Ejder Yalçin, a new member of the Ejder family of vehicles, is a 4×4 tactical armoured combat vehicle designed and manufactured by Nurol Makina. Design studies on the vehicle were initiated in the last quarter of 2012 and a pre-prototype of the base vehicle was exhibited at the IDEF in 2013. Mass production of the vehicle began in May 2014.
Ejder Yalçin offers high-ballistic protection and can be used in diverse missions, including reconnaissance, command and control, and homeland security applications. The vehicle is primarily intended for use by Turkish military and security forces.
The Ejder Yalçin vehicle features a V-shaped hull design, integrating floating floor plates and blast mitigation seating to provide protection against mines and improvised explosive devices (IED). The vehicle features an ergonomic and comfortable seating layout, which can accommodate up to 11 personnel.
The vehicle features easy-to-enter and exit door configurations for the crew. Other optional equipment includes a rescue winch, day or night-vision systems, rear ramp, and explosion suppression and fire-fighting systems for the crew compartment.
Image: takvim.com.trImage: takvim.com.tr
The vehicle can be reconfigured as a reconnaissance, command and control, internal security, ambulance, chemical biological radiological nuclear (CBRN) vehicle, weapon carrier and combat vehicle, so that it meets the multiple mission requirements of the users.
Explosive Disposal Vehicle (EOD)
Border surveillance & Security Vehicle
Air Defense Vehicle
Command & Control Vehicle
CBRN Surveillance Vehicle
Personal Carrier Vehicle
Mine/IED Detection – Clearance Vehicle
The base vehicle has a length of 5.42m, width of 2.48m and height of 2.3m. Its gross weight ranges between 12,000kg and 14,000kg, and payload carrying capacity is up to 4t.
Armament and self-protection
The vehicle is equipped with optionally integrated, remote-controlled and manually-operated weapon stations. It is fitted with two gun ports on the roof. The optional armament mounted on the vehicle includes 7.62mm and 12.7mm machine guns, a 25mm anti-aircraft gun and a 40mm automatic grenade launcher.
SARP Remote Controlled Stabilized Weapon System
ASELSAN SARP Remote Controlled Stabilized Weapon System, tactical land vehicles and fixed installations in the air and land and used threats against asymmetric threats.
Operational requirements in accordance with the system can be installed in different weapons. Day and night surveillance, target acquisition and provide follow-up opportunity SARP System bears the safety of the operating personnel with advanced remote command capabilities to the highest level.
12.7mm Machine Gun
7.62mm Machine Gun
40mm Automatic Grenade Launcher
Weight & Dimensions
Top of the platform : <165kg (armor, except for arms and ammunition)
Six platforms : <50kg
Height : <70cm
Rise : -30 ° / + 60 °
Side : nx360 °
Turret Maximum Speed
Rise :> 60 ° / sec
Side :> 60 ° / sec
Maximum acceleration of Turret
Rise :> 90 ° / s2
Side :> 90 ° / s2
And moving target shooting on the move
Day / night vision
Automatic target tracking
Computer-based fire control functions
last warning Ammunition
compliance with MIL-STD-810F for environmental conditions
EMI / EMC compliance with MIL-STD-461E
Integration with external sensors and command and control systems
Performance Rate of FireSingle shot Sustained: Less than 40 rds/min, in bursts of five to seven rounds Rapid: More than 40 rds/min, fired in bursts of five to seven rounds Cyclic: 450-550 rds/min Maximum Range7,440 yd (6,800 m) Maximum Effective RangeArea Target: 2,000 yd (1,830 m) Point Target (single shot): 1,640 yd (1,500 m)
The MK19 Mod3 40mm Grenade Machine Gun was first developed by the Navy in the early 1960’s. TACOM-ARDEC has since suggested modifications to this system which has enabled the Army to deploy the MK19 in the harsh environments encountered during world-wide operations and has therefore enhanced its performance. The MK19 firing rate is over 350 grenades per minute and it is effective to ranges of over 2200 meters. The system was deployed in Southwest Asia during Operation Desert Storm and devastated enemy infantry.
*Note for example only maybe any other model
Manufacturer: Saco Defense Industries Length: 43.1 inches (109.47 centimeters) Weight: Gun: 72.5 pounds (32.92 kilograms) Cradle (MK64 Mod 5): 21.0 pounds (9.53 kilograms) Tripod: 44.0 pounds (19.98 kilograms) Total: 137.5 pounds (62.43 kilograms) Muzzle velocity: 790 feet (240.69 meters) per second Bore diameter: 40mm Maximum range: 2200 meters Maximum effective range: 1600 meters Rates of fire: Cyclic: 325-375 rounds per minute Rapid: 60 rounds per minute Sustained: 40 rounds per minute
The V-shaped hull of Ejder Yalçin offers a high level of protection against IEDs, mines and ballistic threats. The ballistic protection can be further increased with the integration of add-on armour, where an optional cage armour is offered for protection against rocket attacks. The vehicle can be further fitted with smoke grenade launchers for increased survivability.
Ejder Yalçin is fitted with a Cummins engine which produces a maximum power of 300hp at 2,100rpm. The engine is coupled to fully automatic transmission with hydrodynamic torque converter.
The vehicle features a three-speed gear box and a power-assisted steering. It is also fitted with a secondary emergency steering pump that operates in the event of engine failure.
Ejder Yalçin has a maximum speed of 110km/h and a cruising range of 600km. It can accelerate from 0km/h to 40km/h within six seconds. It comes with a double wishbone, and independent suspension system for all wheels. It is equipped with latitudinal and longitudinal differential locking systems as well as large diameter and wide tires. The central tire inflation system regulates the pressure according to the terrain conditions.
The vehicle has a wheel base of 3,100mm and ground clearance of 400mm. It has the capability to climb obstacles of 0.5m, can cross 1.1m-wide trenches and ford a depth of 0.7m. It has a gradient of 70% and a side slope of 30%. The turning radius of the vehicle is 7.5m.
Thailand needs to turn its crisis into a situation of opportunity. It is important that Thailand accelerate its economic growth, assuring more economic stability in the long term.
Therefore, a large-scale infrastructure project is key to instigate significant change in the Thai economy:
The Kra Canal Project, during the first ten years following the construction of the canal itself, will be able to create around 3 million jobs. 30,000 persons will be employed in the management of the Canal. Within 5 years, 150,000 persons is expected to be employed in the development of industrial projects in the area, of these will be middle and high level echelons. This number will increase to 400,000 within 10 years. Once the Special Economic Zone is set up, there will be employment for at least one million workers. In reality, the multiple spin-off effect of this large-scale infrastructure project is likely to create employment on all levels for approximately 3 million people. Within 10-20 years following the opening of the Kra Canal, workers that would have been employed in the first phase of the Kra Canal project would naturally act as the catalyst for change in the Thai labor force, changing it from an unqualified and backward labor force to one with high qualifications, from an uneducated work force to one with a high level of education.
The national revenue for the country would be higher because of the ability to collect more taxes from the industrial sector and investments in the Special Economic Zone. As a result, increase in government revenue would necessarily follow. It is interesting to note that the 70% of the national budget that is used to pay monthly salaries of civil servants would drop to only 30%. While the other 70% of the national budget would be used to finance the development of the country, the reversal of the present situation.
Thailand would become more competitive thanks to added value coming from maritime cargo transportation. Thailand would become an important link in the international sea lane of communication. Logistics costs would drop to the level of 8% of the GDP, a rate similar to that of developed countries.
Develop national competitiveness in 4 areas
4.1 Economic Performance
4.2 Efficiency of the Public Sector
4.3 Efficiency of the Business Sector
4.4 Efficiency of the Infrastructures
Development of Special Economic Zone within the Kra Canal Zone would
lead to a major reform in the administrative system, creating a new administration within the present system. Once recognised as workable, it is likely that the new administrative system would be brought in to bring about reform in other parts of the country, a major reform that would be there to stay. This would be change based on reason and without conflict and violence.
By investing in the Kra Canal project in order to bring about modern reform in Thailand, the country’s educational system would be forced to undergo major change to upgrade the general educational level of the Thai population. There would lead to a generation change, a new generation of Thai people, modern and internationalized world citizens at the same time.
Published Wed, Jan 27, 2016 | Tim Maverick, Senior Correspondent
t was an idea that first emerged in the 17th century; but it may take 21st century technology to turn it into reality.
The idea is to build a canal across the less-than-30 mile Kra Isthmus in Thailand – connecting the Andaman Sea in the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea.
The logic supporting the Thai Canal, or Kra Canal, is solid – ships would no longer have to go the long way around Singapore, through the pirate-infested chokepoint known as the Strait of Malacca.
Shippers could shave off three or four days from their travel time, translating to a $300,000 savings on the cost of a 100,000 ton cargo ship voyage.
More than 15 million barrels of oil per day – about 17% of the world’s daily production – are transported through the Strait alone.
The Kra Canal would also alleviate congestion. The Strait can currently accommodate about 122,000 ships. However, by 2025, roughly 140,000 ships will be plying the waters.
Delay, Delay, Delay
So why hasn’t this project moved forward yet?
One reason is money. The canal is estimated to cost at least $20 to $30 billion to build.
And of course, there’s the matter of complicated Thai politics. Some in Thailand say the canal will divide the nation into two countries.
Then there’s the debate over how the economic benefits of the canal will be divvied up.
From a practical viewpoint, there are 13 proposed routes through the Kai Isthmus as to where the canal would actually go. And no surprise – neighboring countries, Singapore and Malaysia, who want to keep benefiting from the ship traffic through the Strait, are strongly opposed to the canal.
China’s Maritime Silk Road
Overlaying this is the geopolitical battle between China and the United States. for influence in the region.
China would like to make the proposed canal a part of its Maritime Silk Road. This was suggested in the ambitious plan unveiled in 2013 by Chinese President Xi Jinping – a plan to create the modern-day equivalent of the historic Silk Road. The plan aimed at having new land and water routes tying China to trading partners all the way to Europe.
The China-led Asian Infrastructure Bank is the perfect financing tool for such a project. I expect the project to get a push, as China needs to play a little catch-up.
In neighboring Vietnam, the government has given the go-ahead for a new $2.5 billion deep water port – the Hon Khoai Port – to be built in Vietnam’s southern most province, Ca Mau. It’s believed that 85% of the funding for it will come from the U.S. Export-Import Bank and that the project will be led by American engineering giant Bechtel.
The Vietnamese port could stand on its own merits as a port for coal. But half of its berths are slated for non-coal items. Ironically, that means it will absolutely flourish with the building of a China-backed Kra Canal. See the map below.
Will It Be Built?
There was a supposed agreement this past summer between Thailand’s Asia Union Group and China-led China-Thailand Kra Infrastructure & Development to build the canal. The Chinese company is already building other infrastructure in Thailand.
But within days, there were denials of any deal. Thailand likely backed away under intense diplomatic pressure from the United States.
But sooner or later, the Thai government will give a China-led project the thumbs-up. The economic opportunity to become a regional maritime center, surpassing Singapore and Malaysia, is going to be too good to pass up. And China is patient enough to wait for Thailand’s approval.
Chinese ships to be deployed at Gwadar: Pak navy official
Sat, 26 Nov 2016-09:16am , Karachi , PTI
Pakistan’s plan could be alarming for India
China would deploy its naval ships along with Pakistan Navy to safeguard the strategic Gwadar port and trade routes under the $46 billion China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, a navy official here has said, shedding light on a plan likely to alarm India. China and Pakistan are currently building the nearly 3,000-km-long economic corridor linking Pakistan’s Gwadar port on the Arabian Sea with Xinjiang to improve connectivity between the two countries.
The move would open up a new and cheaper cargo route for transporting oil to China as well as export of Chinese goods to the Middle East and Africa.
A Pakistan Navy official said the role of maritime forces has increased since the country has made the Gwadar port operational and speeded up economic activities under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).
“China would also deploy its naval ships in coordination with Pakistan Navy to safeguard the port and trade under the CPEC,” the unnamed official was quoted as saying by The Express Tribune.
In the past, China has shied away from saying that it plans to deploy its naval ships in Gwadar, a move which could raise alarm in the US and India.
Experts feel that CPEC and the Gwadar port would enhance the military capabilities of both China and Pakistan, and make it possible for the Chinese Navy to easily access the Arabian Sea.
Having a naval base in Gwadar could allow Chinese vessels to use the port for repair and maintenance of their fleet in the Indian Ocean region. Such a foothold would be the first overseas location offering support to the Chinese navy for future missions. Pakistani defence officials are keen for the Chinese navy to build up its presence in the Indian Ocean and the Arabia sea, mainly to counterbalance India’s formidable naval force.
The Pakistani official also said that the Navy is considering buying super-fast ships from China and Turkey for its special squadron to be deployed at the Gwadar port for the security purpose. “A squadron may have four to six warships,” he said on the sidelines of the on-going defence exhibition, IDEAS 2016, at the Karachi Expo Centre.
The ships would be bought soon keeping in view their immediate need in the fleet, he said, adding that two defence ships have already been deployed at Gwadar. Another official of the naval force added that Pakistan has kicked off the process of establishing the largest shipyard of the region in Gwadar. A similar ship-building project is being deliberated at Port Qasim in Karachi.
The two advanced shipyards would design and develop ships and other security equipment for Pakistan Navy. “The existing shipyard, the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation, lacks capacity to meet new requirements of the force. Its (PNSC) performance, however, would improve in competition with the two under consideration,” he said.
The China Pakistan Economic Corridor is a harbinger of good fortune for the region. It promises to boost Pakistan’ss economy and provide employment and business opportunities for locals, foreign investors can be attracted to invest along the long route of the corridor.
The China Pakistan Economic Corridor is of huge significance, it runs through one of the most important and vital geostrategic locations in South Asia. Gwadar port is one of China,s String of Pearls planned by China in Central, South and South East Asia to expand its political and economic influence and get these regions in its grip.
The US has its pivot to Asia, to contain China’s economic and military expansion in the Asia-Pacific. The US allies are India, Japan, Indonesia and Singapore in its endeavour to ‘slay the Chinese dragon.’
In this tense scenario, Pakistan emerges as a major player of great value to both China and the U.S., it has the potential to balance Sino-US rivalry and expand trade in this region.
China makes huge gains once Gwadar port is fully functioning, its previous shipping route passed through the Strait of Malacca, taking 45 days to reach destinations in Europe via the Middle East. Once the CPEC reaches completion, it will take Chinese shipments just 10 days to reach the same places.
The Malacca route also carried risks of a blockade by United States Pacific Command if hostilities peak so the CPEC is a dream come true for China in all its aspects. A major portion of CPEC is reserved for power projects, extensive road networks and major infrastructure. The three trade routes are all inter-connected, starting from the Arabian Sea up till the Himalayas, they have inter-linked transportation.
Pakistan will also make immediate gains from its membership of the SCO, of which it became a member in its summit this year. This year it has signed a series of landmark agreements with China, worth an estimated $46 billion, to secure investment for the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) which is a network of roads, railways and pipelines that connect Gwadar port in Pakistan’s southern province of Baluchistan to Kashgar in China’s western province of Xinjiang.
It as an integral part of China’s ambitious Silk Road and Economic Belt initiative, it is endorsed by the SCO and will highlight Pakistan’s role as a vital regional hub in the economic development of Central Asian states which have strong presence in the SCO.
The CPEC connects the whole region and gives Pakistan focal importance for world trade, it holds promise to make Pakistan an economic power in the world.
Gwadar port will directly affect Dubai port, which will lose 70% business once Gwadar becomes fully functional. It will also affect Chahbahar port, as Gwadar is the worlds largest deepwater sea port where ships of large tonnage can also anchor.
The CPEC has met some opposition at home and abroad, mainly because it destroys business for some countries. For some other countries, CPEC is like a bad dream as China finally finds access to warm waters and starts encircling India to begin with. At home, some sycophants have been creating a brouhaha regarding the CPEC, but in fact instead of wasting time they should help find more investors, CPEC offers unlimited opportunities and everyone can benefit.
A proper spanner in the works was when suddenly this same coterie started saying the route had been changed to mostly within Punjab. The government reiterated that no change had taken place, after the whole anti- CPEC club went wild on print and television media.
It is being feared that Chinese products and goods will flood Pakistani markets due to heightened accessibility, Pakistan only needs to keep good quality standards to continue its trade unhindered.
The more competition the better, Pakistan is benefiting much more from the CPEC. It will generate thousands of jobs and revenue worth billions of dollars for both countries, only an enemy would want Pakistan to lose that.
Publications with Western or Indian leanings have been spreading pure vitriol and disinformation against this project, even propagating the final assessment that the project would never materialise, or of it did, never subsist or survive.
Before this, rumours had been spread that Gwadar would never be developed, today it has already been functioning some months. Indian Prime Minister almost asked the Chinese directly not to go ahead with CPEC as India hated the very idea and found it ‘unacceptable’, while on a visit to China. He was refused pointblank by the Chinese, after that India must be planning more insurgencies and buying more proxies.
China is working on a very large scale, building Gwadar city and bringing state of the art speed-trains and motorways. Chinese Ambassador Sun Weidong recently reiterated China’s support to the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and said that the project will be completed at every cost.
Just some weeks ago, General Raheel Sharif visited Gwadar and drove down the CPEC himself, parts of it are complete. He expressed the resolve that the China Pakistan Economic Corridor would be completed at any cost.
There has been some concern regarding security of Gwadar specially. A special security force is being formed to ensure smooth operations of Chinese development projects in Pakistan by the military.
“A special security division comprising army battalions and Civil Armed Forces (CAF) wings (is) being raised as a dedicated force for Pakistan-China economic projects,” said Maj-Gen Asim Saleem Bajwa on Twitter, he is Director General Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR), the military’s media wing.
He further added that the special division, to be commanded by a military officer of Maj-Gen rank, would have nine army battalions and six wings of CAFs to start with.
In the past, an insurgency had been funded by India and the some arab countries to stop the construction of Gwadar, lately it has greatly diminished as nearly a thousand rebels have given up arms and vowed to mend their ways. This year, Baluchistan province was way ahead of the other provinces in celebrating Pakistans Independence Day, special events took place for three days, rallies were taken out.
Foreign countries used these rebels to scare off investors and developers who were working with the Pakistani government,such as the Chinese, to sabotage Gwadar. They misquided the rebels that the demographics of Baluchistan would be upset with the advent of people from all over the world, now they have understood that prosperity awaits them.
The CPEC is a holistic, comprehensive package of competitive economic initiatives from China, just the energy projects once initiated will kick-start an industrial boom in Pakistan. $15.5bn worth of coal, wind, solar and hydropower projects will come on-line by 2017 and add 10,400MW of electricity to Pakistan’s national grid, a $44m fiber-optic cable will also be built.
A collaboration in space technology has also been announced very recently between Pakistan and China under the Karamay declaration of the CPEC. Bilateral collaboration on space technology will take Pakistan-China relations to new heights, joint space missions will take place.
The CPEC is the gamechanger that Pakistan has waited for since quite some time, yet Pakistan needs to secure its own national interests first and achieve a balance.
We have to balance relations with both China and the West instead of relying on one lobby and rejecting the other. Pakistan has to use a lot of diplomacy and balance China, Russia and the U.S., it should explore and utilise all its options.
In this aspect itself, CPEC will prove to be a gamechanger, not just for Pakistan but for the world, in a way the CPEC could bridge the gap between China and America specially.
CPEC should complete its short term goals pretty soon, the long- term goals will be realised once Pakistan discovers its true potential and emerges as a power to reckon with, both economically and militarily.
The Kolkata-class guided missile destroyers are the new stealth destroyers being built by Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) for the Indian Navy, under Project 15A. The destroyers are preceded by Type 15 Delhi-class destroyers and succeeded by the Project 15B destroyers.
The Indian Government approved the construction of three Kolkata-class destroyers in May 2000. The first steel was cut for the lead ship in class, INS Kolkata, in March 2003. Her keel was laid in September 2003.
INS Kolkata (D63) – Image: indiatimes.com
The ship was launched in March 2006 at Mazagon Dock, Mumbai, and delivered to the Indian Navy in July 2014. The vessel was commissioned in August 2014. The Indian Navy successfully test-fired a BrahMos supersonic cruise missile from the INS Kolkata destroyer using the UVLM launcher in February 2015.
The keel of INS Kochi was laid in October 2005. It was launched in September 2009 and commissioned in September 2015.
INS Kochi (D64) – Image: indiatimes.in
The last vessel in the class, INS Chennai, was laid in February 2006. It was launched in April 2010 and is due for commissioning in late-2016. The project has been delayed due to the complex warship building process.
INS Chennai commissioned: Indian Navy gets another indigenous Kolkata-class guided missile destroyer:Here
INS Chennai (D65) – Image: financialexpress.com
In January 2011, the MDL was awarded a follow on order for the construction of four P-15B destroyers. The P-15B ship will retain the hull form of Kolkata-class and will feature a stealthier flush deck and advanced weapon systems.
Project 15B Visakhapatnam-class destroyer
Mazagon Dock Limited
₹29,340 crore (US$4 billion)
Stealth guided missile destroyer
7,400 t (7,300 long tons; 8,200 short tons)
163 m (535 ft)
17.4 m (57 ft)
6.5 m (21 ft)
Combined gas and gas system: Twin Zorya M36E gas turbine plants with 4 × DT-59 reversible gas turbines and 2 × RG-54 gearboxes
2 × Bergen/GRSE KVM-diesel engines, 9,900 hp (7,400 kW) each
4 × 1 MWe Wärtsilä WCM-1000 generator sets driving Cummins KTA50G3 engines and Kirloskar 1 MV AC generators
In excess of 30 knots (56 km/h)
4,000 nautical miles (7,400 km; 4,600 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph)
Initially in 2008, the total program cost with long-term spare parts was expected to cost ₹3,800 crore (US$560 million), but the construction costs escalated about 225%, and by 2011, cost of the program became ₹11,662 crore (US$1.7 billion), with each ship costing ₹3,900 crore (US$580 million). The Defense Minister A. K. Antony cited the causes being the delay in supply of warship-grade steel by Russia, increase in costs of Russian specialists due to inflation during the build period, wage revision due from October 2003 and delay in finalisation of cost of weapons and sensors.
Conceptualised by the Indian Navy, the detailed design phase for the class was completed by MDL. Kolkata-class is a follow-on model of the Delhi-class and is fitted with modern weapons and sensor systems. The propulsion system of the Delhi-class was also retained with minor upgrades. Most of the systems integrated in the ships are designed and built in India.
INS KochiINS Kochi – Image: ndtv.com
The destroyers are also equipped with an action information system and an atmospheric control system. The modern stealth destroyers demonstrate superior anti-surface warfare (ASuW) capabilities. The vessel has an overall length of 163m, a beam of 17.4m and a draft of 6.5m. The full load displacement of the ship is 6,800t.
The 16-cell universal vertical launcher module (UVLM) fitted on the ship can launch BrahMos missiles.
There are two vertical launching systems (VLS) for Barak SAM (surface-to-air missile).
16 x Universal vertical launcher module (UVLM)
The BrahMos PJ-10 is distinguished by its reported supersonic speed of between Mach 2.0-2.8, depending on the cruising altitude used. In addition to making it difficult to intercept, this speed also imparts a greater strike power. In addition, the BrahMos is equipped with stealth technology designed to make it less visible to radar and other detection methods. It has an inertial navigation system (INS) for use against ship targets, and an INS/Global Positioning System for use against land targets. Terminal guidance is achieved through an active/passive radar.
Originated From: Russia and India Possessed By: Russia, India, Vietnam Alternate Names: PJ-10 Class: Supersonic Cruise Missile Length: 8.0-8.2 m Diameter: 0.67 m Launch Weight: 2,200-3,000 kg Payload: 200-300 kg Warhead: HE, submunitions Propulsion: Liquid-fueled ramjet Range: 300-500 km, 290 km export version Basing: Ground-launched, Air-launched, Sub-launched, Ship-launched Status: Operational
The ship’s main air-defence armament is composed of two 4×8-cell vertical launching systems (VLS) allowing for up to 32 Barak 8 (medium-long range) air-defence missiles.
Barak 8 is an Indian-Israeli surface-to-air missile (SAM), designed to defend against any type of airborne threat including aircraft, helicopters, anti-ship missiles, and UAVs as well as cruise missiles and combat jets at a range of 70-90 Kms. Barak 8 as “an advanced, long-range missile defense and air defense system” with its main features being:
Barak 8 (the Hebrew word for Lightning) also known as LR-SAM is an Indian-Israeli surface-to-air missile (SAM), designed to defend against any type of airborne threat including aircraft, helicopters, anti-ship missiles, and UAVs as well as cruise missiles and combat jets out to a maximum range of 70 km, however, reports suggest the missile has been increased to a maximum range of 90 km following “range upgrade discussions” between India and Israel during November 2014. Some news agencies have referred to the missiles range at 100 km. Both maritime and land-based versions of the system exist.
Barak 8 was jointly developed by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), India’s Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), Israel’s Administration for the Development of Weapons and Technological Infrastructure, Elta Systems, Rafael and other companies. Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) will produce the missiles. The Israeli Navy has commenced equipping its Sa’ar 5 corvettes with the system, the first re-fitted vessel being the INS Lahav. The Sa’ar 4.5 flotilla will be next for the upgrade. The first 32 missile array will be fitted on the Indian Navy stealth guided-missile destroyer INS Kolkata (D63).
India Successfully Test Fires Surface-To-Air Missile Developed With Israel
Indian Navy had also successfully test launched the long range surface to air missile (LR-SAM). The test was undertaken on the Western Seaboard by INS Kolkata on December 30, 2015. These missiles would be inducted in all the three services after trials were completed.
Many Indian industries like BEL, L&T, BDL, and TATA group of companies besides other private industries have contributed to the development of a number of subsystems which have been put into use in this flight test, the official said. Source ndtv.com
BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile developed by BrahMos Aerospace, a joint venture between India-based Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Russia-based NPO Mashinostroyenia (NPOM).
BrahMos missile has a top speed of Mach 2.5 to Mach 2.8 and a maximum range of 290km.
Naval gun systems onboard the Indian destroyers
The main gun fitted forward is a 130mm gun (error it is a 76mm gun). Four AK-630 close-in weapon systems (CIWS) are being provided for close-in air defence. The AK-630 CIWS can defend the ship from incoming anti-ship missiles and other guided weapons. It has a rate of fire of 5,000 rounds a minute.
1 × 76 mm gun Oto Melara SRGM
Caliber: 3 inches / 76,2 mm Barrel lenght: 186 inches / 4,72 meters (= 62 caliber) Weight: 7900kg, empty (Super Rapid) Shell: 76 x 900 mm / 12,34 kilograms Elevation: – 15° to + 85° Traverse: 360° Rate of fire:Compact: 85 rpm / Super Rapid: selectable from single shot up to 120 rpm Muzzle Velocity: 925 m/s (1100 m/s – DART) Magazine: Compact: 80 rounds / SR: 85 rounds Range:
16 kilometers with standard ammunition
20 km with extended range ammunition
up to 40 km with VULCANO ammunition
– HE (high explosive) – 6,296kg / Range 16km / effective range 8km (4km vs. air targets at elev. 85°)
– MOM (multi-role OTO munition)
– PFF (pre-formed fragmentation) – anti-missile ammunition
– SAPOM (semi-armored piercing OTO munition) – 6,35kg / Range 16km
– SAPOMER (semi-armored piercing OTO munition, extended range) – Range 20km
– DART (driven ammunition reduced time of flight) – sub-calibre guided ammunition against multiple targets
(missiles and maneuvering targets at sea) 4,2kg in barrel / 3,5kg in flight / 660mm lenght / effective range >8km
– VULCANO (76mm unguided and guided extended range ammunition) – under development
The gun itself is a 6 barrel Gatling gun designated as AO-18. The barrels are in a single block, having exhaust-driven joint automatics. They are belt fed with a flat magazine in the AK-630 and a drum magazine in the AK-630M. These weapons form a part of a complete self-defense system called A-213-Vympel-A, which includes gun, radar, optical and TV control systems. A single MP-123 Vympel system can control two 30 mm guns or one 30 mm and one 57 mm gun. This system can engage air targets at ranges up to 4,000 m (4,400 yards) and surface targets at ranges up to 5,000 m (5,500 yards). The TV control system can detect MTB sized ships at the distance of 75 km (40 nm) and the fighter-size air targets at 7,000 m (7,600 yards). This system is completely automatic and does not require human supervision although it can be directed from optical control posts in case of damage or for firing on shore targets.
6 barrel Gatling gun AO-18
Date Of Design
Date In Service
AO-18 (for AK-630): under 452 lbs. (under 205 kg)
Gun Length oa
64.13 in (1.629 m)
63.78 in (1.620 m)
57.48 in (1.46 m)
Rate Of Fire
AK-630: 4,000 – 5,000 rounds per minute
Weight of Complete Round
1.834 – 1.839 lbs. (0.832 – 0.834 kg)
Projectile Types and Weights
HE-FRAG (OF-84) – 0.86 lbs. (0.39 kg)
FRAG tracer (OP-84) – 0.86 lbs. (0.39 kg)
HE-FRAG (OF-84) – 0.107 lbs. (0.0485 kg)
FRAG tracer (OP-84) – 0.026 lbs. (0.0117 kg)
Sensors / radar systems on the Kolkata-class guided missile destroyers
Kolkata-class is equipped with Thales LW-08 long range volume search radar, EL/M-2248 MF-STAR multimission radar and EL/M-2238 L-band STAR surveillance radar from Israel Aerospace Industries.
Thales LW-08 long range volume search radar
The LW08 is an operationally proven radar system. LW radars have been installed on board ships in several configurations.
All systems are provided with solid-state components, a TWT transmitter, a video extractor for automatic target tracking and built-in test equipment. Optionally a back-up solid state transmitter can be offered for reduced TWT use and improved performance in littoral environment. They are simple to operate and easy to maintain. IFF can be integrated by mounting an IFF antenna with interrogation path side-lobe suppression (ISLS) capability and by adding synchronized IFF interrogators.
Small missile : 100 km
Fighter aircraft : 230 km
Target speed : up to Mach 4
Surface targets : radar horizon
Minimum range : 2 km
Instrumented range : 135/270 km
Tracking capacity : 400
Type : horn-fed parabolic reflector
– horizontal : 2.2º
– vertical : cosec2 up to 40º
Polarization : linear/circular
Rotation speeds : 7.5 and 15 rpm
Type : TWT
Frequency : D-band
Frequency modes : fixed frequency and frequency agility
Transmission modes : full scan and sector transmission
LW.08 – (RAWL-2, LAR-2, Type 1022, SPQ-502) Radar
Role: Radar, Air Search, 2D Long-Range
Max Range: 333.4 km
EL/M-2248 MF-STAR multimission radar
INS Kolkata – Image: ibtimes.co.in
MF-STAR – Multi-function Surveillance, Track And Guidance Radar
The MF-STAR (ELM-2248) is a multi-function solid-state digital active phased array radar system for the new generation of naval platforms. The radar system delivers high quality situation picture and weapon support, under severe target/environmental conditions in the current and future naval arena. Incorporating advanced technology and robust system architecture, the MF-STAR employs multi-beam and pulse Doppler techniques as-well-as cutting edge ECCM techniques to extract low RCS targets from complex clutter and jamming environments. MF-STAR’s basic TR element digital output enables software only adaptive beam forming and mode variations to form a software defined radar. The MF-STAR antenna includes 4 active arrays in S-Band frequency. The hardware architecture and technology ensures high system availability, low maintenance and low life cycle cost. The MF-STAR incorporates a lightweight antenna that can be tailored to fit even relatively small ship sizes (corvettes and above).
Fast threat alert response time
Very high tracking update rate and accuracy for priority targets
Short search frame/TWS revisit time
Mid-course guidance of active/semi-active anti-air missiles
Illuminator enslavement for semi-active missiles
Automatic splash detection and measurement for gunnery support
Advanced beam forming techniques for ECCM
Scalable, modular active solid-state phased array
High reliability and high availability
EL/M-2238 L-band STAR surveillance radar
The STAR is a fully coherent S-band pulse Doppler 3D multibeam and multimode search radar. The radar performs long range air surveillance combined with surface surveillance and, at the same time, provides fast detection and automatic threat alert of air targets with an extremely low false alarm rate.
Long range detection
Missile detection and designation/indication
Automatic threat alert
Automatic track-while-scan (TWS)
Anti-air missile (AAM) weapon systems designation and support
Surface gunnery engagement support
Pulse Doppler coverage
Simultaneous air and surface channels
3D multibeam elevation coverage
Very low false alarm rate
Integral IFF antenna
Cost effective solution for medium size ships and up
HUMSA-NG is the third generation indigenous, ship borne, hull mounted, Sonar system designed by Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory, DRDO, Kochi and productionised by Bharat Electronics, Bangalore. HUMSA-NG is a state of the art Active cum Passive Integrated Ship Sonar system designed to be installed on a variety of naval surface platforms such as Frigates, Destroyers, ASW Corvettes and other classes of ships. Source drdo.gov.in
HUMSA-NG is an advanced Active cum Passive integrated sonar system proposed to be fitted on a wide variety of Indian Navy platforms such as the Project 17, Project 15A and Project 28 class ships. HUMSA-NG is an advanced version of the existing HUMSA sonar presently fitted on P16, P15, Ranjit and Talwar Class of ships.
The HUMSA (NG) is designed for enhancing the system performance, reliability and maintainability employing the following broad principles:
Sub systems / interfaces based on open standards architecture
Modular hardware / software blocks
Standard back planes for simple and reliable inter-connection
Efficient packaging of electronics.
Efficient chilled air-cooling arrangements for the cabinets
Extensive facilities for Fault Detection & Fault Localization/ maintenance support.
The Human Machine Interface (HMI) for the HUMSA (NG) is through dual console re-configurable user- friendly displays manned by two operators and requiring minimum operator intervention. In addition to the operating consoles HUMSA (NG] system a workstation to provide auxiliary functions like classificatioaid, simulator functions and recording facility, etc. The system also shares the common display console(s), ESI, and video recording facilities.
The sonar is capable of simultaneous operation in active and passive modes. It is capable of detecting, localizing, classifying and tracking sub-surface targets in both active and passive modes.
The system provides simultaneous long-range detection in active and passive modes. The sonar is capable of localization and automatic tracking of up to eight targets in both active and passive modes.
The sonar integrates the operation of the UWT and XBT systems. The UWT functions are controlled from the main sonar console. The data received from the XBT is processed and presented on the workstation and also displayed on the sonar console.
The sonar provides target classification facility with advanced classification features in passive mode of operation.
The system is integrated with FCS systems such as IAC MOD ‘C and CAIO for exchange of relevant information. The sonar provides interface to the torpedo defence system to provide raw data for TD processing. Interfaces are also provided to obtain other ship house holding data such as course, speed, roll, pitch and GPS data.
Hull / Bow mounted single array medium range, low frequency SONAR system
Cylindrical transducer array to permit panoramic search capability
Electronic Beam tilt and Beam Stabilization capability.
Dual frequency of operation
Simultaneous active/passive search and track capability
Automatic target tracking to a maximum of 8 targets in both end Passive modes with Map overlay.
Advanced detection and classification features.
In built simulator and health monitoring facility.
In built facility to record and replay the raw & video data.
Standardized direct digital output for external systems.
HUS-003 – Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 29.6 km
Nagin active towed array sonar
A Nagin active towed array sonar and a bow-mounted sonar HUMSA-NG (hull-mounted sonar array – new generation) are carried for sub-surface surveillance.To protect against anti-ship missiles coming from multiple directions, the ship carries the Elbit Systems Deseaver MK-II decoy control and launching system. Source nyanglish.com
The Kolkata-class has a flight deck and enclosed hangar to embark up to two medium-lift helicopters such as HAL Dhruv advanced light helicopter (ALH) and AgustaWestland Sea King helicopter.
HAL Dhruv advanced light helicopter (ALH)
The HAL Dhruv (Advanced Light Helicopter) is a twin-engined fourteen-seat medium utility helicopter produced by the Indian manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).
The ship is equipped with Elbit Systems Deseaver MK II decoy control and launching system. Deseaver can launch decoys against anti-ship missiles coming from different directions.
‘Kavach’ chaff decoy system
INS Chennai comes equipped with ‘Kavach’ chaff decoy system. It is also fitted with ‘Mareech’ torpedo decoy system for defence against torpedoes. Both of these decoy systems have been developed indigenously. Source financialexpress.com
KAVACH MOD-II CHAFF ROCKET LAUNCHER
The KAVACH MOD-II system is designed to counter the threat of various anti-ship missiles by using chaff decoys. The system provides soft kill defense in a three-layered defense scheme.
Multi barrel chaff rocket launcher of Long Range and Short Range .
Trainable limits – ± 180 degrees at the rate of 60 degrees per second (max).
Elevatable limits � 0 to 60 degrees at the rate of 60 degrees per second (max).
Configuration of launcher – 4 x 4 barrels.
Firing selection of rockets � Auto and Manual.
Modes of Operation � Confusion, Distraction and Seduction.
Compensation for Pitch, Roll and Yaw.
Accepting, analyzing and prioritizing up to 5 threats.
The combined gas and gas (COGAG) propulsion system integrates twin Zorya M36E gas turbine plant. Four DT-59 reversible gas turbines drive the two propellers via two RG-54 gearboxes.
Ukrainian Zorya Production Association M36E gas turbine systems, producing more than 64,000 HP. The M36 gas turbine system compromises four DT-59 reversible gas turbine grouped in two pairs, driving two propellers through two RG-54 gearboxes. There will be 4 separate Russia-made gas turbine electrical generators, two in each engine room. Fresh air for the turbine will be drawn through two large stacks, one after the bridge superstructure and one aft. Source network54.com
DT-59 reversible gas turbine
UGT1 6 000R
D T5 9
GTE Power, kW
1 655 0
3 0 0
The specific fuel consumption of gas (Hu = 8555 kcal / Nm 3 ), Nm 3 / (kWh)
Specific consumption of fuel oil (Hu = 10 200 kcal / kg), kg / (kW h)
The total pressure ratio compressors
1 3 , 5
The gas flow rate at the outlet of GTD, kg / s
The gas temperature at the outlet of the gas turbine engine, a C
The two KVM diesel motors are provided by Bergen and Garden Reach. Four Wartsila WCM-1000 generators and Kirloskar AC generators supply onboard electricity. The propulsion system provides a maximum speed of 30kt.
When the system is used the roof of a train carriage opens and a missile is raised vertically into the air before it is fired at its target
BY CHRIS KITCHING
11:19, 23 NOV 2016
UPDATED11:57, 23 NOV 2016
Russia is strengthening its military arsenal by bringing back “nuclear trains” which can launch intercontinental missiles that are hidden in carriages.
Plans for the Barguzin “railway-based combat rocket system” are moving to the next stage as escalating tensions between Russia and Nato countries have sparked fears of a new war.
Military sources told Russian news agencies that the trains will be able to carry up to six Yars or Yars-M thermonuclear ballistic missiles and launchers.
Once the system is fully operational the roof of a carriage will open and a missile will be raised vertically into the air before it is fired at its target.
Plans for the mobile missile system were announced around two years ago, and early testing has been hailed as a success.
The missile trains could enter service as early as 2018 once further tests are completed.
A source told Moscow-based Interfax that the early tests were conducted at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in north-western Russia two weeks ago.
The source said: “They were fully successful, paving the way for the start of flight tests.”
Flight tests are likely to begin in 2017, the source added.
Last year the government-owned daily newspaper Rossiyskaya Gazeta reported that the trains could travel up to 600 miles a day and be hidden in tunnels so they couldn’t be detected by planes or satellites.
Colonel General Sergei Karakayev, commander of Russia’s Strategic Missile Forces, previously told the country’s media that the Barguzin system would be far better than its predecessor in terms of accuracy, range and missiles.
He said the system could remain in service until 2040.
The Barguzin system is based on a similar Cold War-era system which could launch RT-23 Molodets missiles from a silo or train carriage which looked like a refrigerator car.
Twelve trains could carry three missiles each and were stationed in the Kostroma, Perm and Krasnoyarsk regions.
Production in Ukraine stopped after the Soviet Union broke apart in 1991. The silo-based missiles were deactivated a few years later and the last of the rail-based missiles were withdrawn from service in Russia in 2005.
Meanwhile, Russia and President Vladimir Putin have been accused of stoking tensions after moving anti-ship missiles to disputed Pacific islands off Japan and Kaliningrad, which borders Nato countries Lithuania and Poland.
The Type 054A (Nato reporting name: Jiangkai-II) Class of missile frigates are being built by Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard and Huangpu Shipyard for the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN).
The new-generation multi-mission frigate, derived from the Type 054 (Jiangkai Class), integrates advanced weapons and sensor systems. The first frigate in class, Xuzhou (530), was commissioned into service in January 2008 and the last ship is scheduled to enter service in 2015.
Type 054 (Jiangkai I)
马鞍山/ Ma’anshan (525) Type 054 – Image: jeffhead.com
The Type 054 (NATO Codename Jiangkai I) frigate is a Chinese multi-role warship that were commissioned in the People’s Liberation Army Navy Surface Force in 2005. They superseded the Type 053H3 frigates. Two ships, 525 Ma’anshan, and 526 Wenzhou, were completed before production switched to the improved Type 054A frigate.
China offered the sale of three Type 054A frigates to Thailand in 2013, but lost to South Korea, which offered its modified Gwanggaeto the Great-class destroyers.
A slightly modified version of the Type 054A has been promoted by Dalian China Shipbuilding and Offshore International (CSOC) for export to Pakistan and Thailand, as well as potentially Bangladesh and Algeria. Pakistan became China’s first customer for the frigates: in 2005 China and Pakistan signed a contract for four Chinese-built Type 054A frigates that included some modifications specified by the Pakistani Navy. The new frigate model is called the “F-22P,” and one was recently commissioned in Karachi in April 2013. Apparently three of the four ships were built in China, and the fourth is being constructed in Pakistan after China transferred the technology needed to build the ship.
While the Chinese courted the Thai Navy heavily and reportedly came close to selling three frigates to Thailand, the story ended with Bangkok ultimately choosing South Korea’s Daewoo as a more reliable and cost-effective option for the frigate purchase (the Chinese price was $255 million per frigate). This decision was made despite rumored pressure placed on the Thai Navy by Thailand’s executive branch to purchase a frigate from China. According to Thai media, several naval officers voiced concerns about the capacity and quality of frigates from China being lower than other options. Another complaint was that the ship’s steel structure is not durable.
According to Chinese sources, the weapon systems and radar on the export edition of the Type 054A are not exactly the same as the 054A currently in service in the PLAN. The export edition has a standard displacement of 3,800t, full load displacement 4,200t, length 136m, and height 8.6m. It can navigate on the sea for 90 days and nights, navigation range 4,000nm at a speed of 18 knots. It needs an operating crew of 160 and is powered by 4 diesel engines. This model of the FFG has a maximum speed of 26 knots, which is supposed to be one of the weaknesses of 054A. Modern FFGs and DDGs normally have a navigation speed of 30 knots. Source chinasignpost.com
F-22P Zulfiquar-class frigate
PNS Saif (253)
The F-22P or Zulfiquar-class frigate (Urdu: ذوالفقار English: Sword class), is a general purpose frigate built by Pakistan under license from China for the Pakistan Navy (PN). They are an adaptation of the Type 053H3 frigates of China but include elements of the Type 054 frigates as well.
The first ship, PNS Zulfiquar, was handed over to the PN on 30 July 2009 and the second, PNS Shamsheer, on 23 January 2010. The third frigate, PNS Saif was commissioned on 15 Sep 2011. The fourth and last frigate of F-22P series, PNS Aslat was inducted on 17 April 2013
Much of the open source coverage of the Type 054A as it has participated in the above missions has been positive, as are assessments by Chinese analysts as well as those who have commanded or otherwise sailed on the ships. Major problems from the Gulf of Aden deployments are not mentioned in Chinese publications or by foreign analysts, who almost certainly would have noted and reported on major problems such as engine failures or other mechanical issues that would require towing back to port and lengthy repair.
Some of the areas cited by Chinese defense analysts where the Type 054A design is vastly improved over the Type 054 include:
–Improved air defense: The Type 054A’s medium-range HQ-16 VLS SAM system now provides area air defense from all engagement angles up to a range of 50km, a considerable upgrade from the limited engagement angle, short range SAM system of the Type 054.
–Improved reaction time against close-in threats: The Type 054’s four AK-630 close-in weapon systems (CIWS) were replaced with two Type 730 CIWS on the Type 054A, which has far better reaction time for anti-aircraft and anti-missile engagements.
–More capable radar systems: A Russian-derived MR331 Mineral-ME fire-control radar (for anti-ship missile and for the main gun as its secondary mission), capable of over the horizon targeting, has been installed on the Type 054A frigate.
–Better stealth design: The V-shaped hull design combined with stealth radar capabilities makes the 054A a quieter and stealthier ship.
While coverage of areas for improvement of the Type 054A is sparse, a few sources did note that improvements to the next iteration of stealth frigates, the Type 054B, would be focused on the electronic equipment used in the combat information command system as well as changes to the weapons configuration. This could indicate that the Type 054B will be equipped with new air defense and anti-ship missiles.
The upgraded capabilities of the Type 054A reflect its expanded mission sets and enhance the ability of the ship to defend itself against a range of threats that it might encounter in both the regional seas and missions abroad, to include potential conflicts with regional navies as well as pirates in distant waters. Given the Type 054A’s success to date and the strong likelihood that the PLAN will seek improved follow on variants, it is important to analyze the research, development, and procurement process that the PLAN used to bring the Type 054A into the fleet. Source chinasignpost.com
Type 054A design and features
The stealthy hull design of the Type 054A features sloped sides and reduced superstructure for minimising the radar cross section. Designed primarily for anti-air warfare, the frigates are also equipped to conduct anti-surface and anti-submarine warfare missions.
The Type 054A has a length of 134m and abeam of 16m. The standard displacement is 3,600t, while the full displacement is around 4,000t. Each vessel can complement a crew of 165.
–The lack of reporting to date in Chinese or foreign sources regarding engine failures or other major mechanical problems suggests that the Type 054A has recorded decent operational reliability in the six and a half years (and counting) that the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) has maintained its Gulf of Aden anti-piracy mission.
–While the Type 054A represents an exponential improvement in the quality and capability of the PLAN’s frigate force, it nonetheless remains a distinctly limited design, certainly in terms of its size and armament but most especially in terms of its electronics outfit. The Chinese appear to recognize this fact and view the 054A as an intermediary design intended to play a specific, limited role in fleet defense.
–Notwithstanding its physical shortcomings, the Type 054A has performed well handling lower intensity long-range mission In this regard, it has arguably surpassed the capabilities of the French Lafayette-class frigate that influenced its original design. Source chinasignpost.com
Type 054A missiles
The Type 054A is armed with HQ-16 medium-range surface-air missiles fired from 32-cell Vertical Launch System (VLS) developed by Luoyang Electro-Optics Technology Development Centre (EOTDC). The HQ-16 missile can engage aerial targets from all angles up to a range of 50km. The VLS is also expected to launch anti-submarine missile.
HQ-16 medium-range surface-air missile
The HongQi-16 (HQ-16) is a third generation Chinese land-based mid-range surface-to-air missile defense system. It is similar to Russia’s SA-11 Gadfly or SA-17 Grizzly, and seems to be an evolved, Chinese version of those system. Not much else is known about this new system, but there are reports stating that it can intercept very low-flying targets at maximum distance of 40km. The HQ-16 is said to be more accurate than previous mid-range defense systems and fills in the performance gaps of the HQ-7 and HQ-9.
HQ-16 Anti Air Missile – Image: chinesemilitaryreview.blogspot.comType 054A Jiangkai-II class frigate of the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLA Navy) test fires HQ-16 surface to air missile during an exercise.Type 054A frigate is equipped a 32-cell vertical launching system (VLS) which allows the HQ-16 to be launched at rapid rate. – Image: chinesemilitaryreview.blogspot.comVideo capture of an HHQ-16 launch intercepting what appears to be a low altitude target drone – Image: plarealtalk.com
Chinese news websites report that the HQ-16’s performance data is roughly:
CY-5 (Chiang Ying, Long Tassel) ASROC-type missile
A PLAN naval drill in July saw the likely first images of an ASROC-type torpedo-carrying missile, fired from the vertical launch system of a Type 054A ‘Jiangkai II’-class frigate. The official designator of this missile is uncertain, although some sources suggest nomenclature of CY-5 (Chiang Ying , Long Tassel). Source: Screengrab from CCTV @janes.comImage: plarealtalk.com
CY-5 is the vertically launched version of CY-4 with folding control surfaces to fit into VLS. The range is reported to be 30 km. The existence of CY-5 type weapon was first officially revealed in 2012 when Type 054A frigate was opened to public in Hong Kong, when the governmental explanation described the modular VLS at the bow of the ship can launch both air defense missiles and rocket propelled ASW torpedoes armed with various Chinese and western torpedoes. However, the exact designation of the rocket propelled ASW torpedo was not revealed. Because CY series was also first intended for export and armed with torpedoes of western origin, CY-5 is thus also most likely armed with Chinese Y-7, or other western light torpedoes such as A244-S. CY-5 is reportedly also deployed onboard Type 052D destroyer. Source wikipedia.org
Yu-8 anti-submarine missile launched from VLS of 054A Xiangtan
Yu-8 torpedo is a rocket propelled ASW torpedo similar to CY-5, but with a different payload. The exact type of the light weight torpedo (LWT) carried by Yu-8 has not been officially released by the Chinese governmental sources (as of 2016), but many military analysts and enthusiasts have concluded it is the Russian APR-3E torpedo based on other information released officially by the Chinese government in 2015, namely, the incorporation of data link on Yu-8:
The Russian torpedo is approximately a meter, or a third longer than its western counterparts, such as A244-S, Sting Ray, or Mk 54, and is also nearly twice the weight of its western counterparts, but more importantly, the range of Russian APR-3E LWT is only a third of that its western counterparts. If a very fast nuclear submarine is targeted by Yu-8 near its maximum range, then from the time Yu-8 is launched to its point of entry, the target might have already opened up the gap and thus has successfully escaped by getting out of the range of APR-3E. Just as in the case of CY-3 development from CY-2, to ensure the point of entry of Yu-8 is within the 3 km range of APR-3E, a datalink is also incorporated to enable the weapon to receive target update from other platforms such as surface ships and aircraft. This feature is not a must for western LWT torpedoes with a range that is approximately three times of that of Russian LWT, and hence when the Chinese official sources have revealed the existence of datalink on Yu-8, it suggests the LWT Yu-8 delivers is Russian APR-3E or similar Chinese copies. Many military analysts and enthusiasts have also postulated that since the Russian LWT is larger and heavier, to maintain the same range of CY-5 armed with lighter and shorter torpedoes of western origin, the rocket motor of Yu-8 would have to be either larger or more powerful.
The existence of Yu-8 designation was first revealed in March 2014, and confirmed more than a year later by CCTV-7 in August 2015, when it aired a footage of Chinese naval war game that contained the launch of rocket propelled ASW torpedo from VLS of a Chinese warship, with designation Yu-8 torpedo assigned. Yu-8 is designed by the 705th Research Institute in Kunming, with program begun in 2002 and completed in 2006. Source wikiwand.com
The primary Anti-Surface Warfare (ASuW) system of the Type 054A is the YJ-83 (C-803) sea-skimming anti-ship cruise missile. The missile is launched by two quadruple launchers mounted at the mid-ship position. The YJ-83 missile can carry a 165kg conventional warhead to an operational range of 250km.
The YJ-83 (YingJi-83 meaning Eagle Strike) was designed by the Third Academy of the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation “CASIC” (HiWING Mechanical & Electrical Technology Corporation). The programme begun in the mid nineties and procurement with the PLAN begun in the late nineties. YJ-83 is a subsonic missile with a reported range of 150 Km (in its surface-launched version). It is a sea skeaming capable missile fitted with an active radar seeker. Sourcenavyrecognition.com
Yuncheng(571) – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com
The YJ-83 is a long-range anti-ship missile designed to meet the requirements of the PLA Navy (PLAN). The YJ-83 has a range of 150 to 200 kilometers and introduces a data-link to receive target updates from airborne assets such as helicopters or fixed-wing aircraft. The YJ-83 can fly at supersonic speeds (Mach 1.5) during the terminal phase of the flight (approx 15 kilometers). The PLAN is deploying the YJ-83 missile as the standard anti-ship missile onboard frigates and destroyers.
The main gun fitted on the bow deck is a single-barrel 76mm gun. The frigate is armed with two indigenous Type 730 seven-barrel 30mm close-in weapon systems (CIWS) for close-point defence against aerial threats. The CIWS can fire 4,600 to 5,800 rounds per minute for a maximum range of 3,000m.
1 × PJ26 76 mm dual purpose gun
The 713th Institute (also known as Zhengzhou Electrical Engineering Research Institute) of China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (CSIC) of the People’s Republic of China has developed a Chinese variant of AK-176, with Mr. Chen Dingfeng (陈汀峰) as the general designer. Design begun in 2000 and was completed in 2003. The primary difference between this H/PJ-26 and AK-176 is that the Chinese variant adopts a stealthy turret design, and more composite material is used in the construction of the turret. In addition, ready rounds for the H/PJ-26 are doubled to 150 rounds from the original 75 of the AK-176. Source wikiwand.com
PJ26 single tube 76MM stealth gun
PJ26 single tube 76MM gun stealth based AK176 single tube 76.2 mm gun stealth modifications on the Russian ship. In early 2000 determined by the Zhengzhou Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (713) as chief engineer units, and thus responsible for the development, general contracting, Chen Ting Feng served as the chief architect and was completed in 2003.
Performance parameters (Russia AK176 type):
total weight: 11500kg (including the lower deck loader)
Range: 11.5 ~ 15.5km
Rate of fire: 60 to 120 rounds / min
reserve ammunition: 152 Hair
barrel tilt range: -15 to +85 degree
level cyclotron range: about 175 degrees
The Type 730 is a Chinese-made close-in weapon system (CIWS) based on a seven-barrel 30mm gun with a maximum rate of fire of approximately 4,600 to 5,800 rounds per minute. This CIWS weapon system provides short-range air defense to the latest ships commissioned by the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). Source deagel.com
18th 054A onwards the seven barrel PJ-12 was replaced by the PJ-11 (H/PJ-14)
Left: seven barrel PJ-12 30mm CIWS installed on 054A hulls 1-17, Right: eleven barrel PJ-11 30mm CIWS installed on 054A hulls 18 and onwards – Source plarealtalk.com
A pair of PJ-12 (also known as Type 730) close in weapon systems (CIWS) provide a robust last ditch anti air, anti missile and anti surface capability. The PJ-12 is a 7 barrel, 30mm calibre gatling gun featuring its own fire control radar and electro-optic targeting system. PJ-12 is similar in arrangement to the Dutch Goalkeeper CIWS, but is reportedly actually influenced by the aborted French SAMOS CIWS. The seven barrel PJ-12 equips 054A hulls 1 to 17, from the 18th 054A onwards, the seven barrel PJ-12 was replaced by the more formidable PJ-11, an eleven barrel variant of the PJ-12 that had previously only been fitted aboard the aircraft carrier Liaoning. Source plarealtalk.com
30mm China H/PJ-14 [Type 1130, 500 rnds] – (China, 11 Barrels, Upgr Goalkeeper Copy) Gun
Air Max: 1.9 km. Surface Max: 2.8 km.
The anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capabilities are provided by two Type 87 six-tube ASW rocket launchers and tow 324mm YU-7 ASW torpedo launchers. Each rocket has a 34kg warhead and can strike under-water targets within the range of 1,200m.
The Yu-7 is a lightweight torpedo of Chinese origin. Since 1984 China tried to copy and later produce under license the US Mk 46 torpedo. This proved to be difficult and a batch of Italian A.224S torpedoes was ordered and the two designs were mated. An electrically powered Yu-7 offspring called the ET-52 was developed and put into service before the development of the Yu-7 was finished.
The Yu-7 is a mixture of the Mk 46 Mod 1 and Mod 2 with various components from the A.224S torpedo. The Yu-7 retains the complex Otto fuel engine which provides it with a better performance than the electrically powered ET-52. The layout is conventional with the seeker in the nose, the warhead in the middle and the fuel and engine at the rear.
The Yu-7 uses a combination of passive and active acoustic guidance. It is believed that the Mk 46 seeker design is retained but several components have been replaced by those from the A.224S.
The 054A class also fields a comprehensive undersea sensor suite for ASW roles. All 054As are equipped with a bow sonar and a towed array sonar as well as a towed torpedo decoy system, and from all ships from hull 18 onwards have also been equipped with an additional variable depth sonar, appearing to be the same type mounted on the 056A class corvette. Such a comprehensive sonar suite, combined with a hangar and helipad for a helicopter, makes the 054A a very viable and competent ASW surface combatant within the Chinese Navy’s order of battle. Source plarealtalk.com
Type: VDS, Active/Passive Sonar
Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 14.8 km
Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km
Generation: Early 1970s
Sensors / EW:
China SJD-X [Unknown VDS] – (Type 054++, Type 056 ASW) VDS, Active/Passive Sonar
Role: VDS, Active/Passive Variable Depth Sonar
Max Range: 14.8 km
Type 054A Towed Torpedo Decoy
Photography of a Type 054A frigate with a streamed tow cable has recently been seen on Chinese websites. The accompanying discussions on the blog sites state this is evidence of a towed array. Source admiraltytrilogy.com
The stern helicopter deck features a single landing spot for supporting the missions of a medium size helicopter. The heli-deck is fitted with helicopter handling system and can accommodate a Kamov Ka-28 Helix or a Harbin Z-9C helicopter.
Chinese Type 054A Jiangkai II class FFG-546 Yancheng Guided Missile Frigate on patrol in Mediterranean Sea. Image: Chinese Military Review
Z-9C: Version for PLA Naval Air Force, for deployment aboard certain classes of destroyers and frigates; in service by late 2000. Believed to be equivalent to Arriel 2-engined Eurocopter AS 565 Panther, but equipped with Thales HS-12 dipping sonar and KLC-11/J-band (Chinese version of Agrion 15) surface search radar; armament includes two Yu-7 torpedoes or TV-guided C-701 anti-surface vessel missiles. Source aviastar.org
Crew: 1 or 2 pilots
Capacity: 10 passengers or 1,900 kg (4,189 lb) payload internal, 1,600 kg (3,527 lb) payload slung
The Type 054Afrigate is equipped with Type 382 3D air/surface search radar, MR-36A surface search radar, and two Racal RM-1290 navigation radars operating in I-band. The 3D search radar can simultaneously track up to 40 targets within the maximum range of 120km.
Type 382 radar is a Chinese naval 3-D air search radar designed to replace earlier Chinese Type 381.
Contrary to many frequent but erroneous claim, Type 382 radar is not a simple Chinese copy of Russian MR-710 Fregat (meaning frigatebird) radar (NATO reporting name: Top Plate), though Type 382 does borrow heavily from MR-710 radar. Type 382 radar program had already begun in the early 1990s, before the start of the negotiation of importing Russian Sovremennyy-class destroyer in 1994. Type 382 is designed to be a successor of earlier Type 381, but development had run into technological bottleneck for the next generation passive phased array radar due to the technical and industrial limitations in the early and mid-1990s China had at the time. The import of Russian MR-710 radar had provided a significant boost in the development of Type 382 radar in that designers of Type 382 can borrow ideas of MR-710, and as a result, Type 382 has become a cross between Type 381 and MR-710. L Source wikiwand.com
The Type 344 (Mineral-ME Band Stand) radar above the bridge provides ship-ship missile control, over-the-horizon radar acquisition and target designation of surface vessels, while four Type 345 (NATO reporting name: MR-90 Front Dome) F-band radars provide two channels to guide two air defence missiles simultaneously.
A photo of 054A’s darkened CIC during typical operations – Source plarealtalk.com
Type 344 (Mineral-ME Band Stand) radar
Type 344 (Mineral-ME Band Stand) radar / koxinga_k
Mineral system (‘Band Stand’) is used for missile guidance, MR331 Mineral ME ( Russian export version Monolit or Band Stand in Western code) is a team able to locate targets beyond the radar horizon. Which is essential guide surface-to-surface missiles.
The ship is also fitted with TR47C and Type 347G fire-control radars for the CIWS and 76mm main gun. The frigate is also equipped with MGK-335 medium frequency active/passive sonar system integrating Bull Horn active and Whale Tongue passive hull-mounted, search and attack sonar.
TR47C/Type 347G fire-control radar
The Type 347G “Rice Bowl” I-band fire-control radar is found on Chinese Navy ships, in conjection with the Type 76A dual-37mm automatic AAA gun. Typically, the system includes 2 Type 347G fire-control radar with optical director, and 4 Type 76A guns. They’re used on the Luda, Luhu, Luhai, Jiangwei class surface warships, as well as the Houjian, Houxin, and Haiging class patrol boats.
Type 347 radar is frequently but erroneously referred by many as either Type 349 or Type 348, because externally, all three radars look very similar, and all three are developed as fire control radar for small caliber guns. In reality, the three radars are different and they can be easily distinguished by the following features: When electro-optics (EO) are integrated with radar, EO is installed on the portside of Type 347 radar antenna, but for Type 348 and Type 349, EO is installed on the starboard side of the radar antenna. Furthermore, when incorporated as part of CIWS, Type 349 is slaved to Type 730 CIWS gun and thus does not rotate, because the gun rotates when searching/tracking. In contrast, Type 348 is not slaved to the Type 76 37mm twin guns, but instead, installed separately from the gun mounts, and thus Type 348 rotates when searching/tracking. The shape of antenna is also an important visual cue to distinguish three radars. The tip of Type 349 radar is a conical, which is missing on Type 347. Instead, the tip of Type 347 radar antenna is a small circular flat surface, missing the tip of the cone. The antenna of Type 348 radar differs from both Type 347 and Type 349 radars in that most of the cone is missing, only the base remains, so the antenna of Type 348 radar has a very large circular flat surface, resulting in Type 348 radar resembles a scaled down version of another larger fire control radar for larger caliber guns (76 mm or greater), Type 344.
(Specs based on RTN-20X)
Beam: 2.2 deg
Gain: 37 dBi
Target acquisition for 2m2: 12 km (verified for LR66)
Target acquisition for 0.1m2: 6 km (verified for LR66)
The countermeasures are provided by two 18-tube multiple rocket launchers capable of firing decoys/chaffs. Other electronic warfare systems include Type 922-1 radar warning receiver and HZ-100 Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) and Electronic Support Measures (ESM) system.
Type 922-1 radar warning receiver
People’s Liberation Army (Navy) ships consisted of a Type 903 Replenishment Ship, the Taihu, and two Type 054A Guided Missile Frigates the Yancheng and the Daqing on visit to VICTORIA, Canada – Image: jgmjgm516.blogspot.com
The combined diesel and diesel (CODAD) propulsion system integrates four SEMT Pielstick (now MAN Diesel) 16 PA6V-280 STC diesel engines produced locally under license at Shaanxi Diesel Factory. Each engine, with a sustained power of 4,720kW (6,330hp), provides a total power output of 18,880kW (25,320hp). The propulsion system provides a maximum speed of 27kt and range of more than 8,000nmi.
We estimate that the Type 054A currently costs a total of approximately US$348 million per vessel to build and fit out. This estimate derives from breaking the ship down by its main systems categories (hull and equipment, propulsion/power transmission, weapons, and electronics) and calculating their respective costs, as well as the cost of the labor needed to assemble the ship into a finished product. We rely heavily on valuation by analogy in many cases because Chinese sources simply do not disclose cost information on the vast majority of the inputs being used in warships being built in China. As such, the figure as stands is conservative and may overestimate the construction and equipment costs.
Type 054A Cost Breakdown
Million USD, Percentage of total estimated ship cost (numbers rounded)
Source: Alibaba, U.S. Navy, Local and Foreign Media Sources, Authors’ Analysis
The next section elaborates sequentially on the Type 054A’s cost structure, with the areas that contribute the most to final ship cost addressed first.
Electronics: US$102 million, 29%. Chinese military-grade electronics makers disclose little or no information on the unit costs of systems then produce for the PLA. Furthermore, the PLA does not publish detailed budgets such as those commonplace in the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). As such, this analysis uses a valuation by analogy approach to estimate the likely cost of the ship’s main electronics systems. The ship’s ZKJ-4B/6 combat data system is said to be based on Thompson CSF’s Tavitac. The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapons Systems, 1997-1998 estimated that the Tavitac accounted for less than 5% of the final cost of the French Lafayette-class frigate, which based on the US$466 million original unit cost of the six Lafayette-class frigates (“Kang Ding”) purchased by Taiwan in 1992, suggests Tavitac costs approximately US$20 million. Given the systems’ stated similarity, it is reasonable to value the ZKJ-4B/6 at US$20 million per unit.
The Type 382 3D search radar likely costs approximately US$15 million per unit based on the price of the AMD radar system Saab sold to Australia for its Canberra-class LHD and the fact that Chinese radar makers likely have not yet attained the experience and efficiency level of Saab’s production process. The Type 054A’s sonar suite likely costs around US$20 million, based on the unit cost of the Royal Navy’s Sonar 2087 and the procurement requirements the U.S. Navy used in 2005 when specifying the characteristics of a new towed sonar array. Finally, the authors estimate that the Type 054A’s machinery control system costs US$15 million, based on the fact that Northrup Grumman has contracted to supply the much larger LHA-7 amphibious assault ship’s machinery control system at a cost of US$50.6 million. We acknowledge that shipboard electronics costs may in fact be lower, although no data presently known to us supports a lower cost.
Weapons: US$84 million, 24%. The most expensive part of the Type 054A’s weapons suite is likely the vertical launching system cells. An 8-cell module from the US Mk 41 VLS system—the most widely used in the world—costs around US$15 million. The Type 054A has 32 total VLS cells and the author discounts the 8-cell module cost to US$10 million, making the system cost an estimated US$40 million. The second most expensive component of the Type 054A’s armament are its two Type 730 close in weapon systems (“CIWS”), which likely cost around US$11 million for both. The U.S. Navy’s Phalanx Block 1B CIWS costs US$5.6 million per unit, and we believe this is a reasonable proxy for the Type 730 CIWS cost because although the Chinese gun is a larger caliber and the system is physically larger, the assembly and materials costs are likely substantially lower.
Labor: US$75 million, 22%. While data are somewhat scarce, building and commissioning a frigate-sized warship of between 3,000 and 4,000 tons displacement appears to require between 2.5 million man hours (US FFG-7) and 10.8 million man hours (India’s Godavari-class) of labor. We estimate that at present, Chinese military shipyards, which can afford a higher degree of labor intensity than Western yards due to a large labor force, but which are also almost certainly substantially more efficient than Indian yards, require around 3.2 million man hours to build and commission a Type 054A frigate. Chinese yards’ average labor cost is based on the 2013 labor expenditures of Jiangsu Rongsheng, a top private shipbuilder, which are then increased by 25% to reflect the premium paid for special skill sets required for shipbuilding work done to naval specifications.
Hull and equipment: US$45 million, 13%. This cost estimate is based on the fact that around one-third of the light ship weight of surface combatants such as the Type 054A typically consists of metals—primarily steel, along with lesser quantities of high-grade alloys and wiring and pipes. The author then multiplied the 1,200 tonnes of steel likely required for a ship the size of the Type 054A by an average cost of US$2,000/tonne for high quality steel such as that used in warships. The remainder of the cost comes from composite materials and radar absorbent materials, whose cost data were obtained from similar items sold on Alibaba.com and from the cost of applying radar absorbent coatings to frigate-sized U.S. warships, as disclosed by the Chicago Tribune (admittedly a bit dated as it is 1993-vintage). Cost data for paint, piping, pumps, valves, and wiring also come from similar Chinese-made items advertised for sale on Alibaba.com as well as the London Metals Exchange spot price for copper, the underlying component of wiring and likely at least part of the pipe alloys.
Propulsion: US$32 million, 9%. The biggest share of the Type 054A’s propulsion costs come from its four Pielstick/Shaanxi PA6 diesel engines. At least one trading company offers Pielstick engines for sale at between US$1and US$10 million apiece. This estimate uses the mid-range price of $5 million per engine to reflect the size of the engine and the premium quality needed for a military application. The balance of the estimated cost reflects the gearbox, drive shafts, steering gear, and props.
Miscellaneous costs: US$10 million, 3%. This category is a “catchall” that helps the overall estimate account for bits and pieces that might have been overlooked in the process of estimating each ship segment’s cost. Source chinasignpost.com
In Feb 2013, China offered to sell Thailand 3 customized 054A frigates (“054T”) for 30 billion Thai baht ($1 billion USD) total. However, in April 2013 it was reported that South Korea had won the Royal Thai navy’s frigate bid with 1 modified Gwanggaeto the Great-class destroyers at 13 billion Thai baht each.
In Early 2015, it was reported that Russia might consider buying 054A for its navy.
According to a news report at LIMA 2015, the Royal Malaysian Navy will buy the C28A corvette export variant of the Chinese multi-role warship.
In 2012, Voice of Russia published a report, stating in late 1990s, Russia exported KH-31P anti-radiation missiles to China. Soon afterwards, China imported the technology and was licensed to produce such missiles. It gave the missile the codename YJ-91. Before that, China tried to produce an anti-radiation missile on its own but failed.
The new anti-radiation missile produced with licensed Russian technology becomes Chinese air force’s major weapon in breaking through enemy air defense. China has specially developed special fighter jets to carry it. For example, China’s J-8HG attack fighter-bomber. Source tiananmenstremendousachievements.wordpress.com
The Kh-31P high-speed medium-range “air-to-surface” guided missile with changeable passive radar homing heads is designed to engage radars operating within long- and medium-range air defence missile systems, as well as other ground- and sea-based radars of different purpose, in the corresponding frequency band.
The Kh-31P missile can be efficiently launched either independently or in salvo, in fair and adverse weather conditions, to engage radar targets of opportunity or previously disclosed ones.
The missile can be equipped with changeable homing heads operating in coresponding frequency bands used by modern continuous-wave and pulsed radars of surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery systems.
The missile’s radar homing head ensures:
– target search and lock-on in the autonomous mode, or by receiving target designation data from carrier’s sensors with the missile on the aircraft suspension station;
– target tracking and missile guidance command generation.
It has a high explosive/fragmentation type of warhead.
Gabriel Dominguez, London and Ridzwan Rahmat, Singapore – IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly
18 November 2016
Commercial satellite imagery taken in early November suggests that Vietnam is responding to China’s construction of military facilities in the South China Sea (SCS) by expanding its own capabilities in the disputed Spratlys, according to the Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS).
The imagery shows that Hanoi is significantly upgrading its sole runway on Spratly Island and constructing new hangars there, the Washington-based research group said in a report published on its website on 15 November .
“This is a familiar pattern for Hanoi. Even amid reduced diplomatic tensions, Vietnam continues to modernise its military and seek closer security ties with Japan, the United States, and India in preparation for future Chinese assertiveness in disputed waters,” said CSIS.
Vietnam is extending a runway on an island it claims in the South China Sea in apparent response to China’s building of military facilities on artificial islands in the region, a US think tank reported on Thursday.
Satellite images taken this month showed Vietnam had lengthened its runway on Spratly Island from less than 760 metres to more than 1km, Washington’s Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative said.
AMTI, a project of the Centre for Strategic and International Studies think tank, said continued reclamation work could mean the runway has new been extended to more than 1.2km.
It said the upgraded runway would be able to accommodate maritime surveillance aircraft and transport planes, as well as combat aircraft.
The report said Vietnam had added about 23 hectares of land to Spratly Island in recent years, but its reclamation work remained modest by Chinese standards.
China has built military-length runways on three artificial islands it has built up in the South China Sea since 2013.
Reuters reported in August that Vietnam had discreetly fortified several of its islands in the disputed South China Sea with mobile rocket launchers capable of striking China’s runways and military installations across the vital trade route.
Military analysts said the deployment of the launchers was the most significant defensive move Vietnam has made on its holdings in the South China Sea in decades and it underscored Hanoi’s concerns about China’s assertive pursuit of territorial claims in the disputed region.
Vietnam’s Foreign Ministry has called the information “inaccurate”, without elaborating.
The Su-33 is a single-seat multirole carrier-based conventional take-off and landing (CTOL) fighter aircraft. It is manufactured by Sukhoi in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia. The aircraft has been principally designed and developed to meet the requirements of the Russian Navy.
The aircraft is derived from its predecessor, the Su-27, and its Nato reporting name is Flanker-D. It performed its maiden flight in May 1985 and entered into service in 1994. The aircraft can be operated any time under the aid of the command centre ship.
History & Background
The Design Bureau Work started to develop a Su-27-based naval fighter in 1971; the next decade saw 3 versions of plane developed one by one, designed for landing on project 1160 and 1153 aircraft carriers. The projects provided for development of a CTOL aeroplane with steam-catapult takeoff and conventional (non-V/STOL) landing using an arrestor wire. In terms of design/configuration, they faithfully reproduced all the major solutions then adopted for the baseline, “ground-based” version of the Su-27, but adapted for deck landing, which involved the need to strengthen the landing gear, install an arresting hook and provide for wing folding during the storage of machines on the hangar deck.
Su-27K T10K-1 prototype
Two Su-27K prototypes were built by the Design Bureau in cooperation with a production plant in 1986-87. The first flight of the prototype T10K-1 was performed by the design bureau’s test pilot V.G. Pugachov on 17th August 1987, and on 22nd December 1987, N.F. Sadovnikov took off for the first time in the second prototype, T10K-2. In the course of the plane’s flight development tests, on 1st November 1989, V.G. Pugachov used T10K-2 to perform the USSR’s first conventional (non-V/STOL) landing on the deck of the USSR Admiral of the Fleet Kuznetsov ACHC (then Tbilisi). In 1989, the Komsomolsk-on-Amur plant started production of a Su-27K development batch, the first production plane being flight-tested at the plant by the design bureau’s test pilot I.V. Votintsev on 17th February 1990.
Official testing of the Su-27K took place in 1991-1994. In April 1993, the Komsomolsk-on-Amur plant released the first ship-based fighters for delivery to the pilots of the aviation wing of the Northern Fleet to be put into service at the 279th ship-based fighter aircraft regiment (SFAR). By August 1994, the regiment had received as many as 24 production aircraft. In 1993-95, combat pilots of the 279th SFAR gained experience on the aircraft; following that, between December 1995 and March 1996, the USSR Admiral of the Fleet Kuznetsov ACHC put to sea for its maiden long-distance training voyage. The 31st August 1998 decree of the president of the RF put the Su-27K into service under the name of the Su-33.
To provide a two-seater for training ship-based aircraft pilots, the Design Bureau started to develop a T-10K-based two-seat combat trainer version of the jet in the mid ’80s. Later, in the early ’90s, the development efforts focused on a version of two-seat trainer which became known under the designation Su-27KUB (10KUB). A prototype was built in Komsomolsk-on-Amur in 1995-98 and assembled in Moscow, with the prototype, T10K-4, used for engineering follow-up. The first flight of the 10KUB prototype was performed 29th April 1999 by the plant’s test pilots V.G. Pugachov (commander) and S.N. Melnikov (second-in-command). The plane successfully passed the manufacturer’s tests; in addition, 10KUB was evaluated by cockpit personnel of fleet aviation. The prototype having been fitted with new equipment and AL-31FP engines with thrust vector control. Produced only two prototypes. Source su-27flanker.com
Su-27KUB – Image: the-blueprints.com
The Su-33 can destroy hostile aerial targets, provide fire support and demolish ground and sea targets using missiles and rocket bombs. It also renders escort, reconnaissance and laying of minefields missions.
Su-33 aircraft design
The visual differences from basic Su-27:
IR sight moved to right side of canopy(1)
Refueling system is installed(2)
Two-weel nose gear(4)
Folding outer wing panels(6)
Centreline dock for large drop tank or heavy anti-ship missile(8)
Image: propro.ruImage: propro.ru
The aircraft was designed by Russia’s Sukhoi Design Bureau. The design phase began in 1984 and was finalised in 1985.
The aircraft is equipped with sports canards to reduce the take-off distance and enhance manoeuvrability, and has power-aided folding wings.
Image: flankers-site.co.ukStarboard canard and shoulder mounting – Image: flankers-site.co.ukImage: flankers-site.co.ukFlap section on fixed part of port wing – Image: flankers-site.co.uk
The aircraft is also fitted with an air-refuelling probe to increase its range. The wings are fitted with a two-piece, single-slotted flap, an aileron and a larger leading-edge flap to decrease speed when landing.
The Su-33’s airborne warning and control system is used to automatically detect, track, recognise and spot up to ten aerial and ground-based targets. The aircraft is equipped with a long-range navigation system which determines the fighter’s location based on the signals supplied by the ground station.
The aircraft is armed with 30mm Gsh-30-1 cannons. It features 12 external hardpoints on which are mounted R-27R1(ER1), R-27T1(ET1) and R-73E air-to-air missiles, S-8KOM, S-8OM, S-8BM S-13T, S-13OF and S-25-OFM-PU unguided missiles, Kh-25MP, Kh-31 and Kh-41 guided missiles, RBK-500 cluster bombs and electronic counter measure pods.
GSh-301 30mm cannon
The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30 (ГШ-30) is a family of autocannons used on certain Russian military aircraft.
The GSh-30-1 (also known as “GSh-301”) is the standard cannon armament of most modern Russian fighters including the Yak-141 Freestyle, MiG-29 Fulcrum, Su-27 Flanker and its’ various derivatives. The GSh-30-2 is carried by the Sukhoi Su-25 Frogfoot ground attack plane and in external gun pods. The GSh-30-2K is a modified version with 2400mm long water-cooled barrels and variable rate of fire. It is used on a fixed mounting on Mi-24P Hind-F helicopters.
Medium-range missiles R-27 (e), designed to intercept and destroy aircraft and helicopters of all types of unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles in a dogfight at medium and long distances, with individual and group actions carrier aircraft, day and night, in simple and adverse weather conditions, from any direction, against the background of the earth and the sea, with active information, firing and maneuvering countering enemy.
Available in several versions, differing use of two types of homing – semi-active radar (PARGS) and heat – and two types of propulsion systems – with standard and increased installed power. Modifications PARGS are designated R-27R and R-27ER, with TGS – R-27T, R-27ET, with propulsion of increased energy available – R-27ER and R-27ET.
Main material rocket design titanium alloy, a steel motor housing .
For the suspension to the carrier aircraft and launch weight of both modifications missiles used the same launchers rail and catapult type.
Type: Guided Weapon
Weight: 350 kg
Length: 4.78 m
Span: 0.97 m
Properties: Illuminate at Launch, Anti-Air All-Aspect
Targets: Aircraft, Missile
Sensors / EW:
SARH Seeker – (AA-10) Semi-Active
Weapon Seeker, Semi-Active Radar Homing (SARH)
Max Range: 148.2 km
AA-10 Alamo C [R-27RE, LR SARH] – (1987) Guided Weapon
Air Max: 129.6 km.
The R-73 short-range, close-combat standardized missile was developed in the Vympel Machine Building Design Bureau, and became operational in 1984. The R-73 is included in the weapon complex of MiG-23MLD, MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters and their modifications and also of Mi-24, Mi-28 and Ka-50 helicopters. It also can be employed in flying craft which do not have sophisticated aiming systems.
The missile is used for engaging modern and future fighters, attack aircraft, bombers, helicopters, drones and cruise missiles, including those executing a maneuver with a g-force up to 12. It permits the platform to intercept a target from any direction, under any weather conditions, day or night, in the presence of natural interference and deliberate jamming. It realizes the “fire and forget” principle.
The missile design features a canard aerodynamic configuration: control surfaces are positioned ahead of the wing at a distance from the center of mass. The airframe consists of modular compartments accommodating the homing head, aerodynamic control surface drive system, autopilot, proximity fuze, warhead, engine, gas-dynamic control system and aileron drive system. The lifting surfaces have a small aspect ratio. Strakes are mounted ahead of the aerodynamic control surfaces.
The combined aero-gas-dynamic control gives the R-73 highly maneuverable flight characteristics. During flight, yaw and pitch are controlled by four aerodynamic control surfaces connected in pairs and by just as many gas-dynamic spoilers (fins) installed at the nozzle end of the engine. Control with engine not operating is provided by aerodynamic control surfaces. Roll stabilization of the missile is maintained with the help of four mechanically interconnected ailerons mounted on the wings. Drives of all missile controls are gas, powered from a solid-propellant gas generator.
The passive infrared homing head supports target lock-on before launch. Guidance to the predicted position is by the proportional navigation method. The missile’s combat equipment consists of an active proximity (radar or laser) fuze and impact fuze and a continuous-rod warhead.
The engine operates on high-impulse solid propellant and has a high-tensile steel case. Russia’s Vympel weapons designers have developed a one-of-a-kind air-to-air missile, which NATO has dubbed as AA-11, for use on foreign fighter planes. Techically and militarily the new missile, meant for quick-action dogfights, leave its foreign analogues far behind. Vympel experts have also made it possible for the new missile to be easily installed on all available types of aircraft. The AA-11 can also be used on older planes which will now be able to effectively handle the US’ highly maneuverable F-15 and F-16 jets. The AA-11 missile is based on all-new components, use new high-energy solid fuel and an advanced guidance and control system which has made it possible to minimize their size. Their exceptionally high accuracy is ensured by the missile’s main secret, the so-called transverse control engine, which rules out misses during the final approach trajectory. The transverse control engine is still without parallel in the world.
Russia has offered the export-version R-7EE air-to-air missile system for sale so that it can be fitted to foreign-made fighter aircraft. Developed by the Vympel state-sector engineering and design bureau, the R-7EE is designed for close-quarters aerial combat. Vympel specialists have developed a way of ensuring that the missile system can be fitted to virtually any type of aircraft. It can be fitted to older aircraft, which feature heavily in third-world countries’ air forces.
The Kh-31, AS-17 Krypton NATO-codename, is an advanced, long range, highly supersonic missile designed to withstand countermeasures effects. The Kh-31 propulsion system consists of a solid-fuel rocket engine which accelerates the missile to Mach 1.8 airspeed. Then this engine is dropped and a jet engine ignites using the missile’s within space as a combustion chamber. The missile accelerates to Mach 3+ thanks to the jet engine.
Kh-31AD airborne anti-ship guided missile
Kh-31AD airborne anti-ship guided missile is designed for hitting combat (assault landing) surface ships and cargo ships from the striking force (convoys) and single ships. This particular missile has a warhead power increased to 15% in compare with its prototype Kh-31A. Launch range is increased up to 120-160 km almost in two times.
Maximum launch range
(carrier flight parameters: H=15 km, M=1.5 km), km
120 to 160
Launch altitrudes, km
0,1 to 15
Launch speeds (M number)
0,65 to 1,5
inertial + active radio homing head
Active radio homing head angle of sight in vertical plane, degree
+10 to -20
Active radio homing head angle of sight in horizontal plane, degree
up to +/-27
Missile start weight (maximum), kg
Weather conditions for use
any conditions at sea roughness
up to 4-5
aircrafts Su-30MK (MKI, MKM, MK2),
Su-35, Mig-29K, Mig-29KUB, Mig-35
Average number of missile hits required to make enemy’s destroyer
Kh-31PD airborne high speed anti-radar missile
Kh-31PD airborne high speed anti-radar missile is designed to hit radars of anti-aircraft missile stations (ZRK).
Missile ground maintenance is provided by the OKA-E-1 aircraft guided weapons (AUSP) preparation system.
The Kh-25MP airborne anti-radiation missile equipped with a passive radar homing head is designed to engage continuous-wave and pulsed radars making part of medium-range air defence missile systems as well as small-calibre anti-aircraft artillery systems. There are two versions of the homing head: 1VP and 2VP. The missile can be launched in flight within carrier’s pitch angles from – 20 to + 20.
The Kh-25MP missile makes part of weapon systems of Russian combat aircraft. It also can be adapted for employment from foreign-made aircraft.
Launch range, km:
at carrier’s altitude
Launch altitude envelope, m
Max missile speed (in max range launch), m/s
Warhead weight, kg
Missile launch weight, kg
Missile dimensions, m:
length (with 1VP/2VP homing head)
Kh-41 NATO reporting name is SS-N-22 Sunburn
The Kh-41, also known as Moskit, is a supersonic, long range, air-launched, anti-ship missile designed to penetrate sophisticated ship air defenses. It relies on an inertial navigation system with target updates from launching aircraft to reach the target area. Once there, the Kh-41 employs its active radar seeker to search, detect and lock on the target. It is so fast that the ship’s air defenses have only a few seconds to act against the incoming missile. A fewer reaction time maximizes Moskit missile kill probability.
The Moskit missile was intended to provide an impressive anti-ship capability to carrier-based Su-33 Sea Flanker multi-role fighters. It can be released from other Soviet/Russian-made attack aircraft. Its range is extended compared to the ship-launched version (3M80 or SS-N-22 Sunburn).
Length: 9.70 meter (31.8 foot)
Wingspan: 2.10 meter Performance
Max Range: 250 kilometer (135 nautical mile)
Min Range: 10,000 meter
The S-8 system is the main caliber weapon in the class of unguided aircraft rockets and can solve a variety of aircraft missions.
The rocket is provided with a solid propellant motor with a summary thrust pulse of 5,800 N.s and operating time of 0.7 s. Progressive methods for body shaping from ready-made rolled aluminum and unique engineering solutions in terms of separate elements aimed at reducing motor manufacturing labor consumption and costs are used in its construction.
The following types of S-8 rockets are operational today:
S-8KOM with HEAT fragmentation warhead;
S-8BM with concrete-piercing (penetrating) warhead;
S-8-OM with illuminating warhead.
‘S-13’ type 122mm unguided rocket
The S-13 is a 122 mm calibre unguided rocket weapon developed by the Soviet Air Force for use by military aircraft. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force and some other countries.
S-13T: Tandem HEAT, range 1.1 – 4 km Combined penetration of 6 m of earth and 1 m of reinforced concrete. Velocity 500 m/s.
S-13OF: The only 122mm rocket available, this large rocket packs a blast-fragmentation warhead with some serious wallop, dealing significant damage to soft targets and lightly armored vehicles, and can even destroy a main battle tank with a direct hit. With only 5 rockets per pod, accurate delivery is key.
S-25 OFM-PU air-to-ground rocket
The S-25 is a Russian air-to-ground rocket launched from aircraft. It is launched from the O-25 pod which can hold one rocket.
The Su-33’s avionics include a fire control system, flight navigation system, doppler navigation radar, global positioning system, attitude and heading reference system, marker radio receiver, remote control system and IFF (identification friend or foe) transponder, radar warning receiver and radio jamming transmitter.
ECM, communication systems, on-board monitoring system, emergency warning system, aircraft responder and on-board voice information playback equipment are also installed in Su-33.
The same radar adopts the improved Su -27 N001 radar, compared with the Su -27S use radar to improve the detection ability of radar on surface targets. It can be used in air combat in the distance Air-to-air missile Intercept combat or use short-range missiles for air combat, in the battle of maritime targets to destroyers above the surface target attacking missile control Kh-41. The photoelectric detection device and Su -33 Su -27 with the same structure, because the left head mounted telescopic aerial refueling tube, photoelectric detection device Su -33 to the right. The infrared receiving system consists of a photodiode to detect the distance within 60 kilometers of the rear target, the target distance is less than 20 kilometers head-on. Laser range finder The maximum effective distance of 7 kilometers.
The system acquires and tracks aerial targets by their thermal signatures. The range of the electro-optical system is 40—100 km, depending on the aspect angle presented by the target. For better close air combat performance, the pilot is assisted by a RLPK-27 helmet-mounted sight (HMS). The HMS and the laser range finder of the IRST can also be used to visually acquire and determine coordinates of air and surface targets.
OLS-27 / Izdeliye 36Sh Specification
A combined IRST/LR device for the Su-27, similar to the MiG-29’s KOLS but more sophisticated, using a cooled, broader waveband, sensor. Tracking rate is over 25deg/sec. 50km range in pursuit engagement, 15km head-on. The laser rangefinder operates between 300-3000m for air targets, 300-5000m for ground targets.
Search limits are ±60deg azimuth, +60/-15° in elevation. Three different FOVs are used, 60° by 10°, 20° by 5°, and 3° by 3°. Detection range is up to 50km, whilst the laser ranger is effective from 300-3000m. Azimuth tracking is accurate to 5 secs, whilst range data is accurate to 3-10m. Targets are displayed on the same CRT display as the radar. Weighs 174kg.
OLS-27K for Su-33 featured new algorithms and better processor. It allegedly tracked targets in pursuit mode by their IR signature at 90 km during tests. Source aerospace.boopidoo.com
On the surface of the helmet and infrared light emitting diode cockpit Locate the photosensitive element in. The sight is monocular simple halo type can only display simple and, aiming at the lock signal. Infrared fighting machine Missile seeker You can move in with HMS, the HMS expanded Su -33 in close combat. Missile off boresightlaunch Range。 The machine also increase the installed automatic landing and supporting carrier guiding device, this device can be guaranteed by Su -33 in bad weather conditions, in the automatic guide device guided by automatic or semi-automatic way the plane corresponding to the position of the aircraft carrier of a 9 meter diameter of the landing area in the automatic guide device improves the Su -33 landing safety and in the harsh conditions of all-weather capability. Source et97.com
Weapon control system WCS-VEP for fighters of Su-27, Su-30 series
“Air-to-Air”, “Air-to-Grond” weapon control system WCS-VEP is intended for air target search, identification and aiming at collision courses and in Tail hemisphere in Look-up and Look-down modes in overwater and overland environment. The given WCS is mounted on the aircraft of Su-30MK2, Su-27SM types intended to achieve the air superiority, to hit ground and surface targets by means of guided and unguided weapons while group or single actions day-and-night under good or bad weather as well as to fulfill long-range patrolling and tracking.
“Air-to-Air”, “Air-to-Ground” weapon control system. It provides for application of the following weapons: RVV-AE, R-27ER1, R-27R1, R-27ET1, R-27Т1, R-27PE1, R-27P1, R-73E, Х-31А, Х-59МК,
Х-35E, air bombs, unguided missiles, GSh-301.
(item Ш101ВЭП (Sh101VEP))
Radar aiming complex includes as follows:
(item Н001ВЭП (N001VEP))
* Upgraded for the following weapon application: R-27P1, R-27EP1, Х-59МК, Х-35E
– on-board digital computer
– dual-channel digital receiver
– digital processor
– intermediate frequency signal switchboard
– master oscillator
– bus adapter-switch
Pulse Doppler radar
Pulse repetition frequency
high, medium, low
In “Air-to-Air” mode the radar provides as follows:
– velocity search;
– search with ranging;
– air target illumination and transmission of radiocorrection commands to control missiles with radar homing heads;
– to control missiles with infra-red homing heads;
– search, lock-on and tracking of a visually visible target in close combat;
– target IFF;
– operation in an adversary EW environment;
– jammer coordinate measurement;
– interaction with ECM equipment.
Number of targets with their coordinate measurement in TWS mode, pcs.
Number of simultaneously attacked targets
* can be increased upto 2
Detection and tracking zone, deg:
– in azimuth
– in elevation
Search and lock-on zone in close combat:
– in azimuth, deg
– in elevation, deg
Detection range for an air target of a fighter type (RCS=3m2, with 0.5 probability), km:
no less than 100*
no less than 40
no less than 80
no less than 35
* in long-range detection mode the range can be increased upto 150 km
– operation range of RVV-AE radiocorrection channel, km
In “Air-to-Ground” mode the radar provides as follows:
– detection of ground and surface targets in real beam mapping mode while scanning in low resolution mode (LRM),
– detection of ground and surface targets in SAR mapping mode in medium and high resolution modes (MRM, HRM),
– detection of ground and surface moving targets in ground moving target selection mode (GMTS),
– tracking and coordinate measurement for a ground target;
– output of target designations to X-31A, X-59MK, X-35E missile RHH.
In GMTS mode the radar provides for detection of moving targets with RCS of about 10m2 (a tank) and more, and radial velocity, km/h
15 … 90
Characteristics in “Air-to-Ground” mode:
Limits of search zone size:
– mapping in Real Beam mode (RB)
– in Sea Search mode (SS)
– in Doppler beam sharpening (DBS)
– in HRM mode
±450 (within ±600angles)
±450 (within ±600angles)
300 within ±(100…600) angles
50 within ±(300…600) angles
Detection range, km
aircraft carrier (RCS=50000m2 )
torpedo-boat destroyer (RCS=10000m2 )
missile boat (RCS=500m2)
boat (RCS=50m2 )
no less than 100
Optical-electronic sight system (provides for a ground target illumination)
Optical location system
Tracking zone, deg.:
– in azimuth
– in elevation
Large field of view and search, deg.:
– in azimuth
– in elevation
Small field of view and search, deg:
– in azimuth
– in elevation
Close combat area (“Vertical” mode), deg.
Lock-on area, deg.
(item 52Ш (52Sh))
3 х (-15…+60)
3 х 3
Detection range of an air target that is infra-red contrast, km:
– in TAIL for a target of Su-15 type without reheat (PMFU)
– in FWD for a reheated target of MiG-25 type flying at high altitudes with M number of no less than 2.0
TKS-2/R-098 (Tipovyi Kompleks Svyazi) Intra Flight Data Link (IFDL)
The encrypted TKS-2/R-098 (Tipovyi Kompleks Svyazi) Intra Flight Data Link (IFDL) which permits the networking of up to 16 Sukhoi fighters. It is not known whether the 5U15K-11 datalink designed for networking the A-50 AWACS and MiG-31 has been adapted to the Su-27/30, or whether a unique equivalent design is used. The TKS-2 was used effectively during the 2004 Cope India exercise against US F-15Cs. Source ausairpower.net
Russian carrier-based Su-33 fighters receiving new bombing computer
Russia is outfitting its carrier-based Sukhoi Su-33 fighter aircraft with the SVP-24 air-to-ground targeting system, according to Russian Ministry of Defence (MoD) sources cited by the newspaper Izvestia.
The SVP-24 is a specialised navigation and targeting system produced by Russian avionics developer Gefest and T. It enables combat aircraft to deliver conventional ordnance with accuracy approaching guided munitions, Russian sources claim. Historically the Su-33 had only a basic air-to-ground capability.
Gefest and T has now delivered the first Su-33 with SVP-24 under its contract signed with the MoD, and is installing the system on two more naval fighters. The company expects to put SVP-24 on all aircraft in the squadron before Russian Navy carrier Admiral Kuznetsov deploys to the eastern Mediterranean in November, according to Izvestia . The carrier’s air group will likely consist of 10 Su-33 and four MiG-29KR fighters.
Image: Gefest & T developed SVP-24 ultra-precision targeting system
The SVP-24 calculates the optimal point for bomb release based on the position of the aircraft and target, wind speed and direction, and other variables. The MoD has announced that the targeting computer produced a three-fold increase in the accuracy of aerial bombing when installed on the Su-24M. Russian sources add that as a permanent aircraft component the SVP-24 is cheaper to use than expendable kits attached to gravity bombs like the US Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM).
Initially developed in the mid-1990s and accepted for service by the MoD in 2008, the SVP-24 is installed on some Russian Su-24M, Su-25SM3, and Tu-22M3 bombers. The Su-24M is the primary bomber used in Syria. It has delivered mainly high-explosive FAB-250, FAB-500, and concrete-piercing BetAB-500 unguided gravity bombs. Source janes.com
Additional information on the SVP 24 targeting system on the Su-33:Here
‘Sorbtsya’ ECM pods on wingtips in place of missile rail – Image: flankers-site.co.uk
Defensive systems in legacy and production Flankers include a Radar Warning Receiver, mostly variants of the SPO-32 / L150 Pastel digital receiver carried. The latest subtypes like the Su-35BM/Su-35-1 carry the KNIRTI L175M Khibiny M Radio Frequency Surveillance (RFS = ESM/RHAW) system, initially developed for the Su-34 Fullback. The Khibiny M is believed to use a channelised receiver and most likely employs a wideband dual baseline interferometer in the forward sector, to permit passive targeting of Kh-31P and R-27P/R-77P variants in defence suppression and air combat roles.
Newer Flankers carry the podded wingtip mounted KNIRTI SPS-171 / L005S Sorbtsiya-S mid/high band defensive jammer (ECM), this system being an evolution of a jammer developed for the Backfire C. The Sorbtsiya-S, unlike most Western jamming pods, is designed to operate in pairs and uses forward and aft looking steerable wideband phased arrays to maximise jamming effect, a similar arrangement to the Eurofighter Typhoon EWSP package. It is worth observing that the Sorbtsiya is clearly built to provide cross-eye jamming modes against monopulse threats, and the wideband mainlobe steering capability provided by the phased array permits best possible utilisation of available jamming power. A graded dielectric lens is employed. Russian contractors have been recently using Digital RF Memory (DRFM) technology, which is of the same generation as the US IDECM EWSP, and competing Israeli systems.
The most recent defensive jamming equipment to be offered on Flanker variants is the new KNIRTI SAP-518 wingtip jamming pod, displayed at MAKS 2009. Concurrently KNIRTI displayed a high power support jamming pod, the SAP-14, intended for centreline carriage on a large pylon. To date little has been disclosed on these pod designs, which are likely to retain the wideband phased array / lens antenna system first used on the Sorbstiya. Source ausairpower.net
SPO-32 / L150 Pastel digital receiver
Pastel entered development in 1982, possibly as a reaction to poor performance of Soviet fighters in the Middle East. By 1983 the initial design was produced. It was intended for the Mi-28, MiG-29K/M, Su-27M and others.
Pastel is a family of new generation digital RWRs.
Scans from 1.2-18GHz threat frequencies.
Accuracy is 3-5° with pinpoint location antenna, 10° in rough location antenna. 128 reprogrammable radar types. Detection range minimum of 120% of the radar’s range. 3 modes- operational target, programmed target, most dangerous target.
Detects and finds direction for pulse, pulse-doppler and CW mode radars in search, track and illumination modes. Classifies multiple threats by danger, with full display of all information about most threatening radar presented to crew. Controls EW systems, has the ability to control and assign targets to 6 anti-radiation missiles such as the Kh-31. Aural warnings for high threat situations.
Pastel may be made available for upgrade packages or built into new export models of the Mig-29 and Su-27 families. Source aerospace.boopidoo.com
Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 222.2 km
Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km
Generation: Early 1990s
Sensors / EW:
SPO-32 Pastel [L-150] – ESM
Role: RWR, Radar Warning Receiver
Max Range: 222.2 km
SPO-15L -33 Su M omnidirectional radar warning receiver control active interference machine and decoy dispenser. Omnidirectional radar warning receiver can detect most of the frequency in the range of 360 degrees Pulse radar And frequency agile radar, display type radiation signal and controlled by the pilots on the decoy in the cockpit, active jammer and active electronic jamming pod wing at the plug-in machine with the available continuous wave or pulse of clutter and interference reflector. If the bear with the interference task, hanging point under the wing can also mount the podded electromagnetic interference system. Source et97.com
SPO-15 is comprised of the following components:
forward azimuth antennae
cockpit indicator station
elevation angle antennae
Long range antennae
The system has full 360° coverage while all other aircraft have a simpler system with full coverage in the front 180° and simple “left or right” detection in the rear sector.
The outer yellow lights represent the azimuth angle of the most threatening target. The light will remain lit for 8-12 seconds, so a scan rate less than this will result in a permanently lit light. The inner green dots show all other targets. The lights will indicate the approximate direction. If the emitter lies in a direction between two lights both adjacent lights will light up. The six lights across the bottom represents 6 target types which will show the radar type of the most threatening target. The inner ring of yellow indicators light up successively to show the strength of the received signal. As well as the visual indicator, a low pitched sound with similar characteristics to the detected radar signal will be given.
If the hostile radar switches to tracking (STT) the red circle will flash and a continuous high pitched audio tone will sound.
When a SAM launch is detected a continuous variable pitch sound will be given.
The Beryoza is claimed to be capable of detecting enemy airborne radars at 120% of the distance within which the enemy fighter can launch a missile.
Radars operating in TWS mode cannot be distinguished from search mode.
The priority target is simply detirmined by target type- one type is always considered more dangerous than another, regardless of signal strength or other factors.
Russia has launched the production of upgraded engines for Sukhoi Su-33 fighter jets:Here
Russia has launched the production of upgraded engines for deck-based Sukhoi Su-33 fighter jets, the press office of the United Engine Corporation (UEC) said on Wednesday.
“In order to meet the requirements of the state customer, the UEC has resumed the production of AL-31F series 3 turbofan engines for deck-based Su-33 fighters. A batch of the engines has already been produced by UMPO [part of the UEC] and supplied to the customer,” the press office said.
The aircraft is powered by two AL-31F afterburning turbofan engines. Each engine can produce 15,500 kilogram-force (kgf) of thrust.
The AL-31F is a high-temperature engine and can operate under extreme conditions of air inlet distortion and fluctuation.
The engine, manufactured by NPO Saturn, is 4.95m long with a diameter of 0.91m and weighs around 1,520kg.
AL-31F – Image: leteckemotory.cz
Thrust is demonstrably 14,200 kp (information from January 2007), with an increase to 14,500 kp or even slightly more likely. Time between overhault rose to 1000 or more hours. M3 version will have the thrust by 20% higher than the AL-31F, ie over 15,000 kp (one source states 14,500 kp for AL-31FM3-1 and 15,200 kp for the AL-31FM3). The AL-31FM3 will instead of 4-stage low-pressure compressor stage, only 3-stage blisk KND-924-3, that was already available the end of 2006. Increasing pressure on low-pressure compressor rose from 3.54 for F version to 4.25 for FM3 version. Another change is in the hot engine parts, which now use more heat-resistant materials and modernized cooling system, the temperature before the turbine increase to 1507-1577 ° C. Engine version FM3 is from the whole AL-31 series is closest to the fifth-generation engines standard. Engines AL-31FM is to be used on Su-27 airplanes and its modifications (Su-27SM, Su-33, Su-34). Source leteckemotory.cz
The landing gear is reinforced with a double-wheel nose unit, an arrestor hook and naval navigational aids.
FOD guard on nosewheel – Image: flankers-site.co.ukThe mainwheel leg on the Su-33 is beefed up – and is ‘fatter’ than the land-based version – Image: flankers-site.co.uk
Su-33 aircraft performance
The aircraft can climb at the rate of 325m/s. It has a maximum speed of 2,300km/h and a stall speed of 240km/h. Its maximum range is 3,000km, while the service ceiling is 17,000m. The aircraft weighs around 18,400kg and its maximum take-off weight is 33,000kg.
Su -33 basic technical data
[from the Russian United aircraft group Suhuoyi company official website]
PUBLISHED: 00:00, Wed, Nov 16, 2016 | UPDATED: 17:55, Wed, Nov 16, 2016
America’s new SEP v4 Abrams, which will begin testing in 2021, will include advanced laser systems, a more deadly 120mm tank round and new technology which allows the machine to stay a step ahead of its enemies.
Details of the new design are classified but Major Genenal David Bassett, who is working on the new armoured vehicle, said laser rangefinder technology, meteorological sensors and laser warning receivers would all feature.
He told Scout Warrior: “A combination of mid-wave and long-wave sensors allow for better target identification at long ranges and better resolution at shorter ranges.”
He said new data collected on the tank’s ammunition would allow its crew to “communicate with the round before firing it”.
Highly mobile and designed for modern armoured ground warfare, the Abrams tank first entered service in 1980.
But its successor would be in direct competition with the latest Russian T-Armata and China’s Type 99 tank.
The T-14 Armata comes with UV detectors that give instant warning of incoming fire.
At least 100 have been ordered by the Kremlin with the first set to roll off the production line in 2018.
Among the tanks’ other eye-catching featuresis a fully autonomous turret that can rotate 360 degrees at high speed to reposed to threats coming any direction.
The 125mm smoothbore cannon fires at a rate of 100 shots per minute and can hit a target almost five miles away.
The T-14 tank was first unveiled at the Victory Day parade in Moscow’s Red Square on May 9 2015.
Russian Deputy Defence Minister Yuri Borisov said: “We have a contract for a pilot batch of more than 100 machines. They are already arriving for trials.”
China’s type 99 armoured vehicle is the country’s first information-based tank, meaning it collects data and can share it with other units on the battlefield.
The tank is equipped with a digital fire control system with both a laser rangefinder and automatic target tracker.
A laser communication device is also fitted to the tank’s hatch which can send encrypted messages and is used to identify weather another unit is friend or enemy.
Based on some interesting info from the past (we still do not know how true it is) that announced possible tier 11 tanks, SovietTenkDestroyer made a proposal. Off-topic: Seb just found a huge stash of historical articles worth translating. I selected the stuff that was not covered before, the most interesting things and not common tanks like M3 Stuart. Expect some cool Soviet TDs.)
So this is my prediction/proposal of modern tanks in World of Tanks. As some of you might know, AW’s tier 3s are WoT’s tier 10’s. This is also a reason why it stops at tier 17. What I mean by “proposal/prediction is that this is what I think modern tanks in WoT will look like and this a proposal if I am wrong. I’m not expert on modern stuff as I am in pre-war, World War II, and post-war, but I still have enough knowledge to make a educated guess. It would make the trees less copy and pasty but due to Russian tanks and how there isn’t a new tank every decade (Except for the Soviet/Russians) but a new tank every 30 years, it makes it hard to make a branch that won’t be extremely unbalanced and realistic while not making it copy and pasty. So here is my idea for Modern tanks.
United States Branch:
As you see here, it’s my prediction/proposal. I’m going to assume everyone knows what a M1 Abrams is, but not as much people know about the CATTB.
It’s a upgraded M1 Abrams with a 140mm gun, different turret, and some minor upgrades. There were rumors of it being combined with the M1A3 project (Economical M1 Abrams) ,but I’m not sure how strong are those rumors. There’s also many different M1 Abrams including the XM1. Which is a prototype. The MBT-70 is a joint project between the U.S. and Germany.
Germany’s MBT-70 was to be armed with a 120mm and the U.S.’s MBT-70 was to be armed with a 152mm rocket launcher. Lastly, if you don’t know what the M60 “Starship” is, it’s a rocket launcher on a M60. It was named Starship for the futuristic turret design.
The German branch also faces the same problem of copy and paste. One thing I forgot to mention in the “United States Branch” paragraph is that the MBT-70 is the father of two children. They are the Leopard 2 and the M1 Abrams, just felt like it needed to be known. Unfortuntely, there is no candidate for tier 12 that I could find, if you have any suggestions, let me know. The KPz-70 is just the German name for the MBT-70 with a 120mm. Not much else to say except that the top tier is the Leopard 2A8 which was recently revealed. Not much else to say.
Oh boy! This is the most diverse tree in this prediction/proposal. I’m going to guess is that the Soviets and the Russians thought that needing a new tank every ten years is necessary. Every tank is not necessarily unique in how they play but at least they all look different. This also makes a problem… The U.S. and Germans tend to upgrade their equipment over time instead of making a new model every decade. If you’re wondering why the T-72 is lower tier than the T-64, the T-72 was actually supposed to be a worse tank to the T-64 while the T-64 was supposed to be given to elite regiments.
This was also the same case with later T-72s with ERA, composite armor, etc and the T-80. If you’re also wondering why the T-62 is in tier 11, this is a T-62 armed with a 115mm. The T-90 is basically a T-72 with T-80 equipment while the T-90AM is a redesign of the T-90 with a new turret that looks very western.
If you been living under a rock and you don’t know what the T-14 is, it’s a tank that was based off the T-80 suspension with a unmanned turret and a whole lotta’ upgrades. It also carries a heavily upgraded 125mm that was first present on the T-64.
Watch this video at the 1:35 mark and you’ll see a mysterious looking tank riding on the back of a CSX freight train that’s supposedly rolling through Ohio. Anyone have any idea what this beast is?
Some are speculating that it’s the new M1A3 Abrams tank prototype while others think it’s merely a movie prop.
The video was posted to YouTube on Sept. 30, 2010 followed by chatter on the TankNet forum. The pics below emerged on militaryphotos.net in the last week.
Here are a couple of pics of the M1 Component Advanced Technology Test Bed (CATTB) built in the late 1980s to test out a smoothbore gun, heavier turret armor, an auto a mechanical loader and new engine for the tank. The CATTB, however, never made it past the test bed phase.
The tank in the video is similar looking to the CATTB, but the turret is much different.