Mirage 2000 is a multirole combat fighter from Dassault Aviation of France. It has been operational with the French Air Force since 1984, and has been selected by Abu Dhabi, Egypt, Greece, India, Peru, Qatar, Taiwan and the United Arab Emirates. By 2009, over 600 Mirage 2000 were in service worldwide.
“Mirage 2000E” was a blanket designation for a series of export variants of the Mirage 2000, with the aircraft actually having a wide range of different designations, depending on the customer nation. These aircraft were fitted the M53-P2 engine and an enhanced “RDM+” radar, and all could carry the day-only ATLIS II laser targeting pod — though not all customers acquired the pod.
Thomson-CSF (now Thales) “Radar Doppler Multifunction (RDM)”
* Egypt was the first buyer, ordering 16 “Mirage 2000M” fighters and four “Mirage 2000BM” trainers in late 1981, with deliveries beginning in 1986. The Egyptians also purchased ATLIS II pods and a wide range of appropriate munitions for their shiny new Mirages, including Magic and Super 530 AAMs, AS-30L laser-guided air-to-surface missiles (ASMs), and Armat anti-radiation missiles (ARMs).
* India became a big user of the Mirage 2000. The order history is a bit complicated:
IAF Mirage 2000 – Image @ssbcrack.com
- The first part of an initial batch of 26 single-seaters and 4 two-seaters was shipped to the Indian Air Force (IAF) beginning in 1985 with the older M53-5 engine since India didn’t want to wait on the M53-P2. These aircraft were given the designations of “Mirage 2000H5” and “Mirage 2000TH5”.
- The second part of this initial batch consisted of ten more single-seaters with the M53-P2 engine, with these aircraft designated “Mirage 2000H”. All the first batch were re-engined with the M53-P2 over time, with the single-seaters redesignated “Mirage 2000H” and the two-seaters redesignated “Mirage 2000TH”.
- A second batch of six Mirage 2000H single-seaters and three Mirage 2000TH two-seaters was shipped in 1987:1988.
The total came to 49 IAF Mirage 2000s, including 42 single-seaters and 7 two-seaters. In 2004, the Indian government approved purchase of ten more Mirage 2000Hs, with these machines featuring improved avionics, particularly an upgraded RDM 7 radar.
The IAF named the Mirage the “Vajra”, loosely translated as “Thunderbolt”. India also purchased appropriate stores along with the fighters, including ATLIS II pods and laser-guided weapons. There are unverified reports that the IAF qualified Soviet-designed munitions with the Mirage 2000, such as the R-27 (NATO AA-11 Alamo) AAM. It is also rumored that India has assigned the nuclear strike role to their Mirage 2000s. They were used in 1998 during a major border clash with the Pakistanis in the mountains near Kashmir, dropping LGBs to good effect.
A contract was signed in 2011 to upgrade all IAF Mirage 2000H machines to the Mirage 2000-5 Mark 2 spec, discussed below; India is also now obtaining the Mica AAM. The first of the 48 aircraft to be updated was returned to the IAF in late 2013, with the first two upgrades implemented in France and the rest by Hindustan Aeronautics in India.
India accepts first upgraded Mirage 2000s
India’s first two Dassault Mirage 2000 fighters have completed extensive upgrade activity in France, with the conversion programme now to move to Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL) in Bengaluru.
Modified by Dassault and Thales at Istres air base, the programme’s lead aircraft were formally accepted on 25 March. Originally flown in the T/TH configuration for India, the pair – a single-seat fighter KF107 and a two-seat trainer KT201 – are now redesignated as I/TI models, respectively.
New Delhi signed a $2.4 billion upgrade deal for the Mirage 2000 fleet in July 2011. The first updated airframe, KT201, was returned to flight status in October 2013, followed two months later by the single-seat KF107. The country’s order originally covered 51 aircraft.
Key elements of the upgrade include a Thales RDY fire-control radar and new glass cockpit avionics equipment, as well as the integration of MBDA’s Mica short-/beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile. Images released by Dassault show two of the weapons being carried by each upgraded aircraft. Posted 25 MARCH, 2015 Source flightglobal.com
* Peru placed an order that, after some complications, amounted to ten “Mirage 2000P” fighters and two “Mirage 2000DP” trainers. The Peruvians ordered a set of munitions similar to that ordered by Egypt, along with ATLIS II targeting pods.
* This first series of Mirage 2000Es sold to Egypt, India, and Peru were followed by a second series featuring modest avionics enhancements that was sold to Abu Dhabi of the UAE, and Greece.
Beginning in 1983, Abu Dhabi / UAE purchased 22 “Mirage 2000EAD” fighters; 8 unique single-seat reconnaissance variants designated the “Mirage 2000RAD”; and 6 “Mirage 2000DAD” trainers, for a total order of 36 machines. The order specified an Italian-made defensive avionics suite that delayed delivery of the first of these aircraft until 1989. Abu Dhabi Mirages also flew in the First Gulf War, but saw little or no action.
UAE Mirage 2000RAD
The “Mirage 2000RAD” reconnaissance variant did not have any built-in cameras or sensors, and the aircraft could still be operated in air combat or strike roles. The reconnaissance systems were implemented in pods, including the Thales / Raphael “SLAR 2000” radar pod; the Dassault “COR2” multi-camera pod with visible and infrared imaging capability; and the Dassault “AA-3-38 HAROLD” telescopic long-range optical camera pod. Abu Dhabi was the only nation to obtain such a “specialized” reconnaissance variant of the Mirage 2000.
Thales / Raphael “SLAR 2000” radar pod
Airborne electronic imagery radar with radio transmission 600-kg pod for radar imagery (SLAR : Side Looking Airborne Radar) up to 100-km inside enemy lines. Source oocities.org
Dassault “COR2” multi-camera pod
Dassault COR2 multi-camera pod (400 kg/ 882 lb), with sensors operating the visible and infra-red spectra. Contains :
- a fan of 4 OMERA 35 cameras (114×114 mm format) with focal lengths between 150 and 600 mm
- OMERA 40 panoramic camera (240 x 47 mm)
- and SAT Super Cyclope infra-red linescan.
Speed and altitude limitations = 600 kt (1100 km/h;690 mph) and 11600 m (38,000 ft).
* Beginning in March 1985, the Greeks ordered 36 “Mirage 2000EG” fighters and 4 “Mirage 2000BG” two-seat trainers. They featured an “ICMS 1” defensive countermeasures suite, which was an updated version of the standard Mirage 2000C countermeasures suite, characterized by two small antennas near the top of the tailfin. These Mirage 2000s were later modified in the field to carry the Aerospatiale AM39 Exocet anti-ship missile. Source airvectors.net
Mirage 2000 fighters in operation with the French Air Force are: Mirage 2000C/B single seater and two seater for air defence; Mirage 2000N, two seater, designed for all weather nuclear penetration at low altitude and very high speed; Mirage 2000D, an upgraded version of the Mirage 2000N, for automated bombing using conventional and laser guided munitions; and Mirage 2000-5, incorporating advanced avionics, new multiple target air-to-ground and air-to-air firing procedures using the RDY radar and new sensor and control systems.
Dassault contracted to conduct Mirage 2000D MLU: Here
Dozens of Mirage 2000D aircraft of the French air force are to receive midlife upgrades by Dassault Aviation and MBDA.
The modernization contract covers 55 aircraft and was issued by the French military procurement agency, DGA.
As previously reported by IHS Jane’s , this work will include managing radar and avionics obsolescence issues, as well as swapping the soon-to-be retired MBDA R550 Magic 2 short-range air-to-air missile (AAM) with the newer MBDA MICA InfraRed (IR) AAM, and the fitting of a gun pod for air-to-surface and air-to-air applications.
Further, the Sagem AASM Hammer precision-guided munition (PGM) will be integrated, and the aircraft will be made compatible with the Thales Talios laser designation pod as fitted to the Dassault Rafale. There has been no announcement on the possible integration of the Astac electronic intelligence pod previously fitted to the now-retired Dassault Mirage F1, and trialled on the Mirage 2000D. Source janes.com
By the late 1980s, the Mirage 2000 was beginning to show its age relative to the competition, and export sales slumped. Dassault and Thomson-CSF began work on a privately-funded update of the Mirage 2000C to compete with the latest models of US F-16 fighters. The new “Mirage 2000-5” was to feature updated avionics and MICA missile armament. A two-seat Mirage 2000B prototype was extensively modified as the first Mirage 2000-5 prototype, first flying on 24 October 1990 with Patrick Experton at the controls. A Mirage 2000C prototype was then reworked to a similar standard, performing its initial flight on 27 April 1991.
As it emerged, the Mirage 2000-5 was difficult to distinguish from first-generation Mirage 2000 variants, and possessed the same SNECMA M53-P2 engine. The only really visible difference from a Mirage 2000C was that the Mirage 2000-5 lacked a nose pitot probe. However, the avionics system had been almost completely modernized, featuring:
- The Thales multimode “Radar Doppler Multi-target” (“RDY” in its French acronym). The RDY radar was the heart of the upgrade, providing true multi-target tracking to support the MICA EM. The RDY could guide four MICA EMs to different targets simultaneously.
- A more powerful processor.
- The updated ICMS 2 countermeasures suite, along with the Samir DDM missile warning system.
- A new glass cockpit layout borrowed from the Rafale program, featuring three color MFDs; a dual linked wide-angle HUD / head-level display; and HOTAS controls. There was a high degree of cockpit automation; for example, the fire control system could automatically prioritize threats. The cockpit was of course NVG compatible.
Central to the upgraded multirole capability of the Dash 5 is the RDY radar developed by Thomson-CSF/Detexis. Development of the RDY radar began in 1984 and the programme proceeded smoothly. In July 1987 the first of nine prototypes took to the air in a Falcon 20, and seven years later in December 1994, Thomson-CSF were able to deliver the first production standard set.
RDY is the result of Thomson-CSF´s experience gained from producing four generations of fighter radar, in particular the RDI radar -the first Pulse Doppler radar developed by Thomson-CSF.
The RDY can select one of three PRF (Pulse Repetition Frequency) modes, namely low, medium and high when operating in the air intercept mode (Auto Waveform Management). Low PRF is employed in the Look – Up mode. High PRF is best suited to long range Look – Down, while Medium PRF is used at all altitudes due to it´s reliable target detection properties. Thomson – CSF have developed algorithms that continually optimize the wave form to guarantee the highest target discrimination, even when the enemy is using advanced ECM. RDY has proved it´s ability to accurately measure target range even in heavy ground clutter and consistently demonstrates a “False Alarm Rate” of zero. When operating in the air-to-ground mode, the RDY employs Doppler Beam Sharpening, terrain mapping and air-to-ground ranging. RDY can simultaneously detect 24 airborne targets, irrespective of their altitude, track the eight most threatening and auto-prioritise four of them.
Thomson-CSF/Detexis quote the look-up,look-down, shoot-up,shoot-down performance as being 70 km. In actual practice engagements conducted by the French AdlA, RDY has demonstrated it´s ability to detect, reliably, fighter size targets at 140 km.
Great effort has been made reduce the effectiveness of any ECM that the enemy might choose to employ. Of significance is the advanced signal processing and the Monopulse receiver with it´s three independent channels.The RDY is however being developed further. The latest version, RDY-2 has a 15% greater air-to-air range, a SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) mode that allows ground mapping with a resolution of less than one metre and refined moving ground target tracking. Source mirage-jet.com
Mirage 2000-5 cockpit
Mirage 2000-5 cockpit @image.noelshack.com
Mirage 2000-5 is available as a single-seater or two-seater multirole fighter. The aircraft has hands-on throttle and stick (HOTAS) control. Mirage 2000-5 incorporates the Thales VEH 3020 head-up display and five cathode ray tube multifunction advanced pilot systems interface (APSI) displays.
The combined head-up / head-level display is collimated at infinity, and presents data relating to flight control, navigation, target engagement and weapon firing. Sensor and system management data is presented on two coloured lateral displays.
Mirage 2000 has nine hardpoints for carrying weapon system payloads: five on the fuselage and two on each wing. The single-seat version is also armed with two internally mounted, high-firing-rate 30mm guns.
Air-to-air weapons include the MICA multi target air-to-air intercept and combat missiles, and the Magic 2 combat missiles, both from MBDA (formed out of a merger between Matra BAe Dynamics, EADS Aerospatiale and Alenia Marconi Systems). MICA supports a maximum operating range of 60km. The aircraft can carry four MICA missiles, two Magic missiles and three drop tanks simultaneously. The Mirage 2000-5 can fire the MBDA Super 530D missile or the MBDA Sky Flash air-to-air missile as an alternative to the MICA missile.
MICA is the multi-mission air-to-air missile system for the Rafale and the latest versions of Mirage 2000-5 combat aircraft. It has a high level of tactical flexibility in order to meet the most demanding operational requirements:
- Beyond Visual Range (BVR) multi-target / multi-shoot
- Enhanced Short Range (SR) performance
- Maximum flexibility for multi-role / swing-role aircraft
MICA has a totally dual role. It is able to cope with both BVR and SR combat situations and exhibits very high performance in both situations. The weapon covers Beyond Visual Range situations and in addition offers 2 guidance systems with its 2 interoperable seekers:
- RF MICA with radar seeker providing all weather shoot-up / shoot down capability
- IR MICA with dual waveband imaging infrared seeker surpassing latest generation AAM missiles.
MICA outperforms other BVR missiles with its unique stealthy interception capability provided by its silent seeker. Source mbda-systems.com
* Note as per Jane’s article only IR will be available
- Strap-down inertial reference unit
- Active RF monopulse doppler seeker
- Passive imaging IR seeker
- Lock-On After Launch
- Lock-On Before Launch
Target designation modes
- Onboard aircraft radar
- Electro-optical sensors
- Helmet mounted sight (HMS)
- Autonomous lock-on from the seeker’s own IRST scans Aerodynamics and control
- Long chord wings
- Tail control surfaces
- Thrust vector control (TVC)
- High impulse
- Solid propellant Fuzing and warhead •
RF proximity fuze
- Impact fuze
- Focused splinters
- Rail or eject launchers
- Firing up to max g and max angle of attack
- Weight: 112 kg
- Length: 3.1 m
- Diameter: 160 mm
- RF or IR guidance
- Thrust Vector Control system
- Rail and ejection launch
Magic 2 (R.550 Mk2)
- Manufacturer: Matra
- Release Date :1986
- Type : air-to-air short-range missiles
Second version, greatly improved.
- Length : 2750 mm (108 in)
- Diameter : 157 mm (6 in)
- Wingspan : 660 mm (26 in)
- Weight : 90 kg (198 lbs)
- Engine : fuel rocket engine solid SNPE Richard
- Maximum range : 10 km (6 mi 5 nm)
- Initial speed : Mach 2
- Guidance : Passive Infrared
- Load weight 12.5 kg (27.558 lbs)
- Payload : HE fragmentation
MBDA Super 530D missile
- Manufacturer: Matra
- Release Date :1987
- Type : average air-air missiles scope
basic weapon of Mirage 2000C, including shooting abilities to the extended low.
- Length : 3800 mm (150 in)
- Diameter : 263 mm (10 in)
- Wingspan : 620 mm (24 in)
- Weight : 270 kg (595 lbs)
- Propulsion : rocket engine with solid fuel
- Maximum range : 40 km (25 miles, 22 nm)
- Initial speed : Mach 4.5
- Guide : Radar semiactive
- Load weight : 30 kg (66 lbs)
- Payload : HE fragmentation
MBDA Sky Flash air-to-air missile
The Active Skyflash retains the airframe of the basic Skyflash/Improved Skyflash, but is fitted with a Thomson CSF active radar seeker. This allows fire and forget launches against multiple targets, which will not become aware of the inbound missile until it is either sighted or its active seeker commences terminal homing. The active seeker has an inherent capability to burn through hostile jamming as the power on target increases as the missile closes with the target. Source ausairpower.net
- Manufacturer: BAE Systems
- Type : average air-air missiles scope
- Length : 3683 mm (145 in)
- Diameter : 203 mm (8 in)
- Wingspan : 1016 mm (40 in)
- Mass : 193 kg (425 lbs)
- Engine : fuel rocket motor Aerojet solid or Rockwell Mk 52 Mod 2
- Maximum range : 50 km (31 mi, 27 nm)
- Initial speed : Mach 4
- Guide : Radar semiactive
- Load weight : 30 kg (66 lbs)
- Payload : Charge fragmentation
Mirage 2000 is also equipped to carry a range of air-to-surface missiles and weapons including laser-guided bombs.
These include the MBDA BGL 1000 laser-guided bomb, MBDA AS30L, MBDA Armat anti-radar missile, MBDA AM39 Exocet anti-ship missile, MBDA rocket launchers, MBDA Apache stand-off weapon, and the stealthy cruise missile, SCALP.
MBDA BGL 1000 laser-guided bomb
Bombe Guidée Laser (BGL) laser-guided bombs were developed by Matra (now MBDA) starting in 1978. The guidance system had to work using the same principles as the US Paveway guided bombs. The guidance kits were intended as modifications to existing free fall bombs that were in service with the French Air Force. The semi active laser homing (SALH) guidance system was developed starting from the AS-30 laser-guided missile sensor. The guidance system allowed for in-flight target illumination by the aircraft-mounted ATLIS 2 (Automatic Tracking Laser Illumination System) or with ground-based laser designator targeting pod.
ATLIS II Targeting Pod
Royal Thai Air Force F-16 with ATLIS II Targeting Pod – Image @m.exteen.com
The BGL targeting system are attached to 250, 400 and 1,000 kg free-fall general-purpose bombs. The French Air Force discontinued the purchases due to the higher cost compared to the US Paveway family bombs that were adopted as an interim solution while waiting for the French-made AASM family of guided bombs to enter service. Source wikipedia.org
Sagem AASM Hammer precision-guided munition (PGM)
Armement Air-Sol Modulaire (AASM) HAMMER (Highly Agile Modular Munition Extended Range) is a new generation medium-range modular air-to-ground weapon designed and manufactured by Sagem (Safran group), for the French Air Force and Navy.
The AASM weapon system has a length of 3m and weight of 330kg, and has a range of over 60km at high altitudes and 15km at low altitudes. It has fire and forget capability, and an extended stand-off capacity.
The interoperable missile has the ability to engage multiple targets simultaneously. It can also strike fixed or moving targets with high precision. The missile is maintenance-free and has low lifecycle costs.
The missile uses single, double or triple store adaptors and uses Sagem’s Hemispheric Resonating Gyro, inertial / GPS hybridisation and strap-down infrared imagers and associated algorithms for conventional deep strike missions.
The AASM HAMMER missile consists of a guidance kit and a range extension kit. The kits are fitted with Mk82 warheads including Smart Bomb Unit (SBU)-38, SBU-64 and SBU-54. The easy to use missile supports operations with 125kg, 250kg, 500kg and 1,000kg bomb bodies, and can be reprogrammed during the flight.
The basic version SBU-38 HAMMER is provided with hybrid INS/GPS guidance, while the SBU-54 version is equipped with INS/GPS/IR (infrared) guidance. The latest version SBU-64 uses INS/GPS/laser guidance.
The hybrid inertial/GPS layout is the standard guidance mode for coordinates. Once the coordinates have been entered in the weapon, the inertial guidance system enable it to hit the target without requiring a GPS signal, if it is unavailable. This version is designated the SBU-38 Hammer (Smart Bomb Unit).
The AASM’s modularity allows it to be used on 125, 250, 500 and 1000kg bomb bodies. Its engine provides it with range greater than 50km, meaning it can be fired at a standoff distance. Autonomous after it has been dropped, it can be used at low altitudes, cross hilly terrain or veer sharply from the firing aircraft.
AASM INS/GPS IR
The inertial/GPS/IR kit adds an infrared imager for terminal guidance. With a simplified model of the scene around the target first being uploaded to the weapon, this imager allows the AASM to recalculate its trajectory during the last few seconds prior to impact, using image recognition algorithms. This allows the AASM to hit its target with the highest possible accuracy, even if GPS coordinates are incorrect, or the GPS signal is unavailable. This version is called the SBU-64 Hammer.
The AASM’s modularity allows it to be used on 125, 250, 500 and 1000kg bomb bodies. Its engine provides it with range greater than 50km, meaning it can be fired at a standoff distance. Autonomous after it has been dropped, it can be used at low altitudes, cross hilly terrain or veer sharply from the firing aircraft.
AASM INS/GPS Laser
The inertial/GPS/laser kit adds terminal laser guidance to engage agile, moving land or naval targets, illuminated by a ground or airborne laser designator. It will be deployed by French armed forces starting in 2012. This version is designated the SBU-54 Hammer (Smart Bomb Unit).
The AASM’s modularity allows it to be used on 125, 250, 500 and 1000kg bomb bodies. Its engine provides it with range greater than 50km, meaning it can be fired at a standoff distance. Autonomous after it has been dropped, it can be used at low altitudes, cross hilly terrain or veer sharply from the firing aircraft. Source sagem.com
The laser terminal guidance version can be deployed to engage moving targets, while the infrared terminal guidance version minimises target coordinate errors.
The combat proven missile can operate in all weather conditions during the day and night. It has vertical strike capability and can support deep strikes, close air support, air interdiction, and SEAD-type or anti-ship combat missions.
The propulsion system is fitted at the rear of the missile and consists of a solid rocket motor and four winglets for flight control. Source airforce-technology
The AS-30L is a French short-to-medium range air-to-ground missile which employs laser homing guidance. The AS-30L is employed for attacking targets which require a high degree of precision to engage effectively, but are also potentially dangerous enough to necessitate a longer-distance “stand off” attack profile to reduce the danger to the aircraft and pilot to ground based anti-aircraft defences. The missile has a range of 3 to 11 kilometers, carries a 240 kilogram warhead, and claims a 1-meter CEP with either airborne or ground-based laser designators.
||520 kg (1,146 lb)
||3.7 m (12 ft 1 in)
||340mm (13 in)
||240 kg (529 lb) impact-fuzed SAPHE (Semi-Armor-Piercing High-Explosive)
|Delayed AP impact fuse (2 m ferroconcrete)
||Two-stage solid propellant rocket motors, composite booster, double-based sustainer
||1 m (3.2 ft)
|Minimum range: 3 km (1.8 mi)
Maximum range: 11 km (6.8 mi)
||10,000 m (32,800 ft)
||1,700 km/h (1,056 mph)
|semi-active laser homing
|Mirage 2000D, Mirage 2000-5, F-16,Jaguar, Mirage F1, upgraded Super Etendard, Rafale
MBDA Armat anti-radar missile (AS 37 Armat)
The AS 37 is the product of a collaboration between the British firm of Hawker-Siddely, and Matra in France. The AS.37, employed by both the British and the French, uses a movable receiver aerial to lock onto the hostile radar emission and send guidance signals to the small set of control fins behind the wings. Length of the AS.37 version Martel is reported at 412 centimeters, and it weighs 1213 lbs. at launch. Speed is high subsonic, although it is claimed to break the sound barrier in a steep attack. The updated version of the AS-37, known as the Armat, was introduced in 1984 using the same airframe but with an updated radar seeker. The somewhat shorter, television-guided AJ.168 version of the Martel is used only by the British. The firms Electronique Marcel Dassault (France) and Marconi (UK) took part in developing the missile. The former created the guidance system for the AS- 37 version and the latter the electronics for the AJ-168 version.
||standoff anti-radar missile
||two stage solid propellant rocket motors, 2.4 s boost, 22.2 s sustain
||passive radar homing
||proximity-fuzed with delayed impact high-explosive blast fragmentation, 150 kg
||France, Kuwait, Iraq.
MBDA AM39 Exocet anti-ship missile
The Exocet (French for “flying fish”) is a French anti-ship missile developed in the 1970s. While lacking in warhead size and range, this battle-tested missile is still in production.
This missile is an internally guided weapon. When it is about 12-15 kilometers from the target, it begins to utilize its active radar. The Exocet has a solid-fuel rocket motor. It can reach a top speed of Mach 0.9 (1 130 km/h).
The main advantage of the Exocet is its low flight altitude (generally 1-2 meters above the water). Due to this low altitude, this sea-skimming missile can often avoid detection until it is about 6 000 meters from the target, which leaves little time for launching surface-to-air missiles. Consequently, this missile has a good hit probability.
The Exocet is primarily useful against small warships like frigates and corvettes due to its small warhead size.
|Country of origin
||1 – 1.1 m
|Range of fire
||42 – 180 km
Photo: © EMA – Take off of a French Armée de l’Air Dassault Mirage 2000D armed with SCALP-EG missile from the Jordanian BAP
MBDA Apache stand-off weapon or Storm Shadow / SCALP
The Storm Shadow / SCALP is a long-range, air-launched, stand-off attack missile designed and developed by France-based MBDA Systems. The missile was developed primarily for the UK and French armed forces. It is derived from the MBDA Systems’ Apache anti-runway missile.
The missile is intended to strike high-valued stationary assets such as airbases, radar installations, communications hubs and port facilities. The Storm Shadow is capable of engaging the targets precisely in any weather conditions during day and night. The long range and low attitude combined with subsonic speed make the Storm Shadow a stealthy missile.
Storm Shadow guidance and navigation system
The Storm Shadow missile is designed to strike the targets with an enhanced accuracy, employing different navigation systems installed onboard.
The navigation system of the missile includes inertial navigation (INS), global positioning system (GPS) and terrain reference navigation for better control over the path and accurate target strike. The missile is fitted with a passive imaging infrared seeker.
The Storm Shadow missile is programmed with each and every detail of the target and the path to be taken to reach the target prior to its launch. Once released from the aircraft, the missile follows a pre-programmed path at low level with the help of continuous updates from the onboard navigation system. It employs imaging infrared seeker to compare the actual target area with stored imagery repeatedly until reaching the target.
Storm Shadow warhead details
The missile is fitted with a two-stage bomb royal ordnance augmented charge (BROACH) blast/ penetrator warhead.
The first stage of the warhead makes the way for the second stage by cutting the surface of the target. The larger second stage (main) of the warhead then penetrates into the target and detonates.
Storm Shadow propulsion system
Turbomeca Microturbo TRI 60-30 turbojet – Image @leteckemotory.cz
The Storm Shadow missile is equipped with a Turbomeca Microturbo TRI 60-30 turbojet propulsion system, which can produce a 5.4kN of thrust. Source airforce-technology.com
Apart from extreme accuracy, the second element of Storm Shadow effectiveness is the sophisticated warhead it carries, the Bomb, Royal Ordnance, Augmenting CHarge (BROACH). BROACH uses a precursor penetrator charge followed by a follow through main charge. Combined with an advanced fuze (like Paveway IV, from Thales) it has proven to be devastatingly effective. Source thinkdefence.co.uk
Originated From: France
Possessed By: France, United Kingdom, Italy, Greece, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
Alternate Name: APACHE AP, SCALP EG, Storm Shadow, SCALP Naval, Black Shaheen
Class: Short Range Cruise Missile
Basing: air-, ship-, sub-launched
Length: 5.1 m (5.5 m for SCALP Naval)
Diameter: 630 mm
Launch Weight: 1,300 kg (1,230 kg for APACHE AP)
Warhead: 1 X 400 kg HE penetration
Range: 140- 400 km
In Service: 2004
|| SCALP EG/Storm Shadow
|| 400 km
|| 1X400 kg HE penetration
|| 630 mm
|| 1,300 kg
|Countries Possessing Missile
|| France, Greece, Italy, Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom
Technical data source missilethreat.csis.org
The Mirage 2000-9 aircraft ordered by the United Arab Emirates carries the Black Shahine missile developed by MBDA. The MBDA Storm Shadow / Scalp EG stand-off cruise missile will arm French AF Mirage 2000D, Greek Mirage 2000-5 and UAE Mirage 2000-9 aircraft. Storm Shadow was first deployed on UK RAF Tornado aircraft during Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003. Scalp EG entered service on French AF Mirage 2000D in December 2003.
MBDA was awarded a contract in October 2003 to integrate the ASMPA medium-range air-to-ground missile on the French Air Force’s new Mirage 2000NK3 aircraft. ASMPA has a tactical nuclear warhead and replaces the ASMP missile, which has been in service on the Mirage 2000N since 1988. The operational evaluation was completed in March 2009 and the new missile entered service on the Mirage 2000NK3 in October 2009. The nuclear warhead was provided by the French Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique).
ASMPA medium-range air-to-ground missile
The ASMP (Air-Sol Moyenne Portee, medium-range air-to-surface) is a ramjet powered, land attack cruise missile that carries a nuclear payload. The missile was developed from a competition between Matra’s turbojet proposal and Aerospatiale’s ramjet proposal (now MBDA). The ramjet version was chosen and full-scale development began in 1978. The goal was to replace the AN-22 nuclear bomb carried by the Mirage IV with a cruise missile that could penetrate air defenses and achieve a more credible deterrent vis-à-vis the Soviet Union. A longer range version, ASMP-A (Amelioreor Plus), has since been developed and became operational in October 2009.
The ASMP is 5.38 m in length, .38 m in body diameter, and 860 kg in launch weight. The missile carries the TN-81, a 300 kT nuclear warhead with a 200 kg payload. The ASMP is an inertial-guided, air-to-surface missile guided most likely by terrain-mapping and an onboard computer which is programmed before launch. The motor assembly is comprised of a solid-propellant engine which fires after the missile has been released from the aircraft. Upon ignition, the missile accelerates to Mach 2.0 in five seconds after which the booster cartridge is ejected from the ramjet exhaust nozzle. Then, the liquid (kerosene) – powered ramjet motor takes over and accelerates to a maximum speed of Mach 3.0 depending on the altitude. The ASMP has a high altitude range of 300 km, and a low altitude range of 80 km.
The ASMP was deployed in 1986 by the French Air Force, and later in 1989 by the French Navy. A 150 missiles were reportedly scheduled for production, but reports indicate only 87 missiles were constructed.
Launch Weight:860 kg
Warhead:TN-81, 300 kT nuclear
Mirage 2000 has an upgraded digital weapon delivery and navigation system (WDNS). The aircraft is fitted with a TV/CT CLDP laser designation pod from Thales Optronics, which provides the capability to fire laser-guided weapons by day and night. A number of French Air Force Mirage 2000D aircraft were fitted with the Damocles laser designation pod with thermal imaging camera, also from Thales Optronics, under a contract awarded in July 2008.
Damocles laser designation pod
- Compatible with laser guided weapons, INS/GPS guided missiles and imagery-guided weapons
- Attacks in autonomous or cooperative mode, using integrated laser spot tracker and laser marker
- Long range damage assessment capability
- Target recognition capability
- 3D localisation
- Integrated navigation FLIR
- Medium range day/night small targets reconnaissance
• Day/night visual airborne target identification
- Powerful laser and high resolution imagery provide the aircraft with a stand-off range and tactical ground/air defence system survivability
- Advanced technology featuring state-of-the-art staring array detector effective at long range
- Robust new generation tracking systems
- Superior image processing
TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS Imagery
- 3rd generation detector
- Spectral band: 3-5 μm
- Field of View:
– Wide FoV: 4° x 3°
– Narrow FoV: 1° x 0.75°
– Electronic magnification: x2
- Wavelength: 1.5 μm
- Wavelength: 1.06 μm
- STANAG 3733
Laser spot tracker
Thales Talios laser designation pod
Designed entirely around operational feedback from users, TALIOS is the latest addition to the Thales family. With its open architecture and a high level of functional integration, TALIOS is the first optronic pod to cover the entire critical decision chain from intelligence gathering to weapon delivery. With the latest generation of high-resolution sensors and high-precision line-of-sight stabilisation, capabilities range from deep strike with long-range missiles and bombs to air-to-air target identification and close air support, and include the rapidly emerging requirement of Non-Traditional Information, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (NTISR). Permanent Vision™. Very wide-angle combined vision (synthetic and real) is one of the key features of the TALIOS pod, providing critical contextual information and making the pod a key component of the pilot’s visual environment throughout the mission. All functions will be standard for both French and international customers. With its open architecture, the TALIOS pod is conceived as a ‘plug & fight’ system for integration on all existing fighters, ready to incorporate new functionalities. Source thalesgroup.com
Mirage 2000-5 is equipped with a multi-mode Thales RDY doppler radar which provides multi-targeting capability in the air defence role and the radar also has look down / shoot down mode of operation. The radar can simultaneously detect up to 24 targets and carry out track while scan on the eight highest priority threats.
Astac electronic intelligence pod
According to Thales, the 400kg (882lb) ASTAC pod’s ELINT capabilities include the ability to locate and classify hostile emitters to support targeting applications or to inform an air force’s electronic order of battle. Source flightglobal.com
The aircraft is equipped with a self-protection suite installed internally. Mirage 2000-5 carries the ICMS mk2 automated integrated countermeasures system from Thales.
MIRAGE 2000 DECOYING
MISSILE WARNING SYSTEM
- Completely integrated on to the Mirage 2000 EW suite
- Large range of decoy types and calibres: chaff, flares, others
- Fully programmable by the user
- In full operational service
ADDITIONAL DECOY DISPENSER FOR MIRAGE 2000 SERIES
ECLAIR-M is a highly effective subsystem that is able to protect combat aircraft against attacking missiles. To counter modern threat such subsystems are required.
However, increasing the decoy capacity of individual platforms, while not compromising the available internal and external space capacity of aircraft, remains a constant cause for concern.
- ECLAIR-M is the complementary decoy dispenser to SPIRALE, the chaff and flare dispensing system for all variants of the Mirage 2000
- ECLAIR-M increases the basic IR flare capacity of SPIRALE by 4 times
- Chaff cartridges can also be used
- ECLAIR-M is housed in the dragchute bay of the Mirage 2000 in order to keep the hard points clean
- ECLAIR-M is completely integrated within the ICMS EW suite of the Mirage 2000 developed in co-operation with Thales. It is in service with the French and export Air Forces
ICMS mk2 incorporates a receiver and associated signal processing system in the nose section for the detection of missile command data links.
The system can be interfaced to a new programmable mission planning and a post-mission analysis ground system.
Mirage 2000 SNECMA M53-P2 turbofan engines
The M53 turbofan engine has been developed by the French company Snecma for the 1-engine Mirage 2000 fighter jet, in service with the French Air Force and 9 other Air Forces. There have been produced more than 639. The newest M53 version is the M53-P2 which gives a thrust of 64 kN (14.500 lb) and 95 kN (21.400 lb) with afterburner. This version is also equipped with a FADEC.
The M53-P2 is used by the new Mirage 2000-5 from the French air force and the Mirage 2000-9 for the United Arabian Emirates Air Force (UAEAF). The UAEAF has bought 74 engines for their fleet of 32 Mirage 2000-9 fighter jets. These are equipped with an engine auto-speed function. With this the aircraft will automatically hold the speed, selected by the pilot.
331 Mira Pantos Kerou (331 MPK/All-Weather Squadron) Greece – Image @jetwashaviationphotos.com
||14,5000 lb (64.5 kN)
|Thrust with afterburner
||21,400 lb (95.2kN)
|Turbine inlet temperature (TIT)
||2420 degrees F.
|Specific Fuel Consumption
Engine data worldwide-military.com
Mirage 2000 is equipped with an SNECMA M53-P2 turbofan engine, which provides 64kN thrust and 98kN with afterburn. The air intakes are fitted with an adjustable half-cone-shaped centre body, which provides an inclined shock of air pressure for highly efficient air input.
The Mirage 2000 can climb at the rate of 285m/s. The maximum and approach speeds of the aircraft are 2,530km/h and 259km/h respectively. The ferry range is 3,335km. The range and service ceiling are 1,550km and 17,060m respectively.
Mirage 2000 international orders and deliveries
Orders for 110 Mirage 2000-5 have been placed by the air forces of France (37), Taiwan (60 aircraft), Qatar (12) and Greece.
A single-seat Greek Mirage 2000-5 from 331 Squadron powers out of Tanagra’s Runway 28 – Image @jetwashaviationphotos.com
The first Mirage 2000-5 was delivered to Taiwan in December 1997. Around 57 Mirage 2000s are currently in service with Taiwan.
Greece acquired 15 Mirage 2000-5 mk2 and upgraded ten of its Mirage 2000 to the same standard. The first entered service in September 2004 and deliveries concluded in November 2007. Mirage 2000 production line was shut down in 2007 after the last aircraft was delivered to Greece in November 2007.
Greece Mirage 2000-5 mk2
In 2000, Greece ordered a batch of 25 Mirage 2000-5 Mk.2 fighters, which feature the SATURN secure radio. The order included 15 new-build aircraft and 10 upgrades of existing Greek Mirage 2000EGs. Apparently the Greek order does not include any upgrades of two-seaters.
Mirage 2000-5 Mark 2 Dassault extended the improvements of the Mirage 2000-5 a bit further with the Mirage 2000-5 Mark 2, which is an enhanced, fully multirole version of the Mirage 2000-5. It is currently the most advanced version of the Mirage 2000
Thales RDY-2 radar. This radar system is similar in configuration to the original RDY, but features two new air-to-ground modes, including a high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging mode with a moving target indicator (MTI) capability to provide an all-weather, day/night targeting capability.
Radar multimodo Thales RDY-2
• Velocity Search (VS) – Speed Search
• Track While Scan – Manual (TWS-M) – Track while Scan – Manual
• Single Target Track (STT) – Tracking White Solitaire
• Raid Assessment (Zoom) – evaluation of Attack (Focus Near or Zoom)
• Modes Combat radar RDY 2
• Boresight Aiming – Aiming to white out the sense of direction of the airplane
• HUD search – search using the HUD • Vertical search – Búdqueda Vertical • Azimuth Acquisition Scanning – Scanning Acquisition Azimuth
• Slaving on other sensors – Escalizado other sensors
Modes Air-Surface radar RDY 2
• Ground Mapping (GM) – Mapping Surface
• Doppler Beam Sharpening (DBS) – Sharpening Lightning / Frequency Doppler
• Air to Ground Ranging (AGR) – Determiner distance Air to Surface
• Contour Mapping – Mapping Contours
• Ground Moving Target Tracking / Indicating (GMTT / GMTI) – Monitoring and / or indication Blanco Movil Floor
• Synthetic Aperture Radar – Synthetic Aperture radar
Modes Air-Sea radar RDY 2
• search while Scan (SWS) – search while scanning
• Track while Scan – Manual (TWS-M) – Track while Scan – Manual
The RDY 2 radar has an inherent potential growth, and other modes and functions can be introduced at a later stage.
RDY 2 data taringa.net
The radar features low-probability-of-intercept (LPI) operation, with the output pattern varying in a seemingly random pattern that prevents an adversary RWR from recognizing that it has been targeted. The high-power Modular Data Processing Unit (MDPU) designed for the Rafale.
A new Thales Totem 3000 INS with ring-laser gyros and GPS capability, providing much greater accuracy, higher reliability, and shorter alignment time replaces the older ULISS 52 system. It works in conjunction with a terrain-following system. An improved, classified ICMS 3 digital countermeasures suite.
An on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS).
The cockpit was updated as well, retaining the same general layout but with larger color displays and other modernizations. The Thales Topsight helmet-mounted display / sighting system is offered as an option.
The Mirage 2000-5 Mark 2 includes a datalink for the targeting of MICA ER missiles and can carry the Damocles targeting pod.
Future Upgrades: Thales AIDA visual identification pod; technology used in the Rafale will be also integrated into the Mirage 2000, including infrared and optical sensors for IFF and targeting. It will be used by AdA Mirage 2000-5Fs. Further development of the second-generation type is expected to include a GPS receiver, MIDS datalink, and unspecified long-range sensors.Topsight E helmet-mounted sight
The radar can detect 24 targets simultaneously and track the eight of highest priority.A Mirage 2000’s comprehensive self-protection suite is installed internally and does not require any external pods. The 2000-5 carries the automated integrated countermeasures system (ICMS) Mk2 from Thomson-CSF Detexis. It incorporates a receiver and associated signal processing system in the nose for detection of hostile missile command data links.
The aircraft’s self protection equipment can be interfaced to a new programmable mission planning and post mission analysis ground system. Fly-by-wire controls are used in combination with a SFENA 608 autopilot.
Other systems companies involved include:
Amphenol Canada Corp.–connectors and interconnection systems;
Celsius Tech Electronics–electronic warfare system; Filtronic Components Ltd.–microwave subsystem; LMB: fans and brushless motors; SBS Technologies–Mil-Std-1553, ARINC 429 and telemetry products; and Thomson CSF Communications–comms, nav and identification.
The United Arab Emirates ordered 20 Mirage 2000-9 and 12 Mirage 2000-9D aircraft, customised versions of the Mirage 2000-5, delivered between 2003 and 2007.
In July 2005, the Government of Brazil agreed to purchase 12 ex-French Air Force Mirage 2000C aircraft. Deliveries began in September 2006 and concluded in June 2008.
Dassault has received a contract to upgrade the French Air Force’s Mirage 2000N to K3 standard. The K3 upgrade includes the operation of the MBDA ASMPA nuclear stand-off missile and a new Thales Optronics Reco NG reconnaissance pod.
Thales Optronics Reco NG reconnaissance pod
In October 2008, three French Air Force Mirage 2000D aircraft were deployed to Kandahar in Afghanistan in support of the Nato International Security Assistance Force (ISAF).
India is in discussions with French companies to upgrade a fleet of 51 Mirage 2000 aircraft operated by the Indian Air Force (IAF), at a cost of about $1.9bn. In June 2011, it was announced that the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) would consider the upgrade of IAF’s Mirage 2000. Two proposals regarding the overhaul will be discussed at the committee’s next meeting.
The modernisation will increase the lifespan of Mirage 2000 by 20 to 25 years. Four aircraft will be sent to France for overhauling and the remaining will be upgraded at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) facilities once the deal is finalised.
Dassault and Thales will modernise the on-board equipment and systems to bring the aircraft to Mirage 2000-5 standards.
Another piece of Rafale technology that has been ported to the Mirage 2000 is the Thales AIDA visual identification pod, which includes infrared and optical sensors for IFF and targeting. It is used by AA Mirage 2000-5Fs. Further development of the second-generation type is expected to include a GPS receiver, MIDS datalink, and unspecified long-range sensors.
Specifications (Mirage 2000)
Data from Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft,International Directory of Military Aircraft
- Maximum speed: Mach 2.2 (2,336 km/h, 1,451 mph) at high altitude/ 1,110 km/h (690 mph) at low altitude
- Range: 1,550 km (837 nmi, 963 mi) with drop tanks
- Ferry range: 3,335 km (1,800 nmi, 2,073 mi) with auxiliary fuel
- Service ceiling: 17,060 m (59,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 285 m/s (56,000 ft/min)
- Wing loading: 337 kg/m² (69 lb/ft²)
- Thrust/weight: 0.7 at loaded weight
- Guns: 2× 30 mm (1.18 in) DEFA 554 revolver cannon, 125 rounds per gun
- Hardpoints: 9 total (4× under-wing, 5× under-fuselage) with a capacity of 6,300 kg (13,900 lb) external fuel and ordnance
- Rockets: Matra 68 mm unguided rocket pods, 18 rockets per pod
- PGM 500 and PGM 2000 modular guided bombs (Mirage 2000-9)
- 2× AS-30L laser-guided missile (Mirage 2000 D)
- 2× GBU-12 laser-guided bombs (Mirage 2000 D, Mirage 2000 C & Mirage 2000 N with external laser designation)
- 1× GBU-16 laser-guided bomb (Mirage 2000 D, Mirage 2000 C & Mirage 2000 N with external laser designation)
- 1× GBU-24 laser-guided bomb (Mirage 2000 D, Mirage 2000 C & Mirage 2000 N with external laser designation)
- 2× GBU-49 laser-guided bombs (Mirage 2000 D)
- 1× ASMP tactical nuclear cruise missile (Mirage 2000 N)
Image @combataircraft.comImage @wikimedia.org
Main material source airforce-technology.com
Updated Apr 15, 2018