Monthly Archives: October 2016

AVIC TA-600 (AG600) Amphibious Aircraft

The AG600, also known as TA-600, is the world’s biggest amphibious aircraft developed by Chinese state aircraft manufacturer, Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC). The aircraft is intended for forest fire-fighting, ocean monitoring, ocean rescue, and maritime enforcement missions.

The first prototype of the AG600 was rolled out in July 2016 from a production facility located at Zhuhai in South China’s Guangdong Province. The first flight of AG600 is expected to be completed by the end of 2016.

AG600 amphibious aircraft development

The plan for the development of the AG600 was approved by the Chinese government in 2009. The aircraft was developed by a group of 70 aircraft component manufacturers and research teams in association with more than 150 institutes across 20 provinces and municipalities in China.

The mid and forward fuselage sections of the aircraft were completed in December 2014 and March 2015 respectively. The horizontal and vertical tail reaming was completed by January 2016.

The aircraft is available in fire-fighting, search and water rescue variants. AVIC is also planning to develop other variants of the aircraft including maritime surveillance, passenger, cargo, and tourism.

Airline Jun


Images source from the net

Interior of prototype

Images source from the net

Orders and deliveries

AG600 aircraft received two option orders at the 10th Airshow China held in Zhuhai in November 2014, bringing the total option orders to 17. The aircraft is mainly intended for domestic market in China, especially for conducting variety of operations in the South China Sea.

Island countries including New Zealand and Malaysia have also shown interest in the AG-600.

AG600 first taxi test in Zhuhai

World’s Largest Amphibious Aircraft AG600 Progressing Toward First Flight: Here


Design and features of the Chinese amphibious aircraft

The AG600 aircraft is designed to perform multiple tasks on both land and sea. It is a boat-type amphibious airplane with a single hull fuselage integrating cantilevered high-mounted wings, T tail-wing, and tricycle landing gear. It has an overall length of 36.9m, height of 12.1m, and a wingspan of 38.8m.


Tricycle landing gear

世界在研最大水陆两栖飞机起落架系统装机件在长交付Image – –

The aircraft can take-off and land from 1,500m-long, 200m-wide and 2.5m-deep water bodies. It has the capacity to collect 12t of water in 20 seconds and can carry up to 370t of water on a single tank of fuel.

Fire fighting capabilities

Large fire / water rescue amphibious aircraft (referred to as “Dragon 600” aircraft) in order to meet China’s forest fire, the need to develop maritime emergency rescue mission of a large amphibious aircraft. Aircraft using a single hull, cantilever monoplane layout pattern; optional four WJ6 engine, with retractable tricycle landing gear.


Dragon 600 aircraft in the implementation of forest fire fighting tasks, can draw water 12,000 kg in 20 seconds, the aircraft may be multiple trips between water and fire, drowning fire. When performing water rescue mission, aircraft stable minimum flight altitude of 50 meters, can be parked in the water rescue operations, making up to 50 rescue persons in distress.


“Dragon 600” aircraft by “a machine type, amphibious, series development,” the design concept to design, the installation of the necessary equipment and facilities according to the needs of users, in order to achieve marine environmental monitoring, resource exploration, passenger and freight transport task needs. Source

The aircraft can evacuate up to 50 people in a single search-and-rescue (SAR) mission on water. It can be equipped with customer-specific equipment to conduct maritime surveillance, resource detection, as well as passenger and cargo transport missions.

AG600 amphibious aircraft engine and performance details

The aircraft is powered by four Chinese-made WJ-6 turboprop engines driving four six-bladed constantspeed propellers. WJ-6 is a license-built copy of the Ivchenko AI-20 engine and generates a power output of 3,805kW (5,103hp).

WJ-6 turboprops (Ivchenko AI-20)


Designed for use as a sustainer propulsion system on two or four-engine passenger and transport multi-purpose aircrafts on short-haul and medium-haul (up to 6500 km). It powers: AN-8, AN-10, AN-12, AN-32, Be-12, IL-18, IL-20, IL-22, IL-38 aircrafts and their modifications. Meets the environmental requirements of ICAO standards. In commercial production since 1957

АI-20К АI-20M АI-20D series 2 АI-20D series 5 АI-20D series 5M
Takeoff power rating (H=0, М=0, ISA)
Equivalent power, ehp 4,000 4,250 5,180 5,180 4,750
Specific fuel consumption, kg/e.h.p./h 0.27 0.239 0.227 0.227 0.24
Cruise power rating (H=8,000m, М=0.57)
Equivalent power, e.h.p 2,940 2,700 2,725 2,725 2,725
Specific fuel consumption, kg/e.h.p./h 0.21 0.197 0.199 0.199 0.199
Dimensions, mm 3,096 x 842 x 1,080
Dry weight, kg 1,080 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040
Assigned service life, h 20,000 22,000 6,000 6,000 20,000
Applicability ll-18V An-12D
An-32 An-32B-200


The aircraft can fly at cruising speed of 500km/h, maximum speed of 560km/h, and minimum speed of 220km/h. It has a maximum range of 4,500km and service ceiling of 6,000m, while the minimum level flight altitude is 50m.

The AG600 aircraft can perform take-off and landing in severe weather conditions with a wave height of 2m. The maximum take-off weight of the aircraft is 53.5t on runways and 49t on water.

Main material source

Updated MAY 31, 2022

Main image:


Data from, Popular Science, Flight Global, Guo and

General characteristics

  • Capacity: 50 passengers
  • Length: 40 m (131 ft 3 in)
  • Wingspan: 40 m (131 ft 3 in)
  • Max takeoff weight: 53,500 kg (117,947 lb)
  • Powerplant: 4 × WJ-6 turboprops, 3,805 kW (5,103 hp) each
  • Propellers: 4-bladed constant speed propellers

Engine Performance


  • Maximum speed: 570 km/h (354 mph; 308 kn)
  • Range: 5,500 km (3,418 mi; 2,970 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 10,500 m (34,449 ft)


Type 075 LHD Amphibious Assault Ship

China to Start Construction on 1st Type 075 LHD Amphibious Assault Ship for PLAN Soon

Published: Wednesday, 26 October 2016 11:47

According to our source in China, the steel cutting of the first Type 075 Landing Helicopter Dock (LHD) for the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN or Chinese Navy) is expected to take place by the first quarter of 2017

Type 075 LHD PLAN China 01Unofficial artist impression of what PLAN’s future Type 075 LHD may look like

China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) is said to have been awarded the contract and will therefore act as prime contractor. CSSC is one of the two largest shipbuilding conglomerates in China (the other being the China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation – CSIC). CSSC is one of the top 10 defence groups in China, consists of various ship yards, equipment manufacturers, research institutes and shipbuilding related companies, some of the well known shipbuilders in China such as Jiangnan Shipyard and Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding are currently owned by CSSC.

Type 075 LHD PLAN China 02Unofficial artist impression of what PLAN’s future Type 075 LHD may look like

The Type 075 LHD is expected to have a displacement of 36,000 tons. In comparison, a Mistral-class LHD displaces 21,000 tons full load, the Juan Carlos LHD 26,000 tons and the Wasp-class 40,500 tons.

Type 075 LHD should be able to deploy and accommodate up to 30x helicopters (Z-8, Z-9, Z-18, Ka-28, Ka-31) with 6x helicopter spots on the flight deck and the main elevator located at the stern.

For self protection, the LHD is set to be fitted with 2x H/PJ-11 eleven-barreled 30mm CIWS and 2x HQ-10 short range SAM launchers.

Finally, the contract for the new Type 054B frigates should be signed soon, while the extension work at the Shanghai shipyard will be completed by 2017 (construction of a future CATOBAR aircraft carrier will then be possible at this shipyard).

Type 075 LHD PLAN China 03Unofficial artist impression of what PLAN’s future Type 075 LHD may look like

Original post:


Size comparison with Type 071 LPD

Yuzhao Class (LPD) Type 071: Details



Termed a Landing Helicopter Dock (LHD), this type off ship allows marines to capture beaches and land supplies on enemy territory. Possessing this type of warship represents yet another step change in China’s rapidly expanding maritime capability, joining aircraft carriers, air defense destroyers and underwater drones in an impressive new lineup.

Amphibious ships are particularly relevant because of China’s vast territorial claims in the South China Sea, border disputes further north with Japan, and the long-standing threat to the last holdout from the communists: Taiwan. For many years a potential Chinese assault on Taiwan was mocked as the “million-man swim” because the navy did not have anything approaching the amphibious capability needed to land enough troops on the island. Today these derogatory jokes are fading into memory as defense watchers count the new warship in China’s naval modernization. Source

Probably the best set of images of the first Type 075 LHD so far from today: Here







Type 075B?


Development of a new type of amphibious assault ships commenced in China in 2011. It was clearly inspired by US amphibious assault ships. First images from shipyards became available in 2012-2013. The lead ship was built in an extremely fast pace, considering that it is a completely new project for China’s shipbuilding industry. In 2019 China launched its first large amphibious assault ship. The lead ship is nearing completion and should be commissioned in 2020. The second vessel of the class is already under construction. There are reports that 3rd ship of the class is also planned. Construction of these new warships shows high level of resources China is devoting towards its offensive capabilities. When fully operational the new Type 075 amphibious assault ships will bolster China’s amphibious capabilities, which today rely on smaller and less capable Type 071 amphibious transport docks.

The Type 075 class ships were designed to support marines during landing operations against defended positions ashore. There is a flight deck and hangar facilities below decks. The Type 075 class will carry around 30 helicopters. These warships have a well deck and also support amphibious assault by sea. The Type 075 class ships can operate as flagships for expeditionary strike groups.

Actual classification of the Type 075 is an Amphibious Helicopter Dock. It only slightly smaller than US America and Wasp class amphibious assault ships. However the Type 075 is significantly larger than Japanese and South Korean amphibious assault ships. Furthermore there are indications that China plans to build an even larger amphibious assault ship.


This amphibious assault ship will carry a mix of helicopters including Z-8, Z-9, Z-18, Ka-28 and Ka-31. The flight deck will have around 6 spots for helicopters. Most of these helicopters will be transport helicopters. The Type 075 class could also carry VSTOL aircraft, however currently China has got no suitable aircraft for these warships. Although a related engine development project is underway.

The new amphibious assault ships will carry various amphibious armored vehicles, including Type 63A and ZBD 2000 amphibious light tanks and ZBD 2000 amphibious infantry fighting vehicles.

Well deck of the Type 075 will accommodate a couple of landing craft or at least two Type 726A hovercraft, that are extremely similar to the US LCAC.

There were reports that the Type 075 amphibious assault ships will be fitted with four HHQ-10 short-range air defense missile systems and two H/PJ-11 close-in weapon systems. These defensive systems are already used on other China’s warships. So the Type 075 class will carry only short-range defensive armament. Protection of these amphibious assault ships will be provided by escorting warships. Source

Main image

Updated May 14, 2021

A400M Military Transport Aircraft

The A400M (formerly known as the future large aircraft) is a military transporter designed to meet the requirements of the air forces of Belgium, France, Germany, Spain, Turkey, Luxembourg and the UK.

A European staff target was drawn up in 1993, together with a memorandum of understanding signed by the governments of the seven nations. Italy subsequently withdrew from the programme.


Airbus Military SL of Madrid, a subsidiary of Airbus Industrie, is responsible for management of the A400M programme.

Other companies with a share in the programme include BAE Systems (UK), EADS (Germany, France and Spain), Flabel (Belgium) and Tusas Aerospace Industries (Turkey). Final assembly took place in Seville, Spain.

A400M future large aircraft programme


In May 2003, a development and production contact was signed between Airbus and OCCAR, the European procurements agency, for 212 aircraft. France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, Turkey, Belgium, and Luxembourg initially signed but Italy subsequently withdrew. The order was consequently reduced to 180 aircraft with deliveries starting in 2009. These will continue until 2020.

First metal cut for the airframe of A400M was in January 2005 and assembly began in 2007. The first flight was scheduled for early 2008; however, development problems with the engines caused this to be postponed. The first aircraft was officially rolled out in June 2008 and the long-awaited A400M took its maiden flight on 11 December 2009.

The aircraft took off with 127t in weight, carrying 15t of test equipment, including 2t of water ballast. Its official maximum take-off weight is 141t.

0000124522Source: EADS. Graphic: Cristina Rivera Gª, Dept. of Computer Graphics.
1  Flight refueling probe 62  IFF antenna
2  radome 63  Front side of the center wing box
3  Weather radar 64  Costilla central wing box
4  Forward pressure bulkhead 65  Centr fuel tank drawer.
5  Localizer antenna and glideslope 66  Clamping elements wing / fuselage
6  Rudder pedals 67  Cuadernas
7  Navigation instrument panel 68  Accom. the main landing gear
8  Control Units 69  Main Landing Gear
9  central pedestal and levers engine 70  Lever-type dampers
10  Passenger seat 71  multidisc carbon brakes
eleven  Windshield 72  Trapdoor main landing gear
12  HUD projection system data 73  wing fuel tanks
13  the third crew member workstation 74  Fuel pumps
14  Pilot seat 75  Fixed trailing edge wing
fifteen  Third crew member seat (m. Tactics) 76  Antifreeze pipe system
16  top panel 77  FRONT anchor. the nacelle
17  Sidestik 78  Anchoring engine nacelle under wing
18  Steering wheel nose wheel 79  Front side of the outer wing
19  side console 80  rear engine mount frame
twenty  4th folding seat crewman 81  fire wall
twenty-one  Storage space 82  Capots engine
22  Rest area of the flight crew, two bunks 83  Direction of rotation of the propellers
2. 3  Emergency escape hatch 84  RATIER-FIGEAC propeller blades 8
24  Door of the cockpit 85  Feathering system
25  Kitchen 86  Turboprop Europrop (10,000 hp)
26  Storage space 87  propeller gearbox
27  IFF antenna 88  accessory gearbox
28  Electronic equipment cabinet 89  Nozzle
29  Stairs 90  Pod refueling
30  Avionics compartment 91  Navigation light left
31  Floor beams support 92  radar system
32  Since the loadmaster 93  Aileron
33  electronics compartment under the floor 94  Fuel tank ventilation
3. 4  Front landing gear 95  Aileron actuator
35  Hatches front landing gear 96  outer flap
36  Front sensor missile alerter 97  inside flap
37  Drawer front landing gear 98  Backdoor paratrooper
38  Crew normal access with integrated ladder 99  hydraulic tank
39  Frame, supporting structure of the door 100  lifeboat
40  Oxygen bottles 101  flaps hydraulic motor
41  front window 102  Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
42  Oxygen generation system 103  Access APU maintenance
43  Obs light. leading edge 104  Escape from the APU
44  Troop seat 105  Cowling behind. union wing-fuselage
Four. Five  Cargo handling rollers 106  Emergency escape hatch
46  Emergency door 107  hydraulic actuator ramp
47  Bunk beds for evacuation 108  Ramp extensions
48  TACAN antenna 109  Portalón
49  SATCOM antenna 110  Stabilizer main drawer. vertical
fifty  Landing Light 111  rudder onesie
51  Carena left 112  Rudder actuators
52  Sinker wind generator. 113  HF antenna
53  Conditioned air mixer. 114  Vertical-fuselage stabilizer clamping
54  Conditioned air duct. 115  Compensator horiz stabilizer.
55  Conditioned air group. left. 116  adjustable horizontal stabilizer
56  Air vent 117  Elevator
57  Air intake 118  Stable fastening pivot. horizontal
58  Antenna V / UHF 119  anti-collision light
59  Heat Exchanger 120  spoiler
60  TACAN antenna 121  Cone rear fuselage
61  lifeboat 122  Self-protection equipment


In January 2009, EADS postponed the first deliveries of the A400M until 2012, and proposed to develop a new approach for the A400M to discover new ways to advance the programme.

2009 continued to be a troubled year for the A400M as estimates on the cost overrun of the project were released with predictions of up to €11.2bn over budget. The South African Air Force started to look at alternatives to the A400M and the European partners placed it under consideration. Airbus suggested that the programme may be scrapped unless €5.3bn could be provided.

In November 2010, Belgium, the UK, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Spain and Turkey agreed to lend Airbus €1.5bn and proceed with the programme; however, Germany and the UK reduced the number of aircraft ordered to 53 and 22 respectively, decreasing the total to 170.

First deliveries were made to French Air Force in August 2013. Deliveries are expected to conclude in 2025.

A400M test flights


This first A400M is known as MSN1. The second A400M, MSN2, completed its maiden flight on 8 April 2010, while MSN3 completed its maiden flight on 9 July 2010. The fourth A400M MSN4 completed its maiden flight in December 2010. The first production aircraft of A400M (MSN7) completed its maiden flight on 6 March 2013.

The development of the A400M fleet was designated as Grizzly in July 2010. Trials with MSN1, MSN3 and MSN5 are performed in Toulouse, while those with MSN2 and MSN4 are done in Seville, providing greater flexibility and taking advantage of the best weather conditions available.

The A400M was displayed at two events in 2010: the Berlin Air Show in Germany, and the Farnborough International Airshow in the UK.

In October 2011, A400M was tested on wet runways and taxiways. The water ingestion test was completed successfully. The latest cold weather tests were concluded in February 2013.

Engine problems ground German A400Ms

Bernie C

Germany has grounded two of the three Airbus Defence and Space (DS) A400M transport aircraft that it has so far received following the discovery of excessive engine wear, national media disclosed on 30 June.

Flight operations of aircraft 54-01 and 54-02 – the first two received in December 2014 and December 2015 – have been temporarily suspended after inspections found heavy engine wear after only 365 and 189 hours of operations respectively, Der Spiegel reported, adding that engine wear on the third aircraft, 54-03, had also been identified.

This issue is likely to be connected to problems that were identified with the EuroProp International (EPI) TP400-D6 engine earlier this year. In April it was reported that engines were being affected by excessive abrasive wear and heat resistance. It was noted that parts of the engine were struggling to stand up to the extreme temperatures, with individual components found to be flawed. A UK Royal Air Force aircraft suffered an in-flight engine shutdown as an apparent result of these issues.

At that time Airbus DS said that it was working hard to solve the issue of excessive abrasive wear, noting that it “has no impact on the security of the plane”.

It is understood that the issue has been isolated to the propeller gear-box (PGB); the part that converts the rotating high-speed motion of the engine into a slower speed motion for the propeller. A significant number of engines that are both on the final assembly line (FAL) and in service have had to be replaced because of quality issues, though the issue affects only gearboxes with a clockwise rotation.

EPI has performed an analysis of the issue, identified the root cause, and developed a procedure whereby each gearbox is inspected every 200 hours. If a crack is found the gearbox is then inspected every 20 hours after that to keep the aircraft that have been delivered flying. Gareth Jennings, London – IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly 01 July 2016 Source

A400M orders

Total firm orders for the A400M stand at 174 aircraft. Malaysia ordered four and 170 aircraft were ordered by seven countries, including the UK (22), Belgium (7), Turkey (10), France (50), Germany (53), Luxembourg (1) and Spain (27).

C-130J Hercules: Details

MP14-0471 C-130 5723 Israel Ferry. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Marietta, Ga. Lockheed Martin Photography by Todd R. McQueenMP14-0471 C-130 5723 Israel Ferry. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Marietta, Ga. Lockheed Martin Photography by Todd R. McQueen

In April 2005, South Africa signed a contract with Airbus Military to be a full participant in the A400M programme. South Africa ordered eight aircraft, for delivery between 2010 and 2014. South Africa then cancelled the order in November 2009. In December 2005, Malaysia signed a contract for the purchase of four A400M.

Airbus could ask for bail-out due to A400M military plane: Here


Airbus could ask for a bail-out from Britain and other countries buying its A400M military transport aircraft after take a massive hit on the project.

The pan-European aerospace company’s annual results showed Airbus took a €2.2bn charge because of problems with the A400M, with chief executive Tom Enders calling renegotiations of the contract.

And here’s a cool video filmed by Ben Ramsey who got a great close-up footage!

A400M design

The A400M has a much larger payload than the C-160 Transall and C-130 and the design makes extensive use of composite materials. The capability for short, soft field landing and take-off is part of the requirement and the aircraft has six-wheel high-flotation main landing gear.

The need for airdrops and tactical flight requires good low-airspeed flight and the aircraft also has long-range and high-cruise speed for rapid and flexible deployment.


  • Complete in-house development of both hardware and software, including application software
  • Both SW and HW certified in accordance with RTCA DO-178B/-254 DAL A
  • Control-, monitoring-, autonomous- and electronic maintenance functions for the High-Lift System
  • Sensor inputs for determination of actual flap position and shaft speed


Final assembly of the composite (carbon-reinforced plastic – CRP) wingbox is taking place at Airbus UK in Filton. GKN Aerospace in the UK has supplied the complex carbon composite wing spars. Denel Aviation of South Africa is the supplier of the fuselage top shells and wing-fuselage fairings. EADS, Augsburg, is supplying the 7m × 4m composite cargo door.

Fuselage assembly is at Airbus Deutschland in Bremen, Germany. Final assembly of the A400M aircraft takes place at EADS CASA in Seville.

APU (APS 3200)

The APU, to be supplied by Hamilton Sundstrand Power Systems of San Diego, California, will be a derivative of the reliable APS 3200 unit, which is the standard fit APU for the Airbus single-aisle programme. The A400M APU, mounted in an upper wing fairing, will provide pneumatic power for starting the main engines and will also provide electric and pneumatic power for operation of aircraft systems and air conditioning when the engines are not running. Source

APS 3200 unit

Ram Air Turbine (RAT) emergency power system

Example of RAT – Image

The RAT provides 45 kVA of electrical power to critical loads in the event of a total power loss.


Cockpit of the military transporter


The cockpit is fully night-vision compatible and provides accommodation for two pilots and an additional crew member for special mission equipment operations. It is fitted with a fly-by-wire flight control system developed for the Airbus range of civil airliners.

Two sidestick controllers are installed to allow the pilot an unrestricted view of the electronic flight displays. The throttle controls are placed centrally between the two pilot stations.

Thales and Diehl Avionik Systeme are developing the A400M’s FMS400 flight management system, based on integrated modular avionics modules, an adaptation of systems being fitted on the Airbus A380 airliner.

The avionics includes cockpit control and display systems with nine 6in × 6in displays and a digital head-up display which features liquid crystal display (LCD) technology and enhanced vision systems (EVS), for enhanced situational awareness, automated CG calculation, automated defensive aids systems, simple EMCOM switching, simplified switching, uncluttered screens, automated tanker and receiver fuel control and auto fuel tank inerting.

‘RMP’ and P.A. communications equipment for the A400M model

Cobham Avionics (TEAM) has been chosen as the supplier for Airbus Military for the A400M programme relating to PA and RMP communications equipment. Source


The A400M for Germany is fitted with a terrain-masking low-level flight (TMLLF) system, from EADS Military Aircraft, for low-level flight control. The TMLLF system has a Saab Avitronics flight computer. EADS Defence & Security Systems digital map generator is also fitted.

There is a military mission management system (MMMS), from EADS Defence Electronics, which includes two mission computers. The MMMS controls cargo handling and delivery, calculating the load plan and the computed air release point before an air drop, as well as fuel management and fuel operational ranges. The MMMS also manages the tactical ground collision avoidance system (T-CGAS) and military / civil communications.

Rockwell Collins was selected to supply the HF-9500 high-frequency communications system and the avionics full-duplex ethernet (ADFX). Cobham Antennas Division provides the SATCOM antennas.

HF-9500 Airborne Communication System

Rockwell Collins’ HF-9500 airborne communication system features digital signal processing technology that delivers high-quality, reliable performance for military fixed-wing airborne applications. This 400-watt, single integrated system solution is designed to satisfy current and future high-frequency (HF) voice and data communications requirements.

As an integrated, multi-mode system, the HF-9500 provides data communications capability over HF to modems, video imaging systems, secure voice devices, teletype and data encryption devices. It delivers the superb HF voice communications capability and reliability that our customers expect from the Rockwell Collins HF family.

Features & Benefits

  • Exportable worldwide
  • Automatic link establishment offers best clear-channel selection
  • Digital signal processing
  • Global range and 400 watts of power ensure continuous tactical communication
  • Embedded data modem
  • Upgradable to meet future requirements
  • Filtering for Simultaneous Operation (SIMOP) applications


Countermeasure technology

The EADS Defence Electronics defensive aids suite includes an ALR-400 radar warner from Indra and EADS, MIRAS (multicolour infraRed alerting sensor) missile launch and approach warner developed by EADS and Thales, and chaff and flare decoy dispensers. A laser DIRCM (directed infrared countermeasure) system may be added later.

ALR-400 radar warner

The ALR-400 is an advanced radar warning system developed specifically for the Airbus A400M tactical military transport aircraft. ALR-400 would be able to effectively detect any incoming radar-based threat. The system is being produced by a team comprising EADS Defense Electronics and Indra of Spain.

ALR-400 radar warner, defensive aids computer, MIRAS multi-color missile warner and a chaff/flare dispenser are the basis for the A400M aircraft self-protection system which is expected to achieve initial operational capability by 2010 with 85 systems on order to equip the same number of A400Ms. Source

The aircraft can also accommodate armour plating crew protection, bulletproof windscreens, engine exhaust treatment for infrared emission reduction and inert gas explosion retardation and fire retardation in the fuel systems. The wings have hardpoints for the installation of electronic warfare pods and refuelling pods.

A400M transporter cargo systems


Rheinmetall Defence Electronics is supplying the loadmaster control system for electronic cargo control. Loadmaster consists of a workstation and control panel, eight sidewall lock panels and a crew door panel. It provides efficient ground loading and airborne cargo drops.

Loadmaster Workstation (LMWS)

The loadmaster uses the Loadmaster Workstation (LMWS) to finalize the load and trim sheet required for takeoff, which was prepared with the MPRS and transmits it electronically via an aircraft server to the cockpit, where it is printed and signed. This is one of the few remaining paper formats still existing in the A400M system.

New ground is broken when it comes to the responsibilities of the loadmaster: The A400M loadmasters are to accomplish not only logistical, but also technical tasks on the aircraft in future.

Particularly the technical part presents new challenges in the fields of personnel selection and training. In simple terms, the technical qualification of the loadmasters will conform with the EASA CAT A level; thus, jobs up to maintenance level 1 (onboard) can be carried out.

This approach requires a completely new training cycle: Depending on the previously acquired technical skills, e.g. the Air Forces Engineering schools will provide an “EASA CAT A equivalent delta training course.” Subsequently, the A400M loadmaster type rating course will take place – the traditional loadmaster training course on the A400M aircraft as well as the “Maintenance Course for Loadmasters.”

Building upon the CAT A knowledge, the latter will convey A400M-specific contents. Thus, the loadmaster will become capable of conducting “ground handling and servicing”, simple troubleshooting and maintenance activities.



The payload requirements include a range of military helicopters and vehicles, heavy engineering equipment, pallets and cargo containers.


 The cargo bay can transport up to nine standard military pallets (2.23m × 2.74m), including two on the ramp, as well as 58 troops seated along the sides or up to 120 fully equipped troops seated in four rows. For Medevac, it can carry up to 66 stretchers and 25 medical personnel.

Right dropping door and wind deflectors used during the jump

The A400M can carry 116 paratroops and air-drop them and their equipment either by parachute or gravity extraction. It can air-drop single loads up to 16t; multiple loads up to 25t total; 120 paratroops plus a wedge load of 6t, or up to 20 1t containers or pallets.

It can also perform simultaneous drops of paratroops and cargo (RAS / wedge or door loads) and very-low-level extraction (VLLE) of a single load up to 6.35t, or multiple loads up to 19t total weight. Gravity extraction can be performed for a single load up to 4t, or multiple loads up to 20t total weight.

The cargo compartment can be configured for cargo, vehicle or troop transport or air drop, a combination of these and for aero-medical evacuation. A single loadmaster is able to reconfigure the cargo compartment for different roles either in flight or on the ground. A powered crane installed in the ceiling area of the rear section of the fuselage has a 5t capacity for loading from the ground and for cross-loading.

The rear-opening door has full compartment cross-section to allow axial load movement, roll-on and roll-off loading and for the air drop of large loads.

A400M tactical tanker and refuelling

The A400M is convertible to a tactical tanker, with the ability to refuel a range of aircraft and helicopters within two hours. Flight Refuelling Ltd is supplying the 908E wing pod drogue system, which provides a fuel flow of up to 1,200kg/min for each pod, plus the centreline pallet-mounted hose drum unit fitted in the rear cargo bay, which provides a fuel flow of 1,800kg/min.

908E wing pod drogue system


908E Wing Dispense Equipment (WDE)

Flow rate Up to 400USgpm

Weight Up to 630kg wet

Delivery pressure 50psig

Hose length 80ft trailed length

Operating envelope Fixed wing 180 – 300kts

Rotary wing 105 – 130kts


797-a400m-f-18-aarThe A400M can now refuel fighters and transports from underwing pods, but helicopter stability in trail has proved problematic. A longer hose may be the solution. –

In addition, up to two cargo bay fuel tanks (CBT), which connect directly to the A400M’s fuel management system, can be fitted. Total fuel capacity is 46.7t or 58t with the CBTs.

Airbus A400M Atlas Airborne Refuelling Chart

In October 2011, GKN Aerospace won the £6m ($9.54) contract from Cobham Mission Equipment. It includes supplying air refuelling pylon for A400M. It also supplies a wing spar for the A400M.


The aircraft’s independent navigation system comprises an inertial reference system (IRS) integrated with a global positioning system (GPS). The weather and navigation radar is the Northrop Grumman AN/APN-241E, which incorporates wind shear measurement and ground mapping capability.

Northrop Grumman AN/APN-241E

The only radar in the transport class with a high resolution SAR mapping mode

The AN/APN-241’s capability remains unmatched by the competition as the only radar in the transport class with a high resolution SAR mapping mode. In addition to meeting needs for precision navigation, this unparalleled mapping capability enables operators to execute landing missions with confidence on unimproved runways without aid from ground-based landing systems.

No other radar in the industry can compete with the range and accuracy of the AN/APN-241. It is the only radar with a 10nm range Windshear mode and its unique two-bar can technology eliminates false alarms. And, unlike other systems, the AN/APN-241 windshear mode is not restricted by altitude. At 20 nautical miles, the AN/APN-241 provides the longest range air-to-air situational awareness mode of any transport radar. The Skin Paint mode also features computer generated target-sizing, a clutter-free display, and hands-free operation to the crew.

246Simultaneous multifunction capability

The AN/APN-241 is designed to allow pilots to focus on the mission rather than “working” the radar. Automatic tilt and gain adjustments reduce operator tasking, and with simultaneous mode interleaving, crews can select independent radar modes according to mission requirements. The AN/APN-241 provides overlays of flight plan or TCAS information on weather or ground maps for greater situational awareness. Operators may also ‘freeze’ the AN/APN-241 into a non-emitting mode to gain a tactical advantage.

The AN/APN-241 was built with growth in mind. Modifications to current modes and technologies will provide a maritime patrol capability suitable for fisheries protection, smuggling interdiction, and Search and Rescue missions. With the development of ‘Ballistic Wind’ mode, a modification which will measure drop zone winds, the AN/APN-241 provides a unique air drop capability to support both military and humanitarian missions.

Proven versatility

The highly adaptable AN/APN-241 is currently fielded on four aircraft: C-130H, C-130J, C-27J and C-295. Northrop Grumman has integrated the AN/APN-241 with five different avionics architectures and two antenna systems. As the baseline radar for the LMCO C-130J and Alenia C-27J, it has a solid, long-term production base with logistics and maintenance support through 2030 and beyond.


General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 64.8 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 1970s
Properties: Pulse-only Radar
Sensors / EW:
Generic Doppler Navigation/Weather – Radar
Role: Radar, Weather and Navigation
Max Range: 64.8 km


The radio navigation suite includes a pair of instrument landing systems, VHF omnidirectional radio ranging (VOR), radio distance measuring equipment (DME), air traffic control (ATC) transponders, automatic direction finders (ADF) and a tactical air navigation unit (TACAN).

Engines onboard the A400M

In May 2003, Airbus Military selected the three-shaft TP400-D6 turboprop engine, to be manufactured by EuroProp International (EPI). EPI is a consortium formed by Rolls-Royce (UK, Germany), ITP (Spain), MTU (Germany) and Snecma (France). Rolls-Royce is responsible for overall integration.

EuroProp International (EPI) TP400-D6 engine

The development of this advanced military turboprop engine is shared by ITP, MTU Aero Engines, Rolls-Royce and Snecma. The partners have launched a joint company, Europrop International (EPI), to develop, manufacture and support the TP400-D6.

The TP400-D6 powers the A400M military transport which has successfully completed its maiden flight in Spain’s Seville in late 2009. The TP400-D6 successfully entered into service with the French Air Force in late 2013.

MTU is responsible for the TP400-D6’s intermediate-pressure compressor, intermediate-pressure turbine and intermediate-pressure shaft and has a stake in the engine control unit. Furthermore, final assembly of all TP400-D6 production engines takes place at MTU Aero Engines in Munich and acceptance testing at MTU Maintenance Berlin-Brandenburg. Source

TP400-D6 engine
  • Power range in excess of 11,000 shp
  • Low risk design and life cycle cost
  • Low susceptibility to FOD and erosion
  • Ample growth potential

The TP400-D6 is a collaborative engine between Rolls-Royce, MTU, Snecma and ITP. The engine was designed to fulfil the European Staff Requirements (ESR) for the A400M military transport, an aircraft used for peacekeeping missions abroad.

Within the collaboration, Rolls-Royce areas of responsibility include overall engine performance, Air & Oil systems, Intermediate casing, 6-stage High Pressure Compressor and the Low Pressure shaft.

Rolls-Royce is contracted to development and production of more than 750 engines for the A400M fleets of Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Spain, Turkey, Belgium and Luxembourg, and the production of additional engines for potential export customers.

Specification TP400-D6
Power (shp) 11,000+
Bypass ratio 0.8
Pressure ratio 25
Length (in) 137.8
Diameter (in) 36.4
Basic weight (lb) 4,026
Compressor 5IP, 6HP
Turbine 1HP, 1IP, 3LP
Applications Airbus Military A400M

*Technical data (ISA SLS)


The four engines each have a maximum output of more than 11,000shp. EPI states they are the largest turboprops ever made in the West. The engines are fitted with FADEC (full authority digital engine control), supplied by BAE Systems and Hispano-Suiza.

Eight-bladed composite variable pitch FH386 propeller


Ratier-Figeac SA of France (a business unit of US-based Hamilton Standard) supplies the eight-bladed composite variable pitch FH386 propellers. The propellers are 5.33m (17.5ft) in diameter and fully reversing with the capability to back the fully loaded aircraft up a 2% slope. FiatAvio supplies the propeller gearbox.

Electrical power generation systems are supplied by Aerolec, a joint venture between Thales and Goodrich. The variable frequency generators will provide up to 400kVa.

Operational range

Operational range of A400M with 20-tonne (44,000 lb) and 30-tonne (66,000 lb) payloads, flown from Paris, France. source


Landing gear

Messier-Dowty was chosen as the supplier of both main and nose landing gear. Each main landing gear consists of three independent twin-wheel assemblies, providing six wheels on each side. This allows the plane to land on unprepared runways. The landing gear system also enables the A400M to ‘kneel’ which lowers the rear ramp to facilitate the loading of large vehicles.

The main landing gear shock absorbers maintain a minimum distance from the ground whatever the load. Messier-Bugatti supplies wheels and brakes. The aircraft has two nose wheels and 12 braked wheels.

EuroProp International (EPI) has developed TP400 power plant for the A400M. The power plant has been installed on the inner engine mount of the C-130K flight test-bed.

The A400M’s normal operating speed is 555km/h, but it can reach a maximum speed of 780km/h. The normal and ferry ranges of the aircraft are 3,298km and 8,710km respectively. The service ceiling is 11,300m.

The take-off and landing distances of the aircraft are 980m and 770m respectively. The aircraft weighs around 76,500kg and the maximum take-off weight is 141,000kg.

Main material source

Main image by Martyn William’s Aircraft @flickr

Updated Jan 30, 2018

Military transport aircraft
4 × Europrop TP400-D6 turboprop, 8,250 kW (11,060 hp) each
11,278 m max.
France, Spain, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, Belgium
Germany, France , Spain, United Kingdom, Turkey, Belgium, Luxembourg, Malaysia.
No armament, cargo transport
Maximum speed: 780 km/h
Take Off Weight
141,000 kg
EADS Defence Electronics defensive aids suite, ALR-400 radar, EVS enhanced vision systems, automated CG calculation, DIRCM (directed infrared countermeasure),
Length: 45.1 m; Wingspan: 42.4 m; Height: 14.7 m


Technical data

varianty-zagruzki-an-70-i-1Data – Image

Antonov An-70: Details

Safran’s Sigma 40 integrates with Harpoon missile system

Company this week announced successful integration tests of its Sigma 40 shipborne navigation system.

By Geoff Ziezulewicz   |   Oct. 21, 2016 at 10:56 AM

PARIS, Oct. 21 (UPI) — Safran Electronics and Defense has successfully carried out integration tests of its Sigma 40 ship navigation system with the alignment system of the AGM-84 Harpoon anti-missile system.

The test was carried out within the scope of a contract signed with Korean naval shipyard DSME, Safran said in a statement.

The company also worked with Harpoon manufacturer Boeing on the tests.

The systems are intended for Krabi corvettes and KDX-class frigates deployed by the Royal Thai Navy.

After the successful tests, Safran’s inertial navigation systems can now be used in all of Thailand’s warships.

The Sigma 40 system is also used for conventional navigation and stabilization functions on ship sensors and weapons.

Sigma 40 navigation systems are built around a ring laser gyro inertial core, offering sustained precision and a high degree of operational flexibility.

Sigma inertial navigation systems are now fitted to combat systems on more than 500 warships, including the latest front-line ships such as the Charles-de-Gaulle aircraft carrier, Europe’s Freem and Horizon frigates and helicopter carriers.

Original post


Sigma 40: laser gyro technology inertial navigation system

The Sigma 40 inertial navigation system is making use on laser gyro technology. An advanced system designed by Sagem for maritime applications, the Sigma 40 meets the most demanding navigation and weapon system stabilization requirements. 

Both an inertial attitude and heading reference system, the Sigma 40 offers high performance and precision for all sizes of surface vessels. Both compact and robust, the Sigma 40 delivers all data needed for navigation: heading, roll and pitch, angular velocity, position and heave, vertical/horizontal speed and acceleration.

The Sigma 40 is suited to all types of platforms, including fast patrol boats, mine-hunters, corvettes, frigates, aircraft carriers, etc. It comprises an inertial navigation unit (INU), control and display unit (CDU) and an installation bracket, for fast removal and reassembly without recalibration. Both innovative and scalable, the Sigma 40 is easy to install, maintain and operate. Source

The main features of RLG Sigma 40 are :

  • It has got high-level performance
  • It has very simple installation requirements
  • It has very convenient operation procedure.
  • It does not requires any preventive maintenance.
  • It consists both Synchro and digital interfaces. There is no need to provide any extra hardware interface.
  • It is IMO approved and military standards certified.
  • It is very reliable and rugged.

The core aim of RLG sigma 40 is :

  • To provide the target navigational data like heading, roll, itch etc in real time.
  • To regularly update the target navigational data like speed and velocity.
  • Interfacing of other navigational inputs from/to other Navigational equipments like EM Log, GPS, DGPS, Radar, Anemometer etc.

Sub-Units of RLG Sigma 40:

The RLG Sigma 40 system contains four basic sub-units. They are as follows:

Components of Ring Laser Gyro Sigma 40 – Image

Here,  INU stands for Inertial Navigation Unit

            CDU stands for Control and Display Unit

            DDU stands for Data distribution unit, and

            UPS stands for Uninterrupted Power Supply

The Inertial Navigation Unit of basic RLG Sigma 40 unit consists of the following sub-units:

  • Inertial Sensor Block (referred as BSI)
  • Basic Synchro Module
  • EB Module
  • UTR-SP Module
  • Interface module (or RS 422 Module)
  • Power Supply Unit
  • HT/ THT Module
Composition of Inertial Navigation Unit – Image

The Inertial Sensor Block (BSI) consists of the various sensors. They are :

  1. Laser Gyros (Model GL S32) 03 in numbers : It senses Angle of Rotation and Speed of Rotation.
  2. Accelerometers (Model A-600)   : It senses the acceleration.
  3. EACC : It consists the circuitry for controlling the Pendulum of Accelerometer using servo elements. In addition to that, It also contains the EEPROMs which stores the sensor’s calibration data.

** EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.


Krabi Class OPV: Here

M777 155mm Ultralightweight Field Howitzer


The 155 mm Lightweight Howitzer was originally developed as a private venture. Its origins can be traced back to the early 1980s when Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Limited (VSEL) (which today is BAE Systems Land Systems) originally perceived a potential market for a lightweight 155 mm towed howitzer.

In the spring of 1987 the project definition was completed. Its objective was to have a weapon with the same range as the US Army’s M198 155 mm towed howitzer but weighing no more than 4,000 kg.

The current M198 weighs 7,163 kg which limits its air mobility; it can only be carried by two helicopters, the US Army Boeing CH-47 or the US Marine Corps Sikorsky CH-53.

The US Army was fully briefed on the system and agreed that if the company built a prototype of the system with its own money it would carry out a complete evaluation of the system.

In September 1987, the main board gave approval to build two prototypes of the system, which is today called the 155 mm Lightweight Howitzer. Both were completed in late 1989.

The complete upper part of the weapon was test fired at Eskmeals in June 1989 with a total of 50 rounds being fired at all elevations, 12 of which were zone 8S (top charge).

Although the weapon was originally targeted at the US Army, the US Marine Corps took the initiative as it was looking for a lightweight 155 mm system to replace all current 105 mm and 155 mm towed artillery systems.

Following its unveiling at the 1989 Association of the United States Army Exhibition in Washington DC, one of the two prototypes went to the US for early evaluation.

This evaluation, under the supervision of the US Army Armament Research and Development Command on behalf of the US Marine Corps, took place in three phases through to 1990.

It also completed limited land mobility trials and airlift certification in single and split mode. At the end of Phase 1 the system was awarded limited live crew clearance for the US.

Phase 2 was conducted at the US Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and at the Naval Base at Little Creek, Virginia. During Phase 2 the system achieved a single lift with the UH-60L Black Hawk helicopter. Amphibious trials were carried out successfully at Little Creek.

The final phase took place at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland where the system carried out successful climatic chamber firings at temperatures ranging from -25 to +145°C. These climatic firings were followed by air transportability (split lift) trials and 622 km of land mobility trials on test tracks ranging from trails to Belgian blocks and included wading to a depth of 1.5 m.

The US then had a competition which involved extensive tests with the 155 mm Lightweight Howitzer and the Light Towed Howitzer developed at the then Royal Ordnance facility at Nottingham. In the end the former was selected.

For the US programme, Textron Marine & Land Systems was selected to be the prime contractor with the then Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Limited being the main sub-contractor.

By 1998 it was clear that the US programme was running into problems and early in 1999 the now BAE Systems Land Systems assumed the role of prime contractor of the troubled XM777 towed artillery system from its team member Textron Marine & Land Systems. This company no longer has any involvement with the programme.

In September 2000, following an extensive competition, BAE Systems Land Systems finally selected its core industrial supplier base for US production of the XM777 155 mm weapon.

The body assembly is manufactured by HydroMill Inc of Chatsworth, California, stabilisers, spades and trails are supplied by Major Tool and Machining Inc of Indianapolis, Indiana, the breech operating load tray system is provided by Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island, Illinois, with titanium being supplied by RTI International Metals Inc of Niles, Ohio.

In late 2002, BAE Systems Land Systems was awarded a USD135 million contract by the US DoD for the Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) of the M777 following its type classification.

Under the initial phase of the LRIP contract, BAE Systems Land Systems has built 94 M777s for the US Marine Corps, with first weapons delivered in February 2003 from the company’s Hattiesburg, Mississippi facility.

The M777, which while under development was called the XM777, will replace the current 155 mm M198 towed howitzer which weighs 7,163 kg.

Under the five-year Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) contract a total of nine systems were built at the BAE Systems Land Systems facility at Barrow-in-Furness. These have underwent an extensive series of tests in the US during which more than 10,000 rounds of ammunition have been fired.

The nine EMD guns were followed by two preproduction (PP1 and PP2) guns from the US production line to test and validate the US production base.

According to BAE Systems Land Systems, about 70 per cent of the M777 is made in the US, including the 155 mm/39 calibre barrel, which is provided by Watervliet Arsenal. Barrow-in-Furness manufacture the upper cradle as well as the suspension and running gear.

In March 2005, BAE Systems Land Systems was awarded a contract worth USD834 million covering the supply of 495 M777A1 155 mm/39 calibre lightweight howitzers for the US Army and Marine Corps.

The 495 M777A1 will be delivered over a four-year period starting in July 2006 and running through to October 2009.

The US Army is expected to take delivery of 233 systems and the US Marine Corps 262, as the replacement for the current in-service and much heavier 155 mm M198 towed howitzer.


Although the M777 uses advanced materials in its construction, it is claimed to be simple to operate and maintain under field conditions.

The 155 mm/39 calibre ordnance (M776E2) is essentially that of the M284 barrel used by the US Army’s M109A6 Paladin fitted with the M199 muzzle brake as used by the current towed M198 howitzer but modified to take a towing eye. The conventional screw breech is hydraulically operated and opens vertically. For this application the breech of the 155 mm M776E2 cannon has the screw breech turned 90° to allow vertical operation between the cradle tubes. Source


M777 howitzer A1 and A2 variants

The M777 will be the artillery system for the Stryker Brigade Combat Teams (SBCT). The M777 is normally operated by a crew of eight men but can be operated with a reduced detachment of five.

The systems fitted with the digital fire control system are designated M777A1, and those with the software update which allows the firing of the Excalibur projectile, M777A2. M777A2 received full material release in July 2007, clearing the upgrade for fielding. All M777A1 systems will be upgraded to the A2 standard.

The M777 was deployed by the US Army and Marine Corps to Afghanistan in December 2007 and to Iraq in 2008.

The Excalibur projectile was first deployed in Afghanistan in March 2008.


size0-1M777A2 – US Army

As part of a broader effort to extend the range of its artillery units, the U.S. Army is working as fast as it can to finish development of a new, longer howitzer barrel that will more double the maximum range of both its towed and self-propelled 155mm guns. The service says that the upgraded weapons will be able to effectively fire new ramjet-powered shells, as well as employ improved rocket-assisted projectiles, both of which it sees as increasingly important weapons for defeating a near-peer opponent, such as Russia, in any potential high-end conflict.

According to a report by Warrior Maven earlier in June 2018, the Army has built new prototypes of the XM907 155mm cannon and recently conducted a mobility test of a modified M777A2 towed howitzer with the Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona. The service has been working on the project, which it refers to as the Extended Range Cannon Artillery (ECRA) program, since at least 2016.

The new cannon itself is 1,000 pounds heavier and six feet longer than the existing M205 on the M777A2 and will also be longer than the M284 cannon on the M109A6 and A7 self-propelled howitzers. The M284 has the same barrel length as the M205, but is heavier.

The upgraded XM907 has a host of new improvements throughout, including the reinforced barrel and breach assemblies, and will feature a new muzzle break on the end of the barrel to better mitigate the shock and recoil from firing more powerful rounds. Norwegian defense contractor Nammo is already in the process of developing the XM1113 rocket-assisted projectile for the Army.

Howitzers with the new barrels should be able to fire these extended-range shells at targets more than 40 miles away. They’ll be able to lob existing types of ammunition further than before, as well.

The addition of a ramjet-powered artillery shell could push the maximum range of these weapons out to more than 60 miles. The Army has yet to say what specific designs it might be looking at with regards to this type of ammunition, but has made it clear it is very interested in the concept. Source

Nammo has rolled out “extreme range” artillery concept using ramjet propulsion: Here

Excalibur projectile

XM982 Excalibur Shell

Excalibur is the world’s first GPS driven projectile.

Engineers had to make delicate circuitry inside an artillery round. That’s like dropping a computer from the top of a skyscraper and expecting it to work! But that’s not the only thing that makes Excalibur the present and future choice for artillery.

Excalibur is a 155mm artillery round that can strike within 10 meters of its intended target. It has a 40 kilometer range that has a high angle of attack. Why is that important? Well, in combat, enemy combatants can hide near infrastructure that makes them hard to eliminate. That’s because typical artillery’s angle of attack is somewhere around 45 to 50 degrees. Excalibur’s angle of attack is somewhere around 80-85 degrees. That makes hiding nearly impossible.

And Excalibur virtually eliminates one of the most dangerous aspects of modern combat – friendly fire. In tests, Excalibur was fired with a 15 degree misfire. Now, over big distances, that is a huge mistake! Well, Excalibur’s GPS system and Canard Control Guidance took over and reguided the round back to within 2 yards of its intended target! That’s impressive. Source


By August 2008, over 400 systems had been delivered to the US Army and USMC.

The Indian Ministry of Defence (MoD) has requested for 145 M777s from multiple contractors under a foreign military sales (FMS) contract.

The $885m contract will also include procurement of associated equipments and logistical support services for the aircraft.

The MoD, however, failed to sign off a deal by the 15 October 2013 deadline imposed by BAE, causing the company to initiate shut down of its M777 howitzers production line at Burrow-in-Furness, UK.

M777 armament

The M777 matches the firepower of current generation 155mm towed systems at less than half the weight. The Howitzer is equipped with a 39-calibre barrel. The muzzle velocity (at Charge 8 super) is 827m/s.

The maximum firing range is 24.7km with unassisted rounds and 30km with rocket-assisted rounds. The M777A2 will fire the Raytheon / Bofors XM982 Excalibur GPS / Inertial Navigation-guided extended-range 155mm projectiles using the Modular Artillery Charge Systems (MACS). Excalibur has a maximum range of 40km and accuracy of 10m.


First firing trials of the M777A1 with Excalibur took place in August 2003. First production rounds were delivered in September 2006. Excalibur successfully completed limited user test in March 2007. It was first fielded in Iraq in May 2007 and in Afghanistan in February 2008.

The M777 is able to deliver up to five rounds a minute under intense firing conditions and is able to provide a sustained rate of fire of two rounds a minute.

Precision Guidance Kit-Modernization (PGK-M)

The PGK-M builds on mature, battle-proven technology to improve the accuracy of 155mm projectiles. It will increase maneuverability and incorporate anti-jam capability – requirements for today’s evolving battle space.

Proven technology

-Completed over 200 tests demonstrating a TRL 7
-<10m circular error probable (CEP) accuracy
-High angle of attack

Innovative guidance

The kit combines enhanced Global Positions System (GPS)-based navigation with an innovative, roll-stabilized guidance unit and antenna array. This integrated technology, paired with a proven, variable deflection canard control method, allows for advanced in-flight correction capabilities.

The PGK-M technology is designed to help warfighters complete every mission accurately:

-Precision at longer distances keeps soldiers away from threats
-Improved GPS anti-jam performance
-Enabled technology compatible for GPS restricted environments (semi-active laser, imagers, pseudolites, datalink, etc.)

Reduced dispersion

Our kit dramatically reduces the dispersion associated with 155mm unguided artillery rounds, achieving precision target engagement. Projectiles fitted with PGK-M provide artillery teams on the battlefield with accurate fire support capabilities that friendly forces can rely on in urban areas.

-Improved accuracy against modern threats
-Reduced Circular Error of Probability (CEP)
-Decreased collateral damage

Low cost

The PGK-M’s highly accurate, lethal capability enables one-shot hits on the target. It requires less ammunition than conventional artillery to complete the mission, saving on costs, and increasing effectiveness.


Fire control

fire-control (1).png

The M777A1/A2 is fitted with the SELEX Sensors and Airborne Systems UK Ltd LINAPS (Laser Inertial Artillery Pointing System) artillery pointing suite coupled to a Lincad Ltd made battery and muzzle velocity radar. Source

The LRIP systems employ an optical sighting system for direct and indirect firing by day or night. Full production systems will be fitted with the General Dynamics Armament Systems Towed Artillery Digitisation (TAD) system. LRIP systems will be retrofitted with TAD.

The TAD digital fire control system provides onboard ballistic computation, navigation, pointing and self-location, providing greater accuracy and faster reaction times.

The TAD system also includes a laser ignition system, electric drives for the howitzer’s traverse and elevation and a powered projectile rammer. Source


Images are from pubic domain unless otherwise stated

Updated Oct 13, 2018

Sikorsky CH-148 Cyclone Maritime Helicopter

The Sikorsky CH-148 Cyclone is a twin-engine, multi-role maritime helicopter manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation for the Canadian Forces. CH-148 is to replace Canada’s main ship-borne maritime helicopter, the CH-124 Sea King.

CH-124 Sea King


Technical Specifications

Aircraft Description  Although one of the oldest Aircraft in the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Sea King is also one of its busiest. It has seen service in a variety of international and domestic roles in recent years including the Persian Gulf, Somalia, Yugoslavia, East Timor, Manitoba Floods, and Haiti.
Length 16.67m
Rotor Span 18.9m
Height 5.8 m
Empty Weight 6,591 kg
Maximum Gross Weight 9,318 kg
Power Two 1500 SHP General Electric T-58-GE-8F/-100 turboshafts
Maximum Speed 222 km/h
Cruising Speed 167 km/h
 Service Ceiling 3,048 m
Range 740 km
Equipment Forward Looking Infrared Radar (FLIR), Passive/Active Sonar, Surface Search Radar
Weapons System Mk 46 Mod V homing torpedoes, self-defence machine gun
Crew 2 pilots, 1 navigator, 1 airborne electronic sensor operator
Year(s) procured 1963 to 1969
Quantity in CF 27
Location(s) 12 Wing Shearwater, NS
Patricia Bay, BC

Technical data

The CH-148 will be operated by the Canadian Forces Air Command. It can conduct anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-surface warfare, surveillance and control, search and rescue (SAR) missions. It will also provide tactical transport for national and international security missions.

The helicopter has been developed under the Canadian Forces’ Maritime Helicopter Project (MHP). The project provides scope for the acquisition of 28 new, fully-equipped CH-148 Cyclone helicopters along with a long-term in-service support program. It will also provide 12 C-RAST helicopter haul-down systems for Halifax class (HFX) ships to accommodate the CH-148 Cyclone.

Orders and deliveries

In November 2004, Canada’s Department of National Defence placed a C$1.8bn contract with Sikorsky to produce 28 helicopters, with the first aircraft delivery expected in January 2009. The first production aircraft completed its maiden flight in November 2008. It arrived at CFB Shearwater in February 2010. The deliveries are delayed due to restrictions by US International Traffic in Arms Regulations.

Canada accepts first six Sikorsky CH-148 Cyclones: Here

yourfile (2).jpgCanadian Armed Forces – Image

The first 19 of the 28 CH-148 Cyclones will be supplied in interim standard rather than at the original contractual specifications. Maintenance and aircrew personnel will conduct initial operational testing and evaluation of the interim helicopters prior to deployment. The fully compliant helicopters will be delivered in 2012. All interim-standard helicopters are to be retrofitted and delivered to DND/CF by December 2013.

The German navy is also planning to replace its current fleet of Sea King helicopters with Cyclone helicopters.

Built ID     In this Organisation In other Org
    92-5001 2008     148801: RCAF  N4901C: Sikorsky CH-148 f/f 15nov08; Mar10 trials at Halifax, N+ 
    92-5002 2008     148802: RCAF; 09may15 Landed in Salisbury airport, MD refueled and n+  N8040J: Sikorsky CH-148 2008  

Jul13 running test flights in Western Slope  

    92-5003 2009     148803: RCAF  ?: Sikorsky CH-148 2009  
    92-5004 2010     148804: RCAF d/d 07Jun12 12th Wing, CFB Shearwater  ?: Sikorsky CH-148 2010-2012  
    92-5005 2010     148805: RCAF Jun12  ?: Sikorsky CH-148 CAF 148805  
    92-5006 2011     148806: RCAF d/d May11 12Wing Shearwater; first interim maritime hel+  ?: Sikorsky CH-148 2011; Canadian Armed Forces 148806 fr+  
    92-5007 2011     148807: RCAF 03aug12  ?: Sikorsky CH-148 2011; 13-24Jun11 Paris Air Show France  
    92-5008 2011     148808: RCAF from 16Jun12, CFB Shearwater  N1125M: Sikorsky CH-148 2011  
    92-5018       148818: RCAF from Mar15; 20apr16 picture on HMCS Montreal (FFH 336) +
    92-5020       148820: RCAF from Oct14, test serial N8036C
    92-5023       148823: RCAF from Jun15
    92-5024       148824: RCAF from Jun15

12 C/N found in this Organisation 


Canadian Air Force expecting CH-148 Cyclone project completion in 2025

The Canadian air force faces an issue as their order of 28 new CH-148 Cyclone helicopters from Sikorksy Aircraft has been projected to only be completed in 2025. Earlier agreements had said that the order of the new fleet would be done by 2022. This new addition in time creates a problem as the new fleet will only arrive seven years after the retirement of the CH-124 Sea King helicopters, which have been operating for over 50 years now. This leaves the Canadian military woefully short.

Fortunately, the country’s navy fleet is also lacking, having to retire two supply ships, two destroyers, one Tribal destroyer ship was let go due to budget cuts and now a fourth warship is about to be retired. As reported by the CBC, if the navy carefully plans their resources, they might have enough helicopters between them.

An initial deadline was 2008 but Sikorsky Aircraft missed that deadline. In 2013 they began to rethink their decision to replace their fleet, but stuck with their decision and announced the retirement of the Sea Kings due in 2015. Another deadline given was 2018 for the arrival of their new fleet, yet this too was not met. Instead they were promised 12 operational helicopters with the basic operating systems in place by 2018, with the remaining 16 coming in between then and 2021. Then remaining four years will consist of training personnel and getting the fleet operational by government standards. Source

Design and features


CH-148 is a military variant of the Sikorsky S-92 helicopter. It features a composite aluminium airframe with lightning-strike and high-intensity radio frequency pulse protection. It incorporates a wider four-bladed articulated composite main rotor blade in comparison with the S-70 Blackhawk. The tapered blade tip is angled downward to cut down noise and increase lift.

CH-148_148807_37802.jpgThe CH-148 main rotor head is a fully articulated hinge-less design with elastomeric bearings and automatic blade folding.- Image @b-domke.deS-92A_OY-HKA_30118.jpgMain rotor blade viewed from lower aft – Image @b-domke.deCH-148_148807_37985.jpgThe CH-148 tail rotor is a bearingless composite flex-beam design.- Image @b-domke.deft-opinion-ch148-cyclone-aew-daly-lgImage

The helicopter can operate with modern high-tech naval frigates and is equipped with numerous safety features. Flaw tolerance, bird strike capability and engine burst containment are integrated into the design.



CH-148 is equipped with APS-143B radar, the SAFIRE III EO System, L-3 HELRAS sonar and Lockheed Martin AN/ALQ-210 electronic support measure (ESM) system. Its aircraft management system (CMA-2082MH) is provided by CMC Electronics.


APS-143B radar


ELEPHONICS radar.  The AN/APS-143(V)3 is a maritime surveillance and tracking radar designed for installation in a variety of fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. It is also known as OceanEye. The system uses frequency agility and pulse compression techniques and consists of three units: an antenna, receiver/transmitter and signal processor. Radar control is via a dedicated control panel with on-screen controls, or by a central universal keyset via MIL-STD-1553B databus. Features include TWS for 30, 100 or 200 targets, air search with MTI, integrated electronic support and Mark 12A IFF system interfaces and electronic ECCM provision (including sector blanking and staggered pulse repetition frequencies).

The flat-plate planar antenna array, which can be fitted into any radome, is stabilized for ±30° in pitch and roll. The transmitter is a TWT (travelling wave tube) type with a peak power output of 8 kw and operating in the X band. The latest variant, APS-143B(V)3, can be upgraded with a complete imaging capability: range profiling, ISAR, spotlight SAR, strip-map SAR. The system can also incorporate software interfaces, via an embedded Tactical Data Management System (TDMS), for external systems such as FLIR, ESM, IFF and TDL. The TDMS capability also includes overlay of worldwide Database II or vector shoreline maps onto the radar display.

The internal, fully integrated Mark XIIA IFF interrogator has been designed to be compatible with the IFF interrogators being supplied for the US Navy’s MH-60R LAMPS helicopter, the Canadian CP-140 Aurora upgrade program, and the US and International Air Force’s AWACS platforms .IFF Mode 4 helps the Cyclone crew sort out cooperative sea and air targets in target-rich littoral regions.

System Specifications

  • System weight: 180 lbs/82 kg (with ISAR/SAR imaging)
  • Box size: R/T – 1.5 long ATR; S/P 1.0 long ATR; various

antenna-radome options

  • Power required: 115V, 400 Hz, 3-phase AC power,

1.8 kva typical, and 28V 12A

  • Operating modes:

– Standard: Search, Weather, Beacon, Small Target


– Optional: ISAR, Range Profiling, Stripmap SAR,

IFF Interrogator

– Planned: GMTI, AIS

  • Control configurations: 1553B data bus standalone


  • Low Probability of Intercept features: sector blanking,

PRF jitter, frequency agility, low sidelobe antenna


  • Maximum range: over 200 nmi
  • Display range resolution: 0.01 nmi (1 meter for

imaging option)

  • Azimuth accuracy: 0.5° or better
  • MTBF: 800 hours for helicopters; 1400 hours for



  • Bandwidth: 460 MHz
  • Gain: 31 to 35 dB (antenna/platform dependent)
  • Integrated IFF dipoles available
  • 360° Scan
  • Sector scan: operator selectable 45° to 350°
  • Stabilization: Standard +10°/-25° pitch-and-roll

(using antenna tilt)

Display & Processing

  • Display scales: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 nmi
  • Clutter Processing: sweep and scan-to-scan


  • Radar monitor: Wide variety of options available to

meet platform requirements

  • Standard interfaces available to allow integration/

operation with onboard display and control systems

– MIL-STD-1553, ARINC 429/571/575, IEEE-802

Ethernet, RS-232/422 Serial I/O

  • Standalone consoles available using Telephonics

Tactical Data Management System (TDMS)

Technical data



FLIR  – (3 to 5 micron) surveillance and targeting turrets by General Dynamics Canada of Ottawa. This is an  multi-sensor imaging system. 


Sensor type 640×480 InSb focal plane array

Wavelength 3-5µm response

FOVs 25° to 0.35°

Zoom ratio 71X


Sensor type Color CCD-TV

Resolution 525 / 625 line (NTSC/PAL)

FOVs 28° to 2.7°

Zoom ratio 18X (+12X E-Zoom)


Sensor type 3-chip Color CCD

Resolution 800 line

FOVs 5.4° to 0.29°

 (Matched to IR FOV’s)


Sensor type Image intensified

FOVs 5.4° to 0.7°

 (Matched to IR FOV’s)


Rangefinder Max. range 25Km +/-5m

 Classification Class 1 (Eyesafe)

Illuminator Power 1W or 2W options

 Classification Class 4

 Beam Divergence 1° x 1°

Pointer Power 100mw

 Classification Class 3b

sikorsky_ch-148_cyclone_canada_019SAFIRE III EO System – Image


Tightly-coupled, fully-integrated, IMU & GPS for geo-pointing and target geo-location


System type 5 axis stabilization

Az. coverage 360° continuous

El. coverage +30° to -120°

Stability <15 µ

Airspeed 405 KIAS


Analog video NTSC/PAL

Control RS-232, RS-422, Ergonomic Laptop or Hand-held

Data RS-232, RS-422, ARINC 419/429, MIL-STD-1553B

Technical data

L-3 HELRAS sonar


HELRAS DS-100 sonar by L-3 Oceans Group. The HELRAS is capable of depths up to 500 m and has figure-of-merit sufficient to achieve convergence zone detections in deep water, and transmission/receive characteristics optimized for extremely long ranges in shallow water. At 1.38 KHz, HELRAS exploits low-frequency acoustic performance to maximize detection ranges, especially in shallow water, and to defeat the hull cladding on today’s quiet submarines.



Operating depth 500 m

Projector 8 elements (7 sonar, 1 UWT), array length 5.2 m

Operational modes

Active operation centered at 1.311, 1.38, 1.449 KHz:

CW (0.039 sec PW to 10 sec PW) at 3 frequencies

Frequency modulation

Linear period FM (PW 0.156 sec to 5.0 sec); FM triplet (PW 0.625 sec to 1.25 sec)

50 Hz downsweep: at 3 center frequencies

100 Hz downsweep: at 3 center frequencies

300 Hz downsweep: at 1 center frequency (1.380 KHz)

Active display formats: All beam Doppler range; bearing-range/Doppler-range; bearing-range; A-scan

Passive operation BW: 800 Hz to 2000 Hz broadband; in band DEMON

Passive Display formats: Bearing-time; bearing frequency, automatic line integration

(narrowband and DEMON)

Source level 218 dB/µPa/yd

Beam width Vertical -15º to +15º

Receive beams 32 half beams, 16 full beams

Number of target tracks 10

Range scales 1, 1.5, 2.5, 4, 6, 10, 16, 25, 40, 60 n miles

Receive array 2.6 m diameter x 1.2 m high


Submersible unit: 155 kg

 Dome Control, Reeling Machine, Cable & Reel: 130.5 kg

 Common Acoustic Processor & Cable Interface Power Supply: 40.5 kg

 Integrated System: 326 kg

 Sonar Control: 6.3 kg

 Flat Panel Display: 9 kg

 Standalone System: 341.3 kg

Technical data

Lockheed Martin AN/ALQ-210 ESM

sikorsky_ch-148_cyclone_canada_017Lockheed Martin AN/ALQ-210 ESM – Image @grubbyfingersshop.comsikorsky_ch-148_cyclone_canada_011Lockheed Martin AN/ALQ-210 ESM – Image

RWR/ESM (Radar Warning and location identifier) : Lockheed Martin AN/ALQ-210. The AN/ALQ-210 ESM subsystem performs situational awareness and threat warning functions simultaneously. The subsystem is designed with an open architecture in order to accommodate scalable functionality. It quickly detects and identifies emitters over a wide frequency range, determines the signal angle of arrival, and locates the source in dense signal environments.

Technical data


AN/ARC-210 Gen5 Programmable Digital Communication System


The AN/ARC-210 Multimode Integrated Communications System provides 2-way multimode voice and data communications over the 30-400 MHz frequency range in either normal, secure or jam-resistant modes via line-of-sight (LOS) or satellite communications (SATCOM) links. The ARC-210 family of equipment is made up of several variants of the receiver-transmitter, each providing a specific combination of functionality to meet user platform requirements.

The AN/ARC-210 Receiver-Transmitter (RT) is the nucleus of a Multimode Communications System. The RT is offered in several models, which may be coupled with a full complement of auxiliary equipment, to provide the user community with unmatched versatility and exceptional capability. Source

Features & Benefits

Line-of-sight data transfer rates up to 80 kb/s in a 25 kHz channel creating high-speed communication of critical situational awareness information for increased mission effectiveness

Software reprogrammable in the field via Memory Loader/Verifier Software making flexible use for multiple missions

Offers direct replacement for RT-1794(C), RT-1824(C), RT-1851(C) and RT-1851A(C). Supports all ARC-210 legacy waveforms and functions reducing integration efforts

Embedded software programmable cryptography for secure communications


Frequency range:
Coverage: 30-941 MHz
VHF 30-88 MHz close air support
VHF 108-118 MHz navigation
VHF 118-137 MHz air traffic control
VHF 137-156 MHz land mobile
VHF 156-174 MHz maritime
UHF 225-512 MHz military/homeland defense
UHF 806-824, 851-869, 869-902, 935-941 MHz (public safety bands)Channel bandwidths:
5, 6.25, 8.33, 12.5, 25 kHz and software definableTuning:
1.25 kHz incrementsReceive Sensitivity (10 dB SINAD):
AM: -103 dBm (30-400 MHz)
FM: -108 dBm (30-400 MHz)
FM: -106 dBm (400-941 MHz, 12 dB SINAD))Reliability:
NLT 3400 hrs AIC
NLT 1050 hrs AUF

Three Rockwell Collins RT-1851C V/UHF multi-band radios.  V/UHF-3 is rigged with a SATCOM mounting. 

2364784The first production CH-148 for the Canadian Armed Forces, seen here overflying the Halifax waterfront near sunset, on its way to land on HMCS Montréal. This aircraft is in Halifax undergoing trials and still wears an N-number registration. Upon delivery it will be 148801. Michael Durning Image

HF-9087D radio


The HF-9000D and HF-9000F systems are a family of light weight HF systems designed for use on a broad range of military fixed wing and rotary wing airborne, transportable, and fixed site applications. The integrated multimode system provides data communication capability including the transmission and reeipt of text and graphics while continuing to provide voice HF communications. Embedded system functionality includes MIL-STD-188-141B, Automatic Link Establishment (ALE), MIL-STD-188-110B, data modem functionally, Independent Sideband (ISB) data operation, and ARINC 714-6 SELCAL decoding with growth capability for future HF waveforms.


Frequency Range: 2.0 to 29.9999 MHz
Power Output: 200W peak/100W average
Embedded ALE: MIL-STD-188-141B
Embedded Modem: MIL-STD-188-110B, Appendices C and F (Data rates up to 19.2 kbps)
Embedded ARINC 714-6 SELCAL decoder
Frequency features: 249 ITU radiotelephone and six emergency channels preprogrammed
Temperature Range: -40º C to +55º C.
Dimensions for HF-9087D only: Width 172 mm  (6.8 in); Height 193 mm  (7.6 in); Depth 320 mm (12.6 in)
Weight for 9087D only : 9.5kg  (21.0 lbs)

One Rockwell Collins HF Radio system with KY-100 encryption


The ANDVT AIRTERM (KY-100) is a narrowband/wideband terminal that interoperates with TACTERM (CV-3591/KYV-5), MINTERM (KY-99A), VINSON (KY-57, KY-58) and SINCGARS. A self-contained terminal including COMSEC, KY-100 provides for secure voice and data communications in tactical airborne/ground environments. It is an integral part of the U.S Joint Services and Federal Law Enforcement Agency networks, and provides half-duplex,  narrowband and wideband communications. Flexible interfaces ensure compatibility with a wide range of voice, data, radio and satellite equipment. The KY-100 is based on the KY-99A architecture with enhanced interface capability.  It includes KY-99A’s operational modes, KY-58’s operational modes, and unique features such as:

*  User-defined presets (permits user to pre-store different interface and terminal configurations) .
* A radio port with configurable levels/impedances.
*  Emergency back-up mode.
*  Separate audio handset/intercom data port (rear panel) with configurable levels/impedances.
* NVIS-compatible front panel and display.

The KY-100 is backward-compatible with the VINSON KY-58, including the same connectors and pinouts for the wideband operational modes. Source

VHF Transceiver (FM) 138-174 MHz


The Technisonic TFM-138 is a frequency agile airborne VHF/FM High Band transceiver operates from 138.000 MHz to 174.000 MHz in 2.5 KHz steps, providing for either 12.5 KHz (Narrow Band) or 25.0 KHz (Wide Band) channel spacing.

The TFM-138 offers a two channel synthesized Guard Receiver (no crystals), 100 channels of preset memory, scan and priority scan, all available CTCSS tones, and can operate without restriction on any split frequency pair available within the band. Function control is via a panel mounted 12-button keypad. Operating frequency, alpha numeric identifier and other related data are presented on a 48-character, two-line LED matrix display. This transceiver weighs just 3.1 lbs, is Dzus panel mounted and is completely self contained (no heavy remote transceiver), eliminating problematic, complicated, heavy and costly R/T to control head interconnect wiring. Source For full details see PDF file: Here

AA21-400 Cabin PA

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One Loudhailer/PA system made by Northern Airborne Technology. The AA21-400 Cabin PA control is designed to provide centralized control for an aircraft’s internal and external PA systems. Its 25 watt speaker driver stage is designed to drive one 8 ohm speaker for internal paging.  The AA21-400 also provides a low level audio output signal that drives the input on a remote mounted power amplifier.  A +3db function allows the output of the system to be varied by 3 db.(Photo courtesy Northern Airborne Technology).  Source


Honeywell H-764G INS


Three Honeywell  EGIs ( Embedded GPS Inertial). The Honeywell H-764G INS is self-contained equipment that incorporates three GG 1320 ring laser gyros, three solid-state Sunstrand QA 2000 accelerometers plus their associated electronics, a dual MILitary STanDard (MIL-STD) – 1553B databus installation, a MIL-STD-1750A microprocessor, an embedded Raytheon Global Positioning System (GPS) module with six channels and a P(Y) code capability. 

Outputs Blended INS/GPS, free inertial and GPS only

  • Supports CNS/ATM Mandates

– ADS-B Blended Position Source with

MSO-C145 certification, low latency design and transponder direct connect


– Autonomous LPV


  • Certifiability

– DO-178 B/C Level A

– DO-254 Level A

– MSO-C145

  • Supports open architectures with flexible interfaces and integration with FACE
  • Power – 35-60watts
  • MTBF >10,000 hours calculated, >25,000 hours demonstrated in certain applications
  • State of the art 1320 Ring Laser Gyro, 450,000 hours MTBF demonstrated with over 4 Billion accumulated flight hours
  • Alignment Modes:

– Gyrocompass

– In Flight Alignment

– Ship Alignment (SINS/AR-57 and In Motion)

– Stored Heading Alignment

Source – Specification PDF

DF-430 Direction Finding Set

ch148_df430_01.jpgDF430 major system components. (L-R) : ANT-430 antenna , BC-125 display/control head and RPU-450 controller . (Photo courtesy Rockwell Collins)


•Tactical DF in the 30 to 410 MHz frequency range regardless the type of signal (AM, FM, PM, etc.)
•Civil SAR missions on 121.5 MHz, 243 MHz 406 MHz and COSPAS-SARSAT beacons.
•Ability to detect COSPAS-SARSAT beacons (EPIRBs) and decode their message (latitude/longitude/country code/etc.)
•Sonobuoy frequency band (FM 136 – 174 MHz) coverage and optimized localization by dedicated algorithms (standard and advanced OTPI) for anti-submarine warfare.
•Compact/lightweight quality and flush mounted antenna facilitate the DF-430 integration onboard any platform
•Can be interfaced through MIL-STD-1553B , A429 or BC-125 (standalone configuration) controller


The OTPI function is used to localize sonobuoys during ASW mission. The result is a visual indication when the aircraft flies directly above the sonobuoy (On Top Position). When connected to the aircraft bus, the DF-430 is able to significantly increase the OTPI detection accuracy by computing the altitude and ground speed information.



General Dynamics Canada –  Mission Data Management System (MDMS) 


CVAR : Conduction-Cooled VME processor And Receiver
MDMS: Mission Data Management System
TISIS   : Tactical Integrated Sensor Information System

The MDMS is the conduction-cooled variant of the General Dynamics Canada (GDC) mission system also fitted on the CP-140 Aurora.  The MDMS for the CH-148 is made up of:

* Mission Data Management Computer (MDMC – the GDC sales brochure refers to calls it TISIS).
* Tactical Workstation Console (TWC) which contains the:

– Workstation tactical display (2)
– Programmable Entry Panel displays (2)
– Cockpit Tactical display (CTD)
– Cockpit Cursor Device (CCD) – the “potato grip”

MDMS interfaces to the sensors and tactical data link systems, runs the tactical workstation displays in the cabin and cockpit, and manages and monitors the health of the integrated mission system (IMS).

The CVAR, is the helicopter’s acoustic processing system for both the Sonobuoy processing and the Dipping Sonar system, and it contains the receiver for the sonobuoys.  The system control and display is done from the Workstation Tactical Display (WTD), the Programmable Entry Panel (PEP) at the Tactical Workstation Console (TWC) in the cabin.

The TWC is the composite material console in the main cabin where the TACCO and SENSO sit.  Each operator has two displays in front of them.  The WTD is the larger 20.1 inch LCD that provides the tactical and sensor displays, and the PEP is the smaller, 10 inch display positioned at an angle, which presents the software-driven menus to operate the mission systems.

TISIS   : Tactical Integrated Sensor Information System


 A fl exible system architecture that can be confi gured to meet the constraints of functionality, packaging, weight and balance, and redundancy;

 A mission-oriented operator interface utilizing fully programmable controls and displays;

 Development of operator interface and toolset involved human factors engineering studies with input from operational aircrew;

 A fully integrated tactical navigation and data processing component;

 External interfacing using MIL-STD-1553B avionics data bus, Ethernet, ARINC 429, and Fibre Channel;

 Expansion capability to incorporate legacy interfaces where required;

 Operating systems supported: Windows, Solaris, and Linux, and;

 Interoperable with other platforms through standard military and commercial data links.

Full details PDF: Here

Link 11 tactical datalink 


The Link-11 system is the Ultra Electronics Multi-Link Processor (MLP) which can be upgraded to Link 22 at a later date.

CMA-4000 Flight Management System (FMS)


There are two Esterline/CMC Electronics CMA-4000 series Flight Management  system Control and Display Units (FMCDU’s). These will independently manage all cockpit displays, communications and navigation systems.


The CMA-4000 provides radio management, mission control, flight management and seamless navigation throughout all phases of flight, including en-route, terminal, approach and the mission phases of flight. Its ability to interface with a wide variety of navigation sensors and radios makes it very versatile for a wide variety of applications. Navigational solutions can be obtained via blended INS/GPS, GPS, INS, DME/DME. VOR/DME, VOR/DME/TACAN , DOPPLER and Dead Reckoning. Frequency ranges for controlled radios are from HF, VHF, UHF, and SATCOM.

DTC1-1 Tactical Cockpit Display


This 10.4″ portrait form factor cockpit display is qualified and in production for helicopter applications on the Sikorsky S-92 helicopter as a Mission System Tactical Cockpit display (CH148 Cyclone Maritime Helicopter). A colour graphics display with 768 x 1024 pixels, this unit meets the unique vibration and shock requirements of the helicopter environment.

Environmental Specifications

DTC1-1 Tactical Cockpit Display Specifications View Datasheet
Operating Temperature -40°C to +55°C
Storage Temperature -51°C to +85°C
Humidity MIL-STD-810F, Method 507.4
Shock MIL-STD-810F, Method 516.5
(20 g operational, 40 g crash hazard)
Vibration MIL-STD-810F, Method 514.5
(Helicopter and Fixed Wing)
Altitude MIL-STD-810F, Method 500.4 (40000 ft ASL)
Salt Fog MIL-STD-810F, Method 509.4


3ATI SDD1-1 Cockpit Display


The SDD1-1 Cockpit Display is qualified and in production for helicopter applications on the Sikorsky S-92 helicopter as a Self-Defence System Cockpit Display (CH148 Cyclone Maritime Helicopter). A colour graphics display with 300 x 300 pixels on a 3.5” diagonal screen, this unit meet the unique vibration and shock requirements of a helicopter environment.


  • 300 x 300 pixel resolution with a 3.5” diagonal screen
  • Sunlight readable cockpit display with LED backlight
  • Airborne ANVIS Class B compatible
  • DVI video input
  • Supports TIA/EIA-422B serial for communications
  • Built for survivability in extreme conditions

Programmable Entry Panel (PEP2-1) display


Each TWD is combined with a Programmable Entry Panel (PEP2-1) display, mounted in the console just below the TWD.  The PEP is a 12.1” touch-screen display designated PEP2-1, and is used to display and select the menu selections for the operators to control the mission system and sensors.  It is normally configured to look like the second photo in the datasheet, with menu buttons – not a tactical map.


  • 800 x 600 pixel resolution with a 12.1” diagonal screen
  • Console display with LED backlight
  • ANVIS Class B compatible
  • Touch screen
  • RGB and RS-170/RS-170A video input
  • Supports TIA/EIA-422B serial communications
  • Built for survivability in extreme conditions

Source PDF

General Dynamics Canada was contracted in 2004 to provide the mission systems for the entire fleet of 28 helicopters. These mission systems include radar, ESM, acoustics, self-defence, navigation and communication systems.


Armaments include door-arm mounted GP machine guns and two MK 46 torpedoes on BRU-14/A weapon or stores rack mounted in folding weapons pylons.

GP machine guns – (FN) MAG-58M 7.62mm machine gun


Example – May be other model

Technical data:
  MAG 58M Machine gun
Overall 1,080 mm – 42.5 in
Barrel (chrome plated + stellite) 548 mm – 21.6 in
Rifled lenght of the barrel 487.5 mm – 19.2 in
Machine gun, complete 11.650 kg – 25.7 lb
Barrel 3 kg – 6.6 lb
RATE OF FIRING 650 to 1,000 rpm
Cartridge cases downward
Links laterally
M19A1 BG 250 rds
M61A1 BG 250 rds
M75A1 BG 230 rds
  LPH Pintle Head
Width 310 mm – 12.2 in
Height 600 mm – 23.6 in
Weight, empty 7.3 kg – 16.1 lb


MK 46 torpedoes


Torpedoes are self-propelled guided projectiles that operate underwater and are designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. They may be launched from submarines, surface ships, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. They are also used as parts of other weapons; the Mark 46 torpedo becomes the warhead section of the ASROC (Anti-Submarine ROCket) and the Captor mine uses a submerged sensor platform that releases a torpedo when a hostile contact is detected. The three major torpedoes in the Navy inventory are the Mark 48 heavyweight torpedo, the Mark 46 lightweight and the Mark 50 advanced lightweight.

The MK-46 torpedo is designed to attack high performance submarines, and is presently identified as the NATO standard. The MK-46 torpedo is designed to be launched from surface combatant torpedo tubes, ASROC missiles and fixed and rotary wing aircraft. In 1989, a major upgrade program began to enhance the performance of the MK-46 Mod 5 in shallow water. Weapons incorporating these improvements are identified as Mod 5A and Mod 5A(S).

yourfile (1).jpgArmed with MK-46 torpedo Canadian Armed Forces – Image
Power Plant Two-speed, reciprocating external combustion;
Mono-propellant (Otto fuel II) fueled
Length 102.36 in. tube launch configuration (from ship)
Weight 517.65 lbs (warshot configuration)
Diameter 12.75 inches
Range Officially “8,000 yards”
Reportedly 11,400 – 12,000 yd. at 45 kt.
Weapon acquisition range 1600 yards
Min/Max ASROC launching ranges 1500 to 12000 yards
Depth Officially “Greater than 1,200 ft (365 meters)”
Reportedly 1,500 ft.
Search/attack depth settings Minimum 20 yards
Maximum 1500 yards
Speed Greater than 28 knots (32.2 mph, 51.52 kph)
Reportedly 45 kt
Actual 45 knots
Run characteristics 6-8 minutes
Guidance System Homing mode – Active or passive/active acoustic homing
Launch/search mode – Snake or circle search
Warhead 98 lbs. of PBXN-103 high explosive (bulk charge)

MK-46 torpedo data

BRU-14/A weapon/stores rack


The BRU-14/A bomb rack is a parent rack which provides for suspension and release of stores weighing up to 2,000-2,200 pounds. Two suspension hooks provide for attachment of weapons or stores having 14-inch suspension lugs. It connects to the aircraft special weapons release and control system to provide primary release, IFOBRL (in-flight operable bomb release lock) actuation, auxiliary unlock, secondary release, and mechanical arming of a weapon/store. Linear Electromechanical Actuator consists of a spring-loaded plunger that is mechanically locked and electrically released, thereby initiating hook release. Aero 1A adapter assemblies may be added to increase the bomb rack to 30-inch suspension capacity. The BRU-14/A is a modified Aero 65A bomb rack which has been adapted for use with P-3C and S-3A aircraft.

Major components consist of a linear electromechanical actuator and an in-flight operable bomb rack lock auxiliary release assembly.

The linear electromechanical actuator consists of a spring-loaded plunger that is mechanically cocked and electrically released to provide the force that initiates hook release. The auxiliary release assembly provides a secondary method of release should the linear electromechanical actuator or its electrical system fail.


The in-flight operable bomb rack lock mechanism consists of a remotely controlled bomb rack lock and emergency release auxiliary unlock. The IFOBRL consists of a lockbar, which pivots on the frame to lock the rear link in latched position, and an actuator assembly, which can be locked or unlocked manually. The auxiliary unlock assembly is a cartridge-actuated device providing a mounting point for the aft end of the IFOBRL. When actuated, the unlock releases the IFOBRL and allows it to move forward, freeing the rear link from restraint. Mechanical arming of a weapon/store is accomplished through two electrically actuated arming solenoids, which are mounted in the frame assembly. The BRU-14 is capable of suspension and release of a weapon/store in either an armed or safe condition. An electrical impulse from the aircraft is used to release the store. Mechanical arming is provided for more and/or tail arming. During ground operations and in flight the IFOBRL provides a positive lock to the release mechanism.

The left inboard, left outboard, and right weapon pylons on the Navy’s Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS) Mark III SH-60B Seahawk accommodate BRU-14/A weapon/stores racks. The BRU-14A bomb racks interface with the MK-50 Advanced Lightweight Torpedo (ALWT) and Penguin missile. Fittings for torpedo parachute release lanyards are located on the fuselage aft of each weapon pylon. Effective on BUNO 162349 and subsequent, the left and right inboard pylons have wiring and tubing provisions for auxiliary fuel tanks. All pylons have wiring provisions to accommodate the MK 50 torpedo. The left outboard weapon pylon can accommodate a missile launch assembly (MLA) which is used to mount the MK 2 MOD 7 Penguin air-to-surface missile. Source

CPI Aero Awarded $5M CH-148 Contract

CPI Aerostructures, Inc. (“CPI Aero®”) (NYSE MKT: CVU) today announced that Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company (NYSE: LMT), has awarded CPI Aero purchase orders valued at approximately $5 million to manufacture the weapon pylon for the Sikorsky CH-148 Cyclone, a twin-engine, multi-role shipboard helicopter being manufactured by Sikorsky for the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). CPI Aero will produce weapon pylons for 28 aircraft with deliveries through 2018.

A military variant of the Sikorsky S-92® helicopter, the CH-148 is designed for shipboard operations. The Cyclone is to be operated by the RCAF and will conduct anti-submarine warfare, surveillance, and search and rescue missions from Royal Canadian Navy warships.

“This award recognizes our long-standing and excellent past performance with Sikorsky that spans over a decade across multiple aircraft, including the UH-60, S-92, and now the CH-148,” stated Douglas McCrosson, president and chief executive officer of CPI Aero. “This is our first new contract with Sikorsky as a Lockheed Martin Company, and we are excited to continue to expand our business with Lockheed Martin, the world’s largest defense contractor.” Source

2605234“Cyclone 22” in a low approach to runway 05, showing all the cool stuff mounted on the underside –  Michael Durning Image


The helicopter is fitted with sensor equipment to search and locate submarines during ASW missions. A modern countermeasures suite is incorporated to defend the helicopter against incoming missiles.

ATK AN/AAR-47 missile warning system

images (1)

The AN/AAR 47 basically works with an digitized and integrated warning system that is in turn integrated to the communication module of the pilot or the control command of the platform. The AN/AAR 47 is an radar based warning system.

The main feature of this system is to provide timely warning against Infrared MAN Portable Air Defence System (MANPADS). Detecting a MANPADS is an extremely demanding task and these MANPADS do not signal their presence till the launch of the missile, they do have a detectable radiation since they do not rely on active IR, radar guidance or a laser designator. These fire-and-forget systems and lock on and engage a target, speed to the target and destroy it in seconds. But these systems however, have a very small but still visible radar signature and also since propelled by propellant a IR signature. But this signature can be visible only for a very short period of duration. To counter these missiles if the old counter measures are to be used they may be hampered by the decisions of a pilot. But if the counter measures are integrated with the MAWS the system automatically deploys the flares without any delay thereby saving the platform from a possible attack.

Sikorsky_CH-148_Cyclone_Canada_004.jpgAAR-47 missile warning system below the Lockheed Martin AN/ALQ-210 ESM – Image

The AAR-47 missile warning system consists of 4 Optical Sensor Converters (OSC), a Computer Processor and a Control Indicator. A single optical sensor converter is positioned towards each side of the aircraft and is integrated with an infrared camera which can detect any incoming missiles. With the space on a aircraft being very limited the whole size of the component has to be extremely compact and yet powerful the AAR-47 is a very compact system and is around 32 pounds and takes very negligible space on board a aircraft. Source

AN/ALE-39 flare and chaff dispensers


The dispenser countermeasures AN / ALE-39 system is capable of launching up to 60 cartridges flares (flares) or sheet metal (chaff) able to confuse and divert enemy missiles, both infrared and radar guide, which are threatening the plane.In the Fightinghawk and other Skyhawks, CMDS dispensers are found in the lower part of the tail section.

sikorsky_ch-148_cyclone_canada_033AN / ALE-39 system – Image



The CH-148 is powered by two GE CT7-8A engines. A new CT7-8A7 engine based on the CT7-8A1 is being developed by General Electric to replace the current, less efficient engine.

GE CT7-8A enginesthumb-ct7-8

The new engine will be tested and certified by June 2012. It will incorporate modified fuel manifold and fuel nozzles.

Sikorsky will deliver six interim CH-148 Cyclone helicopters fitted with CT7-8A1 engines to the Canadian Forces before the final delivery deadline.


The Cyclone is equipped for day-and-night flight operations, and can fly in adverse weather conditions in temperatures ranging from -51°C to +49°C. It can fly at a maximum altitude of 15,000ft. The maximum cruise speed is 165kt and the best range speed is 137kt.

The helicopter can fly to a range of 450km without refuelling.

Main material source

The Sikorsky S-92 is a twin-engined medium utility transport helicopter produced by the American manufacturer Sikorsky Aircraft. The S-92 is primary used by civil operators for offshore passenger and material transportation to oil- & gas rigs and for search and rescue service (SAR). In governmental service the helicopter is mostly used for executive transportation (VIP). For military operations the S-92 is marketed as the H-92 Superhawk.
Crew 2
Passengers 19
Propulsion 2 Turboshaft Engines
Engine Model General Electric CT7-8A
Engine Power (each) 1879 kW 2520 shp
Speed 306 km/h 165 kts
  190 mph
Service Ceiling 4.267 m 14.000 ft
Range 950 km 513 NM
590 mi.
Empty Weight 7.070 kg 15.587 lbs
max. Takeoff Weight 12.837 kg 28.300 lbs
Rotor Blades (main/tail) 4/4
Main Rotor Diameter 17,17 m 56 ft 4 in
Tail Rotor Diameter 3,35 m 10 ft 12 in
Rotor Disc Area 231,5 m² 2492 ft²
Length (Fuselage) 17,10 m 56 ft 1 in
Length 20,88 m 68 ft 6 in
Height 5,47 m 17 ft 11 in
First Flight 23.12.1998
Production Status in production
ICAO Code S92
Data for (Version) Sikorsky S-92A
Variants S-92A, H-92 Superhawk, CH-148 Cyclone


Breaking News: Philippines president just announced that he’s allying with China, wants to talk to Putin

Main image source

S-350E Vityaz (50R6) SAM

The S-350E Vityaz (50R6) is a surface-to-air missile (SAM) system designed and manufactured by Almaz-Antey Corporation, for the Russian defence.


The dual defence missile system was unveiled at the MAKS 2013 Airshow held in Moscow in August 2013. The missile testing is expected to be completed in 2014 and mass production is slated to commence in 2015. Deliveries to the Russian Army are anticipated in 2016.

S-350E Vityaz missile system design and features


Dr Igor Sutagin spoke at the RUSI Air Power Conference 2013

The mid-range S-350E Vityaz air defence missile system was manufactured by the Northwest Regional Centre of Almaz-Antey. It is a highly mobile system featuring the 8×8 truck chassis BAZ-6909. The BAZ-6909 can tackle a maximum gradient of 57 %, side slope of 38%, fording depth of 1.4m, and trench of 1.5m.

The missile system can be fitted with independent torsion-bar wishbone suspension with telescopic shock absorbers. Other equipments fitted to the system include a filtering and ventilation system, a heater, and communication, decontamination and protection systems.

The metal stamped cab of the missile has two welded doors and can accommodate up to three people. The missile can also deploy protected cabs and frame-type cabs with local armour.

The S-350E Vityaz can carry up to 16 aircraft or 12 vertically launched missiles. Each S-350E Vityaz system consists of three 50P6 launcher trucks, a 50K6 command and control vehicle, and 50K6E command post. The basic missile can load 48 weapons per battery.

50P6 launcher truck


The 50P6 is the truck launcher missile system of the Vityaz 50R6 air defense missile system.

The Viyyaz missile truck launcher 50P6 carried twelve tubular containers, in two lines of six. A launcher vehicle can mount 9M96E missiles or 9M100 missiles. The launcher unit is mounted at the rear of the chassis. In firing position four hydraulically operated outriggers are deployed on the ground, one on each side of the chassis and two at the rear.

Vitaly V. Kuzmin

Vitaly V. Kuzmin

Vitaly V. Kuzmin

The missile for the Vityaz 50R6 the 9M96 originally designed for the S-400 system. This missile is intended for self-defence at a range of up to 15 km and features passive IR homing guidance. The 9M96 is a dual-role anti-missile and anti-aircraft missile. The smaller 9M100 missile can be also used against aircraft, UAVs and cruise missiles. The 9M100 is a short-range, IR-guided missile that has been mentioned as both a SAM and an AAM. The 9M96E missile are ‘hit-to-kill’ designed for direct impact, and use canards and thrust vectoring to achieve extremely high G and angular rate capability. An inertial package is used with a datalink from the MFMTR X-band radar for midcourse guidance, with a radar homing seeker of an undisclosed type. The small 24kg blast fragmentation warhead is designed to produce a controlled fragment pattern, using multiple initiators to shape the detonation wave through the explosive. A smart radar fuse is used to control the warhead timing and pattern.

50K6 command and control vehicle


The 50K6 is the Command and control vehicle which is used with the Vityaz 50R6 ground-to-air defense missile system. The 50K6 command and control system is designed for battle management of the Vityaz ADM (Air Defense Missile) system fitted with an appropriate interface equipment.

The 50K6 Command and Control vehicle uses a 6×6 truck chassis BAZ-69092-12. This a three axle chassis with a wheel arrangement of 6×6, a three-seat cab and a behind-the-cab engine. The engine is the YaMZ-8424.10-033 multi-fuel four-stroke eight cylinder V-type liquid cooled diesel with a power of 450 hp. This truck can run at a maximum speed of 80 km/h with a maximum road range of 1,000 km.

6×6 truck chassis BAZ-69092-12


The mobile 50K6 command and control system provides the above ADM systems with target designation of current and prospective aircraft, cruise missiles, ballistic targets, and other air attack weapons, within the range of the air defence systems responsibility coverage zone, as well as their interoperability in adverse tactical environment.


Command and Control vehicle
Country users
Speed truck
80 km/h
Range truck
1,000 km

50K6 command and control system data Source

50N6A Fire control system with target and surveillance radar


The 50N6A is the MFMTR Multi-Function Mobile Tracking Radar which is used with the Vityaz 50R6 ground-to-air defense missile system. This radar provides a highly mobile 3D search and acquisition capability, but is limited in low level coverage footprint by its antenna elevation. The specialised MFMTR is a high power-aperture, coherent, X-band phased array designed for the rapid acquisition and initial tracking of inbound ballistic missiles within a 90 degree sector.


The 50N6A MFMTR Multi-Function Mobile Tracking Radar uses a 6×6 truck chassis BAZ-69092-12. This a three axle chassis with a wheel arrangement of 6×6, a three-seat cab and a behind-the-cab engine. The engine is the YaMZ-8424.10-033 multi-fuel four-stroke eight cylinder V-type liquid cooled diesel with a power of 450 hp. This truck can run at a maximum speed of 80 km/h with a maximum road range of 1,000 km. (See below)


The roof-mounted MFMTR X-band phased array radar of the fire-control system can detect and track up to 40 targets simultaneously and engage eight of them typically using two missiles per target to ensure a high-kill probability. The MSAM is capable of engaging aircraft, helicopters, UAVs and tactical ballistic missile target sets. The MFMTR radar provides a Simultaneous target detection, multiple target tracking and the missile up-link. The radar contains a Rotating phased-array antenna (60 rpm) with Full electronic scanning, with large deflection (+/- 45° in elevation and bearing).


Multi-function mobile tracking radar
Tracking errors
– 250 m range
– 0.5 degrees in azimuth.elevation
Country users
– 90°
– 45° elevation
Speed truck
80 km/h
Range truck
1,000 km
– 40 for tracking
– 8 for engagement using two missiles per target
X-band phased array radar

50N6A MFMTR Multi-Function Mobile Tracking Radar data Source

The missile system is equipped with relay station for communication equipment, shelter-mounted fire control system with multifunctional target, and surveillance radar 50N6A. The centralised tire and air pressure regulation system of the S-350E Vityaz consists of a pressure control valve, shutoff valves of the wheels, and piping. The system is monitored from the driver seats.

50R6 Relay station for communication


The Relay station vehicle for Vityaz 50R6 ground-to-air defense missile system is used for communication between launcher, radar and command post of Vityaz air defense missile system. 

A telescopic mast is mounted at the rear of a Kamaz 6×6 truck chassis.

The Relay Station vehicle of Vityaz 50R6 uses a 6×6 Russian-made Kamaz 5350 truck chassis. The KamAZ-5350 can run at a maximum speed of 95 km/h with a maximum road range of 1,000 km.

6×6 Russian-made Kamaz 5350 truck


The mobile 50K6 command and control system provides the above ADM systems with target designation of current and prospective aircraft, cruise missiles, ballistic targets, and other air attack weapons, within the range of the air defence systems responsibility coverage zone, as well as their interoperability in adverse tactical environment.

Relay station
Country users
KamAZ-5350 series
Speed truck
95 km/h
Range truck
1,000 km

50R6 ground-to-air defense missile system data Source

Development of S-350E Vityaz SAM

The new S-350E Vityaz SAM defence system has been developed since 2009. It is expected to replace the previous variants of the S-300 systems and complement S-400 systems.

The S-350E Vityaz mobile air defence system is developed based on the design of the KM-SAM Chun Koong system of South Korea. The KM-SAM surface-to-air system was developed by the Agency for Defense Development with design support from Almaz-Antey.

KM-SAM: Details

S-350E Vityaz’s compatibility with other missiles

The mid-range guided missile system is compatible with 9M100 and 9M96E / 9M96M missiles manufactured by Fakel Design Bureau.

The 9M100 is a short-range missile featuring infrared (IR) guidance. It is 2.5m long, has a 125mm diameter body, and weighs 3,073kg. It is used as both a surface-to-air missile and an air-to-air missile, and has a maximum range of 10km.

The 9M96E / 9M96M, which is originally meant for the S-400 missile system, is a dual-role, self-defence and IR-guided missile. It can load FRAG-HE warheads of 26kg and travel at a speed of 900m/s up to a range of 40km. It features active radar terminal homing guidance system and measures 4.75m in length and 333kg in weight. It has a body diameter of 240mm and wing span of 480mm.

The 9M100 and 9M96E / 9M96M missiles can be launched from solid propelled rockets with thrust vector control.

9M96E missile


Surface-to-air defense missile system
– 9M96E or 9M96M
Country users
Solid propelled rocket
Explosive load
9M96E/9M96M: 26 kg FRAG-HE
Launch Weight missile
– 9M96E/9M96M: 333 kg
Lenght missile
– 9M96E/9M96M: 4.75 m
– 9M96E/9M96M: 1 – 40 km max.
Guidance system
– 9M96E.9M96M: inertial with active radar terminal homing seeker
Radar and command vehicles
– 50N6A multifunctional radar
– 50K6 Command and control vehicle

9M96E2 missile


9M100 missile

Surface-to-air defense missile system
– 9M100,
Country users
Solid propelled rocket
Launch Weight missile
– 9M100: 3,073 kg
Lenght missile
– 9M100: 2.5 m
– 9M100: 10 km max.
Guidance system
– 9M100: inertial with IR
Radar and command vehicles
– 50N6A multifunctional radar
– 50K6 Command and control vehicle


Details of the BAZ-6909 truck

The propulsion system of the BAZ-6909 truck includes a YaMZ-8424.10-033 engine, a clutch and a gearbox, all placed behind the cab.

The V-type multi-fuel, four-stroke engine consisting of eight cylinders runs on liquid cooled diesel and produces 470hp of power. The vehicle can achieve a maximum speed of 80km/h and has a maximum range of 1,000km.

8×8 truck chassis BAZ-6909


The BAZ-6909 special wheeled chassis was developed and is produced by Bryansk Motor Vehicle Plant. It is a purpose-designed heavy high mobility military vehicle. It is a baseline model of the Voschina family of military trucks. This family includes 6×6 and 8×8 heavy high mobility trucks, prime movers, artillery tractors, with a payload capacity of 13-21 t. There is a high degree of commonality between these trucks. Development of the Voschina family was funded by Russian Ministry of Defense. The BAZ-6909 has been adopted by the Russian armed forces.

The BAZ-6909 is of conventional design. It was designed to carry specialized military equipment, such as weapons, missiles, shelters and radars. This vehicle has a payload capacity of 18 000 to 20 000 kg.

The BAZ-6909 has good cross country mobility. It can operate on all kinds of roads, over rough terrain and in remote areas.

Vehicle is fitted with a three-person armored cab. The cab can be armored. Also there are versions of this vehicle with extended cabs.

Initially these trucks were powered by a YaMZ-8424.10 turbocharged diesel engine, developing 470 hp. Some sources claim, that later, a more powerful YaMZ-849 diesel was used. It develops 500 hp. Engine is located behind the cab. It allowed to reduce height of the vehicle and prevent engine and cooling system from damage and blockage with mud. Vehicle is fitted with a central tyre inflation system. This military vehicle has a climatic operational range from -50°C to +45°C. It can be airlifted by An-22An-124 or Il-76 transport aircraft.

Entered service 2004 (?)
Configuration 8×8
Cab seating 1 + 2 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight (empty) 22 t
Payload capacity 18-20 t
Length 11.3 m
Width 2.75 m
Height 2.85 m
Engine YaMZ-8424.10 diesel
Engine power 470 hp
Maximum road speed 70 km/h
Range 1 000 km
Gradient 60%
Side slope 40%
Vertical step ~ 0.6 m
Trench ~ 2 m
Fording ~ 1.2 m

BAZ-6909 data Source

Main material source

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Updated Nov 08, 2021

UH-60M Black Hawk Multi-Mission Helicopter

UH-60M Black Hawk is a medium-lift, rotary-wing helicopter designed and manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft to meet evolving warfighting needs. It is a modernised version of the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter.

The UH-60M has multi-mission capabilities and features a new airframe, advanced digital avionics and a powerful propulsion system. It can be used to perform tactical transport, utility, combat search-and-rescue, airborne assault, command-and-control, medical evacuation, aerial sustainment, search-and-rescue, disaster relief and fire-fighting. It offers improved situational awareness and greater survivability.

13-20616-us-army-sikorsky-uh-60m-black-hawk_planespottersnet_663791Image: planespotters.net4e08e0f87009e550c72f1d0d1acbcc55.jpg

The US Army deployed UH-60Ms in support of combat missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. As of July 2012, Sikorsky had delivered 400 UH-60M utility helicopters and around 956 helicopters are scheduled to be delivered through 2026.

10557154_740126609358569_2360427067261229311_nRoyal Thai Army UH-60M – Image:

In April 2014, the Government of Mexico requested a possible foreign military sale of 18 UH-60Ms and associated equipment at an estimated cost of $680m.

UH-60M Black Hawk design and features

The UH-60M Black Hawk helicopter features a monolithic design and offers better handling qualities and active vibration control. It is attached with a three-point dual energy absorbing landing gear and foldable main and tail rotor blades that are protected from ballistic damage. It can execute missions during day or night in all-weather conditions.


The helicopter features machined cabin structure, two jettisonable cockpit doors, and two sliding cargo doors with pop-out egress windows. The cabin is 3.8m long, 2.3m wide and 1.3m high, and features crashworthy seats for the pilot and co-pilot. The cabin and baggage volumes are 11.2m³ and 0.5m³ respectively. The maximum gross weight of the helicopter is 9,979kg.

UH-60M configuration


Straight forward design enables rapid configuration change to fit mission requirements. Utilizing the BLACK HAWK aircraft, mission planners can maximize assets by moving them where and when they are needed most. Troop seats are removed in minutes for transporting cargo and supplies. Increase aircraft capabilities by selecting fully developed mission equipment that is easily removed when it’s temporarily not needed. No airframe modifications are necessary. BLACK HAWK helicopter: no limits, only solutions.

UH-60M Utility Helicopter

mil_uh60m_util_int_aUtility – Image: sikorsky.commil_uh60m_util_perf_grUtility – Image:
Armored pilot seats and side panels
Medical Litter Provisions, 3 or 6 Patient Arrangement
Camouflage or VIP aircraft paint scheme
Rappelling Equipment Completion
Electric rescue hoist
Bambi bucket firefighting equipment
Fast Rope Insertion-Extraction System (FRIES) Completion
Snow-ski landing gear kit
Nightsun searchlight system
Window Washer System
Armament Kit
Loud hailer
DME 442
Heads-Up Display (HUD)
HF Radio
Communication security
Personnel locator system
Color Weather Radar


UH-60M Helicopter – Armed Capability

The BATTLEHAWKTM helicopter meets the demanding requirements of armed reconnaissance and attack missions on the modern battlefield. With multi-mission capability and cost effectiveness in a single weapon system, this aircraft is versatile enough to do it all. From close-air support to disaster relief, the BATTLEHAWKTM helicopter is mission ready.

mil_uh60m_arm_int_aImage: sikorsky.commil_uh60m_arm_perf_grImage:

UH-60M Baseline Configuration plus following features.

.50 caliber machine guns
7.62 caliber machine guns
7, 12, or 19 pod 70 mm rocket launchers
missile systems provisions
Helmet-mounted sight
Internal Auxiliary Fuel (200/400 gallon capacity)
External Gun Mounting System
External Stores Weapon System

0.50 caliber machine guns


Designation 0.50″/72 (12.7 mm) M3M FH Herstal MG
Ship Class Used On Rotary-wing aircraft
Date Of Design N/A
Date In Service 2001-2003 (evaluation)
2004 (service)
Weight 79.9 lbs. (35.8 kg)
Gun Length oa 59.8 in (1.520 m)
Barrel length 36 in (0.914 m)
Rifling Length 31.5 in (0.800 m)
Grooves 8
Lands N/A
Twist N/A
Chamber Volume 1.5 in3 (24.6 cm3)
Rate Of Fire 950 – 1,100 rounds per minute cyclic
200 rounds per minute practical


7.62 caliber machine guns


The FN Light Door Pintle Weapon System – or FN® LDP – includes the following:

  • a 7.62x51mm FN MAG® 58M machine gun with spade grips
  • a light pintle head – or FN® LPH – including a soft mount
  • a column located between the pintle head and the connection
  • a light door pintle connection (specific to the carrier)
  • a feeding kit including an ammunition box and a feed chute
  • an ejection kit including a links and cases collector and an ejection chute



7, 12, or 19 pod 70 mm rocket launchers

70mmrocket_0319 pod 70 mm rocket launcher 

AGM-114 Hellfire Missile


The family of Hellfire missiles includes, but is not limited to, AGM-114 B/K/K2/K2A/M/N/N-5/P/P+/R variants. These variants include shaped charge warheads (B/K/K2/K2A) for use against armored targets and blast fragmentation warheads (M/N) for use against urban structures. The AGM-114N is a thermobaric blast fragmentation warhead that maintains the capability provided by the AGM-114M while adding a unique capability against confined compartmented spaces, a typical target type observed in current combat operations. Other variants include the AGM-114 K2A which has a blast frag sleeve for use against soft-skinned tactical vehicles, the N-5 which provides a trajectory shaping capability to increase endgame lethality against vertical structures, the AGM-114P/P+ variants which include high-altitude launch trajectories for use from fixed-wing aircraft (such as the KC-130J Harvest HAWK), and the R which can be used against all Hellfire targets with a single warhead.

The latest Hellfire variant is the AGM-114R multi–purpose Hellfire II missile, (aka Hellfire Romeo). According to the U.S. Army, the AGM-114R will replace all other Hellfire II missile configurations (K/N/M/P). The AGM-114R consolidates the capabilities of all previous Hellfire missile variants. It is equipped with semi–active laser (SAL) seekers into a single missile capable of defeating a broad range of targets. The AGM-114R can be launched from multiple air, sea and ground platforms, autonomously or with remote designation. From pre-launch to detonation, the AGM-114R employs a range of technological improvements that boost its effectiveness and utility. The AGM-114R features a three–axis inertial measurement unit, which enables properly equipped launch platforms to engage targets to the side and behind without maneuvering into position. The AGM-114R can be launched from higher altitudes than previous variants due to its enhanced guidance system and improved navigation capabilities. A new multi–purpose warhead enables the missile to defeat hard, soft and enclosed targets, which allows pilots to engage many targets with a single Hellfire loadout. The Army is currently only purchasing this variant.


Primary Function: Air-to-surface and surface-to-surface point target/anti-armor missile
Prime Contractor: Hellfire Systems, LLC – A BoeingLockheed Martin Joint Venture
Propulsion: ATK (now Orbital ATK) solid propellant rocket motor (IM HELLFIRE Propulsion System);
AGM-114A: ATK M120E3; AGM-114B: ATK M120E4; AGM-114L: ATK M120E4
Length: 5.33 ft (1.62 m); AGM-114L: 5.77 ft (1.76 m)
Diameter: 7 in (17.8 cm)
Wingspan: 28 in (0.71 m)
Weight: 98 to 109 lbs (44.5 to 49.4 kg); AGM-114R: 109 lbs (49.4 kg)
Speed: Subsonic
Range: AGM-114 K/L/M/N: 4.97 miles (8,000 m)
AGM-114R fired at 3,000 ft (914 m):
4.97 miles (8,000 m) – LOAL, high trajectory
4.41 miles (7,100 m) – LOAL, low/direct trajectory
Guidance: Semi-Active Laser (SAL) seeker; AGM-114L: Millimeter wave (MMW) radar seeker
Warhead: AGM-114 A/C/F/K/K-2/L/P/P+: Shaped charge warhead
AGM-114F-A/K-2A/P-2A: Shaped charge warhead with frag sleeve
AGM-114M/N: Blast fragmentation warhead (AGM-114N is a thermobaric version with metal augmentation charge)
AGM-114R: Multi-purpose Integrated Blast Frag Sleeve (IBFS) warhead


UH-60M Helicopter – Search and Rescue

The UH-60M model offers a SAR cabin that enables operators to complete their difficult task in the most efficient manner with enhanced safety. This is critical to the success of your mission. BLACK HAWK helicopters are mission ready.

mil_UH60M_sar_int_a.gifImage: sikorsky.commil_UH60M_sar_perf_gr.jpgImage:
AFCS with SAR Modes (climb, mark on top, approach)
External electric rescue hoist
SAR Cabin Seating
Storm Scope
Rotor Brake
Underwater Beacon
SAR direction finder
Crashworthy Extended Fuel System
Integrated Vehicle Health Management System
Nightsun search light
Color weather radar
Personnel locator system
Internal auxiliary fuel (200/400 gallons)
406 Mhz emergency locator transmitter
Distance measuring equipment
Various weapon options


629824Aircraft: SikorskyUH-60M Black Hawk Photo taken on 2015-7-7 by Radu Tatar – Image:

Some of the major features include wire strike protection system, anti-plow keel beams, rotor de-icing provisions, active vibration control system, foldable stabilator and tail pylon.


Electrical equipments installed in the helicopter include controllable searchlight, portable maintenance light, retractable landing light and night vision goggle (NVG)-compatible formation lights.

Cockpit of the UH-60M


The UH-60M Black Hawk features a glass cockpit featuring fly-by-wire Common Avionics Architecture System (CAAS) and a digitised 1553 bus-based avionics suite. The cockpit is equipped with four Rockwell Collins open-architecture integrated cockpit flight and mission displays for improved situational awareness, Honeywell dual embedded global positioning system (GPS) inertial (EGI) navigation system, and two Canadian Marconi electronic flight management systems.



  • 6×8 Viewing Area
  • 1024×768 Pixel Resolution
  • Ultra Wide Viewing Angles
  • High Intensity LED Backlight
  • Integrated Switch Bezel
  • Smooth Voltage Controlled Inclinometer
  • NVIS Compatible


MFD-268C4 Multi-Function Display (MFD)


Rockwell Collins selected by U.S. Army for UH-60Ms

The U.S. Army has selected Rockwell Collins to service the MFD-268C4 multi-function display (MFD) units for its UH-60M Black Hawk fleet under a five-year firm-fixed-price, indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity contract. This is a follow-on contract that continues the Army’s relationship with Rockwell Collins for long-term support of the program.

“Whether the displays are in need of an upgrade, repair or modification, this agreement provides Army UH-60M operators peace of mind that we’ll get them operational as soon as possible,” said Thierry Tosi, vice president and general manager, Service Solutions for Rockwell Collins.

Installed on the Army’s UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters, the MFD-268C4 displays provide advanced graphic engines, safety critical processing, and Active Matrix LCD technologies, as well as multiple video interfaces. Proven in over 10 years of operational use, MFD units deliver primary flight and mission display functions for the Black Hawk’s demanding multi-mission role. The MFD-268C4 displays are based on the proven Open System Architecture design features of the Flight2™ product line.

The MFD-268C4 displays will be repaired in Rockwell Collins’ Atlanta Service Center. The Service Center processes 1,300 customer goods per month, consisting of 450 different equipment types from 550 different customers. The equipment that is repaired, modified and upgraded ranges from displays, flight controls, weather radar and navigation equipment to Flight Management Systems and communications equipment. The Service Center was established in 1975 and services the Air Transport, Regional, Government and Military markets.

The firm-fixed-price contract covers repairs and service bulletins for MFD-268C4 displays in all of the Army’s UH-60M Black Hawks including those used by UH-60M foreign military sales customers. Dated 10 Oct, 16 Source

Ballistic Protection System


Elbit Systems next generation AN/AVS-7 ANVIS-HUD Head Unit Displays.


Elbit Systems’ AN/AVS-7 is a standard helicopter aviator day and night helmet mounted display system (a Heads-Up display). The HUD is an electro-optic system combining the standard ANVIS goggles image with aircraft flight instrumentation and computer graphics during night operation. Source


H-764G dual embedded GPS inertial navigation

Honeywell H-764G INS


Three Honeywell  EGIs ( Embedded GPS Inertial). The Honeywell H-764G INS is self-contained equipment that incorporates three GG 1320 ring laser gyros, three solid-state Sunstrand QA 2000 accelerometers plus their associated electronics, a dual MILitary STanDard (MIL-STD) – 1553B databus installation, a MIL-STD-1750A microprocessor, an embedded Raytheon Global Positioning System (GPS) module with six channels and a P(Y) code capability.

Outputs Blended INS/GPS, free inertial and GPS only

  • Supports CNS/ATM Mandates

– ADS-B Blended Position Source with

MSO-C145 certification, low latency design and transponder direct connect


– Autonomous LPV


  • Certifiability

– DO-178 B/C Level A

– DO-254 Level A

– MSO-C145

  • Supports open architectures with flexible interfaces and integration with FACE
  • Power – 35-60watts
  • MTBF >10,000 hours calculated, >25,000 hours demonstrated in certain applications
  • State of the art 1320 Ring Laser Gyro, 450,000 hours MTBF demonstrated with over 4 Billion accumulated flight hours
  • Alignment Modes:

– Gyrocompass

– In Flight Alignment

– Ship Alignment (SINS/AR-57 and In Motion)

– Stored Heading Alignment

Source PDF


It also incorporates two UHF/VHF AM/FM radios, integrated stormscope lightning sensor, digital moving map, four-axis fully coupled autopilot, automatic direction finder, five digital integrated control stations (ICS), VHF omni ranging (VOR)/instrument landing system (ILS) receiver, and a blue force tracking system. A night vision imaging system is also installed to provide high resolution situational awareness.

AN/ARC-231 Airborne Communication System from Raytheon including two UHF/VHF AM/FM radios


The AN/ARC-231(V)(C) Skyfire Radio System, based upon the RT-1808A/ARC-231(V)(C) Receiver Transmitter is a fully compliant, high performance, fully qualified, low risk solution for any airborne platform.


  • NSA & JITC certified for SATCOM, DAMA and IW
  • Enhanced MELP vocoder
  • Anti-jam communications: HAVE QUICK I/II and enhanced SINCGARS
  • MIL-STD-1553 or Serial Control
  • Embedded Tactical Internet protocols (IPV4)
  • High data rate communications in LOS and SATCOM for imagery file transfer
  • Embedded Communications security (COMSEC)
  • Net Control Device functions (OTAR/OTAT) externally supported
  • Embedded Advanced Data Controller (ADC)
  • Bussed DS-101 advanced fill device supported
  • 239 preset channels
  • Software programmable
  • 30-512Mhz operation


AN/AMS-2 integrated stormscope


Sikorsky Aircraft Company has given Charlotte-based Goodrich Corporation the nod for a long-term contract to provide an Electronic Standby Instrument System for the U.S. Army’s fleet of over 1,200 Black Hawk aircraft. The addition of this equipment is part of an upgrade of the fleet to the UH-60M helicopter and will also include Goodrich’s Emergency Power Supply and Stormscope lightning detection system.

Displaying lightning information at ranges out to 200 nmi, the Stormscope WX-500 is designed to interface directly with the Collins MultiFunction Display. Operating in a passive detection mode, the Stormscope locates thunderstorm activity by analyzing the radiated signals of electrical discharges from storm cells. Its ability to determine both azimuth and range is made possible through complex algorithms. These provide the reference information for the Stormscope to analyze the unique characteristics of the signals, their strength and their varying rates of recurrence. This information is then processed to determine the location and intensity of dangerous thunderstorm cells. Source

LN-200 inertial measurement unit


The LN-200 inertial family of fiber-optic gyros (FOG) offers the lowest accel/gyro bias, lowest random walk and the highest mean time between failures (MTBF).

The LN-200 is a small, light weight, highly reliable, state-of-the art, fiber-optic, all-altitude, strap down Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The LN-200 has three solid-state fiber-optic gyros and three solid-state silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) accelerometers in a compact package that measures velocity and angle changes in a coordinate system fixed relative to its case. Digital output data of incremental velocity and incremental angle are provided to user equipment over a digital serial data bus. The LN-200 is hermetically sealed and contains no moving parts, ensuring low noise, long usage and shelf life. The LN-200 has been in high rate production since 1994 with over 25,000 units produced.

LN-200 applications

The LN-200 is available in 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 deg/hr gyro bias classes of performance.

Any LN-200 can be installed with variations of software, including:

  • Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)
  • Motion Compensation
  • Electro-optical/FLIR / Camera / Radar Stabilization
  • Guidance
  • Fly-By-Wire (FBW) Flight Controls
  • ACMI/TSPI (Air Combat Maneuvering Instrumentation/ Time, Space, Position)

The AHRS version of the LN-200 is certifiable to DO-178B Level A.

LN-200 advantages

The LN-200 FOG family is a hermetically sealed non-dithered, low-voltage inertial sensor, ensuring long, reliable usage life. It has the lowest gyro and accelerometer white noise and highest MTBF in the medium accuracy IMU class.


Goodrich AN/AVR-2B(V) Laser Warning System (LWS)


The AN/AVR-2A is a passive laser warning system which receives, processes and displays threat information resulting from aircraft illumination by laser designators, range finders and beam riding missiles. The threat information is displayed on the AN/APR-39A(V)1 Radar Detecting Set indicator in the cockpit. The AN/AVR-2A LDS is derived from the basic AN/AVR-2 LDS through the incorporation of several engineering change proposals (ECPs). These ECPs include: incorporation of the Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System-Air-to-Ground Engagement System interface; incorporation of a removable user data module to the comparator interface to permit a means to apply software changes and system declassification; and increased Band III sensitivity for improved threat detection performance. The AN/AVR-2A LDS consists of one interface unit comparator and four identical sensor units. The total system weight is 21 pounds.



The AN/AVS-2B(V) was derived from the system developed for the Sikorsky RAH-66 Comanche. Goodrich claimes it is 40% smaller, 45% lighter (i.e. approx. 2,5 pounds (1,5 kg) per sensor) and uses 45% less power than the previous AN/AVR-2A(V) version . The system provides increased functionality for threat detection and data interface and has demonstrated a 500% improvement in reliability. The model was introduced into service in 2004. Source

The aircraft also features Goodrich’s integrated vehicle health management system for monitoring engines, transmission and rotors of the helicopter. A cockpit voice flight data recorder and a crash-survivable memory unit are also fitted.

Propulsion and performance

The UH-60M Black Hawk is powered by two General Electric T700-GE-701D engines with cowling. Each engine generates a maximum take-off power of 2,974kW and one engine inoperative (OEI) power of 1,447kW. The propulsion system also consists of auxiliary power unit, gearbox, four wide-chord composite blades, and single point for close circuit and pressure refuelling.

General Electric T700-GE-701D engine


Performance Specifications (Sea level/standard day)

Ratings                                                     SHP                                  (kW)                                SFC

Contingency                                (2.5 min. OEI)                         2,000 (1,491)               –

Maximum (10 min.)                           1,994                                   (1,486)                        0.465 (78.0)

Intermediate (30 min.)                     1,902                                   (1,418)                         0.462 (78.0)

Maximum continuous                       1,716                                    (1,279)                        0.462 (78.0)

Length                                                                             46 in (117 cm)

Nominal diameter                                                       15.6 in (39.6 cm)

Weight                                                                             456 lb (207 kg)

T700-701D turboshaft engine

AE-44022B (06/14)

Printed in U.S.A.

SHP – Shaft Horsepower

OEI – One Engine Inoperative

SFC – Specific Fuel Consumption in lb/SHP-hr (µg/J)

Performance being evaluated

Technical data

The Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk is a four-bladed, single-rotor, medium-lift, utility helicopter. The latest configuration, the UH-60M, is powered by two General Electric T700-GE-701D turboshaft engines with 1,994 shp each. The older UH-60L is powered by the less powerful 1,890 shp T700-GE-701C Source

UH-60M Black Hawk Exhaust


The aircraft is also fitted with two crashworthy and self-sealing 360gal fuel tanks. The gravity refuel ports are installed on the left and right sides of the transition section.

The UH-60M can fly at a maximum cruise speed of 280km/h and offers a maximum range of 511km. It can operate at a hovering in ground effect (HIGE) ceiling of 3,206m and hovering out of ground effect (HOGE) ceiling of 1,831m.

UH-60M Black Hawk development, orders and deliveries

In July 2012, Sikorsky announced the delivery of the 500th H-60M Series Black Hawk helicopter. The deliveries comprise 400 UH-60M utility and 100 HH-60M MEDEVAC helicopters. Included are 73 UH-60M helicopters sold by the U.S. Army to six foreign militaries via the U.S. Government’s Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. The 500 H-60M aircraft are part of a planned production run of a total of 1,375 M models (956 UH-60M and 419 HH-60M aircraft), which the Army plans to order through 2026. By then, the Army’s total Black Hawk fleet – including upgraded UH-60A and UH-60L – is expected to exceed 2,100 aircraft. Source


In April 2001, the US Army approved an upgrade programme for more than 1,500 Black Hawks to UH-60M configuration. Sikorsky Aircraft developed eight UH-60Ms in the integration and qualification phase of the programme. The UH-60M made its first flight at the Sikorsky Flight Development Center in Florida in September 2003.

p848009254-4Taiwanese UH-60M – Image:

The Pentagon’s Defense Acquisition Board approved low rate initial production (LRIP) of 22 new-build UH-60M aircraft in April 2005. The first helicopter was delivered to the US Army in July 2006.

In December 2007, the US Army and the Pentagon approved full rate production of 1,227 new UH-60Ms and ordered 11 LRIP UH-60M upgrade helicopters. The US Army received a total of 200 UH-60Ms by mid-2010. Maiden flight of the UH-60M upgrade was held in August 2008.

Sikorsky delivers 1000th H-60M to US: Here


During the ceremony, Brigadier General Robert L. Marion said, “The UH-60 is often referred to as the workhorse of Army Aviation and as such your efforts here, past, present, and future are critical to the continued defense of our nation. The rollout of the 1000th UH-60M BLACK HAWK marks an important outcome of our Aviation Modernization Plan, and these aircraft will transform our aviation fleet to a more flexible, capable, and ready team.”

In September 2008, the Government of Egypt requested a possible foreign military sale (FMS) of four UH-60Ms.

The Government of Mexico requested UH-60Ms through the US Government’s FMS programme in July 2009. The US Army Security Assistance Command delivered three helicopters for use by the Mexican Secretariat of the Navy (SEMAR) in October 2011. The Government of Mexico’s Federal Police (FP) received three helicopters from the US Department of State for law enforcement missions, in January 2011.

The Government of Sweden requested for 15 UH-60Ms through the FMS programme in September 2010. The helicopters were ordered by the Swedish Defence Material Administration (FMV) at an estimated cost of $546m in May 2011. Deliveries began in September 2011 and were completed in September 2012. The UH-60Ms were deployed by the Swedish Armed Forces in support of combat search and rescue and medical evacuation transport missions in Afghanistan Area of Responsibility (AOR).

UH-60M Black Hawk, HKP 16Sewdish UH-60M Black Hawk, HKP 16 – Image:

The Government of Iraq requested for a possible FMS of 12 helicopters in November 2009 and the Government of the United Arab Emirates requested for five UH-60M VIP helicopters in June 2011. The Government of Qatar requested for 12 UH-60M utility helicopters and associated equipment in June 2012.

11209443385_7d6d73767a_bUH-60M Blackhawk UAE Army

The Royal Thai Army signed a letter of offer and acceptance with Sikorsky for the acquisition of two UH-60M helicopters through the FMS programme in July 2012. The Government of Austria also requested for three helicopters and associated equipment in December 2013.

10665355_740120356025861_3096503881290387083_nRoyal Thai Army UH-60M – Image:

The UH-60M helicopter is also in service with the Department of Homeland Security, US Customs and Border Protection and the Royal Jordanian Air Force.

Main material source


Primary Function: Twin-engine utility helicopter
Prime Contractor: Sikorsky Aircraft (United Technologies Corp.)
Power Plant: 2x General Electric T700-GE-701D with 1,994 shp (each engine)
Length: 64 ft 10 in (19.8 m)
Height: 16 ft 10 in (5.1 m)
Width: Fuselage: 7 ft 9 in (2.36 m)
Rotor Diameter: 53 ft 8 in (16.4 m)
Weight (Empty): 10,624 lbs (4,819 kg)
Maximum Takeoff Weight (MTOW): 22,000 lbs (9,979 kg)
Capacity: Internal: 2,640 lbs of cargo; 11 combat-equipped troops or 6 stretchers;
External: 9,000 lbs of cargo (can for example carry a 105mm Howitzer)
Speed: 151 kts/174 mph (280 km/h)
Rate of Climb: 700 ft/min (3.6 m/s)
Service Ceiling: 15,180 ft (4,627 m)
Range: Ferry: 1,200 nm/1,381 miles (2,224 km)
Combat Radius: 320 nm/368 miles (593 km)
Armament/Weapons: 2x 7.62 mm machine guns; AGM-114 Hellfire missiles and 2.75 inch Hydra-70 rockets
Crew: Four (two pilots and two crew chiefs)

Technical data

Brazil seeking exports sales for ALAC anti-armour weapon

11 October 2016

Brazil’s privately run GESPI Defense Systems is in negotiations with several foreign countries to sell its 84 mm ALAC (Arma Leve Anti-Carro) man-portable shoulder-launched medium-range light anti-armour weapon system it developed in co-operation with the Brazilian Army’s Technological Center (CTEx), a company spokesperson told IHS Jane’s.

GESPI Defense Systems is in advanced negotiations with Mexico, which has requested 1,200 of the one-shot anti-armour weapon, and with Iraq, which is considering 2,000. Azerbaijan requested an initial tranche of 50 and is considering in-country manufacturing of additional units. Preliminary discussions are being held with states such as with Indonesia and Portugal for possible sales.

Original post


84 mm ALAC (Arma Leve Anti-Carro)


The ALAC ( The rma L eve A nti c arro) or recoilless rifle Disposable 84mm  is a recoilless rifle anti-tank 84mm shoulder designed for single use in the approximate antitank combat, produced by the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) in partnership with GESPI Aeronautics, a company specializing in maintenance and repair of aeronautical and industrial turbines. It was planned as part of the National Defense Strategy , which aims, among other objectives, toadvance the technological growth of the Brazilian army .

It is an analog of AT-4 , one of the anti-tank weapons more sold in the world, with changes to the operation. Source


Techincal Data: 

Weight and Dimensions Characteristics
Rocket Caliber: 84 mm Muzzle Velocity: 240 m/s
Total lenght: 1020 mm Time off light to 300m: 1,5 seg
Total Weight: 7,5 Kg Effective range: 300 m
War Head Weight: 2,4 Kg Steel armored penetration: > 300 mm
Weight of box with Two ALAC: 27 Kg Warhead: HEAT

 Technical data


35.pngBasic version of the antitank system AT-4 – Image

The AT-4 (also AT4 , AT4 CS, AT4-CS , or AT-4CS )  is a 84-mm gun unguided, portable, single – shot recoilless and smooth hole produced in Sweden by Saab Bofors Dynamics (formerly Bofors Anti-Armour Systems) since the late 1960s the Saab had considerable sales success with the AT4, making it one of the most common anti – tank weapons individual in the world.

The term “CS” represents the “confined space” referring to the propellant charge being designed to operate effectively in buildings in an urban environment. It is intended to give infantry units a means to destroy or disable armored vehicles and fortifications, though it is usually not enough to defeat a modern main battle tank (MBT). The launcher and the projectile are manufactured pre-packaged and shipped as a single unit of ammunition with the launcher discarded after a single use. Source