Monthly Archives: October 2016

AVIC TA-600 (AG600) Amphibious Aircraft

The AG600, also known as TA-600, is the world’s biggest amphibious aircraft developed by Chinese state aircraft manufacturer, Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC). The aircraft is intended for forest fire-fighting, ocean monitoring, ocean rescue, and maritime enforcement missions.

The first prototype of the AG600 was rolled out in July 2016 from a production facility located at Zhuhai in South China’s Guangdong Province. The first flight of AG600 is expected to be completed by the end of 2016.

AG600 amphibious aircraft development

The plan for the development of the AG600 was approved by the Chinese government in 2009. The aircraft was developed by a group of 70 aircraft component manufacturers and research teams in association with more than 150 institutes across 20 provinces and municipalities in China.

The mid and forward fuselage sections of the aircraft were completed in December 2014 and March 2015 respectively. The horizontal and vertical tail reaming was completed by January 2016.

The aircraft is available in fire-fighting, search and water rescue variants. AVIC is also planning to develop other variants of the aircraft including maritime surveillance, passenger, cargo, and tourism.


Images source from the net

Interior of prototype

Images source from the net

Orders and deliveries

AG600 aircraft received two option orders at the 10th Airshow China held in Zhuhai in November 2014, bringing the total option orders to 17. The aircraft is mainly intended for domestic market in China, especially for conducting variety of operations in the South China Sea.

Island countries including New Zealand and Malaysia have also shown interest in the AG-600.

AG600 first taxi test in Zhuhai

World’s Largest Amphibious Aircraft AG600 Progressing Toward First Flight: Here

Design and features of the Chinese amphibious aircraft

The AG600 aircraft is designed to perform multiple tasks on both land and sea. It is a boat-type amphibious airplane with a single hull fuselage integrating cantilevered high-mounted wings, T tail-wing, and tricycle landing gear. It has an overall length of 36.9m, height of 12.1m, and a wingspan of 38.8m.


Tricycle landing gear

世界在研最大水陆两栖飞机起落架系统装机件在长交付Image – – –

The aircraft can take-off and land from 1,500m-long, 200m-wide and 2.5m-deep water bodies. It has the capacity to collect 12t of water in 20 seconds and can carry up to 370t of water on a single tank of fuel.

Fire fighting capabilities

Large fire / water rescue amphibious aircraft (referred to as “Dragon 600” aircraft) in order to meet China’s forest fire, the need to develop maritime emergency rescue mission of a large amphibious aircraft. Aircraft using a single hull, cantilever monoplane layout pattern; optional four WJ6 engine, with retractable tricycle landing gear.


Dragon 600 aircraft in the implementation of forest fire fighting tasks, can draw water 12,000 kg in 20 seconds, the aircraft may be multiple trips between water and fire, drowning fire. When performing water rescue mission, aircraft stable minimum flight altitude of 50 meters, can be parked in the water rescue operations, making up to 50 rescue persons in distress.


“Dragon 600” aircraft by “a machine type, amphibious, series development,” the design concept to design, the installation of the necessary equipment and facilities according to the needs of users, in order to achieve marine environmental monitoring, resource exploration, passenger and freight transport task needs. Source

The aircraft can evacuate up to 50 people in a single search-and-rescue (SAR) mission on water. It can be equipped with customer-specific equipment to conduct maritime surveillance, resource detection, as well as passenger and cargo transport missions.

Search-and-rescue (SAR) mission

AG600 amphibious aircraft engine and performance details

The aircraft is powered by four Chinese-made WJ-6 turboprop engines driving four six-bladed constantspeed propellers. WJ-6 is a license-built copy of the Ivchenko AI-20 engine and generates a power output of 3,805kW (5,103hp).

WJ-6 turboprops (Ivchenko AI-20)


Designed for use as a sustainer propulsion system on two or four-engine passenger and transport multi-purpose aircrafts on short-haul and medium-haul (up to 6500 km). It powers: AN-8, AN-10, AN-12, AN-32, Be-12, IL-18, IL-20, IL-22, IL-38 aircrafts and their modifications. Meets the environmental requirements of ICAO standards. In commercial production since 1957

АI-20К АI-20M АI-20D series 2 АI-20D series 5 АI-20D series 5M
Takeoff power rating (H=0, М=0, ISA)
Equivalent power, ehp 4,000 4,250 5,180 5,180 4,750
Specific fuel consumption, kg/e.h.p./h 0.27 0.239 0.227 0.227 0.24
Cruise power rating (H=8,000m, М=0.57)
Equivalent power, e.h.p 2,940 2,700 2,725 2,725 2,725
Specific fuel consumption, kg/e.h.p./h 0.21 0.197 0.199 0.199 0.199
Dimensions, mm 3,096 x 842 x 1,080
Dry weight, kg 1,080 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040
Assigned service life, h 20,000 22,000 6,000 6,000 20,000
Applicability ll-18V An-12D
An-32 An-32B-200


The aircraft can fly at cruising speed of 500km/h, maximum speed of 560km/h, and minimum speed of 220km/h. It has a maximum range of 4,500km and service ceiling of 6,000m, while the minimum level flight altitude is 50m.

The AG600 aircraft can perform take-off and landing in severe weather conditions with a wave height of 2m. The maximum take-off weight of the aircraft is 53.5t on runways and 49t on water.

Main material source

Updated Dec 24, 2017

Main image: China’s domestically developed AG600, the world’s largest amphibious aircraft, is seen during its maiden flight in Zhuhai, Guangdong province, China December 24, 2017. REUTERS/Stringer


Data from, Popular Science, Flight Global, Guo and

General characteristics

  • Capacity: 50 passengers
  • Length: 40 m (131 ft 3 in)
  • Wingspan: 40 m (131 ft 3 in)
  • Max takeoff weight: 53,500 kg (117,947 lb)
  • Powerplant: 4 × WJ-6 turboprops, 3,805 kW (5,103 hp) each
  • Propellers: 4-bladed constant speed propellers

Engine Performance


  • Maximum speed: 570 km/h (354 mph; 308 kn)
  • Range: 5,500 km (3,418 mi; 2,970 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 10,500 m (34,449 ft)


Type 075 LHD Amphibious Assault Ship

China to Start Construction on 1st Type 075 LHD Amphibious Assault Ship for PLAN Soon

Published: Wednesday, 26 October 2016 11:47

According to our source in China, the steel cutting of the first Type 075 Landing Helicopter Dock (LHD) for the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN or Chinese Navy) is expected to take place by the first quarter of 2017

Type 075 LHD PLAN China 01Unofficial artist impression of what PLAN’s future Type 075 LHD may look like

China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) is said to have been awarded the contract and will therefore act as prime contractor. CSSC is one of the two largest shipbuilding conglomerates in China (the other being the China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation – CSIC). CSSC is one of the top 10 defence groups in China, consists of various ship yards, equipment manufacturers, research institutes and shipbuilding related companies, some of the well known shipbuilders in China such as Jiangnan Shipyard and Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding are currently owned by CSSC.

Type 075 LHD PLAN China 02Unofficial artist impression of what PLAN’s future Type 075 LHD may look like

The Type 075 LHD is expected to have a displacement of 36,000 tons. In comparison, a Mistral-class LHD displaces 21,000 tons full load, the Juan Carlos LHD 26,000 tons and the Wasp-class 40,500 tons.

Type 075 LHD should be able to deploy and accommodate up to 30x helicopters (Z-8, Z-9, Z-18, Ka-28, Ka-31) with 6x helicopter spots on the flight deck and the main elevator located at the stern.

For self protection, the LHD is set to be fitted with 2x H/PJ-11 eleven-barreled 30mm CIWS and 2x HQ-10 short range SAM launchers.

Finally, the contract for the new Type 054B frigates should be signed soon, while the extension work at the Shanghai shipyard will be completed by 2017 (construction of a future CATOBAR aircraft carrier will then be possible at this shipyard).

Type 075 LHD PLAN China 03Unofficial artist impression of what PLAN’s future Type 075 LHD may look like

Original post:




Size comparison with Type 071 LPD


燃烧的哈尔科夫 via @Rupprecht_A

Yuzhao Class (LPD) Type 071: Details


Photo by Li Tang/for



Termed a Landing Helicopter Dock (LHD), this type off ship allows marines to capture beaches and land supplies on enemy territory. Possessing this type of warship represents yet another step change in China’s rapidly expanding maritime capability, joining aircraft carriers, air defense destroyers and underwater drones in an impressive new lineup.

Amphibious ships are particularly relevant because of China’s vast territorial claims in the South China Sea, border disputes further north with Japan, and the long-standing threat to the last holdout from the communists: Taiwan. For many years a potential Chinese assault on Taiwan was mocked as the “million-man swim” because the navy did not have anything approaching the amphibious capability needed to land enough troops on the island. Today these derogatory jokes are fading into memory as defense watchers count the new warship in China’s naval modernization. Source

Probably the best set of images of the first Type 075 LHD so far from today: Here







Other post on the net claim that it is already being constructed



Type 075B?


Development of a new type of amphibious assault ships commenced in China in 2011. It was clearly inspired by US amphibious assault ships. First images from shipyards became available in 2012-2013. The lead ship was built in an extremely fast pace, considering that it is a completely new project for China’s shipbuilding industry. In 2019 China launched its first large amphibious assault ship. The lead ship is nearing completion and should be commissioned in 2020. The second vessel of the class is already under construction. There are reports that 3rd ship of the class is also planned. Construction of these new warships shows high level of resources China is devoting towards its offensive capabilities. When fully operational the new Type 075 amphibious assault ships will bolster China’s amphibious capabilities, which today rely on smaller and less capable Type 071 amphibious transport docks.


The Type 075 class ships were designed to support marines during landing operations against defended positions ashore. There is a flight deck and hangar facilities below decks. The Type 075 class will carry around 30 helicopters. These warships have a well deck and also support amphibious assault by sea. The Type 075 class ships can operate as flagships for expeditionary strike groups.

Actual classification of the Type 075 is an Amphibious Helicopter Dock. It only slightly smaller than US America and Wasp class amphibious assault ships. However the Type 075 is significantly larger than Japanese and South Korean amphibious assault ships. Furthermore there are indications that China plans to build an even larger amphibious assault ship.


This amphibious assault ship will carry a mix of helicopters including Z-8, Z-9, Z-18, Ka-28 and Ka-31. The flight deck will have around 6 spots for helicopters. Most of these helicopters will be transport helicopters. The Type 075 class could also carry VSTOL aircraft, however currently China has got no suitable aircraft for these warships. Although a related engine development project is underway.

The new amphibious assault ships will carry various amphibious armored vehicles, including Type 63A and ZBD 2000 amphibious light tanks and ZBD 2000 amphibious infantry fighting vehicles.

Well deck of the Type 075 will accommodate a couple of landing craft or at least two Type 726A hovercraft, that are extremely similar to the US LCAC.

There were reports that the Type 075 amphibious assault ships will be fitted with four HHQ-10 short-range air defense missile systems and two H/PJ-11 close-in weapon systems. These defensive systems are already used on other China’s warships. So the Type 075 class will carry only short-range defensive armament. Protection of these amphibious assault ships will be provided by escorting warships. Source

Updated Sept 30, 2019

A400M Military Transport Aircraft

The A400M (formerly known as the future large aircraft) is a military transporter designed to meet the requirements of the air forces of Belgium, France, Germany, Spain, Turkey, Luxembourg and the UK.

A European staff target was drawn up in 1993, together with a memorandum of understanding signed by the governments of the seven nations. Italy subsequently withdrew from the programme.


Airbus Military SL of Madrid, a subsidiary of Airbus Industrie, is responsible for management of the A400M programme.

Other companies with a share in the programme include BAE Systems (UK), EADS (Germany, France and Spain), Flabel (Belgium) and Tusas Aerospace Industries (Turkey). Final assembly took place in Seville, Spain.

A400M future large aircraft programme


In May 2003, a development and production contact was signed between Airbus and OCCAR, the European procurements agency, for 212 aircraft. France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, Turkey, Belgium, and Luxembourg initially signed but Italy subsequently withdrew. The order was consequently reduced to 180 aircraft with deliveries starting in 2009. These will continue until 2020.

First metal cut for the airframe of A400M was in January 2005 and assembly began in 2007. The first flight was scheduled for early 2008; however, development problems with the engines caused this to be postponed. The first aircraft was officially rolled out in June 2008 and the long-awaited A400M took its maiden flight on 11 December 2009.

The aircraft took off with 127t in weight, carrying 15t of test equipment, including 2t of water ballast. Its official maximum take-off weight is 141t.

0000124522Source: EADS. Graphic: Cristina Rivera Gª, Dept. of Computer Graphics.
1  Flight refueling probe 62  IFF antenna
2  radome 63  Front side of the center wing box
3  Weather radar 64  Costilla central wing box
4  Forward pressure bulkhead 65  Centr fuel tank drawer.
5  Localizer antenna and glideslope 66  Clamping elements wing / fuselage
6  Rudder pedals 67  Cuadernas
7  Navigation instrument panel 68  Accom. the main landing gear
8  Control Units 69  Main Landing Gear
9  central pedestal and levers engine 70  Lever-type dampers
10  Passenger seat 71  multidisc carbon brakes
eleven  Windshield 72  Trapdoor main landing gear
12  HUD projection system data 73  wing fuel tanks
13  the third crew member workstation 74  Fuel pumps
14  Pilot seat 75  Fixed trailing edge wing
fifteen  Third crew member seat (m. Tactics) 76  Antifreeze pipe system
16  top panel 77  FRONT anchor. the nacelle
17  Sidestik 78  Anchoring engine nacelle under wing
18  Steering wheel nose wheel 79  Front side of the outer wing
19  side console 80  rear engine mount frame
twenty  4th folding seat crewman 81  fire wall
twenty-one  Storage space 82  Capots engine
22  Rest area of the flight crew, two bunks 83  Direction of rotation of the propellers
2. 3  Emergency escape hatch 84  RATIER-FIGEAC propeller blades 8
24  Door of the cockpit 85  Feathering system
25  Kitchen 86  Turboprop Europrop (10,000 hp)
26  Storage space 87  propeller gearbox
27  IFF antenna 88  accessory gearbox
28  Electronic equipment cabinet 89  Nozzle
29  Stairs 90  Pod refueling
30  Avionics compartment 91  Navigation light left
31  Floor beams support 92  radar system
32  Since the loadmaster 93  Aileron
33  electronics compartment under the floor 94  Fuel tank ventilation
3. 4  Front landing gear 95  Aileron actuator
35  Hatches front landing gear 96  outer flap
36  Front sensor missile alerter 97  inside flap
37  Drawer front landing gear 98  Backdoor paratrooper
38  Crew normal access with integrated ladder 99  hydraulic tank
39  Frame, supporting structure of the door 100  lifeboat
40  Oxygen bottles 101  flaps hydraulic motor
41  front window 102  Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
42  Oxygen generation system 103  Access APU maintenance
43  Obs light. leading edge 104  Escape from the APU
44  Troop seat 105  Cowling behind. union wing-fuselage
Four. Five  Cargo handling rollers 106  Emergency escape hatch
46  Emergency door 107  hydraulic actuator ramp
47  Bunk beds for evacuation 108  Ramp extensions
48  TACAN antenna 109  Portalón
49  SATCOM antenna 110  Stabilizer main drawer. vertical
fifty  Landing Light 111  rudder onesie
51  Carena left 112  Rudder actuators
52  Sinker wind generator. 113  HF antenna
53  Conditioned air mixer. 114  Vertical-fuselage stabilizer clamping
54  Conditioned air duct. 115  Compensator horiz stabilizer.
55  Conditioned air group. left. 116  adjustable horizontal stabilizer
56  Air vent 117  Elevator
57  Air intake 118  Stable fastening pivot. horizontal
58  Antenna V / UHF 119  anti-collision light
59  Heat Exchanger 120  spoiler
60  TACAN antenna 121  Cone rear fuselage
61  lifeboat 122  Self-protection equipment


In January 2009, EADS postponed the first deliveries of the A400M until 2012, and proposed to develop a new approach for the A400M to discover new ways to advance the programme.

2009 continued to be a troubled year for the A400M as estimates on the cost overrun of the project were released with predictions of up to €11.2bn over budget. The South African Air Force started to look at alternatives to the A400M and the European partners placed it under consideration. Airbus suggested that the programme may be scrapped unless €5.3bn could be provided.


In November 2010, Belgium, the UK, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Spain and Turkey agreed to lend Airbus €1.5bn and proceed with the programme; however, Germany and the UK reduced the number of aircraft ordered to 53 and 22 respectively, decreasing the total to 170.

First deliveries were made to French Air Force in August 2013. Deliveries are expected to conclude in 2025.

A400M test flights


This first A400M is known as MSN1. The second A400M, MSN2, completed its maiden flight on 8 April 2010, while MSN3 completed its maiden flight on 9 July 2010. The fourth A400M MSN4 completed its maiden flight in December 2010. The first production aircraft of A400M (MSN7) completed its maiden flight on 6 March 2013.

The development of the A400M fleet was designated as Grizzly in July 2010. Trials with MSN1, MSN3 and MSN5 are performed in Toulouse, while those with MSN2 and MSN4 are done in Seville, providing greater flexibility and taking advantage of the best weather conditions available.

The A400M was displayed at two events in 2010: the Berlin Air Show in Germany, and the Farnborough International Airshow in the UK.

In October 2011, A400M was tested on wet runways and taxiways. The water ingestion test was completed successfully. The latest cold weather tests were concluded in February 2013.

Engine problems ground German A400Ms

A400M at Hannover right before takeoff

Germany has grounded two of the three Airbus Defence and Space (DS) A400M transport aircraft that it has so far received following the discovery of excessive engine wear, national media disclosed on 30 June.

Flight operations of aircraft 54-01 and 54-02 – the first two received in December 2014 and December 2015 – have been temporarily suspended after inspections found heavy engine wear after only 365 and 189 hours of operations respectively, Der Spiegel reported, adding that engine wear on the third aircraft, 54-03, had also been identified.

This issue is likely to be connected to problems that were identified with the EuroProp International (EPI) TP400-D6 engine earlier this year. In April it was reported that engines were being affected by excessive abrasive wear and heat resistance. It was noted that parts of the engine were struggling to stand up to the extreme temperatures, with individual components found to be flawed. A UK Royal Air Force aircraft suffered an in-flight engine shutdown as an apparent result of these issues.

At that time Airbus DS said that it was working hard to solve the issue of excessive abrasive wear, noting that it “has no impact on the security of the plane”.

It is understood that the issue has been isolated to the propeller gear-box (PGB); the part that converts the rotating high-speed motion of the engine into a slower speed motion for the propeller. A significant number of engines that are both on the final assembly line (FAL) and in service have had to be replaced because of quality issues, though the issue affects only gearboxes with a clockwise rotation.

EPI has performed an analysis of the issue, identified the root cause, and developed a procedure whereby each gearbox is inspected every 200 hours. If a crack is found the gearbox is then inspected every 20 hours after that to keep the aircraft that have been delivered flying. Gareth Jennings, London – IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly 01 July 2016 Source

A400M orders


Total firm orders for the A400M stand at 174 aircraft. Malaysia ordered four and 170 aircraft were ordered by seven countries, including the UK (22), Belgium (7), Turkey (10), France (50), Germany (53), Luxembourg (1) and Spain (27).

C-130J Hercules: Details

MP14-0471 C-130 5723 Israel Ferry. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Marietta, Ga. Lockheed Martin Photography by Todd R. McQueenMP14-0471 C-130 5723 Israel Ferry. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Marietta, Ga. Lockheed Martin Photography by Todd R. McQueen

In April 2005, South Africa signed a contract with Airbus Military to be a full participant in the A400M programme. South Africa ordered eight aircraft, for delivery between 2010 and 2014. South Africa then cancelled the order in November 2009. In December 2005, Malaysia signed a contract for the purchase of four A400M.

Airbus could ask for bail-out due to A400M military plane: Here


Airbus could ask for a bail-out from Britain and other countries buying its A400M military transport aircraft after take a massive hit on the project.

The pan-European aerospace company’s annual results showed Airbus took a €2.2bn charge because of problems with the A400M, with chief executive Tom Enders calling renegotiations of the contract.

And here’s a cool video filmed by Ben Ramsey who got a great close-up footage!

A400M design

The A400M has a much larger payload than the C-160 Transall and C-130 and the design makes extensive use of composite materials. The capability for short, soft field landing and take-off is part of the requirement and the aircraft has six-wheel high-flotation main landing gear.

The need for airdrops and tactical flight requires good low-airspeed flight and the aircraft also has long-range and high-cruise speed for rapid and flexible deployment.


  • Complete in-house development of both hardware and software, including application software
  • Both SW and HW certified in accordance with RTCA DO-178B/-254 DAL A
  • Control-, monitoring-, autonomous- and electronic maintenance functions for the High-Lift System
  • Sensor inputs for determination of actual flap position and shaft speed



Final assembly of the composite (carbon-reinforced plastic – CRP) wingbox is taking place at Airbus UK in Filton. GKN Aerospace in the UK has supplied the complex carbon composite wing spars. Denel Aviation of South Africa is the supplier of the fuselage top shells and wing-fuselage fairings. EADS, Augsburg, is supplying the 7m × 4m composite cargo door.

Fuselage assembly is at Airbus Deutschland in Bremen, Germany. Final assembly of the A400M aircraft takes place at EADS CASA in Seville.

APU (APS 3200)

The APU, to be supplied by Hamilton Sundstrand Power Systems of San Diego, California, will be a derivative of the reliable APS 3200 unit, which is the standard fit APU for the Airbus single-aisle programme. The A400M APU, mounted in an upper wing fairing, will provide pneumatic power for starting the main engines and will also provide electric and pneumatic power for operation of aircraft systems and air conditioning when the engines are not running. Source

APS 3200 unit

Ram Air Turbine (RAT) emergency power system

Example of RAT – Image

The RAT provides 45 kVA of electrical power to critical loads in the event of a total power loss.


Cockpit of the military transporter


The cockpit is fully night-vision compatible and provides accommodation for two pilots and an additional crew member for special mission equipment operations. It is fitted with a fly-by-wire flight control system developed for the Airbus range of civil airliners.

Two sidestick controllers are installed to allow the pilot an unrestricted view of the electronic flight displays. The throttle controls are placed centrally between the two pilot stations.

Thales and Diehl Avionik Systeme are developing the A400M’s FMS400 flight management system, based on integrated modular avionics modules, an adaptation of systems being fitted on the Airbus A380 airliner.

The avionics includes cockpit control and display systems with nine 6in × 6in displays and a digital head-up display which features liquid crystal display (LCD) technology and enhanced vision systems (EVS), for enhanced situational awareness, automated CG calculation, automated defensive aids systems, simple EMCOM switching, simplified switching, uncluttered screens, automated tanker and receiver fuel control and auto fuel tank inerting.

‘RMP’ and P.A. communications equipment for the A400M model

Cobham Avionics (TEAM) has been chosen as the supplier for Airbus Military for the A400M programme relating to PA and RMP communications equipment. Source


The A400M for Germany is fitted with a terrain-masking low-level flight (TMLLF) system, from EADS Military Aircraft, for low-level flight control. The TMLLF system has a Saab Avitronics flight computer. EADS Defence & Security Systems digital map generator is also fitted.

There is a military mission management system (MMMS), from EADS Defence Electronics, which includes two mission computers. The MMMS controls cargo handling and delivery, calculating the load plan and the computed air release point before an air drop, as well as fuel management and fuel operational ranges. The MMMS also manages the tactical ground collision avoidance system (T-CGAS) and military / civil communications.

Rockwell Collins was selected to supply the HF-9500 high-frequency communications system and the avionics full-duplex ethernet (ADFX). Cobham Antennas Division provides the SATCOM antennas.

HF-9500 Airborne Communication System

Rockwell Collins’ HF-9500 airborne communication system features digital signal processing technology that delivers high-quality, reliable performance for military fixed-wing airborne applications. This 400-watt, single integrated system solution is designed to satisfy current and future high-frequency (HF) voice and data communications requirements.

As an integrated, multi-mode system, the HF-9500 provides data communications capability over HF to modems, video imaging systems, secure voice devices, teletype and data encryption devices. It delivers the superb HF voice communications capability and reliability that our customers expect from the Rockwell Collins HF family.

Features & Benefits

  • Exportable worldwide
  • Automatic link establishment offers best clear-channel selection
  • Digital signal processing
  • Global range and 400 watts of power ensure continuous tactical communication
  • Embedded data modem
  • Upgradable to meet future requirements
  • Filtering for Simultaneous Operation (SIMOP) applications


Countermeasure technology

The EADS Defence Electronics defensive aids suite includes an ALR-400 radar warner from Indra and EADS, MIRAS (multicolour infraRed alerting sensor) missile launch and approach warner developed by EADS and Thales, and chaff and flare decoy dispensers. A laser DIRCM (directed infrared countermeasure) system may be added later.

ALR-400 radar warner

The ALR-400 is an advanced radar warning system developed specifically for the Airbus A400M tactical military transport aircraft. ALR-400 would be able to effectively detect any incoming radar-based threat. The system is being produced by a team comprising EADS Defense Electronics and Indra of Spain.

ALR-400 radar warner, defensive aids computer, MIRAS multi-color missile warner and a chaff/flare dispenser are the basis for the A400M aircraft self-protection system which is expected to achieve initial operational capability by 2010 with 85 systems on order to equip the same number of A400Ms. Source

The aircraft can also accommodate armour plating crew protection, bulletproof windscreens, engine exhaust treatment for infrared emission reduction and inert gas explosion retardation and fire retardation in the fuel systems. The wings have hardpoints for the installation of electronic warfare pods and refuelling pods.

A400M transporter cargo systems


Rheinmetall Defence Electronics is supplying the loadmaster control system for electronic cargo control. Loadmaster consists of a workstation and control panel, eight sidewall lock panels and a crew door panel. It provides efficient ground loading and airborne cargo drops.

Loadmaster Workstation (LMWS)

The loadmaster uses the Loadmaster Workstation (LMWS) to finalize the load and trim sheet required for takeoff, which was prepared with the MPRS and transmits it electronically via an aircraft server to the cockpit, where it is printed and signed. This is one of the few remaining paper formats still existing in the A400M system.

New ground is broken when it comes to the responsibilities of the loadmaster: The A400M loadmasters are to accomplish not only logistical, but also technical tasks on the aircraft in future.

Particularly the technical part presents new challenges in the fields of personnel selection and training. In simple terms, the technical qualification of the loadmasters will conform with the EASA CAT A level; thus, jobs up to maintenance level 1 (onboard) can be carried out.

This approach requires a completely new training cycle: Depending on the previously acquired technical skills, e.g. the Air Forces Engineering schools will provide an “EASA CAT A equivalent delta training course.” Subsequently, the A400M loadmaster type rating course will take place – the traditional loadmaster training course on the A400M aircraft as well as the “Maintenance Course for Loadmasters.”

Building upon the CAT A knowledge, the latter will convey A400M-specific contents. Thus, the loadmaster will become capable of conducting “ground handling and servicing”, simple troubleshooting and maintenance activities.


air_a400m_loading_features_lgImage @defenceindustrydaily.comThe A400M Atlas delivered a cargo into Cyprus this week on its first operational mission as it prepares for initial operational capability later this year – Image

The payload requirements include a range of military helicopters and vehicles, heavy engineering equipment, pallets and cargo containers.

Airbus A400M Atlas Airborne Cargo Bay Dimensions – Image A400M Atlas Cargo Dimensions –

 The cargo bay can transport up to nine standard military pallets (2.23m × 2.74m), including two on the ramp, as well as 58 troops seated along the sides or up to 120 fully equipped troops seated in four rows. For Medevac, it can carry up to 66 stretchers and 25 medical personnel.

Right dropping door and wind deflectors used during the jump

The A400M can carry 116 paratroops and air-drop them and their equipment either by parachute or gravity extraction. It can air-drop single loads up to 16t; multiple loads up to 25t total; 120 paratroops plus a wedge load of 6t, or up to 20 1t containers or pallets.

It can also perform simultaneous drops of paratroops and cargo (RAS / wedge or door loads) and very-low-level extraction (VLLE) of a single load up to 6.35t, or multiple loads up to 19t total weight. Gravity extraction can be performed for a single load up to 4t, or multiple loads up to 20t total weight.

The cargo compartment can be configured for cargo, vehicle or troop transport or air drop, a combination of these and for aero-medical evacuation. A single loadmaster is able to reconfigure the cargo compartment for different roles either in flight or on the ground. A powered crane installed in the ceiling area of the rear section of the fuselage has a 5t capacity for loading from the ground and for cross-loading.

The rear-opening door has full compartment cross-section to allow axial load movement, roll-on and roll-off loading and for the air drop of large loads.

A400M tactical tanker and refuelling


The A400M is convertible to a tactical tanker, with the ability to refuel a range of aircraft and helicopters within two hours. Flight Refuelling Ltd is supplying the 908E wing pod drogue system, which provides a fuel flow of up to 1,200kg/min for each pod, plus the centreline pallet-mounted hose drum unit fitted in the rear cargo bay, which provides a fuel flow of 1,800kg/min.

908E wing pod drogue system

905E Series podImage

908E Wing Dispense Equipment (WDE)

Flow rate Up to 400USgpm

Weight Up to 630kg wet

Delivery pressure 50psig

Hose length 80ft trailed length

Operating envelope Fixed wing 180 – 300kts

Rotary wing 105 – 130kts


797-a400m-f-18-aarThe A400M can now refuel fighters and transports from underwing pods, but helicopter stability in trail has proved problematic. A longer hose may be the solution. –

In addition, up to two cargo bay fuel tanks (CBT), which connect directly to the A400M’s fuel management system, can be fitted. Total fuel capacity is 46.7t or 58t with the CBTs.

Airbus A400M Atlas Airborne Refuelling Chart


In October 2011, GKN Aerospace won the £6m ($9.54) contract from Cobham Mission Equipment. It includes supplying air refuelling pylon for A400M. It also supplies a wing spar for the A400M.


The aircraft’s independent navigation system comprises an inertial reference system (IRS) integrated with a global positioning system (GPS). The weather and navigation radar is the Northrop Grumman AN/APN-241E, which incorporates wind shear measurement and ground mapping capability.

Northrop Grumman AN/APN-241E

The only radar in the transport class with a high resolution SAR mapping mode

The AN/APN-241’s capability remains unmatched by the competition as the only radar in the transport class with a high resolution SAR mapping mode. In addition to meeting needs for precision navigation, this unparalleled mapping capability enables operators to execute landing missions with confidence on unimproved runways without aid from ground-based landing systems.

No other radar in the industry can compete with the range and accuracy of the AN/APN-241. It is the only radar with a 10nm range Windshear mode and its unique two-bar can technology eliminates false alarms. And, unlike other systems, the AN/APN-241 windshear mode is not restricted by altitude. At 20 nautical miles, the AN/APN-241 provides the longest range air-to-air situational awareness mode of any transport radar. The Skin Paint mode also features computer generated target-sizing, a clutter-free display, and hands-free operation to the crew.

246Simultaneous multifunction capability

The AN/APN-241 is designed to allow pilots to focus on the mission rather than “working” the radar. Automatic tilt and gain adjustments reduce operator tasking, and with simultaneous mode interleaving, crews can select independent radar modes according to mission requirements. The AN/APN-241 provides overlays of flight plan or TCAS information on weather or ground maps for greater situational awareness. Operators may also ‘freeze’ the AN/APN-241 into a non-emitting mode to gain a tactical advantage.

The AN/APN-241 was built with growth in mind. Modifications to current modes and technologies will provide a maritime patrol capability suitable for fisheries protection, smuggling interdiction, and Search and Rescue missions. With the development of ‘Ballistic Wind’ mode, a modification which will measure drop zone winds, the AN/APN-241 provides a unique air drop capability to support both military and humanitarian missions.

Proven versatility

The highly adaptable AN/APN-241 is currently fielded on four aircraft: C-130H, C-130J, C-27J and C-295. Northrop Grumman has integrated the AN/APN-241 with five different avionics architectures and two antenna systems. As the baseline radar for the LMCO C-130J and Alenia C-27J, it has a solid, long-term production base with logistics and maintenance support through 2030 and beyond.


General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 64.8 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 1970s
Properties: Pulse-only Radar
Sensors / EW:
Generic Doppler Navigation/Weather – Radar
Role: Radar, Weather and Navigation
Max Range: 64.8 km


The radio navigation suite includes a pair of instrument landing systems, VHF omnidirectional radio ranging (VOR), radio distance measuring equipment (DME), air traffic control (ATC) transponders, automatic direction finders (ADF) and a tactical air navigation unit (TACAN).

Engines onboard the A400M

In May 2003, Airbus Military selected the three-shaft TP400-D6 turboprop engine, to be manufactured by EuroProp International (EPI). EPI is a consortium formed by Rolls-Royce (UK, Germany), ITP (Spain), MTU (Germany) and Snecma (France). Rolls-Royce is responsible for overall integration.

EuroProp International (EPI) TP400-D6 engine


The development of this advanced military turboprop engine is shared by ITP, MTU Aero Engines, Rolls-Royce and Snecma. The partners have launched a joint company, Europrop International (EPI), to develop, manufacture and support the TP400-D6.

The TP400-D6 powers the A400M military transport which has successfully completed its maiden flight in Spain’s Seville in late 2009. The TP400-D6 successfully entered into service with the French Air Force in late 2013.

MTU is responsible for the TP400-D6’s intermediate-pressure compressor, intermediate-pressure turbine and intermediate-pressure shaft and has a stake in the engine control unit. Furthermore, final assembly of all TP400-D6 production engines takes place at MTU Aero Engines in Munich and acceptance testing at MTU Maintenance Berlin-Brandenburg. Source

TP400-D6 engine – Image @mechanicalproducts.blogspot.comTP400-D6 engine Image
  • Power range in excess of 11,000 shp
  • Low risk design and life cycle cost
  • Low susceptibility to FOD and erosion
  • Ample growth potential

The TP400-D6 is a collaborative engine between Rolls-Royce, MTU, Snecma and ITP. The engine was designed to fulfil the European Staff Requirements (ESR) for the A400M military transport, an aircraft used for peacekeeping missions abroad.

Within the collaboration, Rolls-Royce areas of responsibility include overall engine performance, Air & Oil systems, Intermediate casing, 6-stage High Pressure Compressor and the Low Pressure shaft.

Rolls-Royce is contracted to development and production of more than 750 engines for the A400M fleets of Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Spain, Turkey, Belgium and Luxembourg, and the production of additional engines for potential export customers.

Specification TP400-D6
Power (shp) 11,000+
Bypass ratio 0.8
Pressure ratio 25
Length (in) 137.8
Diameter (in) 36.4
Basic weight (lb) 4,026
Compressor 5IP, 6HP
Turbine 1HP, 1IP, 3LP
Applications Airbus Military A400M

*Technical data (ISA SLS)


The four engines each have a maximum output of more than 11,000shp. EPI states they are the largest turboprops ever made in the West. The engines are fitted with FADEC (full authority digital engine control), supplied by BAE Systems and Hispano-Suiza.

Eight-bladed composite variable pitch FH386 propeller


Ratier-Figeac SA of France (a business unit of US-based Hamilton Standard) supplies the eight-bladed composite variable pitch FH386 propellers. The propellers are 5.33m (17.5ft) in diameter and fully reversing with the capability to back the fully loaded aircraft up a 2% slope. FiatAvio supplies the propeller gearbox.

Electrical power generation systems are supplied by Aerolec, a joint venture between Thales and Goodrich. The variable frequency generators will provide up to 400kVa.

Operational range

Operational range of A400M with 20-tonne (44,000 lb) and 30-tonne (66,000 lb) payloads, flown from Paris, France. source


Landing gear

Messier-Dowty was chosen as the supplier of both main and nose landing gear. Each main landing gear consists of three independent twin-wheel assemblies, providing six wheels on each side. This allows the plane to land on unprepared runways. The landing gear system also enables the A400M to ‘kneel’ which lowers the rear ramp to facilitate the loading of large vehicles.

The main landing gear shock absorbers maintain a minimum distance from the ground whatever the load. Messier-Bugatti supplies wheels and brakes. The aircraft has two nose wheels and 12 braked wheels.

EuroProp International (EPI) has developed TP400 power plant for the A400M. The power plant has been installed on the inner engine mount of the C-130K flight test-bed.

The A400M’s normal operating speed is 555km/h, but it can reach a maximum speed of 780km/h. The normal and ferry ranges of the aircraft are 3,298km and 8,710km respectively. The service ceiling is 11,300m.

The take-off and landing distances of the aircraft are 980m and 770m respectively. The aircraft weighs around 76,500kg and the maximum take-off weight is 141,000kg.

Main material source

Updated Jan 30, 2018

Military transport aircraft
4 × Europrop TP400-D6 turboprop, 8,250 kW (11,060 hp) each
11,278 m max.
France, Spain, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, Belgium
Germany, France , Spain, United Kingdom, Turkey, Belgium, Luxembourg, Malaysia.
No armament, cargo transport
Maximum speed: 780 km/h
Take Off Weight
141,000 kg
EADS Defence Electronics defensive aids suite, ALR-400 radar, EVS enhanced vision systems, automated CG calculation, DIRCM (directed infrared countermeasure),
Length: 45.1 m; Wingspan: 42.4 m; Height: 14.7 m


Technical data


Comparison of price and cargo capacity

Comparison of price and cargo capacity

Comparison of An-70 vs A400M

Data – Image @naumenko.infovarianty-zagruzki-an-70-i-1Data – Image

Antonov An-70: Details

Safran’s Sigma 40 integrates with Harpoon missile system

Company this week announced successful integration tests of its Sigma 40 shipborne navigation system.

By Geoff Ziezulewicz   |   Oct. 21, 2016 at 10:56 AM

PARIS, Oct. 21 (UPI) — Safran Electronics and Defense has successfully carried out integration tests of its Sigma 40 ship navigation system with the alignment system of the AGM-84 Harpoon anti-missile system.

The test was carried out within the scope of a contract signed with Korean naval shipyard DSME, Safran said in a statement.

The company also worked with Harpoon manufacturer Boeing on the tests.

The systems are intended for Krabi corvettes and KDX-class frigates deployed by the Royal Thai Navy.

After the successful tests, Safran’s inertial navigation systems can now be used in all of Thailand’s warships.

The Sigma 40 system is also used for conventional navigation and stabilization functions on ship sensors and weapons.

Sigma 40 navigation systems are built around a ring laser gyro inertial core, offering sustained precision and a high degree of operational flexibility.

Sigma inertial navigation systems are now fitted to combat systems on more than 500 warships, including the latest front-line ships such as the Charles-de-Gaulle aircraft carrier, Europe’s Freem and Horizon frigates and helicopter carriers.

Original post


Sigma 40: laser gyro technology inertial navigation system

The Sigma 40 inertial navigation system is making use on laser gyro technology. An advanced system designed by Sagem for maritime applications, the Sigma 40 meets the most demanding navigation and weapon system stabilization requirements. 

Both an inertial attitude and heading reference system, the Sigma 40 offers high performance and precision for all sizes of surface vessels. Both compact and robust, the Sigma 40 delivers all data needed for navigation: heading, roll and pitch, angular velocity, position and heave, vertical/horizontal speed and acceleration.

The Sigma 40 is suited to all types of platforms, including fast patrol boats, mine-hunters, corvettes, frigates, aircraft carriers, etc. It comprises an inertial navigation unit (INU), control and display unit (CDU) and an installation bracket, for fast removal and reassembly without recalibration. Both innovative and scalable, the Sigma 40 is easy to install, maintain and operate. Source

The main features of RLG Sigma 40 are :

  • It has got high-level performance
  • It has very simple installation requirements
  • It has very convenient operation procedure.
  • It does not requires any preventive maintenance.
  • It consists both Synchro and digital interfaces. There is no need to provide any extra hardware interface.
  • It is IMO approved and military standards certified.
  • It is very reliable and rugged.

The core aim of RLG sigma 40 is :

  • To provide the target navigational data like heading, roll, itch etc in real time.
  • To regularly update the target navigational data like speed and velocity.
  • Interfacing of other navigational inputs from/to other Navigational equipments like EM Log, GPS, DGPS, Radar, Anemometer etc.

Sub-Units of RLG Sigma 40:

The RLG Sigma 40 system contains four basic sub-units. They are as follows:

Components of Ring Laser Gyro Sigma 40 – Image

Here,  INU stands for Inertial Navigation Unit

            CDU stands for Control and Display Unit

            DDU stands for Data distribution unit, and

            UPS stands for Uninterrupted Power Supply

The Inertial Navigation Unit of basic RLG Sigma 40 unit consists of the following sub-units:

  • Inertial Sensor Block (referred as BSI)
  • Basic Synchro Module
  • EB Module
  • UTR-SP Module
  • Interface module (or RS 422 Module)
  • Power Supply Unit
  • HT/ THT Module
Composition of Inertial Navigation Unit – Image

The Inertial Sensor Block (BSI) consists of the various sensors. They are :

  1. Laser Gyros (Model GL S32) 03 in numbers : It senses Angle of Rotation and Speed of Rotation.
  2. Accelerometers (Model A-600)   : It senses the acceleration.
  3. EACC : It consists the circuitry for controlling the Pendulum of Accelerometer using servo elements. In addition to that, It also contains the EEPROMs which stores the sensor’s calibration data.

** EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.


Krabi Class OPV: Here

M777 155mm Ultralightweight Field Howitzer


The 155 mm Lightweight Howitzer was originally developed as a private venture. Its origins can be traced back to the early 1980s when Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Limited (VSEL) (which today is BAE Systems Land Systems) originally perceived a potential market for a lightweight 155 mm towed howitzer.

In the spring of 1987 the project definition was completed. Its objective was to have a weapon with the same range as the US Army’s M198 155 mm towed howitzer but weighing no more than 4,000 kg.

The current M198 weighs 7,163 kg which limits its air mobility; it can only be carried by two helicopters, the US Army Boeing CH-47 or the US Marine Corps Sikorsky CH-53.

The US Army was fully briefed on the system and agreed that if the company built a prototype of the system with its own money it would carry out a complete evaluation of the system.

In September 1987, the main board gave approval to build two prototypes of the system, which is today called the 155 mm Lightweight Howitzer. Both were completed in late 1989.

The complete upper part of the weapon was test fired at Eskmeals in June 1989 with a total of 50 rounds being fired at all elevations, 12 of which were zone 8S (top charge).

Although the weapon was originally targeted at the US Army, the US Marine Corps took the initiative as it was looking for a lightweight 155 mm system to replace all current 105 mm and 155 mm towed artillery systems.

Following its unveiling at the 1989 Association of the United States Army Exhibition in Washington DC, one of the two prototypes went to the US for early evaluation.

This evaluation, under the supervision of the US Army Armament Research and Development Command on behalf of the US Marine Corps, took place in three phases through to 1990.

It also completed limited land mobility trials and airlift certification in single and split mode. At the end of Phase 1 the system was awarded limited live crew clearance for the US.

Phase 2 was conducted at the US Marine Corps Base at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and at the Naval Base at Little Creek, Virginia. During Phase 2 the system achieved a single lift with the UH-60L Black Hawk helicopter. Amphibious trials were carried out successfully at Little Creek.

The final phase took place at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland where the system carried out successful climatic chamber firings at temperatures ranging from -25 to +145°C. These climatic firings were followed by air transportability (split lift) trials and 622 km of land mobility trials on test tracks ranging from trails to Belgian blocks and included wading to a depth of 1.5 m.

The US then had a competition which involved extensive tests with the 155 mm Lightweight Howitzer and the Light Towed Howitzer developed at the then Royal Ordnance facility at Nottingham. In the end the former was selected.

For the US programme, Textron Marine & Land Systems was selected to be the prime contractor with the then Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Limited being the main sub-contractor.

By 1998 it was clear that the US programme was running into problems and early in 1999 the now BAE Systems Land Systems assumed the role of prime contractor of the troubled XM777 towed artillery system from its team member Textron Marine & Land Systems. This company no longer has any involvement with the programme.

In September 2000, following an extensive competition, BAE Systems Land Systems finally selected its core industrial supplier base for US production of the XM777 155 mm weapon.

The body assembly is manufactured by HydroMill Inc of Chatsworth, California, stabilisers, spades and trails are supplied by Major Tool and Machining Inc of Indianapolis, Indiana, the breech operating load tray system is provided by Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island, Illinois, with titanium being supplied by RTI International Metals Inc of Niles, Ohio.

In late 2002, BAE Systems Land Systems was awarded a USD135 million contract by the US DoD for the Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) of the M777 following its type classification.

Under the initial phase of the LRIP contract, BAE Systems Land Systems has built 94 M777s for the US Marine Corps, with first weapons delivered in February 2003 from the company’s Hattiesburg, Mississippi facility.

The M777, which while under development was called the XM777, will replace the current 155 mm M198 towed howitzer which weighs 7,163 kg.

Under the five-year Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) contract a total of nine systems were built at the BAE Systems Land Systems facility at Barrow-in-Furness. These have underwent an extensive series of tests in the US during which more than 10,000 rounds of ammunition have been fired.

The nine EMD guns were followed by two preproduction (PP1 and PP2) guns from the US production line to test and validate the US production base.

According to BAE Systems Land Systems, about 70 per cent of the M777 is made in the US, including the 155 mm/39 calibre barrel, which is provided by Watervliet Arsenal. Barrow-in-Furness manufacture the upper cradle as well as the suspension and running gear.

In March 2005, BAE Systems Land Systems was awarded a contract worth USD834 million covering the supply of 495 M777A1 155 mm/39 calibre lightweight howitzers for the US Army and Marine Corps.

The 495 M777A1 will be delivered over a four-year period starting in July 2006 and running through to October 2009.

The US Army is expected to take delivery of 233 systems and the US Marine Corps 262, as the replacement for the current in-service and much heavier 155 mm M198 towed howitzer.


Although the M777 uses advanced materials in its construction, it is claimed to be simple to operate and maintain under field conditions.

The 155 mm/39 calibre ordnance (M776E2) is essentially that of the M284 barrel used by the US Army’s M109A6 Paladin fitted with the M199 muzzle brake as used by the current towed M198 howitzer but modified to take a towing eye. The conventional screw breech is hydraulically operated and opens vertically. For this application the breech of the 155 mm M776E2 cannon has the screw breech turned 90° to allow vertical operation between the cradle tubes. Source


M777 howitzer A1 and A2 variants

The M777 will be the artillery system for the Stryker Brigade Combat Teams (SBCT). The M777 is normally operated by a crew of eight men but can be operated with a reduced detachment of five.

The systems fitted with the digital fire control system are designated M777A1, and those with the software update which allows the firing of the Excalibur projectile, M777A2. M777A2 received full material release in July 2007, clearing the upgrade for fielding. All M777A1 systems will be upgraded to the A2 standard.

The M777 was deployed by the US Army and Marine Corps to Afghanistan in December 2007 and to Iraq in 2008.

The Excalibur projectile was first deployed in Afghanistan in March 2008.


size0-1M777A2 – US Army

As part of a broader effort to extend the range of its artillery units, the U.S. Army is working as fast as it can to finish development of a new, longer howitzer barrel that will more double the maximum range of both its towed and self-propelled 155mm guns. The service says that the upgraded weapons will be able to effectively fire new ramjet-powered shells, as well as employ improved rocket-assisted projectiles, both of which it sees as increasingly important weapons for defeating a near-peer opponent, such as Russia, in any potential high-end conflict.

According to a report by Warrior Maven earlier in June 2018, the Army has built new prototypes of the XM907 155mm cannon and recently conducted a mobility test of a modified M777A2 towed howitzer with the Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona. The service has been working on the project, which it refers to as the Extended Range Cannon Artillery (ECRA) program, since at least 2016.

The new cannon itself is 1,000 pounds heavier and six feet longer than the existing M205 on the M777A2 and will also be longer than the M284 cannon on the M109A6 and A7 self-propelled howitzers. The M284 has the same barrel length as the M205, but is heavier.

The upgraded XM907 has a host of new improvements throughout, including the reinforced barrel and breach assemblies, and will feature a new muzzle break on the end of the barrel to better mitigate the shock and recoil from firing more powerful rounds. Norwegian defense contractor Nammo is already in the process of developing the XM1113 rocket-assisted projectile for the Army.

Howitzers with the new barrels should be able to fire these extended-range shells at targets more than 40 miles away. They’ll be able to lob existing types of ammunition further than before, as well.

The addition of a ramjet-powered artillery shell could push the maximum range of these weapons out to more than 60 miles. The Army has yet to say what specific designs it might be looking at with regards to this type of ammunition, but has made it clear it is very interested in the concept. Source

Nammo has rolled out “extreme range” artillery concept using ramjet propulsion: Here

Excalibur projectile

XM982 Excalibur Shell

Excalibur is the world’s first GPS driven projectile.

Engineers had to make delicate circuitry inside an artillery round. That’s like dropping a computer from the top of a skyscraper and expecting it to work! But that’s not the only thing that makes Excalibur the present and future choice for artillery.

Excalibur is a 155mm artillery round that can strike within 10 meters of its intended target. It has a 40 kilometer range that has a high angle of attack. Why is that important? Well, in combat, enemy combatants can hide near infrastructure that makes them hard to eliminate. That’s because typical artillery’s angle of attack is somewhere around 45 to 50 degrees. Excalibur’s angle of attack is somewhere around 80-85 degrees. That makes hiding nearly impossible.

And Excalibur virtually eliminates one of the most dangerous aspects of modern combat – friendly fire. In tests, Excalibur was fired with a 15 degree misfire. Now, over big distances, that is a huge mistake! Well, Excalibur’s GPS system and Canard Control Guidance took over and reguided the round back to within 2 yards of its intended target! That’s impressive. Source


By August 2008, over 400 systems had been delivered to the US Army and USMC.

The Indian Ministry of Defence (MoD) has requested for 145 M777s from multiple contractors under a foreign military sales (FMS) contract.

The $885m contract will also include procurement of associated equipments and logistical support services for the aircraft.

The MoD, however, failed to sign off a deal by the 15 October 2013 deadline imposed by BAE, causing the company to initiate shut down of its M777 howitzers production line at Burrow-in-Furness, UK.

M777 armament

The M777 matches the firepower of current generation 155mm towed systems at less than half the weight. The Howitzer is equipped with a 39-calibre barrel. The muzzle velocity (at Charge 8 super) is 827m/s.

The maximum firing range is 24.7km with unassisted rounds and 30km with rocket-assisted rounds. The M777A2 will fire the Raytheon / Bofors XM982 Excalibur GPS / Inertial Navigation-guided extended-range 155mm projectiles using the Modular Artillery Charge Systems (MACS). Excalibur has a maximum range of 40km and accuracy of 10m.


First firing trials of the M777A1 with Excalibur took place in August 2003. First production rounds were delivered in September 2006. Excalibur successfully completed limited user test in March 2007. It was first fielded in Iraq in May 2007 and in Afghanistan in February 2008.

The M777 is able to deliver up to five rounds a minute under intense firing conditions and is able to provide a sustained rate of fire of two rounds a minute.

Precision Guidance Kit-Modernization (PGK-M)

The PGK-M builds on mature, battle-proven technology to improve the accuracy of 155mm projectiles. It will increase maneuverability and incorporate anti-jam capability – requirements for today’s evolving battle space.

Proven technology

-Completed over 200 tests demonstrating a TRL 7
-<10m circular error probable (CEP) accuracy
-High angle of attack

Innovative guidance

The kit combines enhanced Global Positions System (GPS)-based navigation with an innovative, roll-stabilized guidance unit and antenna array. This integrated technology, paired with a proven, variable deflection canard control method, allows for advanced in-flight correction capabilities.

The PGK-M technology is designed to help warfighters complete every mission accurately:

-Precision at longer distances keeps soldiers away from threats
-Improved GPS anti-jam performance
-Enabled technology compatible for GPS restricted environments (semi-active laser, imagers, pseudolites, datalink, etc.)

Reduced dispersion

Our kit dramatically reduces the dispersion associated with 155mm unguided artillery rounds, achieving precision target engagement. Projectiles fitted with PGK-M provide artillery teams on the battlefield with accurate fire support capabilities that friendly forces can rely on in urban areas.

-Improved accuracy against modern threats
-Reduced Circular Error of Probability (CEP)
-Decreased collateral damage

Low cost

The PGK-M’s highly accurate, lethal capability enables one-shot hits on the target. It requires less ammunition than conventional artillery to complete the mission, saving on costs, and increasing effectiveness.


Fire control

fire-control (1).png

The M777A1/A2 is fitted with the SELEX Sensors and Airborne Systems UK Ltd LINAPS (Laser Inertial Artillery Pointing System) artillery pointing suite coupled to a Lincad Ltd made battery and muzzle velocity radar. Source

The LRIP systems employ an optical sighting system for direct and indirect firing by day or night. Full production systems will be fitted with the General Dynamics Armament Systems Towed Artillery Digitisation (TAD) system. LRIP systems will be retrofitted with TAD.

The TAD digital fire control system provides onboard ballistic computation, navigation, pointing and self-location, providing greater accuracy and faster reaction times.

The TAD system also includes a laser ignition system, electric drives for the howitzer’s traverse and elevation and a powered projectile rammer. Source


Images are from pubic domain unless otherwise stated

Updated Oct 13, 2018

Sikorsky CH-148 Cyclone Maritime Helicopter

The Sikorsky CH-148 Cyclone is a twin-engine, multi-role maritime helicopter manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation for the Canadian Forces. CH-148 is to replace Canada’s main ship-borne maritime helicopter, the CH-124 Sea King.

CH-124 Sea King


Technical Specifications

Aircraft Description  Although one of the oldest Aircraft in the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Sea King is also one of its busiest. It has seen service in a variety of international and domestic roles in recent years including the Persian Gulf, Somalia, Yugoslavia, East Timor, Manitoba Floods, and Haiti.
Length 16.67m
Rotor Span 18.9m
Height 5.8 m
Empty Weight 6,591 kg
Maximum Gross Weight 9,318 kg
Power Two 1500 SHP General Electric T-58-GE-8F/-100 turboshafts
Maximum Speed 222 km/h
Cruising Speed 167 km/h
 Service Ceiling 3,048 m
Range 740 km
Equipment Forward Looking Infrared Radar (FLIR), Passive/Active Sonar, Surface Search Radar
Weapons System Mk 46 Mod V homing torpedoes, self-defence machine gun
Crew 2 pilots, 1 navigator, 1 airborne electronic sensor operator
Year(s) procured 1963 to 1969
Quantity in CF 27
Location(s) 12 Wing Shearwater, NS
Patricia Bay, BC

Technical data

The CH-148 will be operated by the Canadian Forces Air Command. It can conduct anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-surface warfare, surveillance and control, search and rescue (SAR) missions. It will also provide tactical transport for national and international security missions.

The helicopter has been developed under the Canadian Forces’ Maritime Helicopter Project (MHP). The project provides scope for the acquisition of 28 new, fully-equipped CH-148 Cyclone helicopters along with a long-term in-service support program. It will also provide 12 C-RAST helicopter haul-down systems for Halifax class (HFX) ships to accommodate the CH-148 Cyclone.

Orders and deliveries

In November 2004, Canada’s Department of National Defence placed a C$1.8bn contract with Sikorsky to produce 28 helicopters, with the first aircraft delivery expected in January 2009. The first production aircraft completed its maiden flight in November 2008. It arrived at CFB Shearwater in February 2010. The deliveries are delayed due to restrictions by US International Traffic in Arms Regulations.

Canada accepts first six Sikorsky CH-148 Cyclones: Here

yourfile (2).jpgCanadian Armed Forces – Image

The first 19 of the 28 CH-148 Cyclones will be supplied in interim standard rather than at the original contractual specifications. Maintenance and aircrew personnel will conduct initial operational testing and evaluation of the interim helicopters prior to deployment. The fully compliant helicopters will be delivered in 2012. All interim-standard helicopters are to be retrofitted and delivered to DND/CF by December 2013.

The German navy is also planning to replace its current fleet of Sea King helicopters with Cyclone helicopters.

Built ID     In this Organisation In other Org
    92-5001 2008     148801: RCAF  N4901C: Sikorsky CH-148 f/f 15nov08; Mar10 trials at Halifax, N+ 
    92-5002 2008     148802: RCAF; 09may15 Landed in Salisbury airport, MD refueled and n+  N8040J: Sikorsky CH-148 2008  

Jul13 running test flights in Western Slope  

    92-5003 2009     148803: RCAF  ?: Sikorsky CH-148 2009  
    92-5004 2010     148804: RCAF d/d 07Jun12 12th Wing, CFB Shearwater  ?: Sikorsky CH-148 2010-2012  
    92-5005 2010     148805: RCAF Jun12  ?: Sikorsky CH-148 CAF 148805  
    92-5006 2011     148806: RCAF d/d May11 12Wing Shearwater; first interim maritime hel+  ?: Sikorsky CH-148 2011; Canadian Armed Forces 148806 fr+  
    92-5007 2011     148807: RCAF 03aug12  ?: Sikorsky CH-148 2011; 13-24Jun11 Paris Air Show France  
    92-5008 2011     148808: RCAF from 16Jun12, CFB Shearwater  N1125M: Sikorsky CH-148 2011  
    92-5018       148818: RCAF from Mar15; 20apr16 picture on HMCS Montreal (FFH 336) +
    92-5020       148820: RCAF from Oct14, test serial N8036C
    92-5023       148823: RCAF from Jun15
    92-5024       148824: RCAF from Jun15

12 C/N found in this Organisation 


Canadian Air Force expecting CH-148 Cyclone project completion in 2025

The Canadian air force faces an issue as their order of 28 new CH-148 Cyclone helicopters from Sikorksy Aircraft has been projected to only be completed in 2025. Earlier agreements had said that the order of the new fleet would be done by 2022. This new addition in time creates a problem as the new fleet will only arrive seven years after the retirement of the CH-124 Sea King helicopters, which have been operating for over 50 years now. This leaves the Canadian military woefully short.

Fortunately, the country’s navy fleet is also lacking, having to retire two supply ships, two destroyers, one Tribal destroyer ship was let go due to budget cuts and now a fourth warship is about to be retired. As reported by the CBC, if the navy carefully plans their resources, they might have enough helicopters between them.

An initial deadline was 2008 but Sikorsky Aircraft missed that deadline. In 2013 they began to rethink their decision to replace their fleet, but stuck with their decision and announced the retirement of the Sea Kings due in 2015. Another deadline given was 2018 for the arrival of their new fleet, yet this too was not met. Instead they were promised 12 operational helicopters with the basic operating systems in place by 2018, with the remaining 16 coming in between then and 2021. Then remaining four years will consist of training personnel and getting the fleet operational by government standards. Source

Design and features


CH-148 is a military variant of the Sikorsky S-92 helicopter. It features a composite aluminium airframe with lightning-strike and high-intensity radio frequency pulse protection. It incorporates a wider four-bladed articulated composite main rotor blade in comparison with the S-70 Blackhawk. The tapered blade tip is angled downward to cut down noise and increase lift.

CH-148_148807_37802.jpgThe CH-148 main rotor head is a fully articulated hinge-less design with elastomeric bearings and automatic blade folding.- Image @b-domke.deS-92A_OY-HKA_30118.jpgMain rotor blade viewed from lower aft – Image @b-domke.deCH-148_148807_37985.jpgThe CH-148 tail rotor is a bearingless composite flex-beam design.- Image @b-domke.deft-opinion-ch148-cyclone-aew-daly-lgImage

The helicopter can operate with modern high-tech naval frigates and is equipped with numerous safety features. Flaw tolerance, bird strike capability and engine burst containment are integrated into the design.



CH-148 is equipped with APS-143B radar, the SAFIRE III EO System, L-3 HELRAS sonar and Lockheed Martin AN/ALQ-210 electronic support measure (ESM) system. Its aircraft management system (CMA-2082MH) is provided by CMC Electronics.


APS-143B radar


ELEPHONICS radar.  The AN/APS-143(V)3 is a maritime surveillance and tracking radar designed for installation in a variety of fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. It is also known as OceanEye. The system uses frequency agility and pulse compression techniques and consists of three units: an antenna, receiver/transmitter and signal processor. Radar control is via a dedicated control panel with on-screen controls, or by a central universal keyset via MIL-STD-1553B databus. Features include TWS for 30, 100 or 200 targets, air search with MTI, integrated electronic support and Mark 12A IFF system interfaces and electronic ECCM provision (including sector blanking and staggered pulse repetition frequencies).

The flat-plate planar antenna array, which can be fitted into any radome, is stabilized for ±30° in pitch and roll. The transmitter is a TWT (travelling wave tube) type with a peak power output of 8 kw and operating in the X band. The latest variant, APS-143B(V)3, can be upgraded with a complete imaging capability: range profiling, ISAR, spotlight SAR, strip-map SAR. The system can also incorporate software interfaces, via an embedded Tactical Data Management System (TDMS), for external systems such as FLIR, ESM, IFF and TDL. The TDMS capability also includes overlay of worldwide Database II or vector shoreline maps onto the radar display.

The internal, fully integrated Mark XIIA IFF interrogator has been designed to be compatible with the IFF interrogators being supplied for the US Navy’s MH-60R LAMPS helicopter, the Canadian CP-140 Aurora upgrade program, and the US and International Air Force’s AWACS platforms .IFF Mode 4 helps the Cyclone crew sort out cooperative sea and air targets in target-rich littoral regions.

System Specifications

  • System weight: 180 lbs/82 kg (with ISAR/SAR imaging)
  • Box size: R/T – 1.5 long ATR; S/P 1.0 long ATR; various

antenna-radome options

  • Power required: 115V, 400 Hz, 3-phase AC power,

1.8 kva typical, and 28V 12A

  • Operating modes:

– Standard: Search, Weather, Beacon, Small Target


– Optional: ISAR, Range Profiling, Stripmap SAR,

IFF Interrogator

– Planned: GMTI, AIS

  • Control configurations: 1553B data bus standalone


  • Low Probability of Intercept features: sector blanking,

PRF jitter, frequency agility, low sidelobe antenna


  • Maximum range: over 200 nmi
  • Display range resolution: 0.01 nmi (1 meter for

imaging option)

  • Azimuth accuracy: 0.5° or better
  • MTBF: 800 hours for helicopters; 1400 hours for



  • Bandwidth: 460 MHz
  • Gain: 31 to 35 dB (antenna/platform dependent)
  • Integrated IFF dipoles available
  • 360° Scan
  • Sector scan: operator selectable 45° to 350°
  • Stabilization: Standard +10°/-25° pitch-and-roll

(using antenna tilt)

Display & Processing

  • Display scales: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 nmi
  • Clutter Processing: sweep and scan-to-scan


  • Radar monitor: Wide variety of options available to

meet platform requirements

  • Standard interfaces available to allow integration/

operation with onboard display and control systems

– MIL-STD-1553, ARINC 429/571/575, IEEE-802

Ethernet, RS-232/422 Serial I/O

  • Standalone consoles available using Telephonics

Tactical Data Management System (TDMS)

Technical data



FLIR  – (3 to 5 micron) surveillance and targeting turrets by General Dynamics Canada of Ottawa. This is an  multi-sensor imaging system. 


Sensor type 640×480 InSb focal plane array

Wavelength 3-5µm response

FOVs 25° to 0.35°

Zoom ratio 71X


Sensor type Color CCD-TV

Resolution 525 / 625 line (NTSC/PAL)

FOVs 28° to 2.7°

Zoom ratio 18X (+12X E-Zoom)


Sensor type 3-chip Color CCD

Resolution 800 line

FOVs 5.4° to 0.29°

 (Matched to IR FOV’s)


Sensor type Image intensified

FOVs 5.4° to 0.7°

 (Matched to IR FOV’s)


Rangefinder Max. range 25Km +/-5m

 Classification Class 1 (Eyesafe)

Illuminator Power 1W or 2W options

 Classification Class 4

 Beam Divergence 1° x 1°

Pointer Power 100mw

 Classification Class 3b

sikorsky_ch-148_cyclone_canada_019SAFIRE III EO System – Image


Tightly-coupled, fully-integrated, IMU & GPS for geo-pointing and target geo-location


System type 5 axis stabilization

Az. coverage 360° continuous

El. coverage +30° to -120°

Stability <15 µ

Airspeed 405 KIAS


Analog video NTSC/PAL

Control RS-232, RS-422, Ergonomic Laptop or Hand-held

Data RS-232, RS-422, ARINC 419/429, MIL-STD-1553B

Technical data

L-3 HELRAS sonar


HELRAS DS-100 sonar by L-3 Oceans Group. The HELRAS is capable of depths up to 500 m and has figure-of-merit sufficient to achieve convergence zone detections in deep water, and transmission/receive characteristics optimized for extremely long ranges in shallow water. At 1.38 KHz, HELRAS exploits low-frequency acoustic performance to maximize detection ranges, especially in shallow water, and to defeat the hull cladding on today’s quiet submarines.



Operating depth 500 m

Projector 8 elements (7 sonar, 1 UWT), array length 5.2 m

Operational modes

Active operation centered at 1.311, 1.38, 1.449 KHz:

CW (0.039 sec PW to 10 sec PW) at 3 frequencies

Frequency modulation

Linear period FM (PW 0.156 sec to 5.0 sec); FM triplet (PW 0.625 sec to 1.25 sec)

50 Hz downsweep: at 3 center frequencies

100 Hz downsweep: at 3 center frequencies

300 Hz downsweep: at 1 center frequency (1.380 KHz)

Active display formats: All beam Doppler range; bearing-range/Doppler-range; bearing-range; A-scan

Passive operation BW: 800 Hz to 2000 Hz broadband; in band DEMON

Passive Display formats: Bearing-time; bearing frequency, automatic line integration

(narrowband and DEMON)

Source level 218 dB/µPa/yd

Beam width Vertical -15º to +15º

Receive beams 32 half beams, 16 full beams

Number of target tracks 10

Range scales 1, 1.5, 2.5, 4, 6, 10, 16, 25, 40, 60 n miles

Receive array 2.6 m diameter x 1.2 m high


Submersible unit: 155 kg

 Dome Control, Reeling Machine, Cable & Reel: 130.5 kg

 Common Acoustic Processor & Cable Interface Power Supply: 40.5 kg

 Integrated System: 326 kg

 Sonar Control: 6.3 kg

 Flat Panel Display: 9 kg

 Standalone System: 341.3 kg

Technical data

Lockheed Martin AN/ALQ-210 ESM

sikorsky_ch-148_cyclone_canada_017Lockheed Martin AN/ALQ-210 ESM – Image @grubbyfingersshop.comsikorsky_ch-148_cyclone_canada_011Lockheed Martin AN/ALQ-210 ESM – Image

RWR/ESM (Radar Warning and location identifier) : Lockheed Martin AN/ALQ-210. The AN/ALQ-210 ESM subsystem performs situational awareness and threat warning functions simultaneously. The subsystem is designed with an open architecture in order to accommodate scalable functionality. It quickly detects and identifies emitters over a wide frequency range, determines the signal angle of arrival, and locates the source in dense signal environments.

Technical data


AN/ARC-210 Gen5 Programmable Digital Communication System


The AN/ARC-210 Multimode Integrated Communications System provides 2-way multimode voice and data communications over the 30-400 MHz frequency range in either normal, secure or jam-resistant modes via line-of-sight (LOS) or satellite communications (SATCOM) links. The ARC-210 family of equipment is made up of several variants of the receiver-transmitter, each providing a specific combination of functionality to meet user platform requirements.

The AN/ARC-210 Receiver-Transmitter (RT) is the nucleus of a Multimode Communications System. The RT is offered in several models, which may be coupled with a full complement of auxiliary equipment, to provide the user community with unmatched versatility and exceptional capability. Source

Features & Benefits

Line-of-sight data transfer rates up to 80 kb/s in a 25 kHz channel creating high-speed communication of critical situational awareness information for increased mission effectiveness

Software reprogrammable in the field via Memory Loader/Verifier Software making flexible use for multiple missions

Offers direct replacement for RT-1794(C), RT-1824(C), RT-1851(C) and RT-1851A(C). Supports all ARC-210 legacy waveforms and functions reducing integration efforts

Embedded software programmable cryptography for secure communications


Frequency range:
Coverage: 30-941 MHz
VHF 30-88 MHz close air support
VHF 108-118 MHz navigation
VHF 118-137 MHz air traffic control
VHF 137-156 MHz land mobile
VHF 156-174 MHz maritime
UHF 225-512 MHz military/homeland defense
UHF 806-824, 851-869, 869-902, 935-941 MHz (public safety bands)Channel bandwidths:
5, 6.25, 8.33, 12.5, 25 kHz and software definableTuning:
1.25 kHz incrementsReceive Sensitivity (10 dB SINAD):
AM: -103 dBm (30-400 MHz)
FM: -108 dBm (30-400 MHz)
FM: -106 dBm (400-941 MHz, 12 dB SINAD))Reliability:
NLT 3400 hrs AIC
NLT 1050 hrs AUF

Three Rockwell Collins RT-1851C V/UHF multi-band radios.  V/UHF-3 is rigged with a SATCOM mounting. 

2364784The first production CH-148 for the Canadian Armed Forces, seen here overflying the Halifax waterfront near sunset, on its way to land on HMCS Montréal. This aircraft is in Halifax undergoing trials and still wears an N-number registration. Upon delivery it will be 148801. Michael Durning Image

HF-9087D radio


The HF-9000D and HF-9000F systems are a family of light weight HF systems designed for use on a broad range of military fixed wing and rotary wing airborne, transportable, and fixed site applications. The integrated multimode system provides data communication capability including the transmission and reeipt of text and graphics while continuing to provide voice HF communications. Embedded system functionality includes MIL-STD-188-141B, Automatic Link Establishment (ALE), MIL-STD-188-110B, data modem functionally, Independent Sideband (ISB) data operation, and ARINC 714-6 SELCAL decoding with growth capability for future HF waveforms.


Frequency Range: 2.0 to 29.9999 MHz
Power Output: 200W peak/100W average
Embedded ALE: MIL-STD-188-141B
Embedded Modem: MIL-STD-188-110B, Appendices C and F (Data rates up to 19.2 kbps)
Embedded ARINC 714-6 SELCAL decoder
Frequency features: 249 ITU radiotelephone and six emergency channels preprogrammed
Temperature Range: -40º C to +55º C.
Dimensions for HF-9087D only: Width 172 mm  (6.8 in); Height 193 mm  (7.6 in); Depth 320 mm (12.6 in)
Weight for 9087D only : 9.5kg  (21.0 lbs)

One Rockwell Collins HF Radio system with KY-100 encryption


The ANDVT AIRTERM (KY-100) is a narrowband/wideband terminal that interoperates with TACTERM (CV-3591/KYV-5), MINTERM (KY-99A), VINSON (KY-57, KY-58) and SINCGARS. A self-contained terminal including COMSEC, KY-100 provides for secure voice and data communications in tactical airborne/ground environments. It is an integral part of the U.S Joint Services and Federal Law Enforcement Agency networks, and provides half-duplex,  narrowband and wideband communications. Flexible interfaces ensure compatibility with a wide range of voice, data, radio and satellite equipment. The KY-100 is based on the KY-99A architecture with enhanced interface capability.  It includes KY-99A’s operational modes, KY-58’s operational modes, and unique features such as:

*  User-defined presets (permits user to pre-store different interface and terminal configurations) .
* A radio port with configurable levels/impedances.
*  Emergency back-up mode.
*  Separate audio handset/intercom data port (rear panel) with configurable levels/impedances.
* NVIS-compatible front panel and display.

The KY-100 is backward-compatible with the VINSON KY-58, including the same connectors and pinouts for the wideband operational modes. Source

VHF Transceiver (FM) 138-174 MHz


The Technisonic TFM-138 is a frequency agile airborne VHF/FM High Band transceiver operates from 138.000 MHz to 174.000 MHz in 2.5 KHz steps, providing for either 12.5 KHz (Narrow Band) or 25.0 KHz (Wide Band) channel spacing.

The TFM-138 offers a two channel synthesized Guard Receiver (no crystals), 100 channels of preset memory, scan and priority scan, all available CTCSS tones, and can operate without restriction on any split frequency pair available within the band. Function control is via a panel mounted 12-button keypad. Operating frequency, alpha numeric identifier and other related data are presented on a 48-character, two-line LED matrix display. This transceiver weighs just 3.1 lbs, is Dzus panel mounted and is completely self contained (no heavy remote transceiver), eliminating problematic, complicated, heavy and costly R/T to control head interconnect wiring. Source For full details see PDF file: Here

AA21-400 Cabin PA

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One Loudhailer/PA system made by Northern Airborne Technology. The AA21-400 Cabin PA control is designed to provide centralized control for an aircraft’s internal and external PA systems. Its 25 watt speaker driver stage is designed to drive one 8 ohm speaker for internal paging.  The AA21-400 also provides a low level audio output signal that drives the input on a remote mounted power amplifier.  A +3db function allows the output of the system to be varied by 3 db.(Photo courtesy Northern Airborne Technology).  Source


Honeywell H-764G INS


Three Honeywell  EGIs ( Embedded GPS Inertial). The Honeywell H-764G INS is self-contained equipment that incorporates three GG 1320 ring laser gyros, three solid-state Sunstrand QA 2000 accelerometers plus their associated electronics, a dual MILitary STanDard (MIL-STD) – 1553B databus installation, a MIL-STD-1750A microprocessor, an embedded Raytheon Global Positioning System (GPS) module with six channels and a P(Y) code capability. 

Outputs Blended INS/GPS, free inertial and GPS only

  • Supports CNS/ATM Mandates

– ADS-B Blended Position Source with

MSO-C145 certification, low latency design and transponder direct connect


– Autonomous LPV


  • Certifiability

– DO-178 B/C Level A

– DO-254 Level A

– MSO-C145

  • Supports open architectures with flexible interfaces and integration with FACE
  • Power – 35-60watts
  • MTBF >10,000 hours calculated, >25,000 hours demonstrated in certain applications
  • State of the art 1320 Ring Laser Gyro, 450,000 hours MTBF demonstrated with over 4 Billion accumulated flight hours
  • Alignment Modes:

– Gyrocompass

– In Flight Alignment

– Ship Alignment (SINS/AR-57 and In Motion)

– Stored Heading Alignment

Source – Specification PDF

DF-430 Direction Finding Set

ch148_df430_01.jpgDF430 major system components. (L-R) : ANT-430 antenna , BC-125 display/control head and RPU-450 controller . (Photo courtesy Rockwell Collins)


•Tactical DF in the 30 to 410 MHz frequency range regardless the type of signal (AM, FM, PM, etc.)
•Civil SAR missions on 121.5 MHz, 243 MHz 406 MHz and COSPAS-SARSAT beacons.
•Ability to detect COSPAS-SARSAT beacons (EPIRBs) and decode their message (latitude/longitude/country code/etc.)
•Sonobuoy frequency band (FM 136 – 174 MHz) coverage and optimized localization by dedicated algorithms (standard and advanced OTPI) for anti-submarine warfare.
•Compact/lightweight quality and flush mounted antenna facilitate the DF-430 integration onboard any platform
•Can be interfaced through MIL-STD-1553B , A429 or BC-125 (standalone configuration) controller


The OTPI function is used to localize sonobuoys during ASW mission. The result is a visual indication when the aircraft flies directly above the sonobuoy (On Top Position). When connected to the aircraft bus, the DF-430 is able to significantly increase the OTPI detection accuracy by computing the altitude and ground speed information.



General Dynamics Canada –  Mission Data Management System (MDMS) 


CVAR : Conduction-Cooled VME processor And Receiver
MDMS: Mission Data Management System
TISIS   : Tactical Integrated Sensor Information System

The MDMS is the conduction-cooled variant of the General Dynamics Canada (GDC) mission system also fitted on the CP-140 Aurora.  The MDMS for the CH-148 is made up of:

* Mission Data Management Computer (MDMC – the GDC sales brochure refers to calls it TISIS).
* Tactical Workstation Console (TWC) which contains the:

– Workstation tactical display (2)
– Programmable Entry Panel displays (2)
– Cockpit Tactical display (CTD)
– Cockpit Cursor Device (CCD) – the “potato grip”

MDMS interfaces to the sensors and tactical data link systems, runs the tactical workstation displays in the cabin and cockpit, and manages and monitors the health of the integrated mission system (IMS).

The CVAR, is the helicopter’s acoustic processing system for both the Sonobuoy processing and the Dipping Sonar system, and it contains the receiver for the sonobuoys.  The system control and display is done from the Workstation Tactical Display (WTD), the Programmable Entry Panel (PEP) at the Tactical Workstation Console (TWC) in the cabin.

The TWC is the composite material console in the main cabin where the TACCO and SENSO sit.  Each operator has two displays in front of them.  The WTD is the larger 20.1 inch LCD that provides the tactical and sensor displays, and the PEP is the smaller, 10 inch display positioned at an angle, which presents the software-driven menus to operate the mission systems.

TISIS   : Tactical Integrated Sensor Information System


 A fl exible system architecture that can be confi gured to meet the constraints of functionality, packaging, weight and balance, and redundancy;

 A mission-oriented operator interface utilizing fully programmable controls and displays;

 Development of operator interface and toolset involved human factors engineering studies with input from operational aircrew;

 A fully integrated tactical navigation and data processing component;

 External interfacing using MIL-STD-1553B avionics data bus, Ethernet, ARINC 429, and Fibre Channel;

 Expansion capability to incorporate legacy interfaces where required;

 Operating systems supported: Windows, Solaris, and Linux, and;

 Interoperable with other platforms through standard military and commercial data links.

Full details PDF: Here

Link 11 tactical datalink 


The Link-11 system is the Ultra Electronics Multi-Link Processor (MLP) which can be upgraded to Link 22 at a later date.

CMA-4000 Flight Management System (FMS)


There are two Esterline/CMC Electronics CMA-4000 series Flight Management  system Control and Display Units (FMCDU’s). These will independently manage all cockpit displays, communications and navigation systems.


The CMA-4000 provides radio management, mission control, flight management and seamless navigation throughout all phases of flight, including en-route, terminal, approach and the mission phases of flight. Its ability to interface with a wide variety of navigation sensors and radios makes it very versatile for a wide variety of applications. Navigational solutions can be obtained via blended INS/GPS, GPS, INS, DME/DME. VOR/DME, VOR/DME/TACAN , DOPPLER and Dead Reckoning. Frequency ranges for controlled radios are from HF, VHF, UHF, and SATCOM.

DTC1-1 Tactical Cockpit Display


This 10.4″ portrait form factor cockpit display is qualified and in production for helicopter applications on the Sikorsky S-92 helicopter as a Mission System Tactical Cockpit display (CH148 Cyclone Maritime Helicopter). A colour graphics display with 768 x 1024 pixels, this unit meets the unique vibration and shock requirements of the helicopter environment.

Environmental Specifications

DTC1-1 Tactical Cockpit Display Specifications View Datasheet
Operating Temperature -40°C to +55°C
Storage Temperature -51°C to +85°C
Humidity MIL-STD-810F, Method 507.4
Shock MIL-STD-810F, Method 516.5
(20 g operational, 40 g crash hazard)
Vibration MIL-STD-810F, Method 514.5
(Helicopter and Fixed Wing)
Altitude MIL-STD-810F, Method 500.4 (40000 ft ASL)
Salt Fog MIL-STD-810F, Method 509.4


3ATI SDD1-1 Cockpit Display


The SDD1-1 Cockpit Display is qualified and in production for helicopter applications on the Sikorsky S-92 helicopter as a Self-Defence System Cockpit Display (CH148 Cyclone Maritime Helicopter). A colour graphics display with 300 x 300 pixels on a 3.5” diagonal screen, this unit meet the unique vibration and shock requirements of a helicopter environment.


  • 300 x 300 pixel resolution with a 3.5” diagonal screen
  • Sunlight readable cockpit display with LED backlight
  • Airborne ANVIS Class B compatible
  • DVI video input
  • Supports TIA/EIA-422B serial for communications
  • Built for survivability in extreme conditions

Programmable Entry Panel (PEP2-1) display


Each TWD is combined with a Programmable Entry Panel (PEP2-1) display, mounted in the console just below the TWD.  The PEP is a 12.1” touch-screen display designated PEP2-1, and is used to display and select the menu selections for the operators to control the mission system and sensors.  It is normally configured to look like the second photo in the datasheet, with menu buttons – not a tactical map.


  • 800 x 600 pixel resolution with a 12.1” diagonal screen
  • Console display with LED backlight
  • ANVIS Class B compatible
  • Touch screen
  • RGB and RS-170/RS-170A video input
  • Supports TIA/EIA-422B serial communications
  • Built for survivability in extreme conditions

Source PDF

General Dynamics Canada was contracted in 2004 to provide the mission systems for the entire fleet of 28 helicopters. These mission systems include radar, ESM, acoustics, self-defence, navigation and communication systems.


Armaments include door-arm mounted GP machine guns and two MK 46 torpedoes on BRU-14/A weapon or stores rack mounted in folding weapons pylons.

GP machine guns – (FN) MAG-58M 7.62mm machine gun


Example – May be other model

Technical data:
  MAG 58M Machine gun
Overall 1,080 mm – 42.5 in
Barrel (chrome plated + stellite) 548 mm – 21.6 in
Rifled lenght of the barrel 487.5 mm – 19.2 in
Machine gun, complete 11.650 kg – 25.7 lb
Barrel 3 kg – 6.6 lb
RATE OF FIRING 650 to 1,000 rpm
Cartridge cases downward
Links laterally
M19A1 BG 250 rds
M61A1 BG 250 rds
M75A1 BG 230 rds
  LPH Pintle Head
Width 310 mm – 12.2 in
Height 600 mm – 23.6 in
Weight, empty 7.3 kg – 16.1 lb


MK 46 torpedoes


Torpedoes are self-propelled guided projectiles that operate underwater and are designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. They may be launched from submarines, surface ships, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. They are also used as parts of other weapons; the Mark 46 torpedo becomes the warhead section of the ASROC (Anti-Submarine ROCket) and the Captor mine uses a submerged sensor platform that releases a torpedo when a hostile contact is detected. The three major torpedoes in the Navy inventory are the Mark 48 heavyweight torpedo, the Mark 46 lightweight and the Mark 50 advanced lightweight.

The MK-46 torpedo is designed to attack high performance submarines, and is presently identified as the NATO standard. The MK-46 torpedo is designed to be launched from surface combatant torpedo tubes, ASROC missiles and fixed and rotary wing aircraft. In 1989, a major upgrade program began to enhance the performance of the MK-46 Mod 5 in shallow water. Weapons incorporating these improvements are identified as Mod 5A and Mod 5A(S).

yourfile (1).jpgArmed with MK-46 torpedo Canadian Armed Forces – Image
Power Plant Two-speed, reciprocating external combustion;
Mono-propellant (Otto fuel II) fueled
Length 102.36 in. tube launch configuration (from ship)
Weight 517.65 lbs (warshot configuration)
Diameter 12.75 inches
Range Officially “8,000 yards”
Reportedly 11,400 – 12,000 yd. at 45 kt.
Weapon acquisition range 1600 yards
Min/Max ASROC launching ranges 1500 to 12000 yards
Depth Officially “Greater than 1,200 ft (365 meters)”
Reportedly 1,500 ft.
Search/attack depth settings Minimum 20 yards
Maximum 1500 yards
Speed Greater than 28 knots (32.2 mph, 51.52 kph)
Reportedly 45 kt
Actual 45 knots
Run characteristics 6-8 minutes
Guidance System Homing mode – Active or passive/active acoustic homing
Launch/search mode – Snake or circle search
Warhead 98 lbs. of PBXN-103 high explosive (bulk charge)

MK-46 torpedo data

BRU-14/A weapon/stores rack


The BRU-14/A bomb rack is a parent rack which provides for suspension and release of stores weighing up to 2,000-2,200 pounds. Two suspension hooks provide for attachment of weapons or stores having 14-inch suspension lugs. It connects to the aircraft special weapons release and control system to provide primary release, IFOBRL (in-flight operable bomb release lock) actuation, auxiliary unlock, secondary release, and mechanical arming of a weapon/store. Linear Electromechanical Actuator consists of a spring-loaded plunger that is mechanically locked and electrically released, thereby initiating hook release. Aero 1A adapter assemblies may be added to increase the bomb rack to 30-inch suspension capacity. The BRU-14/A is a modified Aero 65A bomb rack which has been adapted for use with P-3C and S-3A aircraft.

Major components consist of a linear electromechanical actuator and an in-flight operable bomb rack lock auxiliary release assembly.

The linear electromechanical actuator consists of a spring-loaded plunger that is mechanically cocked and electrically released to provide the force that initiates hook release. The auxiliary release assembly provides a secondary method of release should the linear electromechanical actuator or its electrical system fail.


The in-flight operable bomb rack lock mechanism consists of a remotely controlled bomb rack lock and emergency release auxiliary unlock. The IFOBRL consists of a lockbar, which pivots on the frame to lock the rear link in latched position, and an actuator assembly, which can be locked or unlocked manually. The auxiliary unlock assembly is a cartridge-actuated device providing a mounting point for the aft end of the IFOBRL. When actuated, the unlock releases the IFOBRL and allows it to move forward, freeing the rear link from restraint. Mechanical arming of a weapon/store is accomplished through two electrically actuated arming solenoids, which are mounted in the frame assembly. The BRU-14 is capable of suspension and release of a weapon/store in either an armed or safe condition. An electrical impulse from the aircraft is used to release the store. Mechanical arming is provided for more and/or tail arming. During ground operations and in flight the IFOBRL provides a positive lock to the release mechanism.

The left inboard, left outboard, and right weapon pylons on the Navy’s Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS) Mark III SH-60B Seahawk accommodate BRU-14/A weapon/stores racks. The BRU-14A bomb racks interface with the MK-50 Advanced Lightweight Torpedo (ALWT) and Penguin missile. Fittings for torpedo parachute release lanyards are located on the fuselage aft of each weapon pylon. Effective on BUNO 162349 and subsequent, the left and right inboard pylons have wiring and tubing provisions for auxiliary fuel tanks. All pylons have wiring provisions to accommodate the MK 50 torpedo. The left outboard weapon pylon can accommodate a missile launch assembly (MLA) which is used to mount the MK 2 MOD 7 Penguin air-to-surface missile. Source

CPI Aero Awarded $5M CH-148 Contract

CPI Aerostructures, Inc. (“CPI Aero®”) (NYSE MKT: CVU) today announced that Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company (NYSE: LMT), has awarded CPI Aero purchase orders valued at approximately $5 million to manufacture the weapon pylon for the Sikorsky CH-148 Cyclone, a twin-engine, multi-role shipboard helicopter being manufactured by Sikorsky for the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). CPI Aero will produce weapon pylons for 28 aircraft with deliveries through 2018.

A military variant of the Sikorsky S-92® helicopter, the CH-148 is designed for shipboard operations. The Cyclone is to be operated by the RCAF and will conduct anti-submarine warfare, surveillance, and search and rescue missions from Royal Canadian Navy warships.

“This award recognizes our long-standing and excellent past performance with Sikorsky that spans over a decade across multiple aircraft, including the UH-60, S-92, and now the CH-148,” stated Douglas McCrosson, president and chief executive officer of CPI Aero. “This is our first new contract with Sikorsky as a Lockheed Martin Company, and we are excited to continue to expand our business with Lockheed Martin, the world’s largest defense contractor.” Source

2605234“Cyclone 22” in a low approach to runway 05, showing all the cool stuff mounted on the underside –  Michael Durning Image


The helicopter is fitted with sensor equipment to search and locate submarines during ASW missions. A modern countermeasures suite is incorporated to defend the helicopter against incoming missiles.

ATK AN/AAR-47 missile warning system

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The AN/AAR 47 basically works with an digitized and integrated warning system that is in turn integrated to the communication module of the pilot or the control command of the platform. The AN/AAR 47 is an radar based warning system.

The main feature of this system is to provide timely warning against Infrared MAN Portable Air Defence System (MANPADS). Detecting a MANPADS is an extremely demanding task and these MANPADS do not signal their presence till the launch of the missile, they do have a detectable radiation since they do not rely on active IR, radar guidance or a laser designator. These fire-and-forget systems and lock on and engage a target, speed to the target and destroy it in seconds. But these systems however, have a very small but still visible radar signature and also since propelled by propellant a IR signature. But this signature can be visible only for a very short period of duration. To counter these missiles if the old counter measures are to be used they may be hampered by the decisions of a pilot. But if the counter measures are integrated with the MAWS the system automatically deploys the flares without any delay thereby saving the platform from a possible attack.

Sikorsky_CH-148_Cyclone_Canada_004.jpgAAR-47 missile warning system below the Lockheed Martin AN/ALQ-210 ESM – Image

The AAR-47 missile warning system consists of 4 Optical Sensor Converters (OSC), a Computer Processor and a Control Indicator. A single optical sensor converter is positioned towards each side of the aircraft and is integrated with an infrared camera which can detect any incoming missiles. With the space on a aircraft being very limited the whole size of the component has to be extremely compact and yet powerful the AAR-47 is a very compact system and is around 32 pounds and takes very negligible space on board a aircraft. Source

AN/ALE-39 flare and chaff dispensers


The dispenser countermeasures AN / ALE-39 system is capable of launching up to 60 cartridges flares (flares) or sheet metal (chaff) able to confuse and divert enemy missiles, both infrared and radar guide, which are threatening the plane.In the Fightinghawk and other Skyhawks, CMDS dispensers are found in the lower part of the tail section.

sikorsky_ch-148_cyclone_canada_033AN / ALE-39 system – Image



The CH-148 is powered by two GE CT7-8A engines. A new CT7-8A7 engine based on the CT7-8A1 is being developed by General Electric to replace the current, less efficient engine.

GE CT7-8A enginesthumb-ct7-8

The new engine will be tested and certified by June 2012. It will incorporate modified fuel manifold and fuel nozzles.

Sikorsky will deliver six interim CH-148 Cyclone helicopters fitted with CT7-8A1 engines to the Canadian Forces before the final delivery deadline.


The Cyclone is equipped for day-and-night flight operations, and can fly in adverse weather conditions in temperatures ranging from -51°C to +49°C. It can fly at a maximum altitude of 15,000ft. The maximum cruise speed is 165kt and the best range speed is 137kt.

The helicopter can fly to a range of 450km without refuelling.

Main material source

The Sikorsky S-92 is a twin-engined medium utility transport helicopter produced by the American manufacturer Sikorsky Aircraft. The S-92 is primary used by civil operators for offshore passenger and material transportation to oil- & gas rigs and for search and rescue service (SAR). In governmental service the helicopter is mostly used for executive transportation (VIP). For military operations the S-92 is marketed as the H-92 Superhawk.
Crew 2
Passengers 19
Propulsion 2 Turboshaft Engines
Engine Model General Electric CT7-8A
Engine Power (each) 1879 kW 2520 shp
Speed 306 km/h 165 kts
  190 mph
Service Ceiling 4.267 m 14.000 ft
Range 950 km 513 NM
590 mi.
Empty Weight 7.070 kg 15.587 lbs
max. Takeoff Weight 12.837 kg 28.300 lbs
Rotor Blades (main/tail) 4/4
Main Rotor Diameter 17,17 m 56 ft 4 in
Tail Rotor Diameter 3,35 m 10 ft 12 in
Rotor Disc Area 231,5 m² 2492 ft²
Length (Fuselage) 17,10 m 56 ft 1 in
Length 20,88 m 68 ft 6 in
Height 5,47 m 17 ft 11 in
First Flight 23.12.1998
Production Status in production
ICAO Code S92
Data for (Version) Sikorsky S-92A
Variants S-92A, H-92 Superhawk, CH-148 Cyclone


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