Monthly Archives: November 2016

Bolivia may purchase Brazilian Super Tucanos

By Ryan Maass   |   Nov. 28, 2016 at 3:46 PM

RIO DE JANEIRO, Nov. 28 (UPI) — Defense officials in Bolivia are exploring a potential procurement opportunity for Embraer A029 Super Tucano light attack aircraft from Brazil.

If the governments move forward with the buy, the planes will be used for cracking down on illegal activity around the countries’ shared border. Brazil’s defense ministry says Bolivia formerly expressed interest during a meeting to deepen bilateral relations between the two nations.

“Bolivia is a country with which we have an excellent relationship. Cooperation is important for the security of borders,” Brazilian Defense Minister Raul Jungmann said in a press release.

The meeting focused on pending trade agreements and border security. Jungmann invited his Bolivian counterpart to meet at the Super Tucano unit facility in São Paulo.

The Embraer A-29 Super Tucano is a light attack aircraft designed for counter-insurgency missions. The planes, used by the Brazilian air force, are equipped with a Missile Approach Warning System and tactical communications equipment. It can also be used for training purposes.

Original post


Embraer A-29 Super Tucano: Details

New engine being designed for fifth-generation Russian fighter aircraft

By Nikolai Litovkin, Russia Beyond the Headlines   |   Nov. 28, 2016 at 10:20 AM

The United Engine Corp., part of Rostec state holding company, successfully conducted the first ground-based ignition of the second stage of the engine for the Prospective Airborne Complex of Frontline Aviation (PAK FA T-50 aircraft).

In order to carry out the testing, gas generators had to be prepared for it, in addition to the demonstrator engine.

What is the PAK FA flying with now?

Currently, the PAK FA is using a first stage engine, a modernized Al-41.

According to Pavel Bulat, avionics specialist and head of the Kupol Group of Companies, the AI-41 is an updated version of engines used for the Su-27, Su-30 and other models in that series.

“The engine for the T-50 was significantly upgraded from the original models, incorporating the latest control system, compressors, etc. Nevertheless, it still falls short of the fifth-generation model, and is very noticeable on radar screens,” he said.

The new second-stage engine is one of the most advanced in the world, said Bulat. It enables the T-50 to accelerate to supersonic speed, and maintain that velocity throughout the flight, without using afterburners.

“The speed will be as much as Mach 1.6 (about 1,200 mph), depending on the terrain over which the flight is taking place. The engine will also significantly improve the stealth properties of the PAK FA, thanks to the use of new composite materials,” said Bulat.

The designers expect to start testing the new engine on fighter jets in 2018 and for the motor to be fully integrated in 2020.

“In addition to the engine, a radar station also needs to be modified, and engineers need to remove the last deficiencies in the airframe concept, which, among all the aircraft flying today, is the most modern in the world,” said the analyst.

New fighter’s weapons: 30-mm cannon

The firing unit consists of one of the lightest cannon in its class, the 9-A1-4071K, which is designed to destroy armored vehicles or armored enemy targets. During one flight, the pilot can shoot 150 rounds from the 30-mm cannon.

This new weapon is a modified single-barrel GSh-301 aircraft cannon, used in Russian fighters and bombers.

Aircraft bombs

The future T-50 fifth-generation fighter will also carry high-explosive and volume-detonating bombs, Sergey Rusakov, general director of the Techmash Group, announced on Sept. 22.

Rusakov said they are now considering high-explosive incendiary OFZAB-500 aviation bombs for the PAK FA, and volume-detonating ODAB-500PMV, which are currently being used in Russian operations in Syria. Engineers have produced a set of warheads for future tests.

Operational principle and the use of bombs in Syria

According to the rearmament program, Russian Armed Forces will receive a batch of 12 T-50 fighters before the end of this year. A new contract for the supply of fifth-generation aircraft will be discussed with the Ministry of Defense at the end of 2016, after which the War Department will decide how many new aircraft are needed.

Competing with the Raptor

The newest Russian fighter aircraft was produced as the main competitor to the F-22 Raptor. The American stealth fighter distinguished itself during the Iraq War.

“The T-50 will go into serial production much later than the Raptor. This allows us to take into consideration all the pros and cons of the existing aircraft when constructing our own fighter. A similar situation existed when we were working on the multipurpose fourth-generation Su-27 fighter. The prototype of that domestic aircraft came out much later than the American F-16, and took into account the shortcomings of its precursor. As a result, the domestic Sukhoi was able to beat the ‘American,’ in terms of combat characteristics,” Vadim Kozyulin, professor at the Academy of Military Sciences, told RBTH.

The expert noted that the T-50 would be able to use the full range of existing high-precision air-to-air missiles, as well as all precision-guided munitions.

“As part of the ‘stealth’ concept, special missiles for the PAK FA are being developed, with a square cross section that will allow more warheads to be carried in hatches during combat missions,” Kozyulin added.

Original post




There were test firing 9A1-4071K aircraft cannon for the Russian fifth generation fighter T-50 (PAK FA) for scientific test range aircraft systems, located near the village of Faustovo Moscow region.

 Aerogun tests were on the test bench, loading 30-mm ammunition in the input tray, and test firing, according to “Rossiyskaya Gazeta “.
It is known that the gun 9A1-4071K for the Sukhoi PAK FA (PAK FA) has been developed by specialists of JSC “Instrument Design Bureau” in late 2014. Because open source is known, that it is an upgraded version of the high-velocity gun GS-30-1.

The gun is ideal for aircraft: its weight of only 50 kilograms, it is considered to be the easiest in the world of 30-millimeter cannon. Unique automation scheme has allowed the base to give 9A1-4071K highest for this type of weapon rate per barrel – up to 1,800 rounds per minute. Feature of the gun is also a stand-alone system vodoisparitelnogo cooling barrel. Its principle of operation is simple: the gun in the casing is water, which is heated in the barrel (during firing) is converted into steam.


Fire from the new gun will be conducted high-explosive-incendiary projectiles and armor-piercing tracer shells, capable of striking even lightly armored ground, surface and air targets. On ground targets gun is effective when shooting at a distance of 1800 meters, in the air – to 1200. Previously 9A1-4071K gun was tested in a multi-purpose fighter Su-27SM. T-50 (PAK FA project) – a fifth-generation aircraft equipped with a fundamentally new avionics suite and promising radar with a phased antenna array. Source




High-explosive incendiary bomb aviation OFZAB-500 was established use in high speed with low altitudes against manpower and easily vulnerable field installations, warehouses and fuel depots. The bomb is intended to replace in the Russian Air Force obsolete FOZAB-500. It is used at altitudes of 300 – 20,000 m at speeds of 100 – 1200 km / h.

OFZAB-500 allows the wearer to carry out maneuvers with large congestion. The bomb can be used on a large number of combat aircraft of Soviet and Russian-made MiG-21, MiG-27, MiG-29, Su-17, Su-22, Su-24, Su-25, Su-27, Tu-95, Tu -16.

Length, m
Diameter, mm
span, m
weight bombs, kg
Weight of explosive, kg
250 kg incendiary + 37.5 kg PF



ODAB-500PMV (ОДАБ-500ПМВ – Объемно-детонирующая авиационная бомба) thermobaric air bomb


Bomb manufactured by the Russian company basalts. Furthermore, the term thermobaric air bomb can meet even the names vacuum bomb, fuel, bomb, aerosol bomb, v detonujúca bomb or a high-explosive bomb.

The bomb is designed to control industrial zones, unprotected or protected by live force (eg. In enclosures, tunnels, caves), nepancierovanej technology and military equipment. The bomb is scheduled for troop (front) airplanes and helicopters. It can be used for the destruction of anti-personnel mines and anti-tank.Planes can toss a bomb from a height of 200 to 12,000 m at speeds of 500-1500 km / hr. Helicopters can toss a bomb from a height of 1100 – 4000 M at speeds of 50-300 km / h.

Bomb has built a lighter.
Diameter Bomb: 500 mm
Length: 2380 mm
Weight bombs: 525 kg
Weight of filling: 193 kg
equivalent of TNT explosions: 1000 kg

Source valka.c

Sukhoi Su-57: Details

UK to reduce number of Main Battle Tanks

“British Army To Reduce Frontline Tanks By A Third”

2016-11-28 10:02

The British Army is reportedly planning to reduce its number of frontline tanks by to up 33%.
The move, which would see all of the Challenger 2s in one of the three tank regiments replaced with Ajax fighting vehicles, could leave the UK with fewer tanks than Serbia, according to the Times newspaper.
Russia, meanwhile, is said to have 2,700 frontline tanks, although it has many more in reserve and is currently bringing the T-14 Armata into service.
The plan, which would leave the British Army with around 40 more tanks than the traditionally neutral Switzerland, is reportedly set to be announced in coming months.
Colonel Bob Stewart, who commanded British forces in Bosnia, said:
“You should only reduce your main battle tank numbers with great caution. Reducing your tank strength may well be misconstrued by our potential opponents and be perceived as weakness in our will to properly defend our country.”
The decision would see Britain’s tank numbers fall from 227 to 170.
112 would serve on frontline duty, with the remainder used for domestic training or in Canada.
Germany, by comparison, has 306 battle tanks, France 200, Poland 971 and Serbia 212.
It comes after the Defence Secretary rejected reports that defence insiders thought the Ajax would be “useless” against anything more than “incompetent enemies”.
Rumours of delays were widely circulated, due to issues with the vehicle’s gun, including the integration of the cannon with a specially-built turret, and a shortage of funds.
However, Sir Michael Fallon denied that the £3.5 billion programme to build the vehicles could be delayed due to the alleged glitches with the weapons system.
The Ajax is lighter and faster than the Challenger 2, with a top speed of 44mph, but is more lightly armoured and has a 44mm gun, as opposed to the Challenger’s 120mm. The vehicle does, however, have a longer range and can cover a wider area.
In response to the reports, an MoD spokesperson told Forces TV the plan would see the Army go from having three to two Armoured Infantry Brigades – plus two Strike Brigades which would have the Ajax.
They added that it’s still being decided how many tanks the two remaining Armoured Infantry Brigades will have, so it can’t be assumed all those in the lost regiment will be scrapped.
The Army, meanwhile, feels that adding the Ajax to capability will make it more relevant and of more use as part of NATO. The MoD said in a statement:
“The Challenger 2 fleet is due to have a £700 million life extension project that will ensure capability until 2035. We are also investing in the transformational, multi-role Ajax armoured vehicle and the Warrior infantry fighting vehicle.
“The project is not fixed and could potentially include upgrades to the main gun, ammunition or armoured protection. We’re open to innovative, cost effective proposals that could improve the capability.”
Original post


Related post:

Rheinmetall Submits Offer to Upgrade British Army Challenger 2 Tank Fleet

British Army’s new fighting vehicles to be built in SPAIN using SWEDISH steel


Russian Airborne Forces to Receive T-72 Tanks

Russia deployed 2,950 main battle tanks in four military districts

Ajax Scout SV CT40

Ejder Yalçin 4×4 Armored Combat Vehicle

Ejder Yalçin, a new member of the Ejder family of vehicles, is a 4×4 tactical armoured combat vehicle designed and manufactured by Nurol Makina. Design studies on the vehicle were initiated in the last quarter of 2012 and a pre-prototype of the base vehicle was exhibited at the IDEF in 2013. Mass production of the vehicle began in May 2014.


Ejder Yalçin offers high-ballistic protection and can be used in diverse missions, including reconnaissance, command and control, and homeland security applications. The vehicle is primarily intended for use by Turkish military and security forces.



The Ejder Yalçin vehicle features a V-shaped hull design, integrating floating floor plates and blast mitigation seating to provide protection against mines and improvised explosive devices (IED). The vehicle features an ergonomic and comfortable seating layout, which can accommodate up to 11 personnel.


The vehicle features easy-to-enter and exit door configurations for the crew. Other optional equipment includes a rescue winch, day or night-vision systems, rear ramp, and explosion suppression and fire-fighting systems for the crew compartment.


The vehicle can be reconfigured as a reconnaissance, command and control, internal security, ambulance, chemical biological radiological nuclear (CBRN) vehicle, weapon carrier and combat vehicle, so that it meets the multiple mission requirements of the users.

The base vehicle has a length of 5.42m, width of 2.48m and height of 2.3m. Its gross weight ranges between 12,000kg and 14,000kg, and payload carrying capacity is up to 4t.


Armament and self-protection


The vehicle is equipped with optionally integrated, remote-controlled and manually-operated weapon stations. It is fitted with two gun ports on the roof. The optional armament mounted on the vehicle includes 7.62mm and 12.7mm machine guns, a 25mm anti-aircraft gun and a 40mm automatic grenade launcher.

SARP Remote Controlled Stabilized Weapon System


ASELSAN SARP Remote Controlled Stabilized Weapon System, tactical land vehicles and fixed installations in the air and land and used threats against asymmetric threats. 

Operational requirements in accordance with the system can be installed in different weapons. Day and night surveillance, target acquisition and provide follow-up opportunity SARP System bears the safety of the operating personnel with advanced remote command capabilities to the highest level. 

Gun Options

  • 12.7mm Machine Gun 
  • 7.62mm Machine Gun 
  • 40mm Automatic Grenade Launcher

Capacity Ammunition

  • 400 (12.7mm)
  • 1000 (7.62mm)
  • 96 (40mm)

Weight & Dimensions

  • Top of the platform : <165kg (armor, except for arms and ammunition)
  • Six platforms : <50kg
  • Height : <70cm

Movement Limits

  • Rise : -30 ° / + 60 °
  • Side : nx360 °

Turret Maximum Speed

  • Rise :> 60 ° / sec
  • Side :> 60 ° / sec

Maximum acceleration of Turret

  • Rise :> 90 ° / s2
  • Side :> 90 ° / s2 

other Features

  • And moving target shooting on the move
  • Day / night vision
  • Automatic target tracking
  • ballistic calculations
  • distance measurement
  • Computer-based fire control functions
  • last warning Ammunition
  • manual operation
  • compliance with MIL-STD-810F for environmental conditions
  • EMI / EMC compliance with MIL-STD-461E
  • Integration with external sensors and command and control systems


7.62mm M240 machine gun for loader

*Note for example only maybe any other model

Length: 49.7 in
Barrel length: 24.8 in
Caliber: 7.62×51mm
Action: Gas-operated, open bolt
Max Rate of Fire: 950 rpm
Muzzle velocity: 2,800 ft/s
Max Range: 3,725 m

M2 .50-cal machine gun

*Note for example only maybe any other model

Rate of Fire Single shot
Sustained: Less than 40 rds/min, in bursts of five to seven rounds
Rapid: More than 40 rds/min, fired in bursts of five to seven rounds
Cyclic: 450-550 rds/min
Maximum Range 7,440 yd (6,800 m)
Maximum Effective Range Area Target: 2,000 yd (1,830 m)
Point Target (single shot): 1,640 yd (1,500 m)


40-mm automatic grenade launcher

IRA011514_REPLICA_RIGHT_MK19_40MM_AutoGrenadeLauncher_864x465.jpgMK-19 40mm grenade launcher – Image:

MK19 40mm Machine Gun, MOD 3

The MK19 Mod3 40mm Grenade Machine Gun was first developed by the Navy in the early 1960’s. TACOM-ARDEC has since suggested modifications to this system which has enabled the Army to deploy the MK19 in the harsh environments encountered during world-wide operations and has therefore enhanced its performance. The MK19 firing rate is over 350 grenades per minute and it is effective to ranges of over 2200 meters. The system was deployed in Southwest Asia during Operation Desert Storm and devastated enemy infantry.

*Note for example only maybe any other model


Manufacturer: Saco Defense Industries
Length: 43.1 inches (109.47 centimeters)
Gun: 72.5 pounds (32.92 kilograms)
Cradle (MK64 Mod 5): 21.0 pounds (9.53 kilograms)
Tripod: 44.0 pounds (19.98 kilograms)
Total: 137.5 pounds (62.43 kilograms)
Muzzle velocity: 790 feet (240.69 meters) per second
Bore diameter: 40mm
Maximum range: 2200 meters
Maximum effective range: 1600 meters
Rates of fire:
Cyclic: 325-375 rounds per minute
Rapid: 60 rounds per minute
Sustained: 40 rounds per minute

MK-19 data

The V-shaped hull of Ejder Yalçin offers a high level of protection against IEDs, mines and ballistic threats. The ballistic protection can be further increased with the integration of add-on armour, where an optional cage armour is offered for protection against rocket attacks. The vehicle can be further fitted with smoke grenade launchers for increased survivability.


Engine and performance

perfo1-enEjder Yalçin is fitted with a Cummins engine which produces a maximum power of 300hp at 2,100rpm. The engine is coupled to fully automatic transmission with hydrodynamic torque converter.

The vehicle features a three-speed gear box and a power-assisted steering. It is also fitted with a secondary emergency steering pump that operates in the event of engine failure.



Ejder Yalçin has a maximum speed of 110km/h and a cruising range of 600km. It can accelerate from 0km/h to 40km/h within six seconds. It comes with a double wishbone, and independent suspension system for all wheels. It is equipped with latitudinal and longitudinal differential locking systems as well as large diameter and wide tires. The central tire inflation system regulates the pressure according to the terrain conditions.


The vehicle has a wheel base of 3,100mm and ground clearance of 400mm. It has the capability to climb obstacles of 0.5m, can cross 1.1m-wide trenches and ford a depth of 0.7m. It has a gradient of 70% and a side slope of 30%. The turning radius of the vehicle is 7.5m.



Main material source

Updated Oct 10, 2017


Thailand needs to turn its crisis into a situation of opportunity. It is important that Thailand accelerate its economic growth, assuring more economic stability in the long term.

Therefore, a large-scale infrastructure project is key to instigate significant change in the Thai economy:

  1. The Kra Canal Project, during the first ten years following the construction of the canal itself, will be able to create around 3 million jobs. 30,000 persons will be employed in the management of the Canal. Within 5 years, 150,000 persons is expected to be employed in the development of industrial projects in the area, of these will be middle and high level echelons. This number will increase to 400,000 within 10 years. Once the Special Economic Zone is set up, there will be employment for at least one million workers. In reality, the multiple spin-off effect of this large-scale infrastructure project is likely to create employment on all levels for approximately 3 million people. Within 10-20 years following the opening of the Kra Canal, workers that would have been employed in the first phase of the Kra Canal project would naturally act as the catalyst for change in the Thai labor force, changing it from an unqualified and backward labor force to one with high qualifications, from an uneducated work force to one with a high level of education.
  1. The national revenue for the country would be higher because of the ability to collect more taxes from the industrial sector and investments in the Special Economic Zone. As a result, increase in government revenue would necessarily follow. It is interesting to note that the 70% of the national budget that is used to pay monthly salaries of civil servants would drop to only 30%. While the other 70% of the national budget would be used to finance the development of the country, the reversal of the present situation.
  1. Thailand would become more competitive thanks to added value coming from maritime cargo transportation. Thailand would become an important link in the international sea lane of communication. Logistics costs would drop to the level of 8% of the GDP, a rate similar to that of developed countries.
  1. Develop national competitiveness in 4 areas

4.1 Economic Performance

4.2 Efficiency of the Public Sector

4.3 Efficiency of the Business Sector

4.4 Efficiency of the Infrastructures

  1. Development of Special Economic Zone within the Kra Canal Zone would
    lead to a major reform in the administrative system, creating a new administration within the present system. Once recognised as workable, it is likely that the new administrative system would be brought in to bring about reform in other parts of the country, a major reform that would be there to stay. This would be change based on reason and without conflict and violence.
  1. By investing in the Kra Canal project in order to bring about modern reform in Thailand, the country’s educational system would be forced to undergo major change to upgrade the general educational level of the Thai population. There would lead to a generation change, a new generation of Thai people, modern and internationalized world citizens at the same time.


Partially reporduced from original post


A Thai Canal to Be Part of China’s Silk Road

Published Wed, Jan 27, 2016  |  , Senior Correspondent

t was an idea that first emerged in the 17th century; but it may take 21st century technology to turn it into reality.

The idea is to build a canal across the less-than-30 mile Kra Isthmus in Thailand – connecting the Andaman Sea in the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea.

The logic supporting the Thai Canal, or Kra Canal, is solid – ships would no longer have to go the long way around Singapore, through the pirate-infested chokepoint known as the Strait of Malacca.

Shippers could shave off three or four days from their travel time, translating to a $300,000 savings on the cost of a 100,000 ton cargo ship voyage.

More than 15 million barrels of oil per day – about 17% of the world’s daily production – are transported through the Strait alone.

The Kra Canal would also alleviate congestion. The Strait can currently accommodate about 122,000 ships. However, by 2025, roughly 140,000 ships will be plying the waters.

Delay, Delay, Delay

So why hasn’t this project moved forward yet?

One reason is money. The canal is estimated to cost at least $20 to $30 billion to build.

And of course, there’s the matter of complicated Thai politics. Some in Thailand say the canal will divide the nation into two countries.

Then there’s the debate over how the economic benefits of the canal will be divvied up.

From a practical viewpoint, there are 13 proposed routes through the Kai Isthmus as to where the canal would actually go. And no surprise – neighboring countries, Singapore and Malaysia, who want to keep benefiting from the ship traffic through the Strait, are strongly opposed to the canal.

China’s Maritime Silk Road

Overlaying this is the geopolitical battle between China and the United States. for influence in the region.

China would like to make the proposed canal a part of its Maritime Silk Road. This was suggested in the ambitious plan unveiled in 2013 by Chinese President Xi Jinping – a plan to create the modern-day equivalent of the historic Silk Road. The plan aimed at having new land and water routes tying China to trading partners all the way to Europe.

The China-led Asian Infrastructure Bank is the perfect financing tool for such a project. I expect the project to get a push, as China needs to play a little catch-up.

In neighboring Vietnam, the government has given the go-ahead for a new $2.5 billion deep water port – the Hon Khoai Port – to be built in Vietnam’s southern most province, Ca Mau. It’s believed that 85% of the funding for it will come from the U.S. Export-Import Bank and that the project will be led by American engineering giant Bechtel.

The Vietnamese port could stand on its own merits as a port for coal. But half of its berths are slated for non-coal items. Ironically, that means it will absolutely flourish with the building of a China-backed Kra Canal. See the map below.

Proposed Map of Kra Canal project

Will It Be Built?

There was a supposed agreement this past summer between Thailand’s Asia Union Group and China-led China-Thailand Kra Infrastructure & Development to build the canal. The Chinese company is already building other infrastructure in Thailand.

But within days, there were denials of any deal. Thailand likely backed away under intense diplomatic pressure from the United States.

But sooner or later, the Thai government will give a China-led project the thumbs-up. The economic opportunity to become a regional maritime center, surpassing Singapore and Malaysia, is going to be too good to pass up. And China is patient enough to wait for Thailand’s approval.

Good investing,

Tim Maverick


Chinese ships to be deployed at Gwadar

Chinese ships to be deployed at Gwadar: Pak navy official

Sat, 26 Nov 2016-09:16am , Karachi , PTI

Pakistan’s plan could be alarming for India

China would deploy its naval ships along with Pakistan Navy to safeguard the strategic Gwadar port and trade routes under the $46 billion China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, a navy official here has said, shedding light on a plan likely to alarm India. China and Pakistan are currently building the nearly 3,000-km-long economic corridor linking Pakistan’s Gwadar port on the Arabian Sea with Xinjiang to improve connectivity between the two countries.

The move would open up a new and cheaper cargo route for transporting oil to China as well as export of Chinese goods to the Middle East and Africa.

A Pakistan Navy official said the role of maritime forces has increased since the country has made the Gwadar port operational and speeded up economic activities under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

“China would also deploy its naval ships in coordination with Pakistan Navy to safeguard the port and trade under the CPEC,” the unnamed official was quoted as saying by The Express Tribune.

In the past, China has shied away from saying that it plans to deploy its naval ships in Gwadar, a move which could raise alarm in the US and India.

Experts feel that CPEC and the Gwadar port would enhance the military capabilities of both China and Pakistan, and make it possible for the Chinese Navy to easily access the Arabian Sea.

Having a naval base in Gwadar could allow Chinese vessels to use the port for repair and maintenance of their fleet in the Indian Ocean region. Such a foothold would be the first overseas location offering support to the Chinese navy for future missions. Pakistani defence officials are keen for the Chinese navy to build up its presence in the Indian Ocean and the Arabia sea, mainly to counterbalance India’s formidable naval force.

The Pakistani official also said that the Navy is considering buying super-fast ships from China and Turkey for its special squadron to be deployed at the Gwadar port for the security purpose. “A squadron may have four to six warships,” he said on the sidelines of the on-going defence exhibition, IDEAS 2016, at the Karachi Expo Centre.

The ships would be bought soon keeping in view their immediate need in the fleet, he said, adding that two defence ships have already been deployed at Gwadar. Another official of the naval force added that Pakistan has kicked off the process of establishing the largest shipyard of the region in Gwadar. A similar ship-building project is being deliberated at Port Qasim in Karachi.

The two advanced shipyards would design and develop ships and other security equipment for Pakistan Navy. “The existing shipyard, the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation, lacks capacity to meet new requirements of the force. Its (PNSC) performance, however, would improve in competition with the two under consideration,” he said.

Original post



China Pakistan Economic Corridor: Gwadar Port

The China Pakistan Economic Corridor is a harbinger of good fortune for the region. It promises to boost Pakistan’ss economy and provide employment and business opportunities for locals, foreign investors can be attracted to invest along the long route of the corridor.

The China Pakistan Economic Corridor is of huge significance, it runs through one of the most important and vital geostrategic locations in South Asia. Gwadar port is one of China,s String of Pearls planned by China in Central, South and South East Asia to expand its political and economic influence and get these regions in its grip.

The US has its pivot to Asia, to contain China’s economic and military expansion in the Asia-Pacific. The US allies are India, Japan, Indonesia and Singapore in its endeavour to ‘slay the Chinese dragon.’


In this tense scenario, Pakistan emerges as a major player of great value to both China and the U.S., it has the potential to balance Sino-US rivalry and expand trade in this region.

China makes huge gains once Gwadar port is fully functioning, its previous shipping route passed through the Strait of Malacca, taking 45 days to reach destinations in Europe via the Middle East. Once the CPEC reaches completion, it will take Chinese shipments just 10 days to reach the same places.

The Malacca route also carried risks of a blockade by United States Pacific Command if hostilities peak so the CPEC is a dream come true for China in all its aspects.
A major portion of CPEC is reserved for power projects, extensive road networks and major infrastructure. The three trade routes are all inter-connected, starting from the Arabian Sea up till the Himalayas, they have inter-linked transportation.

Pakistan will also make immediate gains from its membership of the SCO, of which it became a member in its summit this year. This year it has signed a series of landmark agreements with China, worth an estimated $46 billion, to secure investment for the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) which is a network of roads, railways and pipelines that connect Gwadar port in Pakistan’s southern province of Baluchistan to Kashgar in China’s western province of Xinjiang.


It as an integral part of China’s ambitious Silk Road and Economic Belt initiative, it is endorsed by the SCO and will highlight Pakistan’s role as a vital regional hub in the economic development of Central Asian states which have strong presence in the SCO.

The CPEC connects the whole region and gives Pakistan focal importance for world trade, it holds promise to make Pakistan an economic power in the world.

Gwadar port will directly affect Dubai port, which will lose 70% business once Gwadar becomes fully functional. It will also affect Chahbahar port, as Gwadar is the worlds largest deepwater sea port where ships of large tonnage can also anchor.

The CPEC has met some opposition at home and abroad, mainly because it destroys business for some countries. For some other countries, CPEC is like a bad dream as China finally finds access to warm waters and starts encircling India to begin with. At home, some sycophants have been creating a brouhaha regarding the CPEC, but in fact instead of wasting time they should help find more investors, CPEC offers unlimited opportunities and everyone can benefit.

A proper spanner in the works was when suddenly this same coterie started saying the route had been changed to mostly within Punjab. The government reiterated that no change had taken place, after the whole anti- CPEC club went wild on print and television media.


It is being feared that Chinese products and goods will flood Pakistani markets due to heightened accessibility, Pakistan only needs to keep good quality standards to continue its trade unhindered.

The more competition the better, Pakistan is benefiting much more from the CPEC.
It will generate thousands of jobs and revenue worth billions of dollars for both countries, only an enemy would want Pakistan to lose that.

Publications with Western or Indian leanings have been spreading pure vitriol and disinformation against this project, even propagating the final assessment that the project would never materialise, or of it did, never subsist or survive.

Before this, rumours had been spread that Gwadar would never be developed, today it has already been functioning some months. Indian Prime Minister almost asked the Chinese directly not to go ahead with CPEC as India hated the very idea and found it ‘unacceptable’, while on a visit to China.  He was refused pointblank by the Chinese, after that India must be planning more insurgencies and buying more proxies.

China is working on a very large scale, building Gwadar city and bringing state of the art speed-trains and motorways. Chinese Ambassador Sun Weidong recently reiterated China’s support to the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and said that the project will be completed at every cost.

Just some weeks ago, General Raheel Sharif visited Gwadar and drove down the CPEC himself, parts of it are complete. He expressed the resolve that the China Pakistan Economic Corridor would be completed at any cost.

There has been some concern regarding security of Gwadar specially. A special security force is being formed to ensure smooth operations of Chinese development projects in Pakistan by the military.

“A special security division comprising army battalions and Civil Armed Forces (CAF) wings (is) being raised as a dedicated force for Pakistan-China economic projects,” said Maj-Gen Asim Saleem Bajwa on Twitter, he is Director General Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR), the military’s media wing.

He further added that the special division, to be commanded by a military officer of Maj-Gen rank, would have nine army battalions and six wings of CAFs to start with.

In the past, an insurgency had been funded by India and the some arab countries to stop the construction of Gwadar, lately it has greatly diminished as nearly a thousand rebels have given up arms and vowed to mend their ways. This year, Baluchistan province was way ahead of the other provinces in celebrating Pakistans Independence Day, special events took place for three days, rallies were taken out.

Foreign countries used these rebels to scare off investors and developers who were working with the Pakistani government,such as the Chinese, to sabotage Gwadar.
They misquided the rebels that the demographics of Baluchistan would be upset with the advent of people from all over the world, now they have understood that prosperity awaits them.

The CPEC is a holistic, comprehensive package of competitive economic initiatives from China, just the energy projects once initiated will kick-start an industrial boom in Pakistan.
$15.5bn worth of coal, wind, solar and hydropower projects will come on-line by 2017 and add 10,400MW of electricity to Pakistan’s national grid, a $44m fiber-optic cable will also be built.

A collaboration in space technology has also been announced very recently between Pakistan and China under the Karamay declaration of the CPEC. Bilateral collaboration on space technology will take Pakistan-China relations to new heights, joint space missions will take place.

The CPEC is the gamechanger that Pakistan has waited for since quite some time, yet Pakistan needs to secure its own national interests first and achieve a balance.

We have to balance relations with both China and the West instead of relying on one lobby and rejecting the other. Pakistan has to use a lot of diplomacy and balance China, Russia and the U.S., it should explore and utilise all its options.

In this aspect itself, CPEC will prove to be a gamechanger, not just for Pakistan but for the world, in a way the CPEC could bridge the gap between China and America specially.

CPEC should complete its short term goals pretty soon, the long- term goals will be realised once Pakistan discovers its true potential and emerges as a power to reckon with, both economically and militarily.

By: Sabena Siddiqi 


From the above article it is claimed that Indonesia has joined the USA sphere of influnce which is shrinking fast really odd that Indonesia has taken the stance similar to Singapore!

Related post:

Heritage Foundation Report: US Military Power “Marginal” and Trending Toward “Weak”

Military Might: India vs Pakistan & China –

America’s Doomed China Strategy

China’s Troops in Pakistan May Be an Attempt to Bypass US at Sea

Chinese Troops Will Be Positioned In Pakistan, Security Agencies To Government

Gwadar East Bay.jpg

Kolkata Class Guided Missile Destroyer (Project 15A)

The Kolkata-class guided missile destroyers are the new stealth destroyers being built by Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) for the Indian Navy, under Project 15A. The destroyers are preceded by Type 15 Delhi-class destroyers and succeeded by the Project 15B destroyers.

The Indian Government approved the construction of three Kolkata-class destroyers in May 2000. The first steel was cut for the lead ship in class, INS Kolkata, in March 2003. Her keel was laid in September 2003.

1526527_-_mainINS Kolkata (D63) – Image:

The ship was launched in March 2006 at Mazagon Dock, Mumbai, and delivered to the Indian Navy in July 2014. The vessel was commissioned in August 2014. The Indian Navy successfully test-fired a BrahMos supersonic cruise missile from the INS Kolkata destroyer using the UVLM launcher in February 2015.

The keel of INS Kochi was laid in October 2005. It was launched in September 2009 and commissioned in September 2015.

rtx1sv0f_1443595483INS Kochi (D64) – Image:

The last vessel in the class, INS Chennai, was laid in February 2006. It was launched in April 2010 and is due for commissioning in late-2016. The project has been delayed due to the complex warship building process.

INS Chennai commissioned: Indian Navy gets another indigenous Kolkata-class guided missile destroyer: Here

ins-chennaiINS Chennai (D65) – Image:

In January 2011, the MDL was awarded a follow on order for the construction of four P-15B destroyers. The P-15B ship will retain the hull form of Kolkata-class and will feature a stealthier flush deck and advanced weapon systems.

Project 15B Visakhapatnam-class destroyer

Class overview
Name: Visakhapatnam class
Builders: Mazagon Dock Limited
Operators:  Indian Navy
Preceded by: Kolkata class
Cost: ₹29,340 crore (US$4 billion)
In commission: 2018
Building: 2
Planned: 4
General characteristics
Type: Stealth guided missile destroyer
Displacement: 7,400 t (7,300 long tons; 8,200 short tons)
Length: 163 m (535 ft)
Beam: 17.4 m (57 ft)
Draft: 6.5 m (21 ft)
  • Combined gas and gas system: Twin Zorya M36E gas turbine plants with 4 × DT-59 reversible gas turbines and 2 × RG-54 gearboxes
  • 2 × Bergen/GRSE KVM-diesel engines, 9,900 hp (7,400 kW) each
  • 4 × 1 MWe Wärtsilä WCM-1000 generator sets driving Cummins KTA50G3 engines and Kirloskar 1 MV AC generators
Speed: In excess of 30 knots (56 km/h)
Range: 4,000 nautical miles (7,400 km; 4,600 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph)
Crew: 300 (50 officers and 250 sailors)
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • IAI EL/M-2248 MF-STAR S-band AESA multi-function radar
  • Thales LW-08 D-band air search radar
  • BEL HUMSA-NG bow sonar
  • BEL Nagin active towed array sonar
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Elbit Systems Deseaver MK II counter-measures systems and defensive aids suite
  • Anti-air missiles:
  • 2 × 16-cell VLS, for a total of 32
  • Barak 8 missiles (Range: 0.5 km (0.31 mi) to 100 km (62 mi))
  • Anti-ship/Land-attack missiles:
  • 2 x 8-cells UVLM for 16 BrahMos anti-ship and land-attack cruise missiles
  • Guns:
  • 1 × 127 mm gun Oto Melara SRGM
  • 4 × AK-630 CIWS
  • Anti-submarine warfare:
  • 4 × 533 mm Torpedo tubes
  • 2 × RBU-6000 anti-submarine rocket launchers
Aircraft carried: 2 × Sea King or HAL Dhruv helicopters
Aviation facilities:
  • Flight deck
  • Dual Enclosed hangar for a combination of 2 Seaking, Chetak or HAL Dhruv helicopters

Technical data Project 15B

Ships of the class

Initially in 2008, the total program cost with long-term spare parts was expected to cost ₹3,800 crore (US$560 million), but the construction costs escalated about 225%, and by 2011, cost of the program became ₹11,662 crore (US$1.7 billion), with each ship costing ₹3,900 crore (US$580 million). The Defense Minister A. K. Antony cited the causes being the delay in supply of warship-grade steel by Russia, increase in costs of Russian specialists due to inflation during the build period, wage revision due from October 2003 and delay in finalisation of cost of weapons and sensors.

Yard No.
Laid Down
Sea Trials
INS Kolkata
Mazagon Dock Limited
27 March 2003
30 March 2006
16 August 2014
INS Kochi
25 October 2005
18 September 2009
30 September 2015
INS Chennai
21 February 2006
1 April 2010
21 November 2016

Design and features of the Kolkata-class


Conceptualised by the Indian Navy, the detailed design phase for the class was completed by MDL. Kolkata-class is a follow-on model of the Delhi-class and is fitted with modern weapons and sensor systems. The propulsion system of the Delhi-class was also retained with minor upgrades. Most of the systems integrated in the ships are designed and built in India.

kochi2_zpsse8x1yceINS Kochig5INS Kochi – Image:

The destroyers are also equipped with an action information system and an atmospheric control system. The modern stealth destroyers demonstrate superior anti-surface warfare (ASuW) capabilities. The vessel has an overall length of 163m, a beam of 17.4m and a draft of 6.5m. The full load displacement of the ship is 6,800t.

1252606_wallpaper1INS Kolkata (D63)

Type 052D destroyer: Here

Kolkata-class missile systems

xepugr8INS Kochi

The 16-cell universal vertical launcher module (UVLM) fitted on the ship can launch BrahMos missiles.

There are two vertical launching systems (VLS) for Barak SAM (surface-to-air missile).

16 x Universal vertical launcher module (UVLM)


BrahMos missile


The BrahMos PJ-10 is distinguished by its reported supersonic speed of between Mach 2.0-2.8, depending on the cruising altitude used. In addition to making it difficult to intercept, this speed also imparts a greater strike power. In addition, the BrahMos is equipped with stealth technology designed to make it less visible to radar and other detection methods. It has an inertial navigation system (INS) for use against ship targets, and an INS/Global Positioning System for use against land targets. Terminal guidance is achieved through an active/passive radar.


Originated From: Russia and India
Possessed By: Russia, India, Vietnam
Alternate Names: PJ-10
Class: Supersonic Cruise Missile
Length: 8.0-8.2 m
Diameter: 0.67 m
Launch Weight: 2,200-3,000 kg
Payload: 200-300 kg
Warhead: HE, submunitions
Propulsion: Liquid-fueled ramjet
Range: 300-500 km, 290 km export version
Basing: Ground-launched, Air-launched, Sub-launched, Ship-launched
Status: Operational


2 x Vertical launching systems (VLS)


The ship’s main air-defence armament is composed of two 4×8-cell vertical launching systems (VLS) allowing for up to 32 Barak 8 (medium-long range) air-defence missiles.


Barak 8 is an Indian-Israeli surface-to-air missile (SAM), designed to defend against any type of airborne threat including aircraft, helicopters, anti-ship missiles, and UAVs as well as cruise missiles and combat jets at a range of 70-90 Kms. Barak 8 as “an advanced, long-range missile defense and air defense system” with its main features being:

  • Long Range
  • Two way data link
  • Active Radar Seeker Missile
  • 360 degree coverage
  • Vertical Launch
  • Multiple Simultaneous Engagements


Barak SAM (LR-SAM)


Barak 8 (the Hebrew word for Lightning) also known as LR-SAM is an Indian-Israeli surface-to-air missile (SAM), designed to defend against any type of airborne threat including aircraft, helicopters, anti-ship missiles, and UAVs as well as cruise missiles and combat jets out to a maximum range of 70 km,  however, reports suggest the missile has been increased to a maximum range of 90 km following “range upgrade discussions” between India and Israel during November 2014. Some news agencies have referred to the missiles range at 100 km. Both maritime and land-based versions of the system exist.

Barak 8 was jointly developed by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), India’s Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), Israel’s Administration for the Development of Weapons and Technological Infrastructure, Elta Systems, Rafael and other companies. Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) will produce the missiles. The Israeli Navy has commenced equipping its Sa’ar 5 corvettes with the system, the first re-fitted vessel being the INS Lahav. The Sa’ar 4.5 flotilla will be next for the upgrade. The first 32 missile array will be fitted on the Indian Navy stealth guided-missile destroyer INS Kolkata (D63).


Barak 8/ LR-SAM/ MR-SAM
Type Long-range surface-to-air missile
Place of origin IsraelIndia
Service history
In service Induction Phase
Used by Israeli NavyIndian NavyIndian Air Force
Production history
Designer Israel Aerospace Industries
Defence Research and Development Organisation
Manufacturer Rafael Advanced Defense Systems
Bharat Dynamics Limited
Weight 275 kg (606 lb)
Length 4.5 m (180 in)
 length 123 cm (48 in)
Diameter 0.225/0.54 m
Proximity (60 kg warhead)
Engine Two stage, smokeless pulsed rocket motor
Wingspan 0.94 m
0.5–90km some media reports indicate a capability of 100km
Flight ceiling 0–16 km
Speed Mach 2 (680 m/s)
  • Two way data link
  • Active RF/IIR seeker
8 cell VLS module


India Successfully Test Fires Surface-To-Air Missile Developed With Israel

Indian Navy had also successfully test launched the long range surface to air missile (LR-SAM). The test was undertaken on the Western Seaboard by INS Kolkata on December 30, 2015. These missiles would be inducted in all the three services after trials were completed.

Many Indian industries like BEL, L&T, BDL, and TATA group of companies besides other private industries have contributed to the development of a number of subsystems which have been put into use in this flight test, the official said. Source

BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile developed by BrahMos Aerospace, a joint venture between India-based Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Russia-based NPO Mashinostroyenia (NPOM).

BrahMos missile has a top speed of Mach 2.5 to Mach 2.8 and a maximum range of 290km.


Naval gun systems onboard the Indian destroyers

The main gun fitted forward is a 130mm gun (error it is a 76mm gun). Four AK-630 close-in weapon systems (CIWS) are being provided for close-in air defence. The AK-630 CIWS can defend the ship from incoming anti-ship missiles and other guided weapons. It has a rate of fire of 5,000 rounds a minute.

1 × 76 mm gun Oto Melara SRGM


Technical data:

Caliber: 3 inches / 76,2 mm
Barrel lenght: 186 inches / 4,72 meters (= 62 caliber)
Weight: 7900kg, empty (Super Rapid)
Shell: 76 x 900 mm / 12,34 kilograms
Elevation: – 15° to + 85°
Traverse: 360°
Rate of fire: Compact: 85 rpm / Super Rapid: selectable from single shot up to 120 rpm
Muzzle Velocity: 925 m/s (1100 m/s – DART)
Magazine: Compact: 80 rounds / SR: 85 rounds
16 kilometers with standard ammunition
20 km with extended range ammunition
up to 40 km with VULCANO ammunition

HE (high explosive) – 6,296kg / Range 16km / effective range 8km (4km vs. air targets at elev. 85°)
MOM (multi-role OTO munition)
PFF (pre-formed fragmentation) – anti-missile ammunition
SAPOM (semi-armored piercing OTO munition) – 6,35kg / Range 16km
SAPOMER (semi-armored piercing OTO munition, extended range) – Range 20km
DART (driven ammunition reduced time of flight) – sub-calibre guided ammunition against multiple targets
(missiles and maneuvering targets at sea) 4,2kg in barrel / 3,5kg in flight / 660mm lenght / effective range >8km
VULCANO (76mm unguided and guided extended range ammunition) – under development



4 × AK-630CIWS

AK-630 on the INS Kolkata (D63)

The gun itself is a 6 barrel Gatling gun designated as AO-18.  The barrels are in a single block, having exhaust-driven joint automatics.  They are belt fed with a flat magazine in the AK-630 and a drum magazine in the AK-630M.  These weapons form a part of a complete self-defense system called A-213-Vympel-A, which includes gun, radar, optical and TV control systems.  A single MP-123 Vympel system can control two 30 mm guns or one 30 mm and one 57 mm gun.  This system can engage air targets at ranges up to 4,000 m (4,400 yards) and surface targets at ranges up to 5,000 m (5,500 yards).  The TV control system can detect MTB sized ships at the distance of 75 km (40 nm) and the fighter-size air targets at 7,000 m (7,600 yards).  This system is completely automatic and does not require human supervision although it can be directed from optical control posts in case of damage or for firing on shore targets.

6 barrel Gatling gun AO-18


Date Of Design 1963
Date In Service AK-630:  1976
Gun Weight AO-18 (for AK-630):  under 452 lbs. (under 205 kg)
Gun Length oa 64.13 in (1.629 m)
Bore Length 63.78 in (1.620 m)
Rifling Length 57.48 in (1.46 m)
Grooves 16
Lands N/A
Twist N/A
Chamber Volume N/A
Rate Of Fire AK-630:  4,000 – 5,000 rounds per minute


Type Fixed
Weight of Complete Round 1.834 – 1.839 lbs. (0.832 – 0.834 kg)
Projectile Types and Weights HE-FRAG (OF-84) – 0.86 lbs. (0.39 kg)
FRAG tracer (OP-84) – 0.86 lbs. (0.39 kg)
Bursting Charge HE-FRAG (OF-84) – 0.107 lbs. (0.0485 kg)
FRAG tracer (OP-84) – 0.026 lbs. (0.0117 kg)
Projectile Length up to 11.54 in (293 mm)
Propellant Charge N/A
Muzzle Velocity All:  2,953 fps (900 mps)
3M87:  2,822 fps (860 mps)
Palash:  3,609 fps (1,100 mps)
Working Pressure N/A
Approximate Barrel Life AK-630:  8,000 rounds (automation resource)
Ammunition stowage per gun AK-630:  2,000 rounds


Elevation With 1.2 lbs. (0.54 kg) HE/Frag Shell
Max Ballistic Range 8,860 yards (8,100 m)
Self Liquidation range 5,470 yards (5,000 m)
Effective Targeted Range 4,375 yards (4,000 m)


Anti-submarine warfare torpedo launchers INS Kolkata (D63)

The anti-submarine warfare is provided by twin-tube torpedo launchers and RBU-6000 smerch-2 ASW rocket launchers. The rockets can be launched against submarines within a range of 6km.

2 x Twin-tube torpedo launchers for Mark 46 torpedo


Mark 46, Mod 5

  • Primary Function: Air and ship-launched lightweight torpedo
  • Contractor: Alliant Techsystems
  • Power Plant: Two-speed, reciprocating external combustion; Mono-propellant (Otto fuel II)
  • Length: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) tube launch configuration (from ship), 14 ft 9 in (4.5 m) with ASROC rocket booster
  • Weight: 508 lb (231 kg) (warshot configuration)
  • Diameter: 12.75 in (324 mm)
  • Range: 12,000 yd (11 km)
  • Depth: > 1,200 ft (365 m)
  • Speed: > 40 knots (46 mph, 74 km/h)
  • Guidance System: Homing mode: Active or passive/active acoustic homing
  • Launch/search mode: Snake or circle search
  • Warhead: 96.8 lb (44 kg) of PBXN-103 high explosive (bulk charge)
  • Date Deployed: 1967 (Mod 0); 1979 (Mod 5)

* according to wikiwand (may not be this model)*


RBU-6000 smerch-2 ASW rocket launcher


Depth-Charge Rocket Launcher RBU-6000

  • It is possible to modernize the RBU Launcher using the electric servo drive with the up-to-date cell base.
  • It is an effective combat device for protection of Naval ships against submarines and attack torpedoes. It is possible to use new rockets 90R with underwater gravitation homing projectile.
rpk890R rocket – Image: warefare.be001.jpgfea40392-c39d-424c-882c-dd7e6be0b54fOriginal


Calibre, mm


Number of Barrels


Launcher Weight, kg


Weight of  Rocket RGB-60, kg


Range of Fire by Rocket RGB-60, m
– maximum
– minimum
Weight of  Rocket 90R, kg


Range of Fire by Rocket 90-R, m
– maximum
– minimum


Laying Speed, deg/s
– in elevation
– in training




Sensors / radar systems on the Kolkata-class guided missile destroyers


Kolkata-class is equipped with Thales LW-08 long range volume search radar, EL/M-2248 MF-STAR multimission radar and EL/M-2238 L-band STAR surveillance radar from Israel Aerospace Industries.

Thales LW-08 long range volume search radar


Functional Aspects

The LW08 is an operationally proven radar system. LW radars have been installed on board ships in several configurations.

All systems are provided with solid-state components, a TWT transmitter, a video extractor for automatic target tracking and built-in test equipment. Optionally a back-up solid state transmitter can be offered for reduced TWT use and improved performance in littoral environment. They are simple to operate and easy to maintain. IFF can be integrated by mounting an IFF antenna with interrogation path side-lobe suppression (ISLS) capability and by adding synchronized IFF interrogators.

Performance Data

Detection range

  • Small missile : 100 km
  • Fighter aircraft : 230 km
  • Target speed : up to Mach 4
  • Surface targets : radar horizon
  • Minimum range : 2 km
  • Instrumented range : 135/270 km
  • Tracking capacity : 400

Technical Data

Antenna parameters

  • Type : horn-fed parabolic reflector
  • Beamwidth

– horizontal : 2.2º

– vertical : cosec2 up to 40º

  • Polarization : linear/circular
  • Rotation speeds : 7.5 and 15 rpm

Transmitter parameters

  • Type : TWT
  • Frequency : D-band
  • Frequency modes : fixed frequency and frequency agility
  • Transmission modes : full scan and sector transmission
  • Average power : 5.2 kW

Receiver parameters

  • Receiver channels

– air surveillance : MTI and LIN

– surface surveillance : LIN or LOG

  • Video processing : MTI: digital canceller and

video correlator

Digital ISU and LOG with


  • Compressed pulse length : 0.6 µs


Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 333.4 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 5.4 km Generation: Early 1980s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
LW.08 – (RAWL-2, LAR-2, Type 1022, SPQ-502) Radar
Role: Radar, Air Search, 2D Long-Range
Max Range: 333.4 km

EL/M-2248 MF-STAR multimission radar

ins-kolkataINS Kolkata – Image:


MF-STAR – Multi-function Surveillance, Track And Guidance Radar

The MF-STAR (ELM-2248) is a multi-function solid-state digital active phased array radar system for the new generation of naval platforms. The radar system delivers high quality situation picture and weapon support, under severe target/environmental conditions in the current and future naval arena. Incorporating advanced technology and robust system architecture, the MF-STAR employs multi-beam and pulse Doppler techniques as-well-as cutting edge ECCM techniques to extract low RCS targets from complex clutter and jamming environments. MF-STAR’s basic TR element digital output enables software only adaptive beam forming and mode variations to form a software defined radar. The MF-STAR antenna includes 4 active arrays in S-Band frequency. The hardware architecture and technology ensures high system availability, low maintenance and low life cycle cost. The MF-STAR incorporates a lightweight antenna that can be tailored to fit even relatively small ship sizes (corvettes and above).



  • Fast threat alert response time
  • Very high tracking update rate and accuracy for priority targets
  • Short search frame/TWS revisit time
  • Mid-course guidance of active/semi-active anti-air missiles
  • Illuminator enslavement for semi-active missiles
  • Automatic splash detection and measurement for gunnery support
  • Instantaneous multi-beam
  • Advanced beam forming techniques for ECCM
  • Lightweight antenna
  • Scalable, modular active solid-state phased array
  • High reliability and high availability



EL/M-2238 L-band STAR surveillance radar

Elta EL-M 2238 3D StarImage:

The STAR is a fully coherent S-band pulse Doppler 3D multibeam and multimode search radar. The radar performs long range air surveillance combined with surface surveillance and, at the same time, provides fast detection and automatic threat alert of air targets with an extremely low false alarm rate.


Main Objectives

  • Long range detection
  • Missile detection and designation/indication
  • Automatic threat alert
  • Automatic track-while-scan (TWS)
  • Anti-air missile (AAM) weapon systems designation and support
  • Surface gunnery engagement support

Main advantages

  • Pulse Doppler coverage
  • Simultaneous air and surface channels
  • 3D multibeam elevation coverage
  • Very low false alarm rate
  • Integral IFF antenna
  • Cost effective solution for medium size ships and up



Sonar systems include HUMSA-NG (hull mounted sonar array – new generation) and Nagin active towed array sonar.

HUMSA-NG (hull mounted sonar array – new generation)


HUMSA-NG is the third generation indigenous, ship borne, hull mounted, Sonar system designed by Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory, DRDO, Kochi and productionised by Bharat Electronics, Bangalore. HUMSA-NG is a state of the art Active cum Passive Integrated Ship Sonar system designed to be installed on a variety of naval surface platforms such as Frigates, Destroyers, ASW Corvettes and other classes of ships. Source

HUMSA-NG is an advanced Active cum Passive integrated sonar system proposed to be fitted on a wide variety of Indian Navy platforms such as the Project 17, Project 15A and Project 28 class ships. HUMSA-NG is an advanced version of the existing HUMSA sonar presently fitted on P16, P15, Ranjit and Talwar Class of ships.

The HUMSA (NG) is designed for enhancing the system performance, reliability and maintainability employing the following broad principles:

  • Sub systems / interfaces based on open standards architecture
  • Modular hardware / software blocks
  • Standard back planes for simple and reliable inter-connection
  • Efficient packaging of electronics.
  • Efficient chilled air-cooling arrangements for the cabinets
  • Extensive facilities for Fault Detection & Fault Localization/ maintenance support.

The Human Machine Interface (HMI) for the HUMSA (NG) is through dual console re-configurable user- friendly displays manned by two operators and requiring minimum operator intervention. In addition to the operating consoles HUMSA (NG] system a workstation to provide auxiliary functions like classificatioaid, simulator functions and recording facility, etc. The system also shares the common display console(s), ESI, and video recording facilities.

The sonar is capable of simultaneous operation in active and passive modes. It is capable of detecting, localizing, classifying and tracking sub-surface targets in both active and passive modes.

The system provides simultaneous long-range detection in active and passive modes. The sonar is capable of localization and automatic tracking of up to eight targets in both active and passive modes.

The sonar integrates the operation of the UWT and XBT systems. The UWT functions are controlled from the main sonar console. The data received from the XBT is processed and presented on the workstation and also displayed on the sonar console.

The sonar provides target classification facility with advanced classification features in passive mode of operation.

The system is integrated with FCS systems such as IAC MOD ‘C and CAIO for exchange of relevant information. The sonar provides interface to the torpedo defence system to provide raw data for TD processing. Interfaces are also provided to obtain other ship house holding data such as course, speed, roll, pitch and GPS data.


  • Hull / Bow mounted single array medium range, low frequency SONAR system
  • Cylindrical transducer array to permit panoramic search capability
  • Electronic Beam tilt and Beam Stabilization capability.
  • Dual frequency of operation
  • Simultaneous active/passive search and track capability
  • Automatic target tracking to a maximum of 8 targets in both end Passive modes with Map overlay.
  • Advanced detection and classification features.
  • In built simulator and health monitoring facility.
  • In built facility to record and replay the raw & video data.
  • Standardized direct digital output for external systems.
  • Non Real time OS (LINUX) with C++
  • VME based COTS hardware with a modular concept.
  • Bi-static/Multi-static modes of operation
  • Intercept Processing
  • Fault Tolerant System


General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 29.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
Sensors / EW:
HUS-003 – Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 29.6 km

Nagin active towed array sonar

A Nagin active towed array sonar and a bow-mounted sonar HUMSA-NG (hull-mounted sonar array – new generation) are carried for sub-surface surveillance. To protect against anti-ship missiles coming from multiple directions, the ship carries the Elbit Systems Deseaver MK-II decoy control and launching system. Source


The Kolkata-class has a flight deck and enclosed hangar to embark up to two medium-lift helicopters such as HAL Dhruv advanced light helicopter (ALH) and AgustaWestland Sea King helicopter.

HAL Dhruv advanced light helicopter (ALH)


The HAL Dhruv (Advanced Light Helicopter) is a twin-engined fourteen-seat medium utility helicopter produced by the Indian manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).

Crew 2
Passengers 12-14
Propulsion 2 Turboshaft Engines
Engine Model Turbomeca Ardiden 3G
Engine Power (each) 1032 kW 1384 shp
alternative Engine Variant
Engine Model Turbomeca / HAL TM 333 2B2
Engine Power (each) 825 kW 1106 shp
Speed 300 km/h 162 kts
186 mph
Service Ceiling 4.500 m 14.764 ft
Range 659 km 356 NM
410 mi.
Empty Weight 3.335 kg 7.352 lbs
max. Takeoff Weight 5.500 kg 12.125 lbs
Rotor Blades (main/tail) 4/4
Main Rotor Diameter 13,20 m 43 ft 4 in
Tail Rotor Diameter 2,55 m 8 ft 4 in
Rotor Disc Area 136,8 m² 1473 ft²
Length (Fuselage) 13,43 m 44 ft 1 in
Length 15,87 m 52 ft 1 in
Height 4,98 m 16 ft 4 in
First Flight 1992
Production Status in production
Data for (Version) HAL Dhruv


The ship is equipped with Elbit Systems Deseaver MK II decoy control and launching system. Deseaver can launch decoys against anti-ship missiles coming from different directions.

‘Kavach’ chaff decoy system


INS Chennai comes equipped with ‘Kavach’ chaff decoy system. It is also fitted with ‘Mareech’ torpedo decoy system for defence against torpedoes. Both of these decoy systems have been developed indigenously. Source


The KAVACH MOD-II system is designed to counter the threat of various anti-ship missiles by using chaff decoys. The system provides soft kill defense in a three-layered defense scheme.



1. Multi barrel chaff rocket launcher of Long Range and Short Range .
2. Trainable limits – ± 180 degrees at the rate of 60 degrees per second (max).
3. Elevatable limits � 0 to 60 degrees at the rate of 60 degrees per second (max).
4. Configuration of launcher – 4 x 4 barrels.
5. Firing selection of rockets � Auto and Manual.
6. Modes of Operation � Confusion, Distraction and Seduction.
7. Compensation for Pitch, Roll and Yaw.
8. Accepting, analyzing and prioritizing up to 5 threats.
9. On-line capturing inputs from ship systems.
10. Suggests Course- to-Steer.


1. Overall weight 1680 kgs
2. Overall Height 2690 mm
3. Overall Width 1300mm(dia)
4. Overall Length 1300mm(dia)
5. Mode of operation Power and Manual
6. Bore of barrel 105.6 + 0.4 mm


1. Overall weight 1350 Kgs
2. Overall Height 2460 mm
3. Overall Width 1300 mm (diameter)
4. Overall Length 1300mm (diameter)
5. Mode of operation Power and Manual
6. Bore of barrel 98.0 + 0.4 mm


Kolkata-class propulsion, power and speed

The combined gas and gas (COGAG) propulsion system integrates twin Zorya M36E gas turbine plant. Four DT-59 reversible gas turbines drive the two propellers via two RG-54 gearboxes.

Ukrainian Zorya Production Association M36E gas turbine systems, producing more than 64,000 HP. The M36 gas turbine system compromises four DT-59 reversible gas turbine grouped in two pairs, driving two propellers through two RG-54 gearboxes. There will be 4 separate Russia-made gas turbine electrical generators, two in each engine room. Fresh air for the turbine will be drawn through two large stacks, one after the bridge superstructure and one aft. Source

DT-59 reversible gas turbine



UGT1 6 000R

  D T5 9
application   M *
GTE Power, kW   1 655 0
GTE efficiency,%   3 0 0
The specific fuel consumption of gas (Hu = 8555 kcal / Nm 3 ), Nm 3 / (kWh)  
Specific consumption of fuel oil (Hu = 10 200 kcal / kg), kg / (kW h)   0.2 81
The total pressure ratio compressors   1 3 , 5
The gas flow rate at the outlet of GTD, kg / s   10 0.0
The gas temperature at the outlet of the gas turbine engine, a C   38 0
power turbine speed, rev / min   36 00

Technical data


The two KVM diesel motors are provided by Bergen and Garden Reach. Four Wartsila WCM-1000 generators and Kirloskar AC generators supply onboard electricity. The propulsion system provides a maximum speed of 30kt.

Name: INS Kolkata
Namesake: Kolkata
Operator: Indian Navy
Builder: Mazagon Dock Limited
Yard number: 701
Way number: D63
Laid down: September 2003
Launched: 30 March 2006
Acquired: 10 July 2014
Commissioned: 16 August 2014
Homeport: Mumbai
Identification: Pennant number: D63
Motto: “Yudhay Sarvasannadh”(Sanskrit)”Always Prepared for Battle”
Status: in active service
General characteristics
Class and type: Kolkata-class destroyer
Displacement: 7,500 tons
Length: 163 m (535 ft)
Beam: 17.4 m (57 ft)
Speed: In excess of 30 kn (56 km/h; 35 mph)
Range: 8,000 nmi (15,000 km; 9,200 mi)+
Crew: 250 (estd)
Sensors and
processing systems:
·IAI EL/M-2248 MF-STARAESA multi-function radar

·Thales LW-08 D-band air search radar

·IAI EL/M-2238 L-band STAR surveillance radar

·BEL HUMSA-NG bow sonar

·BEL Nagin active towed array sonar

·BEL Electronic Modular Command & Control Applications (EMCCA Mk4) combat management system

Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Elbit Systems Deseaver MK II counter-measures systems and defensive aids suite
Armament: ·Anti-air missiles:

·4 × 8-cell VLS, for a total of 32

·Barak 8 missiles (Range: 0.5 km (0.31 mi) to 90 km (56 mi))

·Anti-ship/Land-attack missiles:

·2 × 8-cell UVLM for 16 BrahMos anti-ship and land-attack missiles


·1 × 76 mm gun Oto Melara SRGM

·4 × AK-630 CIWS

·Anti-submarine warfare:

·4 × Mark 46 torpedo Torpedo tubes

·2 × RBU-6000 anti-submarine rockets

Aviation facilities: ·Flight deck

·Enclosed hangar

Technical data

Main material source

Updated Feb 08, 2018