Sukhoi Su-30 MKI-5

Su-30MKI Multirole Fighter Aircraft, India

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI is a multirole combat fighter aircraft jointly developed by the Sukhoi Design Bureau and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF). Based on the Su-30 fighter aircraft, Su-30MKI is equipped with thrust vectoring control and canards.

The development of the Su-30MKI for the IAF began in 1995. Sukhoi and Irkutsk Aircraft Production Association (now known as Irkut Corporation) were initially responsible for the development and production of the aircraft respectively.

Sukhoi built two prototypes of the Su-30MKI between 1995 and 1998. The first prototype, Su-30I-1, made its first flight in July 1997. Production began at the Irkutsk plant in 2000. The first pre-production aircraft completed its maiden flight in November 2000. India signed a MoU with Russia in October 2000, to start the license production of Su-30MKIs at HAL’s plant.

Su-30MKI.jpgSu-30MKI at HAL plant – Image @topyaps.com

Su-30MK Advanced Flanker Su-30MKI

In general, Su-30 is a dual-seat full-system Su-27 interceptor with refueling probe, provisions for external fuel tanks, beefed up structure, improved ECM, and a slightly modified comm/oxygen interface block with the RD-36 ejection seat. The Russian home PVO variant is related to the multi-role or “MKI” export variants being sold around the world. The laser-optical locator system is advertised to include a day and night FLIR capability and is used in conjunction with the Helmet mounted sighting system. The onboard countermeasures suite includes an illumination warning system, an active jamming station, and passive dispensers for chaff and flares.

Su-27 interceptor

su27UB_V-ray07.jpgd7239f80-976d-4632-b015-6fc2f8e333bfOriginal

Su-30 is capable of performing all tactical tasks of the Su-24 “Fencer” deep interdiction tactical bomber and the Su-27 “Flanker A/B/C” air superiority fighter while having around twice the combat range and 2.5 times the combat effectiveness (Sukhoi numbers).

In the early 1990’s, the Su-30 supposedly found itself in competition with the Su-27IB side-by-side configured Flanker prototype, but there may be a lot of misinformation with these claims. The Su-30 was reported as early as January 1993 as being “in service” with the Russian Air Force and in series production at the Irkutsk Factory. At that time a modified and beefed-up dual-seat Su-27PU was being tested on long range flights, one of which went from Moscow to Komsomolsk in 15 hours and 31 minutes with air refueling.

Su-27PU

su-30_1Su-27PU (T10PU-05) prototype – Image @milavia.net

This evidently became the Su-30. Sukhoi then proposed a Su-30 to the Russian Air Force as a dual-seat command post fighter that would designate targets for accompanying aircraft, a clear add-on or replacement for the MiG-31 Foxhound fleet that was having serious maintainability problems.

The visual differences from basic Su-27(red marks) and Su-30 predecessor – Su-27UB(green marks):

  • IR sight moved to right side of canopy(1)
  • Refueling system is installed(2)
  • More advanced avionics and cockpit instruments(3)
  • Two-weel nose gear(4)
  • Trainer seat replaced by the operator equipment(5)
  • Larger tail-planes(6)

su-30MK-dif.gif

Specifications Su-30 (Su-27PU) Flanker

Powerplant: two 122.58 kN (27,550 lb st) Saturn Lyul’ka AL-31F afterburning turbofans

Dimensions: length 21.935m (72 ft 9 in) ; height 6.357m (21 ft 5 in); wing span 14.7m (48 ft)

Weights: empty 17700 kg (39,021 lb); Max Take-Off Weight 33000 kg (72,752 lb)

Performance: max level speed at high altitude Mach 2.0 or 2125 km/h (1,320 mph); at sea level 1400 km/h (870 mph); service ceiling 17,500m (57,410 ft)

Armament: one internal GSh-301 30mm cannon with 150 rounds; up to 8000 kg (17,637 lb) of ordnance carried on eight external hardpoints, including R-60, R-73, R-27, RVV-AE (R-77) AAMs, freefall and cluster bombs, unguided rockets, external fuel tanks and ECM pods. Source @milavia.net

Su-30MKI

The Indian Air Force formally inducted its first eight Su-30 aircraft in a ceremony at Lohegaon Air Base, near Pune, in early July. This was barely six months after the $1.8 billion contract to supply 40 aircraft was confirmed, and officially described as Su-30’s. The first batch of eight appear to be an enhanced Su-27PU variant which become the Su-30, modified again with an Indian particular navigation kit. News reports also eluded to the possibility that the InAF would return them at some later date. Another option was mentioned that over the next four years Sukhoi would upgrade these eight aircraft to full Su-30MKI status while delivering the 32 x Su-30MKIs in three batches. Deputy Sukhoi Designer Alexander Bartkovski said that the eight aircraft were shipped to India in An-124 Ruslan aircraft from the Irkutsk Aviation Production Association (IAPO) factory. Indian pilots are being trained in groups of ten at the Zhukovski Test Center.

Su-30MKI

su-30mki_14.jpgPhoto copyright Peter Steehouwer – www.steehouwer.com

As usual, things change, and the contract appears to have been changed to allow the new production aircraft to be delivered with canards and thrust-vectoring control (TVC) engines from the outset. The main difference being that the vectored thrust nozzle assembly would be applied to standard Lyulka-Saturn AL-31F turbofans rather than the AL-37FU’s fitted to the Su-37 prototype.

The visual differences from basic Su-27(red marks) and predecessor – Su-30MK(green marks):

  • IR sight moved to right side of canopy(1)
  • Refueling system is installed(2)
  • More advanced avionics and cockpit instruments(3)
  • Two-weel nose gear(4)
  • Trainer seat replaced by the operator equipment(5)
  • Canard foreplanes(6)
  • Larger tail-planes(7)
  • Thrust-vectoring control engines(8)

su-30MKI-dif

Specifications Su-30MKI Multi-Role Flanker

Powerplant: two 130 kN (29,400 lb st) Saturn Lyul’ka AL-31FP TVC afterburning turbofans

Dimensions: length 21.935m (72 ft 9 in) ; height 6.357m (21 ft 5 in); wing span 14.7m (48 ft)

Weights: empty 18400 kg (40,564 lb); Max Take-Off Weight 34000 kg (74,956 lb)

Performance: max level speed at high altitude Mach 2.0 or 2125 km/h (1,320 mph); at sea level 1400 km/h (870 mph); service ceiling 17,500m (57,410 ft)

Armament: one internal GSh-301 30mm cannon with 150 rounds; up to 8000 kg (17,637 lb) of ordnance carried on up to twelve external hardpoints, including R-60, R-73, R-27, RVV-AE (R-77) AAMs, freefall and cluster bombs, unguided rockets, external fuel tanks, guided bombs and air-to-surface missiles. Source @milavia.net

Source @propro.ru

main3.jpgSu-30MKI_01.jpgThe chromed nozzle is the probe in stowed position. Here’s a close-up of an Indian Su-30MKI – Image @flankers-site.co.uk

Sukhoi Su-27SK: Details

Orders and deliveries of the multirole fighter aircraft

In November 1996, India placed an order with Sukhoi for eight Su-30K fighters and 32 Su-30MKI aircraft. The aircraft, fitted with enhanced avionics, engines and weapons, were delivered in batches.

In December 2000, HAL signed a contract with Rosoboronexport for the license production of Su-30MKI aircraft. As part of the contract, HAL will produce a total of 140 Su-30MKIs in four phases to complete the programme by 2015.

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The first ten Russian-made Su-30MKI aircraft were delivered to the IAF in mid-2002. The aircraft were inducted into service in September 2002. The second batch of 12 aircraft was handed over in 2003.

The first Su-30MKI assembled by HAL was rolled out in November 2004. The first batch of two aircraft was delivered to the IAF in March 2005. The IAF placed an order with HAL for 40 Su-30MKIs in 2007.

In December 2012, HAL signed a contract with the Ministry of Defence and Rosoboronexport for the production and delivery of 42 Su-30MKI aircraft, bringing the total number of orders to 222. The Indian Air Force operates more than 150 Su-30MKIs, as of January 2013.

Su-30MKI design and avionics

X14D Sukhoi Su30 MKI.jpgImage @team-bhp.com

The Su-30MKI aircraft incorporates an aerodynamic airframe made of titanium and high intensity aluminium alloys. The twin stabilisers and horizontal tail consoles are joined to tail beams. The semi-monocoque fuselage head includes the cockpit, radar sections and the avionics bay. The section between the engine nacelles houses the equipment bay, fuel storage and the brake parachute mechanism. The aircraft has a length of 21.9m, wingspan of 14.7m and a height of 6.4m. The maximum take-off weight of Su-30MKI is 38,800kg.

30044351646858462Su-30MKI 

The tandem glass cockpit of the Su-30MKI accommodates two pilots. The forward cockpit is equipped with an integrated avionics suite incorporating Elbit Su 967 head-up display (HUD), seven active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCD) and primary cockpit instrumentation from Thales. The HAL-built aircraft are equipped with multifunction displays (MFD) supplied by Samtel Display Systems.

Elbit Su 967 head-up display (HUD)

HUD SU-967HUD SU-967 – Image @bomberossanrafael.blogspot.com

Samtel Display Systems

16-1424059267-samtel-1Image @oneindia.commain10

“Today over 100 sets of MFDs have been delivered by Samtel-HAL JV for induction on Su-30 MKIs are already flying. Sicne 2007, Samtel has successfully teamed up with global players such as Honeywell, Curtiss-Wright, and General Dynamics Canada and became part of their global supply chain also as to manufacture their products in India for their international customers,” Posted on February 16, 2015 @oneindia.com

images000-Su-30MKI-Fwd-Cockpit-1SFront seat pilot  – Image @ausairpower.net000-Su-30MKI-Aft-Cockpit-1S.jpgRear seat weapons officer – Image @ausairpower.net

The aircraft integrates a fly by wire (FBW) flight control system. A large monochromatic display screen installed in the rear cockpit provides air-to-ground missile guidance. The Su-30MKI is also equipped with a N011M passive electronically scanned array radar, OLS-30 laser-optical locator system and Litening target designation pod to guide air-to-surface missile and laser guided munitions.

N011M passive electronically scanned array radar

Irkut-Su-30MKI-BARS-1.jpgNIIP N011M BARS Prototype – Image @ausairpower.net

The forward facing NIIP NO11M Bars (Panther) is a powerful integrated radar sighting system. The N011M is a digital multi-mode dual frequency band radar (X and L Band, NATO D and I). The N011M can function both in air-to-air and air-to-land/sea mode simultaneusly while being tied into a high-precision laser-inertial / GPS navigation system. It is equipped with a modern digital weapons control system as well as anti-jamming features. The aircraft has an opto-electronic surveillance and targeting system which consists of a IR direction finder, laser rangefinder and helmet mounted sight system. The HMS allows the pilot to turn his head in a 90º field of view, lock on to a target and launch the much-feared R-73E missile. The Sura-K HMS for the Su-30MKI has been supplied by the Ukranian Arsenal Company (the same also makes the APK-9 datalink pod for the Kh-59M).

The N011M radar has been under flight testing since 1993, fitted to Su-27M (Su-35) prototype ‘712’. It employs the same level of technology as the now abandoned N014 radar which was to have equipped Mikoyan’s MFI “fifth-generation” fighter and was initiated by Tamerlan Bekirbayev. The nose of the Su-30MKI was modified (compared the Su-27) to accommodate the fixed antenna array and more avionics boxes. The first improved N011M radar for the Su-30MKI was flown on 26-Nov-2000. Note that the N011M is different from the N011 “Mech” radar: the latter is mechanical scanning and equips the No 24 Sqn aircraft.

Antenna diameter is 1m, antenna gain 36dB, the main sidelobe level is -25dB, average sideobe level is -48dB, beamwidth is 2.4 deg with 12 distinct beam shapes. The antenna weighs 100kg 

N011-Bars-irkut-com.jpgN011M radar – Image @wikipedia.org

For aircraft N011M has a 350 km search range and a maximum 200 km tracking range, and 60 km in the rear hemisphere. A MiG-21 for instance can be detected at a distance of up to 135 km. Design maximum search range for an F-16 target was 140-160km. A Bars’ earlier variant, fitted with a five-kilowatt transmitter, proved to be capable of detecting Su-27 fighters at a range of over 330 km. The radar can track 20 air targets and engage the 4 most threatening targets simultaneously (this capability was introduced in the Indian RC1 and RC2). These targets can include cruise/ballistic missiles and even motionless helicopters. For comparison, Phazotron-NIIR’s Zhuk-MS radar has a range of 150-180km against a fighter and over 300km against a warship. “We can count the number of blades in the engine of the aircraft in sight (by the NO11M) and by that determine its type,” NIIP says.

The forward hemisphere is ±90º in azimuth and ±55º in elevation (+/-45 degrees vertical and +/-70 degrees horizontal have also been reported). N011M can withstand up to 5 percent transceiver loss without significant degredation in performance.

The Su-30MKI can function as a ‘mini-AWACS’ and can act as a director or command post for other aircraft. The target co-ordinates can be transferred automatically to at least 4 other aircraft. This feature was first seen in the MiG-31 Foxhound, which is equipped with a Zaslon radar.

Radar Computers

Purpose

> Facilitate automatic PRF selection of hostile targets moving at blind speeds
> Enhance tracking capability to 8 targets

Characteristics

> 486 main processor
> 386 Summit processor
> ARINC 429 Interface
> Dimensions 32cm x 19cm x 19cm
> Weight 14 kg each

RC1 Functions

> Interfaced to MCDP through ARINC and MIL-1553 BUS
> Interfaced to RC2 via high speed parallel Q bus
> Processes radar input and passes results to mission computer

RC2 Functions

> Interfaced to PSP
> Interfaced to various radar devices and combat computer via Q bus

Ground surveillance modes include mapping (with Doppler beam sharpening), search & track of moving targets, synthetic aperture radar and terrain avoidance. To penetrate enemy defenses, the aircraft can fly at low altitudes using the terrain following and obstacle avoidance feature. It enables the pilot to independently find his position without help from external sources (satellite navigation, etc.); detect ground targets and their AD systems; choose the best approach route to a target with continuous updates fed to the aircraft navigation systems; and provide onboard systems and armament with targeting data.

According to Sukhoi EDB the Su-30MKI is capable of performing all tactical tasks of the Su-24 Fencer deep interdiction tactical bomber and the Su-27 Flanker A/B/C air superiority fighter while having around twice the combat range and at least 2.5 times the combat effectiveness.

The N011M offers a quantum leap in technology over the earlier Russian radars. Small ground targets, like tanks, can be detected out to 40-50 km. The MiG-29, Su-27 and other fighters can be provided with a ground strike capability only if their radars can operate in the down-looking mode which generates a map of ground surface on a cockpit display (this mode is called the Mapping Mode).

N011M ensures a 20 m resolution detection of large sea targets at a distance up to 400 km, and of small size ones – at a distance of 120 km. Coupled with the air-launched Brahmos-A AShM, the Su-30MKI will become an unchallanged platform for Anti-Ship duties. The Brahmos is a result of a joint collaboration between India and Russia and is a variant of the Yakhont AShM (which has not entered service).

Irbis-BARS.png

The existing N011M series lacks a Low Probability of Intercept capability, in part due to antenna bandwidth limits and in part due to processor limitations. This is likely to change over the coming decade, with the Irbis-E, as customers demand an ability to defeat or degrade Western ESM equipment and the technology to do this becomes more accessible.

 The N012 tail warning radar has been reported to be part of the Su-30MKI suite and is offered as a retrofit to other models. Source @ausairpower.net

N011M Bars supplied to the IAF have progressively updated capabilities. Future upgradation plans include new gimbals for the antenna mount to increase the field of view to about 90-100 degrees to both sides. New software will enable a Doppler-sharpening mode and the capability to engage up to eight air targets simultaneously. Additionally the capability of the world-best PJ-10 Brahmos missile will be incorporated. The Air launched version of the missile ‘Brahmos-A’ requires modifications to the airframe due to high weight. As many as three can be carried on the MKI, but only if the weight of the missile can be reduced. Untill then a capability to carry one Brahmos and two Krypton (“mini moskit”) missiles is being worked on Source @vayu-sena.tripod.com

OLS-30 laser-optical locator system

IMGP5071-20110210-1Image @thumkar.blogspot.com

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Optoelectronic sighting system includes an optical-location station and a helmet-mounted target designation system. IRSTS Su-30MK2 station, which is a combination of surveillance and tracking teplopelengator and laser rangefinder, designator, used for detection and tracking of air targets in the front and back of her hemispheres by its heat radiation, ranging laser beam to the air and ground targets, and can also be used for laser illumination of ground targets in the application of guided missiles “air-to-surface” with semi-active laser homing head. Source @knaapo.ru

OLS-30 laser-optical locator system to include a day and night FLIR capability and is used in conjunction with the helmet mounted sighting system. The OLS-30 is a combined IRST/LR device using a cooled, broader waveband, sensor. Detection range is up to 90 km, whilst the laser ranger is effective to 3.5 km. Targets are displayed on the same LCD display as the radar. Source @jerryjo94.blogspot.com

sukhoi-su-35-11-638.jpgImage @slideshare.netsukhoi-su-35-20-638Image @slideshare.netSu-30MK-BVR-2.jpg

What happens when the existing OLS-27/30/31 series IRST is replaced with a newer longwave Focal Plane Array device – such as a single chip QWIP device? The result will be a capability to engage opposing aircraft under clear sky conditions regardless of RCS reduction measures. While the supercruising F/A-22A can defeat such techniques by kinematics alone, fighters in the teen series performance envelope will have to contend with BVR shots using the R-27ET, R-77, R-77T and R-77M cued by the thermal imaging search and track set. Similar issues arise with the deployment of modern ESM receivers on the Su-30MK, analogous to a number of existing Western systems. The Su-30MK series can then launch long range BVR missiles such as the R-27ET, R-77T with infrared seekers, or the R-27EP and R-77P with passive radio-frequency anti-radiation seekers. If cued by such sensors or offboard sources, these weapons will permit the Su-30MK to engage the JSF despite the JSF’s good forward sector radar stealth performance (Author). Source @ausairpower.net

Rafael Litening III Advanced Airborne Targeting Pod

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Litening Airborne Day/Night Navigation & Targeting Pod provides precision strike capability to every fighter aircraft.

  • reduces pilot workload during the process of targeting maintenance target
  • Sighting system of high accuracy and reliability
  • reduces operational limitations
  • simple maintenance and support
  • low maintenance cost
  • potential upgrade
  • upgrades available for aircraft with multi-mission capability
  • Adaptable on most aircraft
  • detection, recognition, identification, laser designation of targets on land or sea
  • Release accurate ammunition laser-guided enema and general purpose weapons.
  • identification of air targets beyond visual range (BRV)
  • option for data link and long-range video

litening3_targeting_pod_03.jpg

The evolution of the Litening pod continued with the Litening III version, which utilized a more capable Gen III (3-5micron) FLIR, with a 640×480 digital detectors array. This system is also equipped with a target marker, which improves the coordination of ground and air forces, by designation of targets by day or night. Litening III system is also equipped with a dual-wavelength diode-pumped laser, which is compatible with training (eyesafe) and wartime operational modes. The system also employs electronic image stabilization, to provide cleaner images of targets, acquired at long standoff range.

Logistically, the integration of the pod is easy and straightforward; it can fit the centerline or E/O pod mounts available with most modern aircraft and require no structural changes in the aircraft. Pods can also be installed on different aircraft, in support of specific missions. For example, the US Reserves currently field eight pods per wing. The pod requires minimal maintenance and technical support on the flight line. It is self boresighting in flight, therefore requires no alignment prior to the mission and improved accuracy during operations.

litening-breakdown-lr

The Israeli targeting pod was procured by 14 air forces, including the US Air Force Reserve’s and Air National Guards for their F-16 Block 25/30/32 Fighting Falcon. Other air forces operating the system include the US Marine Corps (AV-8B), Israeli air Force (F-16), Spanish and Italian Navy (AV-8B) and Spanish air force (F/A-18), German Air Force (Tornado IDS), and the Venezuela (F-16A/B). The pods were also selected for South Africa’s Grippens, India’s Mirage 2000, MiG-27 and Jaguar. The most recent inquiry for the pods came in March, for a planned procurement of F-16s by Austria. The pod is also fully integrated in the Eurofighter, F-5E, MiG-21 and other types. Testing are underway to integrate the pod with Boeing F-15I operated by the Israel Air Force.

Litening III specifications:
length: 220 cm
diameter: 406 mm
total weight: 440 lb
Operating altitude: +40,000
IR sensor: 640×480 FPA Mid-IR wavelength
Day sensor: CCDTV
Wide FOV: 18.4 x 24.1
medium FOV: 3.5×3.5
Narrow field of view: 1×1
Field of regard: +45 / -150
Roll: +/- 400
Laser: Diode pumped laser designator, dual wavelength

Source @military.rootsweb.ancestry.com

indian_ai_1469699905.jpgIAF Su-30MKI with Litening pod

SURA-I HELMET-MOUNTED TARGET DESIGNATION AND INDICATION SYSTEM

SURAThe SURA-I Helmet-Mounted Target Designation and Indication System (HMTDIS) is the upgraded version of the production-run Sura HMTDS offering the new advantage: it displays aiming and flight information in the pilot’s field of view.

The HMTDIS receives signals from the airborne system and generates the indicative marks (symbols, alphanumeric information) displayed in the pilot’s field of view.

The type and volume of the displayed data will be specified with the Customer.

The data display field of view: 6×4°.The production-run Sura HMTDIS upgrade is fulfilled by changing a helmet unit and two boards in the electronic module.

SURA and SURA-I HMTDS

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC

Helmet-mounted target designation system (HMTDS) with indication (SURA-I) was developed as a modernization and improvement project of SURA HMTDS in order to increase HMTDS application efficiency in close air combat modes.

During development the data exchange protocol between HMTDS and RIF complex of Su-30MKI aircraft, HMTDS airborne units connection circuits were kept. Also the SURA HMTDS combat application identity was provided so there is no need to change the flight personnel training program.

Modernization consists in:

– improvement of helmet unit (liquid crystal matrix is used as image forming element);

– replacement of CPU and electronic block check unit.

SURA-I HMTDS order code example: «СУРА АЖИЮ.201219.002-001»

SURA-I HMTDS is designed for:

1. Determination of angular coordinates (in azimuth (У) and elevation angle (Z)) of sighting

line of visually observed object.

2. Operational aiming of guided weapons (guided missiles, cannon turrets) and surveillance

systems to visible objects by turn of the pilot’s head without changing aircraft course in aircraft

coordinate system.

3. Forming and indication of single commands and flight & navigation indication in pilot’s FOV.

SURA-I HMTDS has 5-level noise immunity degree implemented, outer parameters failures are eliminated.

Source @vayu-sena.tripod.com

Navigation

The aircraft is fitted with a satellite navigation system (A-737 GPS compatible), which permits it to make flights in all weather, day and night. The navigation complex includes the high accuracy SAGEM Sigma-95 integrated global positioning system and ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system.  Source @aviationfighters.blogspot.com

SIGMA 95 laser gyro navigation systems

tuile-sigma95n

Indian aerospace giant Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) has signed a technology transfer agreement with Sagem (Safran) concerning the manufacture and maintenance in India of Sagem’s SIGMA 95 laser gyro navigation systems.

Developed by Sagem for fixed and rotary-wing combat aircraft, the SIGMA 95 is an autonomous, hybrid laser gyro inertial/GPS-Glonass* navigation system. It stands up to severe environments, and gives military aircraft a high degree of navigation precision and operational flexibility, thus supporting the success of even the most demanding missions, including in areas without GPS signals.

According to the terms of this agreement, HAL will be able to produce SIGMA 95 units for the Indian air force, and also provide “level 3” front line maintenance. Source @safran-group.com

APK-9 datalink pod for the Kh-59M

kh59m-1Kh-59ME Ovod M / AS-18 Kazoo and APK-9 Tekon pod on Su-30MK (KnAAPO image). – Image @ausairpower.nethttp://www.ausairpower.net/APA-Rus-ASM.html#mozTocId919852APK-9 Tekon pod –Image @ausairpower.net

Kh-59M missile

kh-59m_3d_model_max_d9660c7c-22e3-4af2-9be8-674c4de97bc9.png

The Kh-59 Ovod (Russian: Х-59 Овод ‘Gadfly’; AS-13 ‘Kingbolt’) is a Russian TV-guided cruise missile with a two-stage solid-fuel propulsion system and 200 km range. The Kh-59M Ovod-M (AS-18 ‘Kazoo’) is a variant with a bigger warhead and turbojet engine. It is primarily a land-attack missile but the Kh-59MK variant targets shipping. 

shemax59m

The original Kh-59 is propelled by a solid fuel engine, and incorporates a solid fuel accelerator in the tail. The folding stabilizers are located in the front of the missile, with wings and rudder in the rear. The Kh-59 cruises at an altitude of about 7 meters above water or 100–1,000 metres (330–3,280 ft) above ground with the help of a radar altimeter. It can be launched at speeds of 600 to 1,000 km/h (370 to 620 mph) at altitudes of 0.2 to 11 kilometres (660 to 36,090 ft) and has a CEP of 2 to 3 meters. It is carried on an AKU-58-1 launch pylon.

KH-59M3-960x400.jpg

The Kh-59ME has an external turbofan engine below the body just forward of the rear wings, but retains the powder-fuel accelerator. It also has a dual guidance system consisting of an inertial guidance system to guide it into the target area and a television system to guide it to the target itself.

The 36MT turbofan engine developed for the Kh-59M class of missiles is manufactured by NPO Saturn of Russia.

36MT turbofan engine

img (1).jpeg

Design features

  • 1-stage fan
  • axial-diagonal high pressure compressor
  • annular combustor
  • 1-stage high pressure turbine
  • 1-stage low pressure turbine

 Specification

Engine

36МТ

Thrust at maximum rating, kgf

450

Maximum length, mm

850

Maximum diameter, mm

330

Weight, kg

<100

Source @npo-saturn.ru

Target coordinates are fed into the missile before launch, and the initial flight phase is conducted under inertial guidance. At a distance of 10 km from the target the television guidance system is activated. An operator aboard the aircraft visually identifies the target and locks the missile onto it.

Specifications

Weight

930 kg (2,050 lb)

Length

570 cm (220 in)

Diameter

38.0 cm (15.0 in)

Warhead

Cluster or shaped-charge fragmentatio

Warhead weight

320 kg (705 lb)

 

Engine

Kh-59: two-stage rocket

Kh-59ME: rocket then turbofan

Wingspan

130 cm (51.2 in)

Operational

range

Kh-59ME (export): 115 km (62 nmi)

Kh-59ME: 200 km (110 nmi)

Kh-59MK: 285 km (150 nmi)

Speed

Mach 0.72-0.88

Guidance

system

inertial guidance (then TV guidance), millimeter wave active radar seeker (Kh-59MK, Kh-59MK2 land attack version)

Launch

platform

Kh-59ME: Su-30MK

Kh-59: Su-24M, MiG-27, Su-17M3/22M4, HAL Tejas, Su-25 and Su-30

Source @wikipedia.org

KD-36DM ejection seats

1816

The crew are provided with zero-zero KD-36DM ejection seats. The rear seat is raised for better visibility. The cockpit is provided with containers to store food and water reserves, a waste disposal system and extra oxygen bottles. The KD-36DM ejection seat is inclined at 30°, to help the pilot resist aircraft accelerations in air combat. Source @aviationfighters.blogspot.com

K-36seat.gif

Weapon systems and countermeasures

main6

The Su-30MKI is armed with a 30mm Gsh-30-1 cannon with 150 rounds of ammunition. The aircraft features 12 hardpoints capable of carrying external stores of up to 8t. The aircraft can launch a range of air-to-surface missiles, including Kh-29L/T/TYe, Kh-31A/P, Kh-59M and Nirbhay.

GSh-301 30mm cannon

The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30 (ГШ-30) is a family of autocannons used on certain Russian military aircraft.

The GSh-30-1 (also known as “GSh-301”) is the standard cannon armament of most modern Russian fighters including the Yak-141 Freestyle, MiG-29 Fulcrum, Su-27 Flanker and its’ various derivatives. The GSh-30-2 is carried by the Sukhoi Su-25 Frogfoot ground attack plane and in external gun pods. The GSh-30-2K is a modified version with 2400mm long water-cooled barrels and variable rate of fire. It is used on a fixed mounting on Mi-24P Hind-F helicopters.

Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1

  • Caliber: 30x165mm
  • Operaton: Gast principle
  • Length: 1978mm
  • Weight (complete): 46 kg
  • Rate of fire: 1500–1800 rpm
  • Muzzle velocity: 860 m/s
  • Projectile weight: 386-404 g (13.6-14.25 oz)
  • Mounting platforms: Yakovlev Yak-141 “Freestyle”, Mikoyan MiG-29 “Fulcrum”, Sukhoi Su-27 “Flanker” (and derivatives), Sukhoi Su-34 “Fullback”

GSh-30 Data @imfdb.org

The Su-30MKI fleet of IAF will be fitted with air-launched version of BrahMos supersonic cruise missiles. The BrahMos can strike targets within the range of 290km.

BrahMos supersonic cruise missile

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The BRAHMOS is a short-range supersonic cruise missile, that can carry nuclear warhead. It was jointly developed by India and Russia. The BRAHMOS Aerospace joint venture was established in 1998 and started working on the project. The acronym BRAHMOS is an abbreviation of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and Moskva of Russia. The missile was first test fired in 2001.

The BRAHMOS entered service with the Indian armed forces in 2006. This missile has been adopted by Indian Army, Navy and Air Force. Some sources report that Indian armed forces have a total requirement for about 1 000 of these missiles. This cruise missile is also being proposed for export customers from 14 countries.

The BRAHMOS is based on the Russian P-800 Oniks supersonic anti-ship cruise missile. The missile is 9 m long and has a diameter of 0.7 m. It has a two-stage propulsion system. It uses solid-fuel rocket booster for initial acceleration and liquid-fuel ramjet for sustained supersonic cruise. The booster is ejected by the airflow after it has burned out.

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This missile has a range of 290-300 km. It can carry nuclear warhead, or 200-300 kg conventional warhead. The range is limited to 300 km, as Russia is a signatory of the Missile Technology Control Regime, which prohibits it from helping other countries develop missiles with ranges above 300 km.

The BRAHMOS is one of the fastest cruise missiles in the world. It travels at supersonic speed and can gain a speed of Mach 2.8 (3 430 km/h). This missile was developed primarily as an anti-ship missile, however there are also land attack versions. This cruise missile has GPS/GLONASS/GAGAN satellite guidance. It uses US, Russian or Indian navigation satellites and has a pin-point accuracy. At a maximum range it can hit a target as small as 1.5 x 1.5 m. It is a fire-and-forget type missile.

Su-30MKI with BrahMos MRCM

Entered service 2006
Missile
Missile length 9 m
Missile diameter 0.7 m
Missile weight 3 000 kg
Warhead weight up to 300 kg
Warhead type nuclear, conventional
Range of fire 290-300 km
CEP 1.5 m

BRAHMOS data @military-today.com

IAF’s Su-30 MKI test-flown with BrahMos missile system: 5 reasons why it’s important for India’s defence capability: Here

brahmos-660With Today’s Successful Flight, The BrahMos Air Version Programme Now Inches Closer Towards Actual Test Firing, When A 2.5-Ton Brahmos Air-To-Ground Missile Will Be Fired From The Sukhoi-30 In The Coming Months. Posted June 25, 2016 by @financialexpress.com

The aircraft can also carry Vympel-built R-27R, R-73 and R-77 air-to-air missiles, as well as rocket pods, KAB-500 and KAB-1500 laser-guided bombs.

R-27 (NATO reporting name: AA-10 Alamo)

Medium-range missiles R-27 (e), designed to intercept and destroy aircraft and helicopters of all types of unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles in a dogfight at medium and long distances, with individual and group actions carrier aircraft, day and night, in simple and adverse weather conditions, from any direction, against the background of the earth and the sea, with active information, firing and maneuvering countering enemy.

Up to 6 x R-27R SARH air-to-air missiles27R SARH air-to-air missiles – Image @digitalcombatsimulator.com

Available in several versions, differing use of two types of homing – semi-active radar (PARGS) and heat – and two types of propulsion systems – with standard and increased installed power. Modifications PARGS are designated R-27R and R-27ER, with TGS – R-27T, R-27ET, with propulsion of increased energy available – R-27ER and R-27ET.

Main material rocket design titanium alloy, a steel motor housing .

For the suspension to the carrier aircraft and launch weight of both modifications missiles used the same launchers rail and catapult type.

2 x R-27ET IR air-to-air missiles extended rangeR-27ET IR air-to-air missiles extended range – Image @digitalcombatsimulator.com

The rail trigger APU-470 is used for the deployment of missiles under the wings of the aircraft, and the ejection device AKU-470 for the deployment of missiles under the fuselage and under the wings.

shema_en.pngImage @artem.uaSU1Image @artem.ua

Data @airwar.ru & @artem.ua

Vympel R-73 (NATO reporting name: AA-11 Archer)

Up to 6 x R-73 IR air-to-air missilesImage @digitalcombatsimulator.com

R-73A

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Currently the R-73 is the best Russian short range air-to-air missile. Apart from an exceptional maneverability, this missile is also directly connected to the pilot’s helmet, which allows engagement of targets lateral to the aircraft, which cannot be engaged by missiles with a traditional system of targeting and guidance. The R-73A, an earlier variant of this missile, has a 30 km range, while the most recent R-73M can hit targets at a distance of 40 km.

R-73M

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The R-73 short-range, close-combat standardized missile was developed in the Vympel Machine Building Design Bureau, and became operational in 1984. The R-73 is included in the weapon complex of MiG-23MLD, MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters and their modifications and also of Mi-24, Mi-28 and Ka-50 helicopters. It also can be employed in flying craft which do not have sophisticated aiming systems.

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The missile is used for engaging modern and future fighters, attack aircraft, bombers, helicopters, drones and cruise missiles, including those executing a maneuver with a g-force up to 12. It permits the platform to intercept a target from any direction, under any weather conditions, day or night, in the presence of natural interference and deliberate jamming. It realizes the “fire and forget” principle.

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The missile design features a canard aerodynamic configuration: control surfaces are positioned ahead of the wing at a distance from the center of mass. The airframe consists of modular compartments accommodating the homing head, aerodynamic control surface drive system, autopilot, proximity fuze, warhead, engine, gas-dynamic control system and aileron drive system. The lifting surfaces have a small aspect ratio. Strakes are mounted ahead of the aerodynamic control surfaces.

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The combined aero-gas-dynamic control gives the R-73 highly maneuverable flight characteristics. During flight, yaw and pitch are controlled by four aerodynamic control surfaces connected in pairs and by just as many gas-dynamic spoilers (fins) installed at the nozzle end of the engine. Control with engine not operating is provided by aerodynamic control surfaces. Roll stabilization of the missile is maintained with the help of four mechanically interconnected ailerons mounted on the wings. Drives of all missile controls are gas, powered from a solid-propellant gas generator.

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The passive infrared homing head supports target lock-on before launch. Guidance to the predicted position is by the proportional navigation method. The missile’s combat equipment consists of an active proximity (radar or laser) fuze and impact fuze and a continuous-rod warhead.

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The engine operates on high-impulse solid propellant and has a high-tensile steel case. Russia’s Vympel weapons designers have developed a one-of-a-kind air-to-air missile, which NATO has dubbed as AA-11, for use on foreign fighter planes. Techically and militarily the new missile, meant for quick-action dogfights, leave its foreign analogues far behind. Vympel experts have also made it possible for the new missile to be easily installed on all available types of aircraft. The AA-11 can also be used on older planes which will now be able to effectively handle the US’ highly maneuverable F-15 and F-16 jets. The AA-11 missile is based on all-new components, use new high-energy solid fuel and an advanced guidance and control system which has made it possible to minimize their size. Their exceptionally high accuracy is ensured by the missile’s main secret, the so-called transverse control engine, which rules out misses during the final approach trajectory. The transverse control engine is still without parallel in the world.

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Russia has offered the export-version R-7EE air-to-air missile system for sale so that it can be fitted to foreign-made fighter aircraft. Developed by the Vympel state-sector engineering and design bureau, the R-7EE is designed for close-quarters aerial combat. Vympel specialists have developed a way of ensuring that the missile system can be fitted to virtually any type of aircraft. It can be fitted to older aircraft, which feature heavily in third-world countries’ air forces.

Contractor Vympel
Date Deployed 1980s
Range 20 km (R-73M1)  30 km (R-73M2) 40 km
Speed Mach 2.5
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance All aspect Infrared
Warhead 7.4 kg HE expanding rod warhead
Launch Weight 105 kg (R-73M1)  115 kg (R-73M2)
Length 2.9 m
Diameter 170 mm
Fin Span 0.51 m
Platforms Su-27, Su-33, Su-34, Su-35, Su-37, MiG-29, MiG-31, MiG-33, Yak-141, Ka-50, Ka-52

Data @fas.org Images sourced from the net

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R-77

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The R-77, RVV-AE designation used for the export market and AA-12 Adder designation used by Western intelligence, is an extended medium range air-to-air missile featuring an active radar seeker to engage multiple airborne targets simultaneously. This missile was designed as the Soviet/Russian counterpart to the United States Air Force AIM-120 AMRAAM. The R-77 enables the Mig-29 and Su-27 fighter aircraft families to engage multiple airborne threats simultaneously thanks to its fire and forget capability. There are other versions fitted with infrared and passive radar seekers instead of active radar homing. Future plans call for increasing the missile range well beyond 150 kilometers.

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The R-77 has been designed with innovative control surfaces which are one of the keys of its impressive performance. Once launched, the R-77 depends on an inertial navigation system with optional in-flight target position updates from the aircraft sensors. When the R-77 missile is at a distance of about 20 km its radar homing head activates leading the missile to its target.

Dimensions

Diameter: 200 millimeter

Length: 3.60 meter (11.8 foot)

Wingspan: 350 millimeter

Performance

Max Range: 80 kilometer (43 nautical mile)

Target’s Max Altitude: 25,000 meter

Target’s Min Altitude: 20 meter

Speed

Top Speed: 4 mach (4,782 kph)

Weight

Warhead: 30 kilogram

Weight: 175 kilogram (386 pound)

R-77 data @deagel.com

Su-30-AAMsImage @ausairpower.net

Kh-31P & Kh-31A

kh-31-as-17-krypton.png

The Kh-31, AS-17 Krypton NATO-codename, is an advanced, long range, highly supersonic missile designed to withstand countermeasures effects. The Kh-31 propulsion system consists of a solid-fuel rocket engine which accelerates the missile to Mach 1.8 airspeed. Then this engine is dropped and a jet engine ignites using the missile’s within space as a combustion chamber. The missile accelerates to Mach 3+ thanks to the jet engine.

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The Kh-31P has been designed to be a high performance anti-radiation missile against the most sophisticated air defense systems developed by NATO countries. It features high kill probability against radar systems that have been turned-off when attacked.

Number of Stages: 2

Dimensions

Diameter: 360 millimeter

Length: 4.70 meter

Wingspan: 780 millimeter

Performance

Max Range: 110 kilometer

Min Range: 15 kilometer

Speed

Top Speed: 3 mach (3,587 kph)

Weight

Warhead: 87 kilogram

Weight: 600 kilogram

Source Kh-31P @deagel.com

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The Kh-31A is an anti-ship missile based on the proven Kh-31P missile. It features an active radar guidance system and a sea-skimming profile.

Number of Stages: 2

Dimensions

Diameter: 360 millimeter

Length: 4.70 meter (15.4 foot)

Wingspan: 780 millimeter

Performance

Max Range: 70 kilometer (37.8 nautical mile)

Min Range: 7.50 kilometer

Speed

Top Speed: 1,000 mps (3,601 kph)

Weight

Warhead: 94 kilogram (207 pound)

Weight: 610 kilogram

Source Kh-31A @deagel.com

Su-30MK+Kh-31-2Image @ausairpower.net

Kh-29T(TE)

The Vympel Kh-29 / AS-14 Kedge is a Russian supersonic equivalent to the French AS.30 and US AGM-65 Maverick, and is primarily intended for interdiction and close air support,  maritime strike roles, and attacks on hardened concrete shelters and structures. An APU-58 or AKU-58 launcher is used, on the Su-27/30 Flanker (up to 6 rounds), the MiG-27 Flogger (2 rounds), Su-17/22 Fitter (2 rounds) and Su-24M Fencer (3 round). Multiple variants exist.

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The Kh-29T (Izdeliye 64 or AS-14B) is an electro-optical variant with a daylitgh television seeker. The Kh-29TE is the export variant, the Kh-29TM an enhanced variant. The Kh-29TD is another EO variant, possibly equipped with a thermal imaging seeker.

 Launch weight for most variants is around 1,500 lb, with a 700 lb warhead being used most often. Range is usually cited at 16 nautical miles for a high altitude launch. Source @ausairpower.net
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Kh-29T
Missile weight: 680 kg
Length: 3900 mm
Diameter: 400 mm
Wingspan:  1100 mm
Minimum range*: 3 km
Maximum range: 8 – 12 km
Engine: fixed thrust solid, fuel rocket
Fuze type: impact
Guidance system: passive TV
Warhead: high-explosive penetrating
Warhead weight: 320 kg

Kh-29TE
Missile weight: 690 kg
Length: 3900 mm
Diameter: 400 mm
Wingspan:  1100 mm
Minimum range*: 3 km
Maximum range: 20 – 30 km
Engine: fixed thrust, solid fuel rocket
Fuze type: impact
Guidance system: passive TV
Warhead: high-explosive penetrating
Warhead weight: 320 kg

Source @armamentresearch.com

Kh-29L

Kh-29L-2.jpg

The Kh-29L (Izdeliye 63 or AS-14A) is a semi-active laser homing variant used in the manner of the AS.30L, with a 24N1 seeker. Source @ausairpower.net

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Kh-29L
Missile weight: 660 kg
Length: 3900 mm
Diameter: 400 mm
Wingspan:  1100 mm
Minimum range*: 3 km
Maximum range: 8 – 10 km
Height of launch: 0.2 – 5 km
Engine: fixed thrust, solid fuel rocket
Fuze type: impact
Guidance system: passive TV
Warhead: high-explosive penetrating
Warhead weight: 320 kg

Source @armamentresearch.com

KAB-500KR, KAB-500 OD

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KAB-500Kr, KAB-500-OD are guided and corrected air bombs

The KAB-500Kr corrected air bomb is designed to engage stationary ground/surface small-sized hardened targets, such as reinforced concrete shelters, runways, railway and highway bridges, military industrial installations, warships, and transport vessels.

The KAB-500-OD corrected air bomb is designed to engage ground targets, such as fire emplacements, and manpower hidden in mountainous terrains.

The KAB-500Kr, KAB-500-OD corrected air bombs are fitted with TV/terrain-matching homing heads and various types of warheads. TV homers with target data processing correlation algorithm can “remember” target location and correct bomb’s flight trajectory until the impact on the target, thus realizing the “fire and forget” principle. Such homing heads can help defeat low-contrast and masked targets provided that terrain reference points and target coordinates related to them are available. The KAB-500Kr, KAB-500-OD corrected air bombs make part of weapon systems of such front-line aircraft types as Su-27, Su-30, Su-34, Su24M, MIG-29 and others.

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Developer and manufacturer: State Research and Production Enterprise “Region”

Performance:

KAB-500Kr KAB-500-OD
Weights: total/warhead/HE, kg 520/380/100 370/250/140
Dimensions:    
length, m 3,05 3,05
diameter, m 0,35 0,35
empennage, m 0,75 0,75
     
Bomb drop altitude, km 0,5-5 0,5-5
Carrier speed, km/h 550…1100 550-1100
Root mean square deviation, m 4…7 4…7
Warhead type concrete-piercing high explosive
  (high explosive (fuel-air
  penetrator) explosive)

Source @ktrv.ru

______-60____ (1)KAB-500Kr, KAB-500-OD – Image @justpaste.it

KAB-1500KR

KAB1500KR.jpg

KAB-1500Kr are guided and corrected air bombs

The KAB-1500Kr corrected air bomb is designed to engage various stationary ground/surface small-sized hardened targets, such as reinforced concrete shelters, military industrial installations, depots, and seaport terminals.

The KAB-1500Kr corrected air bombs are fitted with TV/terrain-matching homing heads and various types of warheads. TV homers with target data processing correlation algorithm can “remember” target location and correct bomb’s flight trajectory until the impact on the target, thus realizing the “fire and forget” principle. Such homing heads can help defeat low-contrast and masked targets provided that terrain reference points and target coordinates related to them are available. The KAB-1500Kr corrected air bombs make part of weapon systems of such front-line aircraft types as Su-27, Su-30, Su-34, Su24M, MIG-29 and others.

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Developer and manufacturer: State Research and Production Enterprise “Region”

Performance:

  KAB-1500Kr
Weights: total/warhead/HE, kg 1,525/1,170/440
Dimensions:  
length, m 4,63
diameter, m 0,58
empennage, m 0,85 (folded)
  1,3 unfolded
Bomb drop altitude, km 1-8
Carrier speed, km/h 550-1100
Root mean square deviation, m 4…7
Warhead type high explosive

Source @ktrv.ru

kab1500su30

KAB-1500L

kab1500l_3d_model_max_2795918b-d053-463a-915b-5162db43056a.png

The KAB-1500L, KAB-1500LG-F-E is the current production standard, is a 1,500 kg, laser-guided bomb designed to hit stationary ground and surface targets when used by the latest generation of Russian-made fighters and bombers. It is the Russian counterpart to United States Paveway II/III laser-guided bombs. Once released, the pilot or a third party must aim at the target with a laser designator in order to successfully direct the KAB bomb. The KAB-1500LG-F-E features an impact fuze with three delay modes.

The KAB-1500L bombs were deployed successfully during the Russian military campaign in Chechnya. Usually, the Su-24 Fencer and Mig-27 Flogger aircraft use this type of weapon in strike missions but can be used by the latest generation of Su-30MK multirole aircraft. The spectrum of targets to hit by this weapon include: railway and highway bridges, military and industrial facilities, ships and transport vessels, ammunition depots and railway terminals. Source @deagel.com

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Developer and manufacturer: GNPP “Region”

Performance:

  KAB-1500LG-Pr-E KAB-1500LG-F-E KAB-1500LG-OD-E
Weight, kg      
(total/warhead/explosive) 1525/1120/210 1525/1120/440 1450/1170/650
Dimensions, m:      
length 4,28 4,28 4,24
diameter 0,58 0,58 0,58
wingspan 0,85 (retracted) 0,85 (retracted) 0,85 (retracted)
  1,3 (extended) 1,3 (extended) 1,3 (extended)
Drop altitude, km 1 to 8 1 to 8 1 to 10
Aircraft drop speed, km/h 550 to 1100 550 to 1100 550 to 1100
Aiming accuracy, m 4 to 7 4 to 7 4 to 7
Warhead penetrating high explosive full air explosive
Type of blasting device contact with three contact with three direct action contact
  types of delay types of delay  

Source @ktrv.ru

Su-35S-Kh-35UE-KAB-1500L-VVK-1S.jpgImage @ausairpower.net

Unguided Projectiles

‘S-8’ 80mm unguided rockets

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The S-8 system is the main caliber weapon in the class of unguided aircraft rockets and can solve a variety of aircraft missions.

The rocket is provided with a solid propellant motor with a summary thrust pulse of 5,800 N.s and operating time of 0.7 s. Progressive methods for body shaping from ready-made rolled aluminum and unique engineering solutions in terms of separate elements aimed at reducing motor manufacturing labor consumption and costs are used in its construction.

The following types of S-8 rockets are operational today:

    • S-8KOM with HEAT fragmentation warhead;
    • S-8BM with concrete-piercing (penetrating) warhead;
    • S-8-OM with illuminating warhead.

‘S-13’ type 122mm unguided aircraft rocket

The S-13 is a 122 mm calibre unguided rocket weapon developed by the Soviet Air Force for use by military aircraft. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force and some other countries.

S-13T: Tandem HEAT, range 1.1 – 4 km Combined penetration of 6 m of earth and 1 m of reinforced concrete. Velocity 500 m/s.

s-13tS-13T

S-13OF: The only 122mm rocket available, this large rocket packs a blast-fragmentation warhead with some serious wallop, dealing significant damage to soft targets and lightly armored vehicles, and can even destroy a main battle tank with a direct hit. With only 5 rockets per pod, accurate delivery is key.

air_508a_007The S-13OF

S-25 OFM-PU

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The S-25 is a Russian air-to-ground rocket launched from aircraft. It is launched from the O-25 pod which can hold one rocket.

S-25-OFM for use against hardened targets

Rockets S-8, S-13, S-25Rockets S-8, S-13, S-25 – Image @digitalcombatsimulator.com

Unguided/Dumb Bombs

High explosive general purpose bombs FAB-100, FAB-250, FAB-500High explosive general purpose bombs FAB-500T – @digitalcombatsimulator.comConcrete piercing bombs BetAB-500Concrete piercing bombs BetAB-500 – Image @digitalcombatsimulator.comCluster munitions RBK-250, RBK-500, KMGUCluster munitions RBK-500 – Image @digitalcombatsimulator.com

ODAB-500PM

06-18-ODAB-500PM.jpg

Many Russian Air Force munitions also have thermobaric variants. The 80 mm (3.1 in) S-8 rocket has the S-8DM and S-8DF thermobaric variants. The S-8’s 122 mm (4.8 in) brother, the S-13, has the S-13D and S-13DF thermobaric variants. The S-13DF’s warhead weighs only 32 kg (71 lb), but its power is equivalent to 40 kg (88 lb) of TNT. The KAB-500-OD variant of the KAB-500KR has a 250 kg (550 lb) thermobaric warhead. The ODAB-500PM and ODAB-500PMV unguided bombs carry a 190 kg (420 lb) fuel-air explosive each. Source @wikipedia.org

OFAB-100-120

ARMAAOFAB100

 

OFAB 100-120. Fragmentation High Explosive Bomb 100-120 is intended for destruction of military field facilities and base stations, destruction of personnel in open terrain as well as in light armoured vehicles and trucks on the march or during attack within the main concentration perimeter.

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Caliber, kg 100
Length, mm 1 065
Body Diameter, mm ø273
Tail fin span, mm 345
Characteristic time, s 21,10/6
Explosive weight, kg 42
Bomb weight, kg 123
Fuze AVU-ETM;AVU-ET;AMV-AE2

Source @dunarit.com

OFAB-250-270

ARMAAOFAB250.png

OFAB 250-270. Fragmentation High Explosive Bomb 250-270 is intended for destruction of military-industrial sites, railway junctions, field facilities and personnel in open terrain as well as in light armoured vehicles and trucks on the march or during attack within the main concentration perimeter.

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

Caliber, kg 250
Length, mm 1 456
Body Diameter, mm ø325
Tail fin span, mm 410
Characteristic time, s 20,92/12
Explosive weight, kg 92
Bomb weight, kg 268
Distance between the two lugs, mm 250
Fuze AVU-ETM;AVU-ET

Source @dunarit.com

P-50T

ARMAAP50T.png

The P50-t air practice bomb is designed to train pilots (air crews) in round-the-clock bomb delivery.

Sukhoi-Su-30-MKI-001[4].jpg

Air-to-Air Missiles Maximum Pcs
R-27R1 06
R-27P 02
R-27T1 02
R-73 06
RVV-AE 06
Air-to-Surface Missiles Maximum Pcs
Kh-59ME 02
Kh-31P, Kh-31A 04
Kh-29T(TE) 06
Kh-L 06
Guided/Smart Bombs Maximum Pcs
KAB-500KR, KAB-500 OD 06
KAB-1500KR, KAB-1500L 03
Unguided Projectiles Maximum Pcs
S-8KOM, S-80M, S-8MB 04 blocks (80 pcs.)
S-13T, S-13OF 04 blocks (20 pcs.)
S-25 OFM-PU 04
Unguided/Dumb Bombs Maximum Pcs
FAB-500T 08
BETAB-500ShP 08
ODAB-500PM 08
OFAB-250-270 28
OFAB-100-120 32
P-50T 32
RBK-500 bomb clusters with PBE-D 08
Incendiary tanks 3B-500
Other Maximum Pcs
APK-9 (Datalink Pod) 01
UPAZ-1 (IFR Pod) 01
Elta EL/L-8222 (RF Jammer) 01(?)

Weapons load data @vayu-sena.tripod.com

su-30-mki-the-indian-air-force_783673215

The Su-30MKI is fitted with a tarang radar warning receiver (RWR) indigenously developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). The aircraft also integrates chaff / flare dispensers and active jammers.

The RWR system is an indigenous product developed by DRDO called Tranquil (Tarang Mk2). Tarang is already deployed in IAF MiG-21 Bison and MiG-27ML fighters. Phase-I and Phase-II aircraft have SPO-32 (L-150) Pastel radar-warning receivers and no RF jammers. Latest aircraft are compatible with the Elta EL/M-8222 EW pod and so are the older Su-30MK/Ks.

Elta EL/M-8222 EW pod

ELL-8222 ASPJ

Main Features

  • Autonomous threat environment handling using an integrated ESM receiver: interception, analysis, identification, sorting and initiation of appropriate jamming techniques.
  • Lightweight (100 Kg), low drag (19 cm. X 24 cm.) and small dimensions (length: 2.40 meter).
  • The pod is also certified for installation on Air-to-Air missile (sidewinder equivalent) weapon stations.
  • The Pod is certified to operate in full aircraft flight envelopes (G Loads and Velocities).
  • Versatile fighter aircraft configurations of weapons and fuel tanks are available due to the flexible pod installation (weapon stations) options.
  • Low Life Cycle Cost (LCC): Cost-effective, easy maintenance, high reliability and availability, minimal ILS requirements.
  • Power-managed jamming regime in time, frequency and direction.
  • Effective jamming capabilities: High RF sensitivity, High ERP and wide technique repertoire.
  • Enhanced and user-friendly mission debriefing capabilities: all mission events and data are recorded and debriefed using PC-based replay equipment.

Source @iai.co.il

UPAZ-1 (IFR Pod)

000-Su-27K-AAR-3SImage @ausairpower.net000-Su-27K-AAR-2S.jpgImage @ausairpower.net

Sukhoi Su-30MKI engine

1373993525553640293.JPGIAF Su-30MKI – Image @foxtrotalpha.jalopnik.com

The Su-30MKI is powered by two Al-31FP turbojet engines. Each engine generates a full afterburn thrust of 12,500kgf. The power plant, equipped with thrust vector control, provides a maximum speed of Mach 1.9 in horizontal flight and a rate of climb of 300m/s.

Al-31FP turbojet engine

45_PPara_AL31-FP.jpgImage @hal-india.com

The Saturn AL-31 is a family of military turbofan engines. It was developed by Lyulka, now NPO Saturn, of Soviet Union, originally for the Sukhoi Su-27 air superiority fighter. It produces a total thrust of 123 kN (27,600 lb) with afterburning in the AL-31F, 137 kN (30,800 lb) in the AL-31FM (AL-35F) and 142 kN (32,000 lb) in the AL-37FU variants. Currently it powers all Su-27 derivatives and the Chengdu J-10 multirole jet fighter which has been developed in China.

The AL-31FP and AL-37FU variants have thrust vectoring. The former is used in the Su-30MKI export version of the Su-30 for India & Sukhoi Su-30MKM for Malaysia . The AL-37FU can deflect its nozzle to a maximum of ±15° at a rate of 30°/sec. The vectoring nozzle is utilized primarily in the pitch plane. The Al-31FP is built in India by HAL at the Koraput facility under a deep technology transfer agreement.

SATURN ENGINE-4

It has a reputation for having a tremendous tolerance to severely disturbed air flow. In the twin-engined Su-27, the engines are interchangeable between left and right. The Mean Time Between Overhaul (MTBO) for the AL-31F is given at 1000 hours with a full-life span of 3000 hours. Some reports suggested that Russia was offering AL-31F to Iran to re-engine its F-14 Tomcat air fleet in the late 1990s.

The Su-30MKI is powered by the Al-31FP (P for povorotnoye meaning “movable”), which is a development of the Al-37FU (seen in the Su-37 Terminator).

AL-31FP which is designed by the Lyulka Engine Design Bureau (NPO Saturn) is also different from Al-31F (by the same company). The Al-31F is the ‘baseline’ powerplant found in most Su-27 and its variants, and perhaps in the China’s J-10 in the future and lacks TVC. The AL-31FP was only 110Kg heavier and 0.4 m longer than the AL-31F, while the thrust remains the same. Planes equipped with AL-31F can be upgraded to AL-31FP later on without any changes in the airframe. It is being produced now at the Saturn manufacturing facility at Ufa, Russia.

The Al-37FU (FU stands for forsazh-upravlaemoye-sopo or “afterburning-articulating/steerable-nozzle”) basically added 2D Thrust Vectoring Control (TVC) Nozzles to the Al-31F. 2D TVC means that the Nozzles can be directed/pointed in 2 axis or directions – up or down. TVC obviuosly makes an aircraft much more maneuverable. Al-31FP builds on the Al-37FU with the capability to vector in 2 planes i.e. thrust can be directed side-ways also. The nozzles of the MKI are capable of deflecting 32 degrees in the horizontal plane and 15 degrees in the vertical plane. This is done by angling them inwards by 15 degrees inwards, which produces a cork-screw effect and thus enhancing the turning capability of the aircraft.

su30mkidetail8.jpgImage @vayu-sena-aux.tripod.com

The TVC nozzles will be made of titanium to reduce the nozzle’s weight and can deflect together or differentially to achieve the desired thrust vector for a particular maneuver. The engine designers are also working to reduce the infrared signature for thrust settings below afterburner.

Also, the 2-nozzles can be vectored un-symmetrically, i.e. each nozzle can point at different directions independent from the other nozzle and thus multiplying the effect.The aircraft is capable of near-zero speed airspeed at high angles of attack and super dynamic aerobatics in negative speeds up to 200 km/h.

10_nozzleShows port nozzle of Su30MKI. its white! not black as many of us would expect! note long spine b/n nozzles – Image @aircraftresourcecenter.com

TVC allows the MKI for example, to rapidly loose speed and turn in any direction and fire its weapons. The complete range of maneuveres possible in the MKI are impossible on any other combat fighter in production. “We even made a corkscrew spin a controllable manoeuvre – the pilot can leave it at any moment by a single motion of the stick that engages thrust-vectoring and aerodynamic surfaces,” says Sukhoi’s earlier general designer Mikhail Simonov.

Two AL-31FP by-pass thrust-vectoring turbojet reheated engines (25000 kgf full afterburning thrust) ensure a 2M horizontal flight speed (a 1350 km/h ground-level speed) and a rate of climb of 230 m/s. The Mean Time Between Overhaul (MTBO) for the AL-31FP is given at 1,000 hours with a full-life span of 3,000 hours. The titanium nozzle has a MTBO of 500 Hrs.

The Al-31FP improves upon the Al-37FU in two ways:

  • Firstly, the Al-37FU cannot vector thrust in 2 planes unlike the Al-31FP.
  • Secondly, the nozzle drive connection is effected now from the aircraft fuel system and not from the aircraft’s hydraulic system. The change-over to the fuel system, to control swiveling nozzles, enhances the dependability of the aircraft and its survivability in air combat.
11_nozzleintShows the interoir of the Al31F nozzle. funny russians, they put a red light in there, right in the middle! note color on the insides – Image @aircraftresourcecenter.com

SPECIFICATIONS (AL-31F)

Data from @gutenberg.org

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Type: Two-shaft afterburning turbofan

Length: 4,990 millimetres (196 in)

Diameter: 905 millimetres (35.6 in) inlet; 1,280 millimetres (50 in) maximum external

Dry weight: 1,570 kilograms (3,460 lb)

COMPONENTS

Compressor: 4 fan and 9 compressor stages

Combustors: annular

Turbine: 2 single-staged turbines

PERFORMANCE

Maximum thrust:

74.5 kilonewtons (16,700 lbf) military thrust

122.58 kilonewtons (27,560 lbf) with afterburner

Overall pressure ratio: 23

Bypass ratio: 0.59:1

Turbine inlet temperature: 1685 K (1,412 °C (2,574 °F))

Fuel consumption: 2.0 Kg/daN·h

Specific fuel consumption:

Military thrust: 0.67 lb/(lbf·h)

Full afterburner: 1.92 lb/(lbf·h)

Thrust-to-weight ratio: 4.77:1 (dry), 7.87:1 (afterburning)

Source @gutenberg.org

Su30MKI-07

UMPO starts the delivery of 920 AL-31FP engines to India

UMPO starts the delivery of 920 AL-31FP engines via Rosoboronexport to India. It is the largest contract signed with a foreign customer during post-Soviet era, the enterprise’s press-service reports.

“Under the conditions of general contract on launching the licensed production of Su-30MKI aircraft and AL-31FP engines in India signed in 2000, the Indian party had a right to purchase a number of additional kits for AL-31FP engines as an option”, – UMPO reminded.

The abovementioned option was exercised in October 2012. Following the agreement signed the deliveries will be continued over the next ten years and the first batch of kits will be delivered to India in the first quarter of 2013, UMPO noted. Posted on Friday March 15, 2013 by Russian Aviaton

The aircraft has a maximum unrefuelled flight range of 3,000km. The in-flight refuelling system of Su-30MKI provides a maximum range of 8,000km with two refuellings.

Operators

Indian Air Force Su-30MKI

 India
  • Indian Air Force – 200 Su-30MKIs in service in August 2014 with 272 planned by 2018.

Eurofighter vs SU 30MKI

eurofighter-typhoon-su-30mki-multipurpose

Eurofighter Typhoon vs Sukhoi SU-30MKI

1. Su-30 MKI is known for its unique agility even present most advance plane like F-22 cannot match its agility .
How can mki be almost same as Eurofighter in manueverability with all those thrust vectoring systems which lacks in Eurofighter.

2. Su 30 is much more maneuverable than eurofighter and as above mentioned Su30 has vectored thrust along with canards. thus in dogfight Su 30 is superior.

3. Russians were always building their fighter jets super manoeuvr with more advanced technology than others and even exporting them. Why should countries of third world have buy Eurofighter Typhoon when 5 Su-30MKI can come in price of 2 typhoon.

4. The Sukhoi  MKI has vectored thrust along with canards and is among the most manuevarable aircraft of the world with a sustained turn rate of almost 20-25 degrees comparing with the raptors 28-32 degrees. While value of eurofighter id over 35…

EUROFIGHTER-infographicSU-30MKI-infographic

Eurofighter vs SU 30MKI Flight Cost Per Hour

PER-HOUR-EUROFIGHTERPER-HOUR-SU-30MKI

Overall and BVR ratings

CATEGORY EUROFIGHTER TYPHOON SUKHOI SU-30MKI
BVR Rating 91% 86%
Armament 8.5/10 8.4/10
Technology 8.8/10 8.2/10
Avionics 8.6/10 8.2/10
Maneuverability 9.5/10 9.7/10 (3D Thrust)
Rate of Climb max. 315 m/s – 65k ft/min max. 280 m/s – 55k ft/min
Thrust/Weight 1.15 1.05
Service Ceiling 20 km – 65k ft 17 km – 56k ft
Speed 2.35 Mach 2.00 Mach
Fuel Economy 0.68 km/l – 1.60 NM/gallon 0.23 km/l – 0.50 NM/gallon
Unit Cost 175.000.000 USD 65.000.000 USD
Overall Rating excellent excellent

BVR (Beyond Visual Range) Ratings

CATEGORY EUROFIGHTER TYPHOON SUKHOI SU-30MKI
BVR AAM missile MBDA Meteor AA-12 Adder (R77 Vympel)
AAM origin NATO Russia
Year in 2013 in 1998
Range (mile) 62 99
Range (km) 100 160
Speed (mph) 2640 2970
Speed (km/h) 4248 4779
Radar Euroradar CAPTOR IRBIS-E
Radar overall rating excellent excellent
BVR Technology 87% 87%
BVR Def. Tech. 85% 85%
RCS – Radar Cross Section 0.5-2.0 1.0-3.5

Dogfight (close to medium range) Ratings

CATEGORY EUROFIGHTER TYPHOON SUKHOI SU-30MKI
Cannon Mauser BK-27 GSh-30-1
Caliber (mm) 27 mm 30 mm
Rate of Fire (rpm) 1700 rpm 1800 rpm
Muzzle Velocity 1025 m/s 860 m/s
Size Point 10%-30% 20% 10%
Maneuverability 9,5 9,7
Thrust/Weight Ratio 1,15 1,05
AAM (first) AIM-132 ASRAAM AA-11 Archer
Operational range 0.3 – 50 km 0.3 – 40 km
AAM (second) IRIS-T AA-8 Aphid
Operational range 0.5 – 30 km 0.1 – 8 km
Dogfight Rating 75% 94%

Size Comparison

CATEGORY EUROFIGHTER TYPHOON SUKHOI SU-30MKI
Length 15.95 m – 52 ft 4 in 21.9 m (72.9 ft)
Wingspan 10.95 m – 35 ft 9 in 15.3 m (50.2 ft)
Wing area 51.2 m² (551 sq ft) 62 m² (667 sq ft)
Height 5.30 m – 17 ft 3 in 5.90 m (19.4 ft)
Weight 11,150 kg – 24,6k lb 18,400 kg (40,570 lb)
Power 2 x 89 kN 20k lbf 2 x 123 kN – 27,3k lbf

Eurofighter Typhoon vs Sukhoi SU-30MKI – Source @aviatia.net

Eurofighter Typhoon: Detailseurofighter-typhoon-1847

Su-30 vs RAAF Alternatives

Many visitors will be asking the obvious question of how the Sukhois stack up against the F/A-18A HUG, the JSF panacea and recently proposed interim fighters such as the F/A-18E/F.

Against all three types the Su-30 derivatives, especially with later engine subtypes, will always have a significant kinematic advantage – there is no substitute for thrust in the kinematic performance game. There is another factor to consider here, which is the superlative 10 tonnes of internal drag free fuel the Sukhoi carries. When not operating at extended combat radii, the Sukhoi driver has more fuel to convert into energy, and that energy can nearly always be used to an advantage.

With mutually competitive WVR missiles and Helmet Mounted Sights/Displays for close-in combat, all three types will live or die in a close in engagement with an advanced Su-30MK variant by pilot ability and good or bad luck. The Sukhoi combines high alpha manoeuvre capabilities with excellent thrust/weight performance, and is apt to have an energy advantage entering and prosecuting a close in fight. A JSF driver opting to engage a thrust vectoring late model Su-30MK in a knife fight may not survive to speak of the experience, unless the Sukhoi driver is unable to exploit his advantage properly.

In close in air combat terms the JSF qualifies as ‘double inferior’ against the later model Sukhois, since the Sukhois have an advantage in both thrust/weight ratio and in wing loading (interested visitors refer R.L. Shaw’s Fighter Combat), and with its canard and thrust vectoring capability will generally be able to gain a firing solution quicker. Because the JSF is designed within the kinematic performance class of the F/A-18 and F-16, it is right in the middle of the performance envelope of aircraft the Sukhoi was designed to kill.

JSF-vs-Su-30MK-2A.jpgThis chart compares some cardinal design parameters for the Su-30MK series, the JSF and the F/A-18 family, using manufacturer’s data. The effective wing loading of the Su-30 is better than depicted, since the aircraft’s configuration delivers a considerable amount of body lift. While in the near term the AESAs in the JSF and F/A-18E/F will be competitive, in the longer term the retrofit of AESA technology in the N011M series radar will see the advantage in power aperture go to the Sukhoi – both the JSF and F/A-18E/F are aperture size and cooling capacity limited in growing AESA performance (Author).

In Beyond Visual Range (BVR) combat, the Sukhoi will again have a kinematic advantage, which may be exploitable at the bounds of engagement radii, as the Sukhoi can gain separation in and out of the missile envelope of the F/A-18’s and JSF faster – it has the extra thrust and combat fuel to play kinematic games both smaller fighters cannot.

The BVR game is however dominated by sensor capabilities, both onboard and offboard the fighters, and long range missile capabilities. The F/A-18A HUG is wholly outclassed by an Su-30MK with an N011M phased array and R-77M ramjet missile. A late model F/A-18E with minimal external stores and the APG-79 AESA fares much better due to its radar signature reduction measures and better radar power-aperture performance, but with external stores its margin of survivability is eroded and it is likely to fall well within the engagement envelope of the Sukhoi and also come to grief (refer radar/missile plot). A post 2010 AESA equipped Sukhoi could almost certainly take on the F/A-18E with confidence as it will have much better power-aperture capability in the radar, enough to offset the radar signature reduction measures in the F/A-18E/F, with an advanced IRST to supplement radar data.

Source @ausairpower.net

F18 Super Hornet: DetailsRAAF-Hornet-Iraq-breakaway

Main material source @airforce-technology.com

The aircraft carrier USS Gerald R. Ford CVN 78, is represented here in a combination model and live shot digital photo illustration.  The ship is the first in a new class of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, for the US Navy under construction at Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding-Newport News, VA.

That sinking feeling: is the flattop finished?

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29 Aug 2016

The nuclear-powered aircraft carrier has been the ultimate symbol of American power and prestige for decades. These vessels are both incredibly capable and incredibly expensive. However, the combination of the proliferation of long range anti-access/area denial (A2AD) weapons systems and the decreased range of the US Navy Carrier Air Wings (CAW) has called into question the future utility of the US Navy’s carrier fleet, at least in a major war.

Power projection requires access to and control of the area of operations to be effective. A2AD strategies are designed to prevent or hinder access, and ensure that an adversary can’t assert control over the area of operations even if they gain access. The continuing development of accurate long range anti-ship ballistic missiles (ASBMs), anti-ship cruise missiles, and advanced surface-to-air missile systems is increasingly allowing major military powers to create A2AD ‘bubbles’ or ‘bastions’ that place surface ships and aircraft at significant risk should they enter the area. China’s two ‘carrier killer’ ASBMs, the DF-21D and DF-26, are good examples of this. The DF-21D has an estimated range of 900 nautical miles (1,700km) while the DF-26’s range is estimated to be between 1,800-2,500 nautical miles (3,000-4,000km).

It’s not just adversarial developments that have raised doubts about the future of the American aircraft carrier. The range and diversity of CAWS has steadily declined since end of the Cold War and USN’s deep strike capability along with it. The current CAW on the Nimitz-class contains 62 aircraft—centred on the F/A-18 Hornet and F/A-18E/F Super Hornet—with an average range of just 496 nautical miles (918km). The F-35C, the future centrepiece of CAWs, is only marginally better in the range department (630 nautical miles or 1,166km) but has a smaller payload.

Those numbers show that there’s an increasingly big mismatch between the range at which US carriers can strike their targets and the range at which the carriers themselves can be attacked. That mismatch makes the ‘airfield at sea’ role that US carriers have played for the past few decades much more dangerous.

An obvious answer for keeping carriers relevant in light of these developments is increasing the range of the CAW. Aircraft with the range necessary to do deep strike missions launched from beyond the range of the enemy’s A2AD capabilities is vital to the continued survival of the carrier. Outfitting the F-35C with external or conformal fuel tanksis one option, albeit an imperfect one—adding these tanks can alter the aircraft’s radar cross section and potentially make it more detectable. Adding long range unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to the CAW is another option. The MQ-25A Stingray is just the tip of the iceberg in this regard, offering a long range aerial refuelling system that can refuel the F-35C in contested territory, expanding the F-35C’s deep strike potential. Developing a long range strike UAV is a logical next step in giving the aircraft carrier the reach and punch it needs to survive in this new threat environment.

But perhaps it’s time for the US Navy to rethink what aircraft carriers are used for. Given developments in missile technology, one potential role for an aircraft carrier is to launch long range stealthy ISR UAVs that provide real-time targeting data for cruise missile strikes from submarines, ships, or land-based aircraft. A2AD ‘bubbles’ require a vast network of maritime reconnaissance platforms—including satellites—to build the necessary ‘kill chains’ to be effective. By facilitating attacks on reconnaissance networks, a carrier strike group could help degrade an A2AD ‘bubble’ to a level where the risk of entering and conducting attacks using its own strike aircraft is deemed acceptable.

There’s also the opportunity cost; given the immense cost of one Ford-class aircraft carrier,some have argued that the money is better spent elsewhere in the fleet. Bryan McGrath has done some excellent work evaluating these proposals (pgs. 85-90) and his conclusions cast some doubt on their feasibility. He concludes that transitioning to a larger fleet of smaller nuclear-powered carriers would sacrifice significant capability but offer little in the way of savings.

A large fleet of smaller conventionally powered carriers would save a lot of money, but in exchange for a dramatic drop in capability. A no-carrier fleet would require sacrifices to one of the Navy’s three operational states: presence, deterrence, or warfighting. Those choices would have considerable impacts on the US’ ability to project power and its alliances. At some point decisions will have to made about whether the resources invested to allow carriers to operate at the long ranges dictated by enemy A2AD ‘bubbles’ is translated into tangible operational benefits.

The challenges threatening the future of the US Navy’s aircraft carriers may be insurmountable and they may cause the carrier to go the way of the

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SAMPT

Turkey in talks with Eurosam for a missile defense system

Turkey is in talks with the Italian-French consortium Eurosam to purchase the SAMP/T Aster 30, a long-range missile defense system, Daily Sabah has learned from government sources.

Despite speculation about Turkey’s possible purchase of a Russian S-400 missile system following the recent Russian-Turkish rapprochement, Turkey is edging toward purchasing a missile defense system produced by Eurosam. According to information obtained by Daily Sabah, Turkey’s military procurement agency, the undersecretariat for the Defense Industry (SSM) and National Defense Ministry have been continuing negotiations with Eurosam to purchase the SAMP/T Aster 30, which is already in use in several NATO member countries. Sources indicated that if the ongoing talks reach maturity, the main procurement is going to address the country’s urgent security needs via a short-term bridge solution and technology transfer and co-production will be considered as the long-term solution. In November 2015, Turkey canceled its $3.4 billion long-range missile defense system contract process, which was provisionally awarded to China in 2013 to produce its own indigenous system. Thereafter it was announced that two state-owned firms – Aselsan and Roketsan – were commissioned by the government to provide a future missile defense system.

Turkish defense companies Aselsan and Roketsan started a program to indigenously develop and produce short- and medium-altitude air defense systems in 2007, and in 2013 they completed the test launch of its first domestically developed and manufactured low-altitude air defense missile, Hisar-A, and set to work on Hisar-O, the medium-altitude system. However Turkey is still not yet capable of producing long-range missile systems. Defense industry sources said the designing, developing and producing stages of the indigenous system could take up to 10 years while underlining that the procurement of the SAMP/T Aster 30 system does not mean that Turkey has given up its desire to produce an indigenous system. In the meantime after the cancellation of the deal, Turkey was invited to the same bidders to cooperate with Turkish companies for the development of the system. A senior Eurosam official who spoke to Daily Sabah under condition of anonymity said that they are in favor of joint production and technology transfer as well as industrial partnership with Turkish defense industry firms in the case of long term cooperation.

The SAMP/T Aster 30 system uses a network of sophisticated radars and sensors – including 3D phased array radar – enabling it to be highly effective against all types of air threats. The system can intercept missiles with a 600 kilometer range and it can operate in standalone mode or can be integrated in a coordinated network such as NATO missiles defense system.

Original post @dailysabah.com

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SAMP/T Aster 30 Mamba Surface-to-air defense missile system

sampt_launcher650

The SAMP/T also called MAMBA in the French army is a theatre antimissile system designed to protect the battlefield and sensitive tactical sites (such as airports and sea ports) against all current and future airborne threats, including cruise missiles, manned and unmanned aircraft and tactical ballistic missiles in the 600 km range class. The SAMP/T is produced by Eurosam, a 50:50 joint venture between MBDA and Thales. Its key components are the Aster 30 interceptor and Arabel multi-function radar. The SAMP/T has been designed to operate in extreme clutter and electronic countermeasures environments.

Aster 30 interceptor

mbda-aster-30Aster 30 interceptor – Image @mbda-systems.com

Arabel multi-function radar

19.jpgImage @eurosam.com

Interoperability with other NATO air defense systems is another key for the SAMP/T program. The entire system could be airlifted by the latest NATO tactical transport aircraft such as the Airbus A400M and Lockheed-Martin C-130J Super Hercules deploying them anywhere around the globe. 

SAMP_T_ground-to-Air_missile_defense_System_battery_unit_Italy_Italian_Army_001

Combat use

• Anti-missile and anti-aircraft capability covering all the latest threats, whose behavior is characterized by their speed, maneuverability, angle of attack and flight altitude. This capability is delivered primarily by the reaction time of the fire control system and the maneuverability of the missile;
• 360° detection and engagement coverage ensured by each section deployed: the rotating multi-function radar antenna and the vertical missile launch system;
• High firepower compatible with countering multiple, coordinated and multidirectional attack (up to 48 missiles ready to fire);
• The ability to track 100 trajectories and engage 10 of them simultaneously and the basis of priority criteria;
• High resistance to counter-measures;
• Forward strike capability (tactical and strategic mobility);
• Very short system deployment and withdrawal;
• Very limited number of personnel required to deploy and operate the system;
• The ability to work in stand-alone mode or as an integral part of a wider architecture.

Type
Long range surface-to-air missile systems
Armament
Eight missiles Aster 30
Country users
France, Italy, Singapore
Head
High explosive ; fragmentation
Explosive load
15 kg
Weight missile
450 kg launch weight
Lenght missile
4.9 m
Range
100 km
Guidance system
Inertial guidance
Radar
Arabel radar for surveillance, tracking and missile guidance.

Source @armyrecognition.com

f9dcd5a0ee9dca56de3e73aeadbbc7f6

Video of Turkish tank being destroyed by SDF/YPG ATGM in Jarablus countryside. Syria

2008-5-27_21-27-18-35

Northrop F-20 Tigershark

The Northrop F-20 Tigershark (initially F-5G) was a privately financed light fighter, designed and built by Northrop. Its development began in 1975 as a further evolution of Northrop’s F-5E Tiger II, featuring a new engine that greatly improved overall performance, and a modern avionics suite including a powerful and flexible radar. Compared with the F-5E, the F-20 was much faster, gained beyond-visual-range air-to-air capability, and had a full suite of air-to-ground modes capable of firing most U.S. weapons. With these improved capabilities, the F-20 became competitive with contemporary fighter designs such as the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, but was much less expensive to purchase and operate.

f-20a-06.jpg

Much of the F-20’s development was carried out under a US Department of Defense (DoD) project called “FX”. FX sought to develop fighters that would be capable in combat with the latest Soviet aircraft, but excluding sensitive front-line technologies used by the United States Air Force’s own aircraft. FX was a product of the Carter administration’s military export policies, which aimed to provide foreign nations with high quality equipment without the risk of US front-line technology falling into Soviet hands. Northrop had high hopes for the F-20 in the international market, but policy changes following Ronald Reagan’s election meant the F-20 had to compete for sales against aircraft like the F-16, the USAF’s latest fighter design. The development program was abandoned in 1986 after three prototypes had been built and a fourth partially completed.

Source @wikiwand.com

“F-20 Tigershark The Greatest Fighter Never Made” Here

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Quote:

“From an armchair generals perspective there is no reason this shouldn’t be in service all around their globe. Why a small air force would need something as complex as the F-16 seems absurd. Add in the fact that the F-5 was used as the aggressor aircraft for the US aircraft to train its front line fighters how to dogfight and it gets even more confusing.  Until the F-22 and F-35 came along there was nothing that could out maneuver a F-5 or F-20.   This was a future that was never meant to be.” Source – “F-20 Tigershark The Greatest Fighter Never Made” posted By Fodder, on May 24th, 2012 (Link above)

Design

The primary design change between the earlier F-5E and the F-5G was the use of a single General Electric F404 engine that was originally designed for the F/A-18 Hornet. The new engine provided 60% more thrust compared to the combined output of the F-5E’s paired General Electric J85s. This improved the aircraft’s thrust-to-weight ratio to 1.13 from 1.0. The new engine gave speed of over Mach 2.0, a ceiling over 55,000 ft (16,800 m), an initial climb rate of 52,800 ft per minute (16,100m/min).

General Electric F404 engine 

f6a69172eb7932ec3881cae2961b2dbb.jpg

F404, augmented turbofan with low bypass ratio, was developed in min 70’s on the base of J101-GE-100’s core. Performance and reliability of F404 made a new standard for modern jet engines of wide range of military jets – starting with low-altitude strike planes and ending with hi-altitude interceptors. War proved engines accumulated more than 8 millon flight hours in service of US Navy, US Marine Corps, USAF and airforces of Australia, Canada, Finland, Kuwait, Malaysia, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and others.

Construction (F404-GE-400):

  • 3-stage fan with variable vanes of first stator
  • 7-stage compressor with variable inlet guide vanes and vanes of first and second stator stage, airbleed is up to 7,25%
  • annular combustion chamber
  • 1-stage high-pressure turbine (air cooled)
  • 1-stage low-pressure turbine (air cooled)
  • afterburner chamber
  • convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle
  • control system: hydromechanical, electronical
  • lubrication system uses MIL-L-5624 or MIL-L-7808 oil, consumption is 0,4 liters per hour

F404 uses standard MIL-5624, JP-4, JP-5 or JP-8 fuel.

f404_reliability.gif

F404-GE-400

The first engine of F404 family, the F404-GE-400, was originaly proposed for naval F/A-18, and became one of the best and most widespread engines of that era. Modern materials, simplified diagnostics, well positioned access points and modular construction ensures high lifetime and low operation cost. Modular construction with six modules simplifies replacement of damaged parts and shortens maintenance time (e.g. on aircraft carrier). Visual inspection of interior parts can be accomplished via 13 entry points. The engine needs no special test and fine-tuning after reparation of it’s core. Naval usage required corrosion proof components.

Pilots appreciate a free thrust handling, fast RPM response on acceleration or deceleration and smooth maximal thrust to afterburner transition. Engine is in service since 1981, production name is LM1600. Beside the F/A-18 of A, B, C and D version, the engine was used also on F-5G, experimental X-29 and X-31A. It’s said that the F404 was one of the possibilities to power the French Rafale. Unaugmented variant of -400 was one of the competitior for upgrade of A-6E planes.

F404-GE-402EPE (Enhanced Performance Engine)

This variant has higher thrust and lower specific fuel consumption, which were archived by using the newest technologies and materials when designing the turbine and afterburner section. Of course with no negative influence on lifetime of this parts. Engine is being installed to F/A-18C/D since October 1982 and improves combat capabilities of this aircraft.

F404-GE-100

Probably based on -400 and intended for F-5G (F-20A) fighters.

F404-GE-100D

Derivate of -400 without afterburner. Singapore with cooperation with GE replaced J65 engines of their A-4 Skyhawk motory J65 for F404-GE-100Ds and so made gave born to a new A-4S Super Skyhawk version. New engine gives the plane a higher airspeed, better acceleration and maneuverability and lowers the fuel burn. F404-GE-100D is for it’s single-engine usage equipped with extra safety features to prevent malfunctions during the flight.

F404-GE-F1D2

F1D2 is unaugmented derivate of basic -400, is used by two-engine stealth planes F-117A. The interesting thing is exhaust gas cooler which comprises of a flat nozzle 20 cm high and 165 cm wide.

F404-GE-F2J3

Used to power prototyped of indian light combat plane LCA. Production planes will have indian engines GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri

F404-GE-102

Next developement stage of F404, this time based on -402. Engine was developed by GE and KAI (Korean Aerospace Industries). The engine has safety features (for single-engine use) and FADEC. It should power light combat plane T-50 / A-50 developed in cooperation of KAI and LM (Lockheed Martin). Engine ought to be first tested in 2001, first flight of new plane were to be conducted in 2002 and production of engine had to start in 2005.

RM12

The RM12 engine was developed by GE Aircraft Engines and Volvo Aero Corporation to power Swedish JAS-39 Gripen fighter. RM12, specially designed for single-engine use has a few different characteristic compared to it’ father F404-GE-400. First of all the fan has been strengthen to sustain a hit of 0.5 kg bird, the airflow was highten by 10% and the turbine was made of modern materials to stand higher temperatures. All of this increased the overall performance by 10-20%. Engine has FADEC with hydromachanical backup and backup ignition system. The RM12 has fast power setting response, unlimited number of power cycles, smooth to-afterburner transition and is very reliable. .

Type -100 -100D -102 -F1D1 -400 -402 RM12
Weight kg   826 1035 785 991 1035 1055
Length cm   226 391 211 391 391 391
Maximal diameter cm   89 89 89 89 89 89
Inlet diameter cm   79 79 79 79 79 79
Bypass ratio          0,34 0,27  0,31 
Fan pressure ratio x         3,9    
Overall pressure ratio    25 26  25  25  26  27
Airflow kg/s   64 66 64 64,2 66,5 69
Temperature – max turbine inlet  °C           1348 1444  
– max turbine outlet   °C          797  869  
Thrust – maximal (SLS) kp   4990   4763 4808 5420 5507
– with afterburner (SLS) kp 7711 není 8030 není 7257 8030 8210
SFC – maximal thrust (SLS) kg/kN/h   81,6   82,6 87,0   84,0
  – afterburner (SLS) kg/kN/h          188,6 177,4 181,5

Engine data @leteckemotory.cz

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

The wing profile remained the same as the F-5E, but had modified leading edge extensions (LEX), which improved the maximum lift coefficient of the wing by about 12% with an increase in wing area of only 1.6%. The original aircraft was fairly sluggish in pitch, so the horizontal stabilizer was increased in size by 30% and a new dual-channel fly-by-wire control system was added. Destabilizing the aircraft in pitch and modifying the LEX improved the instantaneous turn rate by 7% to 20°/sec. Sustained turn rate at Mach 0.8 and 15,000 ft (4,572 m) rose to 11.5°/sec, which compared well with the F-16’s 12.8°/sec. Supersonic turn rates were 47% higher than those of the F-5E.

F-20 Leading edge extensions (LEX)

F-20_04.jpg

The F-20 would also make greater usage of composite materials in its construction. During its development, several areas using metal were re-designed to use fiberglass, and there were numerous upgrades to various mechanical parts.

The F-20’s avionics suite was all-new and greatly improved over the earlier designs. The General Electric AN/APG-67 multi-mode radar was the heart of the sensor suite, offering a wide range of air-to-air and air-to-ground modes.

AN/APG-67 multi-mode radar

an_apg-67

Technical Description

f20radartws

The F-20A avionics system incorporated the highly reliable General Electric AN/APG-67(V) radar, designed for a 200 hour MTBF. It was an X – band, pulse – doppler, digital, multimode radar, using low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) in the look up mode, medium PRF in the look down mode, and high PRF for velocity search.

The detection range of the AN/APG-67(V) permitted the F-20A to detect most adversary aircraft before the F-20A, with its low radar cross section, was detected by the adversary.


FEATURES

  • Modular design
  • X band coherent pulse doppler
  • Digital, multimode
  • Low, medium. and high PRF

  • FUNCTIONS
    • AIR TO AIR
      • Look up, look down range while search
      • Velocity search
      • Single target track
      • Air combat modes with automatic acquisition
      • Track while scan*
    • AIR TO SURFACE
      • Ground map/doppler beam sharpened map
      • Display freeze mode
      • Ranging
      • Moving target indication*
      • Moving target track*
      • Beacon track (option)*
    • AIR TO SEA
      • Sea surface search (SEA 1)
      • Sea moving target indication (SEA 2)*
      • Sea moving target track*

  • CAPABILITIES
    • Range: 80 nmi (maximum displayed)
    • Angular coverage: 160 degree cone
    • Map resolution: 45 feet at 5.0 nmi
    • Beamwidth: 3.7 degrees azimuth, 5.4 degrees elevation
    • Air to ground range accuracy: 50 feet or 0.5 percent of range
    • Air target detection (fighter size target) –Look up–47 nmi –Look down–38 nmi
    • Sea target detection (patrol boat size target) –Sea 1–47 nmi –Sea 2–40 nmi

  • CHARACTERISTICS
    • Antenna: 16.7 by 26.2 inches
    • Power: 2340 VA
    • Weight: 270 pounds
    • Volume: 3.1 cubic feet
    • Reliability: 200 hours MTBF

AN/APG-67(V) radar data @thecid.com

air_to_groung_Range_AN_APG_67_maxman75_leftcore

The F-5’s electro-mechanical navigation system was replaced with an all-electronic version based on a ring laser gyroscope. Time from power-on to being able to launch was greatly reduced as a result, to about 22 seconds, and Northrop boasted the aircraft had the shortest scramble time of any contemporary aircraft. The cockpit of the F-5 was completely re-worked with a large heads-up display (HUD) and two monochrome multi-function displays set high on the control panel, and the addition of a complete hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) control system. Many of the avionics promised to have reliability beyond that of any competing aircraft then in service.

northrop-f20-tigershark

The F-20 would have been able to utilize most of the common weapons in U.S.’s inventory, including the entire range of Mark 80 series bombs, the AGM-65 Maverick air-to-ground missile, and the AIM-9 Sidewinder and AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missiles. Like the earlier F-5s, the test F-20s were equipped with two M39 cannon mounted in the nose. Production F-20s may have substituted two Ford Aerospace Tigerclaw cannons instead of the M39s; while the Tigerclaw was based on the M39, it was lighter and had a higher rate of fire than the M39A2.

f20-2

M39A2 cannon

M39_Colt.jpgImage @ordtech-industries.com

Manufactured by Pontiac Motors Division of General Motors, Pontiac, Mi. – The M39A2 is a gas-operated, revolver-type, air-cooled automatic gun which fires electric primed ammunition from a metallic linked-belt.

PontiacM39canonrevolver

Ammunition may be fed into the gun from either the left or right side. Weapon is distinguished by a 5-chamber drum which revolves about an axis, parallel to the gun bore.

M39A3 and M39A2(Feeder assembly)

F20141017170235253100.png

M39A3 and M39A2(Feeder assembly) – The feeder assembly makes it possible for connected bullets to get out of the feeder road run to the drum and separates the link to enable it to move into the Road of Discharge. It also makes it possible for an empty cartridge to be driven out of the Cartridge Chamber and removed through a burned shot, and it follows thelinear motion of the gunshot and makes itself ready for the next shot. Source @kdia.or.kr

Weapon fires the 20-mm cartridge at the index drum position of the 6 o’clock chamber. 9-groove rifling; right-hand gain twist. Muzzle velocity with API and HEI ammunition is 8300 fps. Cyclic rate of fire approximately 750 rpm. Maximum range is 5,750 yards. Weapon has an overall length of 72 1/4″, a barrel length of 53 1/2″ and weighs approximately 179 lbs.

Source @rediscov.com

10884926735_d25da0b989_b

AIM-9 Sidewinder

aim9m_01

The AIM-9 has a cylindrical body with a roll-stabilizing rear wing/rolleron assembly. Also, it has detachable, double-delta control surfaces behind the nose that improve the missile’s maneuverability. Both rollerons and control surfaces are in a cross-like arrangement.

The missile’s main components are an infrared homing guidance section, an active optical target detector, a high-explosive warhead, and a rocket motor.

The infrared guidance head enables the missile to home on target aircraft engine exhaust. An infrared unit costs less than other types of guidance systems, and can be used in day/night and electronic countermeasures conditions. The infrared seeker also permits the pilot to launch the missile, then leave the area or take evasive action while the missile guides itself to the target.

aim9m_02052a7748-1e9e-43de-b063-2209a8c5b3f2large.jpg

Primary Function Air-to-air missile
Contractor Naval Weapons Center
Power Plant Hercules and Bermite Mk 36 Mod 71, 8 solid-propellant rocket motor
Thrust Classified
Speed Supersonic Mach 2.5
Range 10 to 18 miles depending on altitude
Length 9 feet, 5 inches (2.87 meters)
Diameter 5 inches (0.13 meters)
Finspan 2 feet, 3/4 inches (0.63 meters)
Warhead Annular blast fragmentation warhead
25 lbs high explosive for AIM-9H
20.8 lbs high explosive for AIM-9L/M
Launch Weight 190 pounds (85.5 kilograms)
Guidance System Solid-state, infrared homing system
Introduction Date 1956

AIM-9 data @fas.org

AIM-7 Sparrow

aim_7_sparrow_by_ws_clave.jpg

The AIM-7 Sparrow is a radar-guided, air-to-air missile with a high-explosive warhead. The versatile Sparrow has all-weather, all-altitude operational capability and can attack high-performance aircraft and missiles from any direction. The AIM/RIM-7 series is a semiactive, air-to-air, boost-glide missile, designed to be either rail or ejection launched. Semiactive, continuous wave, homing radar, and hydraulically-operated control surfaces direct and stabilize the missile on a proportional navigational course to the target. Propulsion for the missile is provided by a solid propellant rocket motor.

The Sparrow missile is a supersonic, medium-range, aerial-intercept missile that guides on Radio Frequency (RF) energy. Sparrow incorporates Electronic Counter-Countermeasure (ECCM) capabilities, also known as Electronic Protection (EP), to defeat countermeasures such as jamming. The Sparrow began as project Hotshot in 1946, and became operational in late 1953. Experience during the Vietnam war demonstrated it to be virtually useless against manuvering targets. A special AIM-7E-2 dogfight version was produced to overcome these shortcomings. Current configurations of the Sparrow missile include four air-launched variants, AIM-7M F1 Build, AIM-7M H Build, AIM-7P Block I, and AIM-7P Block II, and as many ship-launched variants, RIM-7M F1 Build, RIM-7M H Build, RIM-7P Block I, and RIM-7P Block II.

Each new version has resulted in substantial improvement in missile performance. The AIM/RIM-7E reduced minimum range restrictions and provided dogfight capabilities. The RIM-7H incorporates rapid run-up capabilities, providing improvements over previous versions. The AIM-7F incorporates solid state circuitry and modular design, an improved warhead, and a boost-sustain rocket motor. The AIM/RIM-7R is most recent configuration and adds a dual mode radio frequency/infrared (RF/IR) seeker capability.

rim7sp_01.jpg21a14892-6efa-45bf-bc06-dc5065392368Larger

Primary Function Air-to-air guided missile
Contractor Raytheon Co.
Power Plant Hercules MK-58 solid-propellant rocket motor
Thrust Classified
Speed Classified
Range approximately 30 nm
Length 12 feet (3.64 meters)
Diameter 8 inches (0.20 meters)
Wingspan 3 feet, 4 inches (1 meter)
Warhead Annular blast fragmentation warhead
88 lbs high explosive for AIM-9H
Launch Weight Approximately 500 pounds (225 kilograms)
Guidance System Raytheon semiactive on either continuous wave or pulsed Doppler radar energy
Date Deployed 1976
Aircraft Platforms Navy: F-14 and F/A-18;
Air Force: F-4, F-15, and F-16;
Marine Corps: F-4 and F/A-18

AIM-7 Sparrow data @fas.org

f-20a_005

AGM-65 Maverick

1.png9e9291e0-c44d-40f1-a847-486b9bda31cbOriginal.jpg

The AGM-65 Maverick is a tactical, air-to-surface guided missile designed for close air support, interdiction and defense suppression mission. It provides stand-off capability and high probability of strike against a wide range of tactical targets, including armor, air defenses, ships, transportation equipment and fuel storage facilities. Maverick was used during Operation Desert Storm and, according to the Air Force, hit 85 percent of its targets.

hqdefault-1

The Maverick has a cylindrical body, and either a rounded glass nose for electro-optical imaging, or a zinc sulfide nose for imaging infrared. It has long-chord delta wings and tail control surfaces mounted close to the trailing edge of the wing of the aircraft using it. The warhead is in the missile’s center section. A cone-shaped warhead, one of two types carried by the Maverick missile, is fired by a contact fuse in the nose. The other is a delayed-fuse penetrator, a heavyweight warhead that penetrates the target with its kinetic energy before firing. The latter is very effective against large, hard targets. The propulsion system for both types is a solid-rocket motor behind the warhead.

The Maverick variants include electro-optical/television (A and B), imaging infrared (D, F, and G), or laser guidance (E). The Air Force developed the Maverick, and the Navy procured the imaging infrared and the laser guided versions. The AGM-65 has two types of warheads, one with a contact fuse in the nose, the other a heavyweight warhead with a delayed fuse, which penetrates the target with its kinetic energy before firing. The latter is very effective against large, hard targets. The propulsion system for both types is a solid-rocket motor behind the warhead.

agm65family.jpg

Primary Function: Air-to-surface guided missile
Contractors: Hughes Aircraft Co., Raytheon Co.
Power Plant: Thiokol TX-481 solid-propellant rocket motor
Autopilot Proportional Navigation
Stabilizer Wings/Flippers
Propulsion Boost Sustain
Variant AGM-65A/B AGM-65D AGM-65G AGM-65E AGM-65F
Service Air Force Marine Corps Navy
Launch Weight: 462 lbs

(207.90 kg)

485 lbs

(218.25 kg)

670 lbs

(301.50 kg)

630 lbs

(286 kg)

670 lbs

(301.50 kg)

Diameter: 1 foot (30.48 centimeters)
Wingspan: 2 feet, 4 inches (71.12 centimeters)
Range: 17+ miles (12 nautical miles/27 km)
Speed: 1150 km/h
Guidance System: electro-optical television imaging infrared Laser infrared homing
Warhead: 125 pounds

(56.25 kilograms)

cone shaped

300 pounds

(135 kilograms)

delayed-fuse penetrator, heavyweight

125 pounds

(56.25 kilograms)

cone shaped

300 pounds

(135 kilograms)

delayed-fuse penetrator, heavyweight

Explosive 86 lbs. Comp B 80 lbs. PBX(AF)-108
Fuse Contact FMU-135/B
COSTS Air Force

AGM-65D/G

Navy

AGM-65E/F

Date Deployed: August 1972 February 1986 1989
Aircraft: A-10, F-15E and F-16 F/A-18 F/A-18 and AV-8B

AGM-65 Maverick data @fas.org

F-20-Tigershark1

The F-20 did, however, have several problems inherent to its small size. The low-mounted wing meant that there was limited ground clearance, and the position of the landing gear meant loads had to be positioned towards the outer ends of the wings. This limited hard point weights to 1,000 lb (454 kg). A single hard point under the fuselage could carry more, a single Mk 84 2,000 lbs bomb or up to five Mk 82 500 lbs bombs. Additionally, although the wing profiling improved lift at higher angles of attack (AoA) while maneuvering, it did not improve cruise lift performance at normal AoA. This did not present a problem in the fighter role, but did severely reduce its payload/range figures compared to similar aircraft like the F-16.

Mk 82 500 lbs bombs

MK82.jpg3c58216c-52e1-4dc6-ad6a-d0576b3cab1eOriginaldf-st-86-12144

Matra rocket pods with 18 × SNEB 68 mm rockets each

post-15260-0-33245200-1392683332.jpg

Matra Type 155 rocket launcher — Widely produced, this was a reusable device manufactured completely from metal with a fluted nose cone through which the RPs were fired. Loaded with 18 SNEB 68mm rockets, it can be pre-programmed on the ground to fire in shots or in one single ripple salvo as the Type 116M.

SNEB rocket projectile

post-15260-0-29149500-1392683497.jpg

The caliber of 68 mm was preferred by the French over other international designs of 57 mm, 70 mm, or 80 mm. The SNEB rocket projectile is propelled by a single rocket motor, and, depending on the warhead loadout on the launchers, it can be used against armoured fighting vehicles, bunkers, or soft targets. 

Source @wikipedia.org

CBU-24/49/52/58 cluster bomb munitions

cbu87_01.jpgf978884d-5df1-45f1-86a4-46adba5c0839Largerbombeopen2.jpg

Offered as a low-cost option, the F-20 was significantly more expensive than the F-5E, but much less expensive than other designs like the $30 million F-15 Eagle, or $15 million F-16 Fighting Falcon. The F-20 was projected to consume 53% less fuel, require 52% less maintenance manpower, had 63% lower operating and maintenance costs and had four times the reliability of average front-line designs of the era. The F-20 also offer the ability to fire the beyond-visual-range AIM-7 Sparrow missile, a capability that the F-16 lacked at that time, and did not gain until the Block 15 ADF version in February 1989.

8c8f9e5cb11b906a89ac974f5779036f

Specifications (F-20)

northrop_f-20

General characteristicsData from Northrop F-5/F-20/T-38Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft

  • Crew: 1 pilot
  • Length: 47 ft 4 in (14.4 m)
  • Wingspan: 27 ft 11.9 in / 8.53 m; with wingtip missiles (26 ft 8 in/ 8.13 m; without wingtip missiles)
  • Height: 13 ft 10 in (4.20 m)
  • Wing area: 200 ft² (18.6 m²)
  • Empty weight: 13,150 lb (5,964 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 15,480 lb (7,021 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 27,500 lb (12,474 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × General Electric F404-GE-100 turbofan, 17,000 lbf (76 kN)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: Mach 2 (1,319 miles, 2,123 km per hour)
  • Combat radius: 300 nmi (345 mi, 556 km) ; for hi-lo-hi mission with 2 × 330 US gal (1,250 L) drop tanks
  • Ferry range: 1,490 nmi (1715 mi, 2759 km) ; with 3 × 330 US gal (1,250 L) drop tanks
  • Service ceiling: 55,000 ft (16,800 m)
  • Rate of climb: 52,800 ft/min (255 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 81.0 lb/ft² (395 kg/m²)
  • Thrust/weight: 1.1

Armament

  • Guns: 2× 20 mm (0.79 in) Pontiac M39A2 cannons in the nose, 280 rounds each
  • Hardpoints: 5 external hardpoints with a capacity of 8,000 lb (3,600 kg) of bombs, missiles, rockets and up to 3 drop tanks for extended range
  • Rockets: 2 × CRV7 rocket pods Or
    2 × LAU-10 rocket pods with 4 × Zuni 5 in (127 mm) rockets each Or
    2 × Matra rocket pods with 18 × SNEB 68 mm rockets each
  • Missiles: 2 × AIM-9 Sidewinders on wingtip launch rails (similar to F-16 and F/A-18)
    Up to 4 x AIM-7 Sparrows on underwing launch rails
    AGM-65 Maverick air-to-surface missiles on hardpoints
  • Bombs: Various air-to-ground ordnance such as Mark 80 series of unguided iron bombs (including 3 kg and 14 kg practice bombs), CBU-24/49/52/58 cluster bomb munitions, M129 Leaflet bomb

Avionics

  • General Electric AN/APG-67

f20tigershark1.jpg

5087968863_4b4aa7638c_b

Here’s when an F-15 is better than an F-22 or an F-35

businessinsider-logo-006

ALEX LOCKIE

AUG 26, 2016, 5:42 AM

In a recent interview with Business Insider, Justin Bronk, a Research Fellow specializing in combat airpower at the Royal United Services Institute, revealed why the F-15, originally introduced four decades ago, is still more useful than either the F-22 or the F-35 in certain situations.

The F-15 is a traditional air superiority fighter of the fourth generation. It’s big, fast, agile, and carriers lots of weapons under the wing where everyone can see them. For that reason, it’s terrible at stealth, but the other side of the coin is that it’s perfect for intercepting enemy aircraft.

Bronk says that when it comes to interception, a plane would “have to get up right next to the aircraft, fly alongside, show weapons, go on guard frequency, tell them they’re being intercepted, that they’re on course to violate airspace, and to turn back immediately.”

An F-22 or F-35 shouldn’t, and in some cases, can’t do that.

The major advantage of fifth generation aircraft is their stealth abilities and situational awareness. Even the best aircraft in the world would be lucky to lay eyes on any fifth generation fighter, which means that they can set up and control the engagement entirely on their terms.

But while this paradigm lends itself ideally to fighting and killing, interception is a different beast.

The advantages of the F-22, and particularly the F-35, greatly diminish once planes get within visual range of each other. Also, fifth gens usually carry their munitions inside internal bomb bays, which is great for stealth, but doesn’t really strike the same note that starring down an AIM-9 Sidewinder missile on the side of an F-15 would.

Simply put, a fifth gen revealing itself to a legacy fighter would be akin to a hunter laying down his gun before confronting a wild beast.

“Fifth gen fighters are not really necessary for that… other, cheaper interceptors can do the job,” said Bronk.

Furthermore, interception happens way more frequently than air-to-air combat. The last time a US Air Force fighter shot down an enemy plane, it was their own wayward drone over Afghanistan in 2009. Meanwhile, interceptions happen all the time, with the Baltics and the South China Sea being particular hot spots.

The fifth-gens, however, make sense for entering contested air space. If the US wanted to enter North Korean, or Iranian air space, it wouldn’t just be to show off, and according to Bronk, their stealth and situational awareness would afford them the opportunity to slip in hit their marks, and slip out undetected, unlike an F-15.

In interception situations, it makes no sense to offer up an F-22 or F-35 as a handicapped target to an older legacy plane. F-15s are more than capable of delivering the message themselves, and whoever they intercept will know that the full force of the US Air Force, including fifth-gens, stands behind them.

Original post:  businessinsider

****-END-****

Iran now has the S300 SAM which can detect stealth especially the F-35

Related post:

Air Force Begins Massive High-Tech F-15 Upgrade to Stay in Front of Chinese J-10

F-15E demonstrates new display system

Advanced F-15 (2040c) Air Superiority Fighter – Video

Royal Saudi Air Force F-15SA

F-15E: HEREIMG_9016.jpg

F-22 Raptor: Details67e574c9552bb153cde3375a19c98ceb.jpg

F-35 Lightning II: DetailsF35115.jpg

8416081

KamAZ-53949 Mine resistant ambush protected vehicle

The KamAZ-53949 is a Russian mine resistant ambush protected vehicle (MRAP). It is nicknamed the Taifunionok. This vehicle was developed by KamAZ as a private venture to meet a possible Russian Army requirement. Development commenced somewhere in 2010. This mine resistant vehicle was first publicly revealed in 2013. Testing of this vehicle is planned to be completed in 2015. However in 2014 it has been reported that this vehicle will not be produced for the Russian armed forces, due to sanctions imposed on Russia. The KamAZ-53949 uses a large number of Western components. Also KamAZ company announced that it will no longer produce military vehicles. So the future of this machine is uncertain.

   This vehicle was designed to carry troops to the frontline in the areas, where a mine threat is high. It can be also used as a command post vehicle.

   This mine protected vehicle has a crew of two and accommodates 8 troops. Vehicle has a payload capacity of 2,000 kg. The KamAZ-53949 has four side doors, plus a door at the rear. Also there are roof hatches for observation, firing and emergency exit. The KamAZ-53949 can carry various military cargo, and can also tow trailers and artillery pieces.

   Armored hull of this vehicle was developed by Plasan Sasa of Israel. Ballistic protection is modular and can be tailored to suit mission requirement. Add-on ceramic armor can be bolted for a higher level of protection. With maximum armor vehicle provides all-round protection against NATO 7.62×51 mm armor-piercing rounds. It has a V-shaped hull for protection against mine blasts. It withstands explosions equivalent to 10 kg of TNT under any wheel and 8 kg of TNT anywhere under the hull.

   The KamAZ-53949 can be fitted with various remotely-controlled weapon stations. It can be armed with various weapons, including a 14.5-mm heavy machine gun.

KAMAZ is testing new mine resistant ambush protected vehicle MRAP for Russian Airborne troops.

Russia`s KAMAZ (a subsidiary of the Rostec state corporation) company is testing a mine-resistant ambush-protected (MRAP) vehicles for the Airborne Forces (Russian acronym: VDV, Vozdushno-Desantnie Voyska), according to a source in the indigenous defense industry.

“At present, the Special Vehicles Plant (a subsidiary of KAMAZ) is conducting the trials of the newest KAMAZ-53949/K4386 4×4 wheeled MRAP car intended for the VDV troops. The vehicle will have been tested by the year-end. We suppose that the service will bring the cars into service in early 2017,” the source said.

He added that the vehicle is intended for the Special Forces of VDV. “The 4×4 wheeled car has a combat weight of 14 t (including a payload of 3 t), an operational range of 1,200 km, and a maximum road speed of 105 km/h. It is powered by a multifuel diesel engine (350 h.p.) coupled with an automatic transmission developed by the Russian defense industry. The basic variant of KAMAZ-53949/K4386 is not equipped with weapon. However, the MRAP vehicle can be armed with various remote controlled weapon stations (RCWWS), for instance, 6S21 developed by the Burevestnik scientific-research institute (a subsidiary of the Uralvagonzavod/UVZ scientific-research corporation) or MBDU developed by the Kalashnikov Group (a subsidiary of the Rostec state corporation). The vehicle is supposed to receive even 30mm automatic cannon,” the source said.

Source @armyrecognition.com

6S21 WEAPON STATION (DPV-T)

Base version

6C21_01Image @burevestnik.com

Version 02

6C21_02Image @burevestnik.com

Version 03

6C21_03Image @burevestnik.com

Remote-controlled turret 6S21 developed in JSC “Central Research Institute” Petrel “.” The forum “Engineering Technologies 2014” corporation “NPK” Uralvagonzavod “presented to the public turret 6S21 in two versions. It can fire from 7,62- and 12.7-mm machine guns. Target detection and battlefield surveillance carried out by means of television and Thermal imaging devices.

Purpose UT 6S21:

Armament armored and other special purpose vehicles with the purpose of the following tasks: – exploration opponent, battlefield surveillance and detection through thermal imaging, and television purposes sight channels; – fire damage by a 7.62mm or 12.7mm machine gun single and multiple moving and fixed targets with short stops, descent and afloat.

6S21_11Image @nevskii-bastion.ru

COMPOSITION

Combat module:

– gun with the system of ammunition

– the cradle to the mechanism of remote arming gun

– drive mechanisms for vertical and horizontal guidance

– the basis

– turntable

– stops the vertical and horizontal guidance

– sight (MTD / MTTD)

Operator, located inside the machine body:

– digital panel gunner – gunner control

6S21_10Image @nevskii-bastion.ru

OPERATING ELEMENTS

Gunner Panel:

– high-quality display of video from sight HD-SDI output format (SMPTE292V) or GOST 7845 – ballistic computer with automatic calculation with the elaboration of aiming angles and amendments

– interaction with MIS machines interfaces the CAN 2.0 We do, the RS485, the Ethernet

– Diagnosis elements 6S21

Image @nevskii-bastion.ru

Tele-thermal sight “MTTD” horizontal version

Provides:

– detection of targets by day and night, including in difficult climatic conditions at a distance of 5000 m

– digital precision aiming;

– measurement of the target range;

– the transfer of video on HD- Protocol . SDI

Control unit:

– drives the management guidance (BH, GN)

– sensor management (ammo count, encoders VN and GN)

– powered battle module electrical

– power elektroosnascheniya gun

– working areas of fire ban

6S21_08.jpgImage @nevskii-bastion.ru

Remote Gunner:

– quality management module combat arms

– high-precision digital signal processing and integration into the OMS combat the CAN protocol module

6S21_05Image @nevskii-bastion.ru

FEATURES execution type UT 6S21

• 01 – the possibility of rapid disassembly and dismantling

• 03 – loading ammunition inside the machine without logging out

6S21_09Image @nevskii-bastion.ru

Posted 23 Июля, 2016 года © A.V.Karpenko 2013-2015 / AVKarpenko 2013-2015 Source @nevskii-bastion.ru

Main technical data

6S21 RCWS version 00,01 02 03
Machine-gun: caliber/index 12.7mm Kord MG 7,62mm PKTM tank MG
Ammunitions in one belt, ready to fire, pcs up to 200 up to 500 up to 320
Max weight with a machine-gun(w/o ammunitions), kg 230 200 185
Elevation / Traverse, deg -5(15)* to 75 / 360
Elevation / Traverse aiming speed, deg/sec 0,03 to 40 (60)* / 0,03 to 40 (60)*
Weapon stabilizer no (installation is possible)*
Remote cocking yes, multiple
Sight unit CAM/(CAM1*) CAM1(CAM*)
Hydro-pneumatic cleaning of the sightshield glass no no (installation is possible)*
Dimensions (max), mm:– height

– width

500850

(w/o ammo box)

650950

(w/o ammunition feed chute)

Diameter of seat flange, mm 500 750
Power consumption, kW– nominal up to 0.8

– short-time overload mode

up to 0.8up to 2,4

*- optional CAM – TV camera + Laser Range-finder (LRF) CAM1 – TV / IR camera + Laser Range-finder (LRF)

Source @burevestnik.com

   Vehicle is powered by a Cummins 6ISBe 350 turbocharged diesel engine, developing 350 hp. It is mated to a 6-speed Allison automatic transmission. Engine compartment of this vehicle is only lightly armored. Vehicle has an Irish Timoney independent suspension. Vehicle is fitted with a central tyre inflation system and run-flat tyres.

Cummins 6 ISBe 350

isb6.7-2013-medium-duty-truck.png

Model Cylinders Capacity

(litres)

Max Power

kW     hp

Max Torque

(Nm)

ISBe 6 6.7 268 360 1100

Source @cumminsengines.com

   KamAZ was planning to develop another version of this mine protected vehicle, that could carry a crew of two, 4 dismounts, and various equipment at the rear.

Entered service ?
Crew 2 men
Personnel 8 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight 12 t
Length 6.37 m
Width 2.45 m
Height 3.32 m
Armament
Machine guns ?
Mobility
Engine Cummins 6ISBe 350 diesel
Engine power 350 hp
Maximum road speed 105 km/h
Range 1 200 km
Maneuverability
Gradient 60%
Side slope 30%
Vertical step ~ 0.5 m
Trench ~ 0.5 m
Fording 1.9 m