Monthly Archives: February 2016

A330-200 Multi Role Tanker Transport (MRTT)

The Airbus A330 Multi Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) is an aerial refuelling tanker aircraft based on the civilian Airbus A330. The A330 MRTT has been ordered by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), Royal Air Force (RAF), United Arab Emirates Air Force, Royal Saudi Air Force and Republic of Singapore Air Force. The EADS/Northrop Grumman KC-45 was a version of the A330 MRTT proposed for the United States Air Force.

Design and development

The Airbus A330 MRTT is a military derivative of the A330-200 airliner. It is designed as a dual-role air-to-air refuelling and transport aircraft. For air-to-air refuelling missions the A330 MRTT can be equipped with a combination of any of the following systems:
  • Airbus Military Aerial Refuelling Boom System (ARBS) for receptacle-equipped receiver aircraft.
Refuelling Boom System (ARBS)
  • Cobham 905E under-wing refuelling pods for probe-equipped receiver aircraft.
Cobham 905E under-wing refuelling pods for probe
  • Cobham 805E Fuselage Refuelling Unit (FRU) for probe-equipped receiver aircraft
Cobham 805E Fuselage Refuelling Unit (FRU) for probe
  • Universal Aerial Refueling Receptacle Slipway Installation (UARRSI) for self in-flight refuelling.
yourfileUniversal Aerial Refueling Receptacle Slipway Installation (UARRSI)

The A330 MRTT has a maximum fuel capacity of 111,000 kg (245,000 lb) without the use of additional fuel tanks, which leaves space for the carriage of 45,000 kg (99,000 lb) of additional cargo.

The A330 MRTT’s wing has common structure with the four-engine A340-200/-300 with reinforced mounting locations and provision for fuel piping for the A340’s outboard engines. The A330 MRTT’s wing therefore requires little modification for use of these hardpoints for the wing refuelling pods.

kc-x-image01Size comparison 

The A330 MRTT cabin can be modified to carry up to 380 passengers in a single class configuration, allowing a complete range of configurations from maximised troop transport to complex customisation suitable for VIP and guest missions. Available configurations include 300 passengers in a single class and 266 passengers in two classes.

A330 MRTT Upper Deck cargo versiona330-mrtt-04-lower-deck-740x555A330 MRTT Lower deck @thinkdefence.co.ukA330 MRTT Upper Deck cargo version showing pallets A330 MRTT Upper Deck cargo version showing pallets @thinkdefence.co.uka330-mrtt-10-upper-deck-740x225A330 MRTT Upper Deck cargo version showing pallets and seating @thinkdefence.co.ukRAAF KC-30The RAAF has gone for a 2 x 4 x 2 seating arrangement in the “tourist” section and 2 x 3 x 2 in the “business” section of the MRTT (Multi Role Tanker Transport). (radschool.org.au)A330 MRTT Upper Deck seating configuration – single class @thinkdefence.co.ukA330 MRTT Upper Deck seatingA330 MRTT Upper Deck seating configuration – two class @thinkdefence.co.uk

The A330 MRTT can also be configured to perform Medical Evacuation (Medevac) missions; up to 130 standard stretchers can be carried. The main deck cargo configuration allows carriage of standard commercial containers and pallets, military, ISO and NATO pallets (including seats) and containers, and military equipment and other large items which are loaded through a cargo door. Like the A330-200, the A330 MRTT includes two lower deck cargo compartments (forward and aft) and a bulk area capability. The cargo hold has been modified to be able to transport up to 8 military pallets in addition to civilian Unit Load Device (ULD).

An optional crew rest compartment (CRC), located in the forward cabin can be installed for a spare crew to increase time available for a mission. The passenger cabin of the A330 MRTT can be provided with a set of removable airstairs to enable embarkation and disembarkation when airbridges or ground support equipment are not available.

Transport

The A330 MRTT can carry a maximum payload of up to 45 tonnes, combining the passenger cabin and the lower deck: Up to 300 Passengers, MedEvac cabin layout with 40 stretchers, 20 seats for medical staff and 100 passengers, Up to 37 tonnes of cargo in the lower deck. 27 LD3 containers or 8 military pallets. Source airbus.com

Standard commercial A330-200s are delivered from Airbus Final Assembly Line in Toulouse (France) to Airbus Military Conversion Centre in Getafe, Spain for fitting of refuelling systems and military avionics. The tanker was certified by Spanish authorities in October 2010. It was first delivered to Australia on 1 June 2011. Qantas Defence Services converted the remaining four A330-200s at its Brisbane Airport facility on behalf of EADS for the Royal Australian Air Force.

Operational history

The A330 MRTT has been ordered by Australia, United Kingdom, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Singapore. Australia was the launch customer for the A330 MRTT.

Australia

Designated as KC-30A, the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) A330 MRTTs are equipped with both an Aerial Refuelling Boom System (ARBS) and two Cobham 905E under-wing refuelling pods.
Refuelling Boom System (ARBS)Cobham 905E under-wing refuelling pods for probe

General Electric CF6-80E engine

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The aircraft are powered by two General Electric CF6-80E engines.Australia initially arranged to procure four aircraft with an option to obtain a fifth; this option for a fifth aircraft was exercised to allow for two simultaneous deployments of two aircraft, the fifth being for contingency coverage. Australian KC-30A are operated by No. 33 Squadron RAAF based at RAAF Base Amberley. Australia has designated the aircraft KC-30A Multi-Role Tanker Transport. Australia’s aircraft are configured for 270 passengers plus cargo.

Comparison

CF6-6 CF6-50 CF6-80A CF6-80C2 CF6-80E1
Physical Information
Fan/Compressor Stages 1/1/16 1/3/14 1/3/14 1/4/14 1/4/14
Low-Pressure Turbine / High-Pressure Turbine 5/2 4/2 4/2 5/2 5/2
Maximum Diameter (Inches) 57 105 98-106 106 106-114
Length (Inches) 188 183 167 168 168
Power Specifications
Max Power at Sea Level 41,500 51,500-54,000 48,000-50,000 52,200-61,960 65,800-69,800
Overall Pressure Ratio at Max Power 25-25.2 29.2-31.1 27.3-28.4 27.1-31.8 32.4-34.8

In 2005, the RAAF expected that deliveries would begin in late 2008 and be completed in 2010. Deliveries fell two years behind schedule, in part because of delays in the boom’s development. On 30 May 2011, KC-30A A39-003, the third converted A330, arrived at RAAF Base Amberley and was formally handed over on 1 June 2011. The second A330 conversion, A39-002 was ferried to RAAF Amberley on 18 June 2011 and handed over to the RAAF on 22 June 2011. In June 2010, Qantas announced receipt of the fourth aircraft at its Brisbane facilities for an anticipated 10-month conversion. On 3 December 2012, the final fifth KC-30A was delivered to the RAAF.

In July 2013, it was reported there were ongoing delays with preparing the KC-30A for full entry into service due to problems with the refuelling systems, including the hose-and-drogue system passing too much fuel.

In August 2013, the KC-30A made its debut as a VIP transport, ferrying Prime Minister Rudd and an entourage to Al Minhad Air Base, United Arab Emirates. In August 2014, Defence Minister David Johnston announced the intention to purchase two additional KC-30As with one in VIP configuration for transport of the Prime Minister.

On 22 September 2014, the RAAF deployed an Air Task Group to a staging base at Al Minhad Air Base in the United Arab Emirates, as part of a coalition to combat Islamic State forces in Iraq.

F-18 Super Hornet: HERE

The aircraft included F/A-18F Super Hornets, a KC-30A tanker transport and an E-7A Wedgetail airborne early warning and control aircraft. The KC-30 started operations just days after arriving in the UAE by aerial refueling US and other coalition aircraft over Iraq. On 6 October 2014, the RAAF started their first combat missions over Iraq with two Super Hornets supported by the KC-30 tanker.

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RAAF E-7A Wedgetail: HERE

RAAF E-7A Wedgetail (Boeing 737)

In July 2015, Defence Minister Kevin Andrews announced the order of two additional KC-30s, to be delivered in 2018. The new tankers will be based on A330-200 airliners that were previously operated by Qantas on lease from CIT Aerospace, and will be the first KC-30As to be converted from airframes that have already seen civilian service.

France

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974runmike Youtube

In French service the A330 MRTT will be powered by Rolls-Royce Trent 700 engines and equipped with a combination of the Airbus Refuelling Boom System and underwing hose-and-drogue refuelling pods.

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Ministère des Armées

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Ministère des Armées

The aircraft can be configured in a variety of layouts carrying up to 272 passengers as well as medevac arrangements including the French MORPHEE intensive care module carrying up to ten patients as well as 88 passengers. Source airbus.com

Rolls-Royce Trent 700 engine

screenshot-www.n3eos.com-2018.07.08-14-23-16n3eos.com
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Rolls-Royce Trent 700 – Ministère des Armées

Germany and Norway sign up to European A330 tanker pool: Here

Excerpt

Germany and Norway have officially signed up to an effort led by European NATO members to jointly acquire and operate a pool of up to 11 Airbus Defence & Space A330 multi-role tanker transports (MRTT).

Initiated by the European Defence Agency in 2012, the programme initially counted Luxembourg and the Netherlands as its sole members.

First A330 MRTT Phénix for France makes maiden flight: Here

Excerpt

Airbus Defence and Space has today successfully completed the maiden flight of the first A330 MRTT Multi Role Tanker Transport for France. The aircraft, which will be known in French service as Phénix, is the first of nine ordered by the French Defence Procurement Agency DGA, plus another three expected to be confirmed.

Operators: Here

Variants

A330 MRTT
An Airbus A330-200 converted by Airbus Military for air-refuelling duties.
KC-30A
Australian designation for an A330 MRTT with two under-wing refuelling pods and an Aerial Refuelling Boom System.
KC-45A
United States Air Force designation for an A330 MRTT with two under-wing refuelling pods and an Aerial Refuelling Boom System, order cancelled.
Voyager KC2
Royal Air Force designation for an A330 MRTT with two Cobham 905 under-wing pods, primarily used for refuelling fast jets.
Voyager KC3
Royal Air Force designation for an A330 MRTT with two under-wing pods and a “Cobham Fuselage Refuelling Unit (FRU)” for a centreline refuelling capability, primarily used for refuelling large aircraft.

Cockpit

AIRBUS-TRAINING-CENTER-SIMULADOR-MRTT-16-11-2018003A330 MRTT cockpit – Airbus
Manufacturer Airbus Military
Role Air-to-air refuelling, long-range troop transport
Crew Pilot, co-pilot, one air refuelling officer, one mission coordinator, up to eight crew attendants
Engine Two General Electric CF6-80E1A3
Airframe Height 17.4m, Length: 59m
Wingspan 60.3m
Weight 233 tonnes (maximum take-off weight), 180 tonnes (maximum landing weight)
Cruise Speed 860 km/h
Range 14,800 kms
Ceiling 41,000 feet
Capacity Up to 270 passengers, or 34,000 kgs of cargo or 111 tonnes of fuel, Electronic self-protection measures

Source airforce.gov.au

Updated Jul 15, 2019

China’s Y-20 to be put into military use in 2016

By Yuan Can (People’s Daily Online)    16:56, February 29, 2016

China’s own domestically built military cargo jet, Y-20, will likely be put into service in the army this year, a military expert said in an interview with People’s Daily Online.

According to Xu Yongling, a military expert, the test flight period for large aircraft is generally between three and five years. Since there have been no bottlenecks during development or manufacturing, the Y-20 will be put into use this year.

The first flight of the Y-20 took place in 2013, making China the fourth country in the world, following the U.S., Russia and Ukraine, to develop a 200-ton military cargo jet.

“This is not only progress for China’s national defense industry, but also a milestone of industrial and military modernization,” Xu said.

The official code name of the aircraft is Kunpeng, after the mythical bird of ancient China that can fly for thousands of kilometers. However, within the Chinese aviation industry, the aircraft is more commonly known by its nickname, Chubby Girl, named by military fans for its relatively wide fuselage.

Military expert Chen Hong said in an interview with People’s Daily Online that the carrying capacity of the Y-20, around 60 tons, is higher than that of Russia’s Ilyushin Il-76, a multi-purpose four-engine turbofan strategic airlifter. The Y-20’s engine, aerodynamic arrangement and combat performance are all better than those of the Russian aircraft.

The cargo jet can be used to refit significant special operations platforms, as it has a long flying period and flying distance. The Y-20 is also a good choice for maritime detection and early warning, according to Chen.

As for future military developments, airborne transportation depends not only on the Y-20, but also on other military cargo jets, which China may develop in the next five to ten years, according to Xu.

Source en.people.cn

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See details of Y-20: HERE

Israel reconsidering 2008 purchase of U.S. jets – the much-touted JSF has some inherent flaws

Israel reconsidering 2008 purchase of U.S. jets

By Hillel Fendel First Publish: 2/29/2016, 3:43 AM

Cabinet mulls cancelling acquisition of flawed fighter-jet rejected by most NATO air forces.

A welcome decision made back in 2008 to purchase U.S.-made Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) jets no longer appears very attractive in 2016 – and Israel is considering backtracking on it.

So say Israeli government sources quoted by Middle East Newsline (MENL).

For one thing, the much-touted JSF has some inherent flaws, such as inadequate range, weapons payload and stealth capability. In addition, the Americans refuse to share the JSF source code with Israel. Israel would not be able to modify the platform to fit its needs, and would have to send damaged engines to Turkey or the U.S. for repairs.

According to the sources, some Israeli Cabinet members say the state-of-the-art version of the F-35 jet is outright “flawed.” Israel could find itself “increasingly dependent” on a fighter-jet that has been rejected by most NATO air forces, the sources say.

Until the JSF reaches its full potential, a highly-placed source said, “we will have dozens of very expensive aircraft with limited capabilities.”

Back in September 2008, the U.S. Defense Department approved the sale of 25 F-35 stealth-enabled Joint Strike Fighters to Israel’s air force. The $15.2 billion deal included an option to buy 50 additional bombers in ensuing years.

Israel was particularly interested in the plane because of its short takeoff and vertical landing capabilities. It was assumed that in war-time, Israeli bases and runways were liable to be heavily targeted by enemy missiles, rendering them all but unusable. The F-35B, with its ability to hover, land vertically, and take off vertically with a light load, would be invaluable under such circumstances. In addition, it needs only a few hundred feet of runway to take off when fully-loaded.

Even back then, however, manufacturer Lockheed-Martin faced claims that the jet performed poorly in tests and combat simulations. The company insisted that the JSF was the most advanced fighter of its class available.

Israel is currently expecting 33 F-35A jets, to arrive in two batches. The first aircraft are expected to arrive by 2017. Over 20 of them were supposed to have arrived last year, but the order was reduced to 14 by a government panel headed by Energy Minister Yuval Shteinitz. Seventeen F-35’s are still on order for 2017, and the Israel Air Force continues to push for even more to arrive by 2020.

The Netanyahu government has urged Washington to sell Israel the advanced F-15 fighter-jet that has been approved for Saudi Arabia. But the Obama Administration has refused, presenting the JSF as the only platform available for Israeli purchase with the more than $3 billion a year it receives in American aid.

A second source quoted by MENL says the “overall feeling [among Cabinet members] is that Israel can’t continue on this path and needs proven combat platforms.” The sources added that Israel would end paying a “strategic price” for “procuring, operating, and training for 50 inadequate aircraft.”

Source israelnationalnews.com

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See details of F35: HERE

No talks on buying arms during Russia trip: Prawit

According to The Nation

February 29, 2016 1:00 am

DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER and Defence Minister Prawit Wongsuwan yesterday denied talking to Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and Nikolai Platonovich, the secretary of Russia’s Security Council, about a deal to buy military equipment and armaments.

Prawit was speaking in his capacity as national security head after returning yesterday from an official visit to Russia and Belarus that began on Tuesday. He said he talked with Medvedev and Platonovich about cooperation on security issues, the exchange of intelligence, anti-terrorism efforts and fighting transnational organised crime. He added that he visited Russia’s high-tech national defence industry facilities but had only discussed procuring military technology, not actual armaments.

Panitan Wattanayagorn, an adviser on security affairs to the deputy prime minister, earlier said Thailand planned to buy 10 Russian Mi-17 transport helicopters for a total of Bt3 billion and 100 T-90 A tanks for Bt9 billion. He said Thailand needed new tanks because it wanted to decommission 100 older armoured vehicles.

Responding to reports about the plan to procure helicopters to fight forest fires, Prawit said Thailand would dispatch military mechanics and Royal Thai Air Force officials to Russia if the two countries decided to set up a joint committee on the subject. However, Prawit added, discussions had not yet gone into too much detail.

Deputy Prime Minister Somkid Jatusripitak also discussed economic cooperation relating to marketing agricultural products.

“It depends on what Russia wants,” he said.

Prawit also visited President Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus and discussed agricultural trade and security issues. “Leaders of both countries follow Thailand’s political situation and understand the situation well. They also complimented our PM,” Prawit said.

Source nationmultimedia.com

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“Thailand planned to buy 10 Russian Mi-17 transport helicopters for a total of Bt3 billion and 100 T-90 A tanks for Bt9 billion.”

I’m still confused are the media quoting the wrong model tank as T-90A as other sources indicate it is T-90MS

See details of T-90MS

See details of T-90A

See details of Mi-17

J-14 Stealth Concept – China

The original 1997 US Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) assessment of the Chinese advanced fighter, known by its designation of “XXJ”, was a design resembling the Boeing F-15 Eagle. The agency predicted the XXJ would be multirole, have stealth features and was expected to enter Chinese air force and navy service by around 2015.

By the late 1990s there was general agreement in the open literature that China was working on some type of stealthy fighter attack aircraft, and that this program has been underway since the mid-1990s. For a long time, there was very little agreement beyond these basic points. Available treatments of this subject in print and online long seemed to represent little more than a confusing jumble of informed speculation, wild guesstimates, and active disinformation. The Chinse government is under no obligation to set the record straight, and indeed has every incentive to add to the general confusion.

F-15 Eagle: Details

By 2001 the US Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) had revised its assessment of the Chinese advanced fighter. This new estimate revised the in-service date to 2010. Both Chinese fighter companies – Chengdu and Shenyang – were thought to be working on advanced combat aircraft concepts. It was believed that the XXJ would have a canard configuration and be equipped with twin thrust-vectoring engines. The design seemed influenced by Sukhoi’s advanced concepts such as the Su-37 and forward-swept wing S-37 Berkut. Shenyang had a link with the Russian manufacturer dating from the early 1990s. Combining a foreplane, a tailplane and thrust vectoring would enhance manoeuvrability. Engines were expected to be a version of the Wopen WP15 in the 26,000lb-thrust (115kN) class. The fighter was expected to have a 20,000kg (44,000lb) empty weight and incorporate a fly-by-wire control system similar to that developed by Shenyang and tested in the J-8IIACT program.

Russia and India jointly developed the Sukhoi PAK FA / T-50 , which first flew in January 2010. In June 2001, India was offered ‘joint development and production’ of this new 5th generation fighter by Russia. Russia had been trying to sell this concept both to China and India for some time. It seems probable that China declined to participate in this project given a belief that Russia stood to gain more from Chinese participation than did China. That is, it would seem that China had determined that it could produce a superior product without Russian help. With the first flight of the Russian stealth fighter in 2010, an arguably superior Chinese stealth fighter might be expected to take to the skies not too long thereafter.

Sukhoi PAK FA / SU-57: Details

By 2002 there were further reports that China was developing a new stealthy fighter jet aircraft and many of the design concepts and components had already been created. This is the first Eastern rival to the West’s F/A-22 Raptor and F-35 Joint Strike Fighter to go into development. [Janes — “China Reveals New Stealth Fighter Project,” 12/11/02]. At this time, the Russian Sukhoi Company (JSC), which had developed close ties with Shenyang over the licensed co-production of its Su-27SK fighter as J-11, was reported working with Shenyang in developing the next-generation fighter technology and sub-systems. Although Russia had not yet developed an operational stealth fighter, the J-12 project may benefit from its technologies in two areas: thrust vectoring engine and stealth design. China may also seek potential partners from Russia, Israel and Europe to co-develop avionics and weapon suites for its 4th-generation fighter aircraft.

F/A-22 Raptor: Details

F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Details

Su-27SK (J-11): Details

By late 2002 the Shenyang Aircraft Company was reported to have been selected to head research and development of a new heavy-weight fighter for China’s People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF). Development of the engines and weapon subsystems for the fourth-generation fighter had been under way for some time, with a number of design concepts having been created. These include a twin-engine aircraft sharing some design traits with Lockheed Martin’s stealthy F/A-22 multirole fighter, such as the internal carriage of its weapon systems. The Chinese designs retain a more conventional wing, however, and use a single vertical tail fin.

bbs.jiehun.cn

The Shenyang proposal was for a twin engine, single seat 15-tonne class heavy fighter, similar to the US F-22 Raptor but featureing canards. At least four different configurations were evaluted before the definitive “New 93” layout was arrived at. Stealth technology was said to be a prominent design feature, with an RCS of about 0.5 square metres beening mentioned. Thrust vectoring technology was said to make the aircraft more agile than the Su-27, in a powerplant with greater than 8000kg thrust.

Considering China’s records in combat aircraft development, such a project may prove challenging. It will involves technology advancement in a number of fields including materials, high-performance aviation engine, electronics, flight control software, and stealth technologies. A project of this scale will also require huge amount of investment and considerable knowledge of complex project and manufacturing management. While China may be able to benefit from some “off-the-shelf” dual-use technologies available in the commercial market, it will almost definitely seek assistance from its traditional military technology suppliers such as Russia and Israel. However, none of these two countries possess the experience of developing an advance fighter of this class.

Brigadier Govinda M. Nair wrote in 2005 that “A stealth fighter, XXJ, equivalent to the US F-22 is likely to be inducted by 2015.” According to the PLA’s Deputy Commander He Weirong, the Chinese fifth generation fighter was expected to be in service with the PLAAF by 2017-2019.

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A 2006 article in Military Technology referred to three designs; Shenyang J-12 and Shenyang J-14 by 601 Institute Shenyang Aircraft Corporation [SAC] and Chengdu J-13 by 611 Institute Chengdu Aircraft Corporation [CAC]. The report in Military Technology featured a picture of a completely different design, speculatively dubbed J-14 and said to be a Shenyang project, with the designations J-12 and J-13 being applied to (possibly competing) designs by Shenyang and Chengdu respectively.

Shenyang Airplane Corporation (SAC) is in charge of the large, twin-engine J-8 fighters in service with the PLAAF (People’s Liberation Army Air Force) as well as of licence production of the Su-27SK under the local designation of J-11. The other study group is the 611 Institute from Chengdu Airplane Corporation (CAC).

J-8 fighters: Details

By January 2007 Shenyang Aircraft Corporation (SAC) and Chengdu Aircraft Industry Co. (CAC), China’s two major fighter aircraft enterprises, were both reportedly working on advanced fighter designs slated to enter the PLAAF service as soon as 2015. Chengdu was focused on an enlarged twin-engine, 4th generation stealthy version of the J-10 fighter, possibly designated J-13. Shenyang was said to be focused on an entirely new 5th generation F-22-class stealth fighter, possibly designated the J-12. Both projects were believed to have benefited from Russian technologies.

J-14

Since 2008, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has worked to design and manufacture fifth generation jet plain design concepts, both for its own use and to sell on a global scale. The Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group (J-20) and the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation (J-31) are subsidiaries of the state-owned Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC). These two companies have been working on the designs of the super jets.

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k.sina.com.cn

Chengdu J-20: Details

Shenyang J-31: Details

J-20 is closer to becoming operational it is expected to reach initial operating capability (IOC) by 2018. As both jets are still in the prototype stage, their exact capabilities are not certain. However, it is speculated that the J-20 will have a long-range strike system capable of reaching anywhere in the Western Pacific region, and include a stealth design; the first of its kind in the PRC, reports National Interest.

It is predicted that in a conflict, the J-20 would likely be positioned in air-to-air combat with the mission of limiting the enemy’s radar coverage and strike range. While the J-20 is expected to have superior air combat maneuvering (ACM) abilities, the J-31 will be the fighter for the PLA to perform anti-access area-denial (A2AD) strategies in the Western Pacific.

While the J-20 is slightly faster, with a maximum speed of Mach 2.5 compared to Mach 2 for the J-31, both jets have a combat radius of approximately 2,000km (1242 miles). Some reports suggest that the US officials believe that the J-31 will match or exceed the proficiencies of US fourth generation fighters such as the F-15 Strike Eagle and F/A-18 Super Hornet, and could possibly even compete with the F-22 or F-35. Source globalsecurity.org

J-14 Stealth Fighter

China is developing its J-14 heavy fifth-generation fighter jet 19.8 meters long and 3.6 meters high with a wingspan of 15.2 meters and a maximum takeoff weight of 31,000 kg. It will be the largest fighter jets.

The weapons it carries will also be of top performance and greatest load. It will be armed with 2 to 8 air-to-air issiles, 4 to 6 air-to-surface missiles, one 30mm gun and a few bombs. It can thus be regarded as a fighter-bomber.

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It adopts the technology of carrying weapons densely inside so as to reduce radar cross section. That also reduces air friction to enhance its maneuverability and speed.

J-14 mainly carries its weapons in three cabins.

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k.sina.com.cn

Its two smaller side cabins are relatively small and can hold one short-range air-to-air missile each while that cabin in the middle with two doors can carry 4 medium-range air-to-air missiles.

When there is no need for top stealth performance, it can carry additional weapons or auxiliary fuel tanks under its wings.
Chinese_Air_Force_J-14_Fighter_02

bbs.jiehun.cn

When there is no need for top stealth performance, it can carry additional weapons or auxiliary fuel tanks under its wings.
As J-14’s fuselage is made of synthetic materials containing 36% carbon fiber and little steel and aluminum alloy and as it uses lots of titanium alloy and synthetic materials, it has better stealth performance and is better heat resistant, lighter and stronger in structure.
Source: qianzhan.com  “China’s newest heavy J-14 5th-generation fighter will dominate the sky as it is better than US F-22” (summary by Chan Kai Yee).  Source errymath.blogspot.com
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J-14’s maximum takeoff weight is 31 tons and can carry 8 tons of weapons source tiananmenstremendousachievements.word

A Jane’s Defense Weekly article regarding J-14 Stealthy Fighter publishes in 2006.

According to the report from Jane’s, development of the subsystems including the engine and weapon suite for the next generation fighter, which was codenamed by the Western intelligence as J-XX, has been underway for some time. Images of the concepts show a twin-engine aircraft sharing some design traits with Lockheed Martin’s stealthy F/A-22 “Raptor” multirole fighter such as the internal carriage of its weapons.

J-14 Stealth Fighter Jet
Not too much public information about the programme is available at the moment. The aircraft, which could be designated as J-14, is still going through initial concept work, the same stage as the USAF Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) programme in the early 1980s, which later led to the F/A-22 Raptor.

As China has developed close ties with Russia’s aerospace industry and has license produced many planes of formal Soviet designs, it can be predicted that the J-14 would include some, if not many Russian technologies and designs. Source defence.pk

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kaskus.co.id

Updated Oct 14, 2019

Cobra Gold 2016 – Collection of videos

US Army and Royal Thai Army held a live fire exercise comprising of 155mm and 105mm artillery and also ground operations involving US Army Stryker and Thai Army light armor.

Live fire exercise US Army, South Korean Marines and Royal Thai Marines

Beach landing Korean Marines, US Marines and Thai Marines

Fast roping techniques

Disaster evacuation exercise of multi-nationals involving troops from USA, Japan, Malaysia, Korea and Thailand

Cobra Gold 2016: Medical Symposium

 

Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor

The F-22A Raptor is an advanced tactical fighter aircraft developed for the US Air Force (USAF). It entered service with the USAF in December 2005 to replace the F-15, with emphasis on agility, stealth and range.

Developed at Aeronautical Systems Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, the F-22A Raptor is a supersonic, dual-engine fighter jet, which has won the 2006 Robert J Collier Trophy from the American National Aeronautic Association (NAA).

In April 2009, production of the F-22 fighter jet was officially terminated when Defense Secretary Robert Gates announced that the Pentagon would end the Lockheed-run F-22 programme and increase the production of the F-35 joint strike fighter.  The last produced F-22 was delivered in 2012 and 183 F-22 aircraft are currently in service with the USAF.

Lockheed Martin received a $7bn five-year contract to maintain the USAF fleet of F-22 Raptor stealth fighters, in December 2019.

F-22A Raptor development

By 1990 Lockheed Martin, teamed with Boeing and General Dynamics, had built and flown the demonstration prototype aircraft, designated YF-22. The first F-22 fighter aircraft was unveiled in April 1997 and was given the name Raptor.

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A static display model of the YF-22 “Raptor”, Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF), sits on the flightline at Nellis Air Force Base in preparation of the 50th Anniversary of the US Air Force. The future fighter of the Air Force will be on display at the air show – SRA Brett K. Snow, USAF

In September 2002, the USAF decided to redesignate the aircraft F/A-22 to reflect its multi-mission capability in ground attack as well as air-to-air roles. The aircraft’s designation was changed again to F-22A when it achieved initial operating capability (IOC) in December 2005.

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Raptor 4001

The decision to proceed to low-rate initial production (LRIP) was authorised in August 2001 and Lockheed Martin delivered 49 aircraft under LRIP contracts.

Initial operational test and evaluation began in April 2004 and was successfully completed in February 2005. The F-22 achieved full operational capability in December 2007.

A further 60 Raptors were ordered in July 2007, bringing the total ordered to 183, with production to 2011. In November 2008, $40m of funding for four additional raptors was approved by the Pentagon, increasing the total ordered jets to 187, with the buying scheduled in the second half of the fiscal year 2009.

In May 2019, the USAF’s F-22 fleet received an upgrade to modernise the application development process.

F-22 deployment and bases

The first operational wing of F-22A Raptors was Langley AFB in Virginia with a fleet of 40 aircraft. Elmendorff AFB, Alaska, became the second in August 2007 and Holloman AFB, New Mexico the third in June 2008. Operational Raptors are also based at Hickam AFB Hawaii.

chris murkin (flickr)

In February 2007, 12 F-22 aircraft began the first overseas deployment of the fighter at Kadena Air Base in Japan. The aircraft returned in May 2007. In January 2009, 12 F-22 jets were deployed at the Kadena Air Base from Langley Air Force Base in Japan for three months as a part of the 27th Fighter Squadron.

During flight tests, the F-22A has demonstrated the ability to ‘supercruise’, flying at sustained speeds of over Mach 1.5 without the use of afterburner.

Lockheed Martin has put forward proposals for a fighter-bomber version of the F-22, the FB-22, which will have larger delta wings, longer range and the ability to carry an external weapons payload of 4,500kg and total weapons payload of 15,000kg.

F-22 Raptor design and features

F-22 designe

deadlyweapons-army.blogspot.com

The aircraft has a length of 18.9m, height of 5.1m and wingspan of 13.6m. It has a range of more than 1,600nm.

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The F-22 construction is 39% titanium, 24% composite, 16% aluminium and 1% thermoplastic by weight. Titanium is used for its high strength-to-weight ratio in critical stress areas, including some of the bulkheads, and also for its heat-resistant qualities in the hot sections of the aircraft.

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Carbon-fibre composites have been used for the fuselage frame, the doors, intermediate spars on the wings, and for the honeycomb sandwich construction skin panels.

F-22 cockpit

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Norman Graf @flickr

The cockpit is fitted with hands-on throttle and stick control (HOTAS). The cockpit has six color liquid crystal displays. The Kaiser Electronics projection primary multifunction display provides a plan view of the air and ground tactical situation including threat identity, threat priority and tracking information.

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Two displays provide communication, navigation, identification and flight information. Three secondary displays show air and ground threats, stores management and air threat information.

A BAE Systems head-up display (HUD) shows target status, weapon status, weapon envelopes and shoot cues. A video camera records data on the HUD for post-mission analysis.

F-22-Raptor-Cockpit-Interior

virtualpilot3d.net

BAE Systems’ Digital Light Engine Technology to Illuminate F-22 Head-up Display: Details

Digital Light Engine Head-Up Display (HUD)

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baesystems.com

BAE Systems has been a leader in HUD development and production for more than 50 years, a position gained through continuous investment in technology and innovation. BAE Systems:

  • has produced over 14,000 head-up displays
  • that are in service on over 50 different aircraft types
  • and for more than 50 countries

 Features

  • Better situational awareness for the military aviator
  • Allows some freedom of head movement, reducing pilot fatigue
  • Backward compatible to any existing aircraft interface which offers minimal impact on display performance

Designed for mission effectiveness, the DLE HUD has addressed obsolescence issues by:

  • removing the conventional cathode ray tube (CRT) technology powering the display and
  • introducing a more advanced digital display solution

With more military aircraft upgrade advancements to digital display solutions, the DLE HUD offers easy integration into existing HUD space. Offering more than 20 percent life cycle cost reduction and at least four times greater Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF), the DLE HUD is a future proof investment in the advanced display technology segment.

Typical performance specification

Specification Display Source Analogue Symbol Generator, EU, AEU, MLU, IMDC
Display Surface Resolution 1280 x 1024 pixels
Field of View 25° x 22°
Display Luminance 0 to > 2000 ftL
Luminance Uniformity < 20% within a 10° diameter area
< 30% over the TFoV
Secondary Images < 2% of primary
Display Contrast > 1.2:1 against an ambient of 10,000 ftL
> 1200:1 Sequential
Outside World Transmission > 75%
Image Positional Accuracy < 0.8mR error within 5° of CFoV < 1mR elsewhere within FoV
Mass < 20.1 Kilograms (ballast may be applied to maintain C of G position if required)
Operating Temperature -40°C to +75°C
Storage Temperature -40°C to +85°C
Operating Altitude 0 to 70,000 ft
Power <85 Watts
Latency <1mS
Dimensions Form Fit Function

Source baesystems.com

Thales Scorpion Helmet Mounted Cueing Systems (HMCS)

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thalesvisionix.com

Key points

  • This is the first helmet mounted display that features colour symbology and video imaging for both daytime and nighttime missions.
  • Thales will be responsible for the viability study, testing phase, integration with test aircraft, qualification support and integration in the fleet.
overview2

thalesvisionix.com

Pilot

thalesvisionix.com

Scorpion® is a ‘force multiplier’ system offering full colour symbology (navigation, intelligence, combat, etc.) for both nighttime and daytime missions, in addition to target cueing in potentially degraded visual environments, therefore easily allowing target designation and allocation of points of interest with the aircraft’s sensors. Scorpion® is fully interchangeable between helmets/pilots as it is installed directly over standard helmets, allowing the total amount of equipment necessary for the fleet to be reduced, thus favouring maintenance and reducing life-cycle costs. Source thalesgroup.com

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The different AIM-9X envelopes (credit: Hughes via The War Zone) – theaviationist.com

ACES II Ejection Seat

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F-22 weapons

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ausairpower.net

A variant of the M61A2 Vulcan cannon is installed internally above the right air intake. The General Dynamics linkless ammunition handling system holds 480 rounds of 20mm ammunition and feeds the gun at a rate of 100 rounds a second.

M61A2 Vulcan cannon

M61A1_A2-gun

The M61A1 and M61A2 Gatlin guns are externally powered six-barrel 20mm Gatling gun systems that offer lightweight, highly lethal combat support for a variety of air, land and sea platforms.

The M61A1 and M61A2 increases multiple-hit probabilities when compared to single barrel guns operating at lower rates of fire. The M61A1 and M61A2 weapons provide reliability up to 10 times greater than single-barrel guns.

M61A1/M61A2 Specifications

Weight
M61A1
M61A2

248 pounds (112.5 kg)
202 pounds (light barrel),
228 pounds (heavy barrel) (91.6, 103.4 kg)

Rate of fire

4,000/6,000 shots per minute

Dispersion

8 milliradians diameter, 80 percent circle

Muzzle velocity

3,380 feet (1,030m) per second

Average recoil force
@ 4,000 shots per minute
@ 6,000 shots per minute


2,133 pounds (9.4 kN)
3,200 pounds (14.2 kN)

Drive system

Hydraulic, electric, pneumatic

Feed system

Linked or linkless

Source gd-ots.com

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tumblr.com

The F-22 has four hardpoints on the wings, each rated to carry 2,270kg, which can carry AIM-120A AMRAAM or external fuel tanks. The Raptor has three internal weapon bays. The main weapons bay can carry six AMRAAM AIM-120C missiles or two AMRAAM and two 1,000lb GBU-32 joint direct attack munition (JDAM).

Air Force F-22 Conducts Operational Testing of New Weapons Tech: Details

“Another part of the weapons upgrade includes engineering the F-22 to fire the AIM-120D, a beyond visual range Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM), designed for all weather day-and-night attacks; it is a “fire and forget” missile with active transmit radar guidance, Raytheon data states.” Source nationalinterest.org

AIM-120D AMRAAM

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military.com

The AIM-120 AMRAAM is a medium-range, air-to-air missile designed to meet the requirements of the United States and allied nations. The AIM-120 missile is faster, smaller and lighter than its predecessor the AIM-7 Sparrow medium-range missile and also has improved capabilities against low-altitude targets. AMRAAM incorporates active radar seeker with mid-course inertial navigation making it less dependent on aircraft’s fire control radar. That capability enables simultaneous AMRAAM launching against different targets. For better performance AMRAAM can receive target location updates from the radar system of the launch aircraft. It has a blast fragmentation warhead detonated by a proximity fuse.

The combat proven AIM-120 AMRAAM missile was employed during military campaigns over Iraq, Kosovo and Bosnia. The Air Forces of 18 nations operate the AMRAAM missile. The AMRAAM missile is operational on the F-15, F-16, F/A-18, F-4F, JAS-39, Sea-Harrier and Tornado aircraft. Raytheon is integrating the AIM-120 on the Eurofighter-Typhoon, F/A-22A and Harrier II+. AIM-120’s flexibility concept allows it to be integrated on ground systems becoming a surface-to-air missile. It is being integrated on Norway’s NASAMS, Hawk-AMRAAM and HMMWV Surface-to-Air Systems.

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The AIM-120D, formerly known as the AIM-120C8, is the latest development of the AMRAAM missile family designed and build by Raytheon and developed under P3I Phase 4 initiative. AIM-120D features a new navigation system and hardened design for internal weapons bay carriage. The United States Air Force (USAF) assessment of the AIM-120C variant on the F/A-22 Raptor aircraft determined that vibration levels in certain frequencies are harmful to the missile’s electronics. AIM-120D AMRAAM missile variant tries to fix it. In April 2006 the USAF released that the AIM-120D was undergoing testing on the F-22 aircraft monitored by Raytheon at Edwards Air Force Base, California. AIM-120 new features encompass: an enhanced data link, improved kinematics and GPS Inertial Measurement Unit. Source deagel.com

1,000lb GBU-32 joint direct attack munition (JDAM)

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USAF

JDAM is a guided air-to-surface weapon that uses either the 2,000-pound BLU-109/MK 84, the 1,000-pound BLU-110/MK 83 or the 500-pound BLU-111/MK 82 warhead as the payload. JDAM enables employment of accurate air-to-surface weapons against high priority fixed and relocatable targets from fighter and bomber aircraft. Guidance is facilitated through a tail control system and a GPS-aided INS. The navigation system is initialized by transfer alignment from the aircraft that provides position and velocity vectors from the aircraft systems.

Once released from the aircraft, the JDAM autonomously navigates to the designated target coordinates. Target coordinates can be loaded into the aircraft before takeoff, manually altered by the aircrew before weapon release, or automatically entered through target designation with onboard aircraft sensors. In its most accurate mode, the JDAM system will provide a weapon circular error probable of 5 meters or less during free flight when GPS data is available. If GPS data is denied, the JDAM will achieve a 30-meter CEP or less for free flight times up to 100 seconds with a GPS quality handoff from the aircraft.

JDAM can be launched from very low to very high altitudes in a dive, toss or loft and in straight and level flight with an on-axis or off-axis delivery. JDAM enables multiple weapons to be directed against single or multiple targets on a single pass.

JDAM is currently compatible with B-1B, B-2A, B-52H, AV-8B, F-15E, F/A-18C/D/E/F, F-16C/D and F-22 aircraft. Follow-on integration efforts are currently underway or planned to evaluate compatibility with the A-10, F-35 Joint Strike Fighter and MQ-9 Reaper unmanned aerial vehicle.

F-22A-JDAM-Bay-2S

General Characteristics
Primary Function:
 Guided air-to-surface weapon
Contractor: Boeing Company
Length: (JDAM and warhead) GBU-31 (v) 1/B: 152.7 inches (387.9 centimeters); GBU-31 (v) 3/B: 148.6 inches (377.4 centimeters); GBU-32 (v) 1/B: 119.5 inches (303.5 centimeters); GBU-38: 92.6 inches (235.2 centimeters)
Launch Weight: (JDAM and warhead) GBU-31 (v) 1/B: 2,036 pounds (925.4 kilograms); GBU-31 (v) 3/B: 2,115 pounds (961.4 kilograms); GBU-32 (v) 1/B: 1,013 pounds (460.5 kilograms); GBU-38: 558 pounds (253.6 kilograms)
Wingspan: GBU-31: 25 inches (63.5 centimeters); GBU-32: 19.6 inches (49.8 centimeters); GBU-38: 14 inches (35.6 centimeters)
Range: Up to 15 miles
Ceiling: 45,000-plus feet (13,677 meters)
Guidance System: GPS/INS
Unit cost: Approximately $22,000 per tailkit (fiscal 2007 dollars)
Date Deployed: 1999

Source af.mil

GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb

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f-16.net

The SDB system employs a smart carriage capable of carrying four 250-lb class guided air-to-surface munitions. It is capable of destroying high-priority fixed and stationary targets from Air Force fighters and bombers in internal bays or on external hard-points. SDB increases aircraft loadout, decreases the logistical footprint, decreases collateral damage, and improves aircraft sortie generation times.

The SDB provides a transformational capability to the warfighter increasing smart weapon carriage by placing up to four smart weapons per 1760 store location.

The weapon system is capable of standoff ranges in excess of 40 nautical miles. The system can be targeted and released against single or multiple targets. SDB target coordinates are loaded into the weapon before release either on the ground or in the air by the aircrew. Once the weapon is released, it relies on GPS/INS to self-navigate to the desired impact point.

General Characteristics
Primary Function: Guided air-to-surface weapon
Contractor: Boeing Co.
Range: More than 40 nautical miles (46 miles)
Guidance System: Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System
Unit cost: Approximately $40,000
Initial operational capability: October 2006
Projected Inventory: Total force, 24,000 munitions and 2,000 carriages

Source af.mil

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U.S. Air Force

The bay is fitted with the EDO Corp. LAU-142/A AVEL AMRAAM vertical ejection launcher which is a pneumatic-ejection system controlled by the stores management system. Raytheon AMRAAM air-to-air missile is an all-weather short- to medium-range radar-guided fire-and-forget missile, with a range of 50nm. The side bays can each be loaded with one Lockheed Martin / Raytheon AIM-9M or AIM-9X Sidewinder all-aspect short-range air-to-air missile.

LAU-141/A launcher

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AIM-9M or AIM-9X Sidewinder

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U.S. Air Force

The AIM-9X is the fifth generation Sidewinder and is now in production. The AIM-9X features a high off-boresight focal-plane array seeker mounted on a highly maneuverable airframe with a greatly improved infrared anti-countermeasures capability.

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deagel.com

The AIM-9X provides a launch-and-leave air combat missile capability, which uses passive infrared energy for acquisition and tracking of enemy aircraft. It is a joint U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force program (led by the Navy). The AIM-9X achieved Initial Operational Capability (IOC) in November 2003 and full rate production was approved in May 2004. The AIM-9X is equipped with a conventional WDU-17/B blast fragmentation warhead and the Mk 139 Sidewinder single-thrust propulsion system manufactured by Orbital ATK. Complemented by the AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM), the AIM-9X provides offensive firepower – unmatched by any other weapon system in the world. The AIM-9X is compatible with the Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS).

Differences Between the AIM-9X and AIM-9M

The AIM-9X retains several components from the previous Sidewinder generation, the AIM-9M (fuse, rocket motor, and warhead), but incorporates a new airframe with much smaller fins and canards, and relies in a jet-vane steering system for significantly enhanced agility. The new guidance unit incorporates an advanced Imaging Infrared (IIR) seeker. Source fi-aeroweb.com

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australianaviation.com.au

The GPS-guided, Boeing small diameter bomb (SDB) was integrated on the F/A-22 in February 2007. Eight SDBs can be carried with two AMRAAM missiles.

Radar

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Laith Jobran @flickr

The AN/APG-77 radar has been developed for the F-22 by the Electronic Sensors and Systems Division of Northrop Grumman and Raytheon Electronic Systems. The radar uses an active electronically scanned antenna array of 2,000 transmitter / receive modules, which provides agility, low radar cross-section and wide bandwidth. Deliveries of the AN/APG-77 began in May 2005.

AN/APG-77 radar

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The AN/APG-77 is a multifunction Low probability of intercept radar installed on the F-22 Raptor fighter aircraft. The radar is built by Northrop Grumman. It is a solid-state, active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar. Composed of 1956 transmit/receive modules, each about the size of a gum stick, it can perform a near-instantaneous beam steering (in the order of tens of nanoseconds). The APG-77 provides 120° field of view in azimuth and elevation, which is the highest possible value for a flat phased array antenna. As yet unconfirmed sources suggest that APG-77 has a ‘typical’ operating range of 193 km (120 mi) and is specified to achieve an 86% probability of intercept against a 1 m2 target at its maximum detection range using a single radar paint.Other source described only as being more than 100 mi (160 km). However, it’s thought to be closer to 125–150 mi (201–241 km), or even 400 km for newer GaAs modules on the APG-77v1, which is much farther than the standard F-15’s original APG-63(v)1 56-mile (90 km) radar range More than one hundred APG-77 AESA radars have been produced to date by Northrop Grumman, and much of the technology developed for the APG-77 is being used in the APG-81 radar for the F-35 Lightning II. The APG-77v1 was installed on F-22 Raptors from Lot 5 and on. This provided full air-to-ground functionality (high-resolution synthetic aperture radar mapping, ground moving target indication and track (GMTI/GMTT), automatic cueing and recognition, combat identification, and many other advanced features) Source dbpedia.org

GENERAL DATA:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 407.4 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Narrow Beam Interleaved Search and Track [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Low Probability of Intercept (LPI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA)
SENSORS / EW:
AN/APG-77(V)1 AESA – (LPI) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Air-to-Air & Air-to-Surface, Long-Range
Max Range: 407.4 km

Source cmano-db.com

Countermeasures of F-22

The mantra ‘manoeuvrability is irrelevant … let the missiles do the turning,’ is another dangerous misconception popular in the contemporary planning community. If the enemy does not have stealthy aircraft, they have to rely on several layers of countermeasures, manoeuvre being one. And it works. Blasting a simple-minded missile with clever deceptive waveforms, putting a towed decoy in its path and confusing it with forward and rear firing chaff can hide the true target, making it miss. Simple Newtonian physics shows that an aircraft at Mach 0.9 with a 9G turning capability can easily out-turn and avoid Mach 3.6 missiles with a 40G turning capability. Another miss.

Those who believe in the absolute impenetrability of ‘stealth’ create a deadly delusion: ‘you can’t see me, so you can’t fire at me, so I don’t need to care about terminal endgame countermeasures’. The problem is, the enemy can see the F-22A close up, can see the F-35 from quite a range, especially side and rear on, and can fire missiles with radar and infra-red seekers. So when these missiles close on an aircraft without effective terminal endgame countermeasures, they kill. The F-22A’s kinematics give it a fair chance of escaping a missile shot – the F-35 JSF very little chance. How does a Mach 1.5 JSF (JORD spec is Mach 1.5 S&L @ 30 kft ISA) escape a Mach 2.25 Sukhoi, especially when the Sukhoi has fuel to burn? Source ausairpower.net

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fineartamerica.com

The aircraft’s electronic warfare system includes a radar warning receiver and a BAE Systems information & electronic warfare systems (IEWS) (formerly Lockheed Martin Sanders) missile launch detector.

AN/AAR-56 Missile Launch Detector (MLD)

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GENERAL DATA:
Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 9.3 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 2010s
Properties: Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
SENSORS / EW:
AN/AAR-56 PMAWS – (F-22) Infrared
Role: MAWS, Missile Approach Warning System
Max Range: 9.3 km
Source cmano-db.com

AN/ALR-94 radar warning receiver (RWR)

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GENERAL DATA:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
SENSORS / EW:
AN/ALR-94 – ESM
Role: ELINT
Max Range: 926 km

Source cmano-db.com

MJU-39/40 flares for protection against IR missiles

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Navigation and communications

The TRW CNI communications, navigation and identification system includes an intra-flight datalink, joint tactical information distribution system (JTIDS) link and an identification friend or foe (IFF) system.

Boeing is responsible for mission software and avionics integration. The aircraft has a Northrop Grumman (formerly Litton) LTN-100G laser gyroscope inertial reference, a global positioning system and a microwave landing system.

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Chris.W. @flickr

F-22 to Get Software Update 6 for Datalink and Sensor Targeting Technology: Details

Software Update 6

In 2012, Government Accountability Office (GAO) documents show that the USAF plans to bring 143 F-22As to the Block 35 standard with full Increment 3.2 upgrades at a total cost of $1.5653 billion and a unit cost of $10.298 million per airframe.[11] These 143 airframes likely consist of 123 PMAI (Primary Mission Aircraft Inventory) aircraft as well as those squadron’s accompanied 12 BAIs (Backup Aircraft Inventory) airframes and the remaining 8 airframes would plausibly be assigned to Nellis for TES or USAF Weapons School roles. Major F-22 upgrade programs are detailed below, the upgrades are generally understood to be associated with the following Block designations:

  • Increment 2.0 = Block 20 – earlier airframes upgraded to this baseline
  • Increment 3.1 = Block 30
  • Increment 3.2 = Block 35

In addition to the upgrade programs below, the F-22 is receiving additional upgrades through the Increment 3.2 follow-on, “Budget Program Activity Code [BPAC]: 674788 – F-22 Tactical Mandates” which consists of Update 5 and Update 6.

CRS F-22 upgrades

GAO vs USAF description of F-22 modernization effort components retrieved via CRS. Auto GCAS capability has been withdrawn from the Increment 3.2 upgrade and is now featured within the Update 5 software modification. Much more detailed examination of F-22 upgrades is available here: http://manglermuldoon.blogspot.com/2014/03/the-uncertain-future-of-americas.html – Image: manglermuldoon.blogspot.com

The F-22 Tactical Mandates series of software upgrades have three principal objectives: reduce the risk of fratricide, improve fourth-to-fifth generation communication, and complete risk reduction measures for the Increment 3.2B upgrade via partial integration of the AIM-9X.[12] The most substantial Tactical Mandates components not listed under either Update 5 or Update 6 are Link-16 transmit capability and Identification friend or foe (IFF) mode 5 integration. A total of 72 F-22As will receive Link-16 transmit capability by 2020; the distribution of these 72 aircraft among the PMAI squadrons and the nature of the Link-16 modification, i.e. use of L-3 developed “Chameleon” waveform to reduce probability of detection, have not been specified. [13] In the interim period prior to the 2020 Link-16 upgrade, Raptor pilots will continue to utilize a series of ad-hoc operational procedures to share information over UHF and VHF radio with 4th generation pilots when there are no Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN) aircraft is not present; Update 5 modified aircraft will also be able to utilize the Intra-Flight Data Link (IFDL) GWY Mode as a means to communicate with 4th generation aircraft.[14][15]

In 2014, pilots from the 422d TES tested the Scorpion helmet mounted cueing system (HMCS) for integration with the F-22. However, the Scorpion was ultimately not funded as the Air Force was struggling to fund Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) mandated items such as mode 5 IFF as part of the Tactical Mandates program.[16] While integration of a HMCS or helmet mounted display (HMD) may seem of greater utility to F-22 combat capabilities than IFF upgrades, aircraft than have not featured the latest available IFF standard have often been relegated to subordinate roles or have had to adhere to strict rules of engagement which greatly diminish the capabilities of their aircraft. For example, F-4 Phantoms often struggled to identify distant radar contacts in the early years of the Vietnam War such that full use of the Phantom’s beyond visual range (BVR) capabilities was not realized until the fielding of the APX-80 IFF in 1972.

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BAE PowerPoint slide showing contract award for AN/DPX-7 transponder integration into the F-22. TACAN = Tactical Air Navigation, ADS-B = Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast, M5L2 = Mode 5 Level 2 – Broadcast. Image Credit: BAE systems. Image: manglermuldoon.blogspot.com

The APX-80 IFF was developed under the “Combat Tree” program in which the U.S. covertly acquired Soviet SRO-2 IFFs from Arab MiGs downed during the Six Day War. APX-80 equipped Phantoms enabled pilots to not only recognize friendly IFF contacts, but also to definitely recognize adversary aircraft at BVR.[17]

The Update 5 software modification component of the Tactical Mandates program is actively being integrated within the F-22 fleet, “The Update 5 Operation Flight Program (OFP) includes Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (AGCAS), Intra Flight Data Link Mode 5th to 4th generation IFDL capability (IFDL GWY Mode), and basic to Block I AIM-9X missile launch capability”.[20] Full integration of the more capable AIM-9X Block II requires Increment 3.2B upgrades which prove two-way datalink functionality between the F-22 and AIM-9X Block II thereby enabling lock-after launch (LOAL) capability. Furthermore, the symbology, possibly the weapons engagement zone (WEZ), for the AIM-9X is displayed with AIM-9M characteristics on the F-22’s HUD under the Update 5 modification. Increment 3.2B will rectify the symbology issues but is not scheduled to incorporate a HMD which facilitate AIM-9X HOBS. However, Raptor pilots will still be able to fully utilize the AIM-9X’s increased range and maneuverability enhancements over the AIM-9M as a result of the Update 5 modification. While the AIM-9X integration component of Update 5 is significant, the AGCAS capability is critical to mitigating the potential of future write-offs within the small F-22 fleet; the Update 5 modification also improves general software stability.

Update 6 appears to be geared towards both denying potential adversaries a source of signals intelligence and bolstering the cyber security, and possibly the resilience of, of Link-16 and IFDL:

U6 will develop, test and field new capabilities and capability enhancements including changes driven by real world evolving threats, emergency/safety of flight issues, and deficiency reports. U6 Interoperability provides cryptographic updates required by the National Security Agency (NSA) to IFDL, Link-16, and Tactical Secure Voice (TSV) and development to maintain interoperability with the enhancements to Link-16 and Secure Voice networks. The U6 Interoperability program will absorb and build upon the development work already accomplished in the KOV-20 Cryptographic Modernization Program and integrate that development into a single Operational Flight Program (OFP) for fleet release. In addition, U6 Interoperability will develop and deliver software fixes identified as critical to the operational community. – Exhibit R-2, RDT&E Budget Item Justification: PB 2016 Air Force – PE 0207138F: F, 2015.[22] [Emphasis added]

While the current F-22 modernization program represents a holistic approach to increasing the combat capabilities of the fleet with respect to suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD)/destruction of enemy air defense (DEAD) roles, augmenting the F-22’s already formidable beyond visual range (BVR) and within visual range (WVR) capabilities, and improving 4th to 5th generation compatibility – planned upgrades to not remedy deeper design deficiencies within the F-22A. While the F-22 is unambiguously the most lethal air-to-air platform in existence, the F-22 was designed during the 1980s and 1990s under a different threat and technological environment. Namely the F-22’s antiquated internal computing capabilities, software, high maintenance requirements, and limited combat radius degrade the utility of the F-22 within the context of operating in the Asia-Pacific against increasingly capable great power threats. Source manglermuldoon.blogspot.com

US Air Force networks F-15 and F-22 fighters: Details

Talon HATE pod: Details

“F-22s use a unique Intra-Flight Data Link (IFDL) that works only with other F-22s, while the newer F-35s use the Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL), which can only talk to other F-35s.”

F-22 engine

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Chris.W. @flickr

The F-22 is powered by two Pratt and Whitney F119-100 engines. The F119-100 is a low bypass after-burning turbofan engine providing 156kN thrust. The F119 is the first fighter aircraft engine equipped with hollow wide chord fan blades which are installed in the first fan stage.

2 x Pratt and Whitney F119-100 engines

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Thrust vectoring is controlled by a Hamilton Standard dual redundant full authority digital engine control (FADEC). The FADEC is integrated with the flight control computers in the BAE Systems flight controls vehicle management system.

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Laith Jobran @flickr

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PW

Thrust vectoring

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Brent Clark @flickr

General characteristics

Primary function: air dominance, multi-role fighter
Contractor: Lockheed-Martin, Boeing
Power plant: two Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 turbofan engines with afterburners and two-dimensional thrust vectoring nozzles.
Thrust: 35,000-pound class (each engine)
Wingspan: 44 feet, 6 inches (13.6 meters)
Length: 62 feet, 1 inch (18.9 meters)
Height: 16 feet, 8 inches (5.1 meters)
Weight: 43,340 pounds (19,700 kilograms)
Maximum takeoff weight: 83,500 pounds (38,000 kilograms)
Fuel capacity: internal: 18,000 pounds (8,200 kilograms); with 2 external wing fuel tanks: 26,000 pounds (11,900 kilograms)
Payload: same as armament air-to-air or air-to-ground loadouts; with or without two external wing fuel tanks.
Speed:  mach two class with supercruise capability
Range: more than 1,850 miles ferry range with two external wing fuel tanks (1,600 nautical miles)
Ceiling: above 50,000 feet (15 kilometers)
Armament: one M61A2 20-millimeter cannon with 480 rounds, internal side weapon bays carriage of two AIM-9 infrared (heat seeking) air-to-air missiles and internal main weapon bays carriage of six AIM-120 radar-guided air-to-air missiles (air-to-air loadout) or two 1,000-pound GBU-32 JDAMs and two AIM-120 radar-guided air-to-air missiles (air-to-ground loadout)
Crew: one
Unit cost: $143 million
Initial operating capability:  December 2005
Inventory: total force, 183

Specification Source af.mil

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image by Rami Khanna-Prade (flickr)

REVISED Mar 04, 2020