovering Ceiling out of ground effect: 1,600 m (5,249 ft)

Armament

2 fixed 23 mm Type 23-2 (AM-23) cannon on attack variants. Pylons for rockets, gun pods, ET52 torpedo, HJ-8 anti-tank missiles, or TY-90 air-to-air missiles.

Technical data wikiwand.com

Sensors and radars aboard the Type 054A frigate

054a07

The Type 054Afrigate is equipped with Type 382 3D air/surface search radar, MR-36A surface search radar, and two Racal RM-1290 navigation radars operating in I-band. The 3D search radar can simultaneously track up to 40 targets within the maximum range of 120km.

sailors-on-chinese-navy-ship-054a-sword-xuzhou-nanhai-practicing-antisubmarine-routines-1Image: errymath.blogspot.com

Type 382 3D air/surface search radar

dsc07379Yuncheng (571) Type 382 3D air/surface search radar – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

Type 382 radar is a Chinese naval 3-D air search radar designed to replace earlier Chinese Type 381.

Contrary to many frequent but erroneous claim, Type 382 radar is not a simple Chinese copy of Russian MR-710 Fregat (meaning frigatebird) radar (NATO reporting name: Top Plate), though Type 382 does borrow heavily from MR-710 radar. Type 382 radar program had already begun in the early 1990s, before the start of the negotiation of importing Russian Sovremennyy-class destroyer in 1994. Type 382 is designed to be a successor of earlier Type 381, but development had run into technological bottleneck for the next generation passive phased array radar due to the technical and industrial limitations in the early and mid-1990s China had at the time. The import of Russian MR-710 radar had provided a significant boost in the development of Type 382 radar in that designers of Type 382 can borrow ideas of MR-710, and as a result, Type 382 has become a cross between Type 381 and MR-710. L Source wikiwand.com

sailors-on-chinese-navy-ship-054a-sword-xuzhou-nanhai-practicing-antisubmarine-routines-7Image: errymath.blogspot.com

The Type 344 (Mineral-ME Band Stand) radar above the bridge provides ship-ship missile control, over-the-horizon radar acquisition and target designation of surface vessels, while four Type 345 (NATO reporting name: MR-90 Front Dome) F-band radars provide two channels to guide two air defence missiles simultaneously.

A photo of 054A’s darkened CIC during typical operations – Source plarealtalk.com

Type 344 (Mineral-ME Band Stand) radar

dsc07367Yuncheng (571) Type 344 (Mineral-ME Band Stand) radar – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

Mineral system (‘Band Stand’) is used for missile guidance, MR331 Mineral ME ( Russian export version Monolit or Band Stand in Western code) is a team able to locate targets beyond the radar horizon. Which is essential guide surface-to-surface missiles.

morenamineral me.jpg

Type 345 (NATO reporting name: MR-90 Front Dome)

dsc07371Yuncheng (571) Type 345 (NATO reporting name: MR-90 Front Dome) at bottom of pic – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.comdsc07355dYuncheng (571) Type 345 (NATO reporting name: MR-90 Front Dome) on top of hanger –  Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com
General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 1980s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Continuous Wave Illumination
Sensors / EW:
Front Dome [MR-90 Orekh] – (1981, Fire Dome?) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air, Short-Range
Max Range: 74.1 km

The ship is also fitted with TR47C and Type 347G fire-control radars for the CIWS and 76mm main gun. The frigate is also equipped with MGK-335 medium frequency active/passive sonar system integrating Bull Horn active and Whale Tongue passive hull-mounted, search and attack sonar.

TR47C/Type 347G fire-control radar

1_232442_1

The Type 347G “Rice Bowl” I-band fire-control radar is found on Chinese Navy ships, in conjection with the Type 76A dual-37mm automatic AAA gun. Typically, the system includes 2 Type 347G fire-control radar with optical director, and 4 Type 76A guns. They’re used on the Luda, Luhu, Luhai, Jiangwei class surface warships, as well as the Houjian, Houxin, and Haiging class patrol boats.

Type 347 radar is frequently but erroneously referred by many as either Type 349 or Type 348, because externally, all three radars look very similar, and all three are developed as fire control radar for small caliber guns. In reality, the three radars are different and they can be easily distinguished by the following features: When electro-optics (EO) are integrated with radar, EO is installed on the portside of Type 347 radar antenna, but for Type 348 and Type 349, EO is installed on the starboard side of the radar antenna. Furthermore, when incorporated as part of CIWS, Type 349 is slaved to Type 730 CIWS gun and thus does not rotate, because the gun rotates when searching/tracking. In contrast, Type 348 is not slaved to the Type 76 37mm twin guns, but instead, installed separately from the gun mounts, and thus Type 348 rotates when searching/tracking. The shape of antenna is also an important visual cue to distinguish three radars. The tip of Type 349 radar is a conical, which is missing on Type 347. Instead, the tip of Type 347 radar antenna is a small circular flat surface, missing the tip of the cone. The antenna of Type 348 radar differs from both Type 347 and Type 349 radars in that most of the cone is missing, only the base remains, so the antenna of Type 348 radar has a very large circular flat surface, resulting in Type 348 radar resembles a scaled down version of another larger fire control radar for larger caliber guns (76 mm or greater), Type 344.

Specifications

  • X-band

(Specs based on RTN-20X)

  • Beam: 2.2 deg
  • Gain: 37 dBi
  • Range:
    • Target acquisition for 2m2: 12 km (verified for LR66)
    • Target acquisition for 0.1m2: 6 km (verified for LR66)
  • Other features:
    • Uses a coherent pulse doppler design
    • Non coherent Moving Target Indicator/Detection (MTI, MTD), CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate)
    • Antinodding, anti clutter capability (A well advertised feature of the RTN family)
  • Other reported names:
    • TR47C

Source wikiwand.com

Bull Nose (MGK-335M Platina) Hull Sonar

054a01

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 27.8 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1980s
Sensors / EW:
Bull Nose [MGK-335M Platina] – (1981, Assoc w Mare Tail & Steer Hide) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search
Max Range: 27.8 km

Source cmano-db.com

Countermeasures

dsc07375Yuncheng (571) – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

The countermeasures are provided by two 18-tube multiple rocket launchers capable of firing decoys/chaffs. Other electronic warfare systems include Type 922-1 radar warning receiver and HZ-100 Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) and Electronic Support Measures (ESM) system.

Type 922-1 radar warning receiver

can flagPeople’s Liberation Army (Navy) ships consisted of a Type 903 Replenishment Ship, the Taihu, and two Type 054A Guided Missile Frigates the Yancheng and the Daqing on visit to VICTORIA, Canada – Image: jgmjgm516.blogspot.com

2 × Type 726-4 18-tube decoy rocket launchers

dsc07377Yuncheng (571) Type 726-4 18-tube decoy rocket launcher (From pic it is 24 tube) –  Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

Propulsion

The combined diesel and diesel (CODAD) propulsion system integrates four SEMT Pielstick (now MAN Diesel) 16 PA6V-280 STC diesel engines produced locally under license at Shaanxi Diesel Factory. Each engine, with a sustained power of 4,720kW (6,330hp), provides a total power output of 18,880kW (25,320hp). The propulsion system provides a maximum speed of 27kt and range of more than 8,000nmi.

Main material source naval-technology.com

Costs of Building a Type 054A

We estimate that the Type 054A currently costs a total of approximately US$348 million per vessel to build and fit out. This estimate derives from breaking the ship down by its main systems categories (hull and equipment, propulsion/power transmission, weapons, and electronics) and calculating their respective costs, as well as the cost of the labor needed to assemble the ship into a finished product. We rely heavily on valuation by analogy in many cases because Chinese sources simply do not disclose cost information on the vast majority of the inputs being used in warships being built in China. As such, the figure as stands is conservative and may overestimate the construction and equipment costs.

Type 054A Cost Breakdown

Million USD, Percentage of total estimated ship cost (numbers rounded)

China-SignPost-93_Type-054A-Deep-Dive_Exhibit-4.pngSource: Alibaba, U.S. Navy, Local and Foreign Media Sources, Authors’ Analysis

The next section elaborates sequentially on the Type 054A’s cost structure, with the areas that contribute the most to final ship cost addressed first.

Electronics: US$102 million, 29%. Chinese military-grade electronics makers disclose little or no information on the unit costs of systems then produce for the PLA. Furthermore, the PLA does not publish detailed budgets such as those commonplace in the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). As such, this analysis uses a valuation by analogy approach to estimate the likely cost of the ship’s main electronics systems. The ship’s ZKJ-4B/6 combat data system is said to be based on Thompson CSF’s Tavitac. The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapons Systems, 1997-1998 estimated that the Tavitac accounted for less than 5% of the final cost of the French Lafayette-class frigate, which based on the US$466 million original unit cost of the six Lafayette-class frigates (“Kang Ding”) purchased by Taiwan in 1992, suggests Tavitac costs approximately US$20 million. Given the systems’ stated similarity, it is reasonable to value the ZKJ-4B/6 at US$20 million per unit.

The Type 382 3D search radar likely costs approximately US$15 million per unit based on the price of the AMD radar system Saab sold to Australia for its Canberra-class LHD and the fact that Chinese radar makers likely have not yet attained the experience and efficiency level of Saab’s production process. The Type 054A’s sonar suite likely costs around US$20 million, based on the unit cost of the Royal Navy’s Sonar 2087 and the procurement requirements the U.S. Navy used in 2005 when specifying the characteristics of a new towed sonar array. Finally, the authors estimate that the Type 054A’s machinery control system costs US$15 million, based on the fact that Northrup Grumman has contracted to supply the much larger LHA-7 amphibious assault ship’s machinery control system at a cost of US$50.6 million. We acknowledge that shipboard electronics costs may in fact be lower, although no data presently known to us supports a lower cost.

dsc07370Yuncheng (571) – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

Weapons: US$84 million, 24%. The most expensive part of the Type 054A’s weapons suite is likely the vertical launching system cells. An 8-cell module from the US Mk 41 VLS system—the most widely used in the world—costs around US$15 million. The Type 054A has 32 total VLS cells and the author discounts the 8-cell module cost to US$10 million, making the system cost an estimated US$40 million. The second most expensive component of the Type 054A’s armament are its two Type 730 close in weapon systems (“CIWS”), which likely cost around US$11 million for both. The U.S. Navy’s Phalanx Block 1B CIWS costs US$5.6 million per unit, and we believe this is a reasonable proxy for the Type 730 CIWS cost because although the Chinese gun is a larger caliber and the system is physically larger, the assembly and materials costs are likely substantially lower.

dsc07363Yuncheng (571) – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

Labor: US$75 million, 22%. While data are somewhat scarce, building and commissioning a frigate-sized warship of between 3,000 and 4,000 tons displacement appears to require between 2.5 million man hours (US FFG-7) and 10.8 million man hours (India’s Godavari-class) of labor. We estimate that at present, Chinese military shipyards, which can afford a higher degree of labor intensity than Western yards due to a large labor force, but which are also almost certainly substantially more efficient than Indian yards, require around 3.2 million man hours to build and commission a Type 054A frigate. Chinese yards’ average labor cost is based on the 2013 labor expenditures of Jiangsu Rongsheng, a top private shipbuilder, which are then increased by 25% to reflect the premium paid for special skill sets required for shipbuilding work done to naval specifications.

Hull and equipment: US$45 million, 13%. This cost estimate is based on the fact that around one-third of the light ship weight of surface combatants such as the Type 054A typically consists of metals—primarily steel, along with lesser quantities of high-grade alloys and wiring and pipes. The author then multiplied the 1,200 tonnes of steel likely required for a ship the size of the Type 054A by an average cost of US$2,000/tonne for high quality steel such as that used in warships. The remainder of the cost comes from composite materials and radar absorbent materials, whose cost data were obtained from similar items sold on Alibaba.com and from the cost of applying radar absorbent coatings to frigate-sized U.S. warships, as disclosed by the Chicago Tribune (admittedly a bit dated as it is 1993-vintage). Cost data for paint, piping, pumps, valves, and wiring also come from similar Chinese-made items advertised for sale on Alibaba.com as well as the London Metals Exchange spot price for copper, the underlying component of wiring and likely at least part of the pipe alloys.

Propulsion: US$32 million, 9%. The biggest share of the Type 054A’s propulsion costs come from its four Pielstick/Shaanxi PA6 diesel engines. At least one trading company offers Pielstick engines for sale at between US$1and US$10 million apiece. This estimate uses the mid-range price of $5 million per engine to reflect the size of the engine and the premium quality needed for a military application. The balance of the estimated cost reflects the gearbox, drive shafts, steering gear, and props.

054a06

Miscellaneous costs: US$10 million, 3%. This category is a “catchall” that helps the overall estimate account for bits and pieces that might have been overlooked in the process of estimating each ship segment’s cost. Source chinasignpost.com

Class overview

Builders:
  • Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard
  • Huangpu Shipyard
Operators:  People’s Liberation Army Navy Surface Force
Preceded by: Type 054 frigate
Subclasses:
  • Type 054A
  • Type 054A+
Cost: ¥ 1.58 billion
Building: 5 as of May 2015
Active: 22
General characteristics
Type: Frigate
Displacement: 4,053 tonnes (full)(CCTV report)
Length: 134.1 m (440 ft)(CCTV report)
Beam: 16 m (52 ft) (CCTV report)
Propulsion: CODAD, 4 x Shaanxi 16 PA6 STC diesels, 5700 kW (7600+ hp @ 1084 rpm) each
Speed: 27 kn estimated
Range: 8025 nautical miles estimated
Complement: 165
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • Type 382 Radar (Upgraded from Type 381 Radar “Sea Eagle S/C”) 3D air/surface search radar
  • Type 344 Radar (Mineral-ME Band Stand) OTH target acquisition and SSM fire control radar
  • 4 × Type 345 Radar(MR-90 Front Dome) SAM fire control radars
  • MR-36A surface search radar, I-band
  • Type 347G 76 mm gun fire control radar
  • 2 × Racal RM-1290 navigation radars, I-band
  • MGK-335 medium frequency active/passive sonar system
  • ZKJ-4B/6 (developed from Thomson-CSF TAVITAC) combat data system
  • HN-900 Data link (Chinese equivalent of Link 11A/B, to be upgraded)
  • SNTI-240 SATCOM
  • AKD5000S Ku band SATCOM
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Armament:
  • 1 × 32-cell VLS
  • 2 × 4 C-803 anti-ship / land attack cruise missiles
  • 1 × PJ26 76 mm dual purpose gun
  • 2 × Type 730 7-barrel 30 mm CIWS guns or Type 1130
  • 2 × 3 324mm YU-7 ASWtorpedo launchers
  • 2 × 6 Type 87 240mm anti-submarine rocket launcher (36 rockets carried)
  • 2 × Type 726-4 18-tube decoy rocket launchers
Aircraft carried: 1 Kamov Ka-28 ‘Helix’ or Harbin Z-9C
Aviation facilities: hangar

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Export

Thailand

In Feb 2013, China offered to sell Thailand 3 customized 054A frigates (“054T”) for 30 billion Thai baht ($1 billion USD) total. However, in April 2013 it was reported that South Korea had won the Royal Thai navy’s frigate bid with 1 modified Gwanggaeto the Great-class destroyers at 13 billion Thai baht each.

Russia

In Early 2015, it was reported that Russia might consider buying 054A for its navy.

Malaysia

According to a news report at LIMA 2015, the Royal Malaysian Navy will buy the C28A corvette export variant of the Chinese multi-role warship.

Updated Jan 12, 2018

YJ-91 anti-radiation missile Aegis destroyer kille

In 2012, Voice of Russia published a report, stating in late 1990s, Russia exported KH-31P anti-radiation missiles to China. Soon afterwards, China imported the technology and was licensed to produce such missiles. It gave the missile the codename YJ-91. Before that, China tried to produce an anti-radiation missile on its own but failed.

The new anti-radiation missile produced with licensed Russian technology becomes Chinese air force’s major weapon in breaking through enemy air defense. China has specially developed special fighter jets to carry it. For example, China’s J-8HG attack fighter-bomber. Source tiananmenstremendousachievements.wordpress.com

kh_31p

The Kh-31P high-speed medium-range “air-to-surface” guided missile with changeable passive radar homing heads is designed to engage radars operating within long- and medium-range air defence missile systems, as well as other ground- and sea-based radars of different purpose, in the corresponding frequency band.

The Kh-31P missile can be efficiently launched either independently or in salvo, in fair and adverse weather conditions, to engage radar targets of opportunity or previously disclosed ones.

The missile can be equipped with changeable homing heads operating in coresponding frequency bands used by modern continuous-wave and pulsed radars of surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery systems.

The missile’s radar homing head ensures:

– target search and lock-on in the autonomous mode, or by receiving target designation data from carrier’s sensors with the missile on the aircraft suspension station;

– target tracking and missile guidance command generation.

It has a high explosive/fragmentation type of warhead.

Performance:

 Launch range envelope, km  15-110
 Launch altitude envelope, m  100-15,000
 Launch speed envelope, km/h (Mach number)  600-1,250
 (0,65-1,5)
 Max missile cruising speed, m/s  1,000
 Warhead weight, kg  87
 Missile launch weight, kg  about 600
 Missile dimensions, m:
 length  4,7
 body diameter  0,36
 wing span  0,914

Source ktrv.ru

*Note techincal data is of Kh-31P

cxd9ialvqaabgvzJ-10 BC Adopted for Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) YJ-91 Anti-Radiation Missile  (2).jpg

Chengdu J-10: Details

Xian JH-7 Fighter Bomber: Details