Naresuan Class Guided-Missile Frigates (F 25T), Thailand

Naresuan Class guided-missile frigates were built by the China State Shipbuilding Corporation, Shanghai, for the Royal Thai Navy. Naresuan is a modified variation of the Chinese-built Type 053 frigate.

The keel for the lead ship in class, Naresuan (421), was laid down in July 1991. The ship was launched in December 1993 and commissioned in January 1995. Taksin (422) was laid in May 1991, launched in September 1994 and commissioned in to the Royal Thai Navy in October 1995.

mSQWlZdCq5b6ZLkvPT7Xl2f3W1np7jzWNaresuan (421) and Taksin (422) – Image:
 Name   Number   Builder   Launched   Commissioned   Decommissioned   Status 
HTMS Naresuan 421 China State Shipbuilding Corporation July 1993 15 December 1994   Active
HTMS Taksin 422 China State Shipbuilding Corporation 1994 28 September 1995   Active


Naresuan Class vessel specifications and Saab command and control system

Naresuan Class was jointly designed by the Royal Thai Navy and China State Shipbuilding Corporation. The ships are considered to be more modern than the Type 053 class frigates.

The frigate has an overall length of 120m, beam of 13m and a draft of 3.8m. The full load displacement of the ship is 2,900t. Each ship can complement a crew of 150.

In June 2011, Saab was awarded two contracts by the Royal Thai Navy for the upgrade of combat management and fire control systems on two Naresuan Class frigates. The total value of the contracts is SEK454m ($72.8m).

Under the contract, Saab will supply a 9LV Mk4 combat management system (CMS), CEROS 200 fire control system and data-link equipment. Deliveries are expected to be completed by 2014.


On 3 June 2011, Saab announced that it was awarded a contract for the upgrading of the two Naresuan class frigates with new electronics and new weapons. The extensive midlife upgrade program (MLU)  included a Vertical Launching System (VLS), new secondary guns, Saab’s 9LV MK4 combat management system, Sea Giraffe AMB 3D long range air surveillance radar, CEROS 200 fire control systems, EOS 500 electro-optical system, Tactical Data Links (TDL’s) for communications with the newly acquired Royal Thai Air Force Erieye surveillance aircraft, a new sonar system, a new ESM system and other improvements The upgrade programme was finally concluded in 2016, after five years of work, and delivered almost complete new warships to the Royal Thai Navy. Source

Modified photo of Naresuan class frigate of the Royal Thai Navy. For a high resolution image click here. Source

The 9LV Mk4 CMS consists of multi function console (MFC) providing input and display facilities to control the system and integrated sensors and weapons. The CMS is integrated with smart sensor system EOS 500, navigation radar, surveillance radar, small or medium calibre gun, data link processor (DLP), AIS-transponder, GPS and wind sensor. The system will perform command and control, identification and tracking, as well as weapons engagement.



The frigates Naresuan and Taksin are equipped with the latest generation Combat Management (CMS) of Saab, and one of the most advanced in the world today, the Saab 9LV Mk4. The Saab 9LV system integrates sensors, weapons and data links enabling the frigates to engage a variety of modern threats including sea-skimming missiles and small surface threats. The 9LV Mk4 CMS comprises a set of Multi-Function Consoles (MFC) providing display and input facilities for control of the system and the integrated sensors and weapons. The CMS is the core of the frigates CS and performs command and control, identification, tracking and weapon engagements. In addition to the modernization of the CMS the frigates are also equipped with Tactical Data Links (TDL’s) to enable them to share their tactical picture between them and to share information with the Royal Thai Air Force Gripen fighters and Airborne Early Warning radar aircraft which dramatically improves the effectiveness of both the naval and air force assets. In September of 2015, HTMS Naresuan frigate successfully tested a datalink with the Saab Gripen fighter and Saab 340 Airborne Early Warning aircraft. Source

Saab CMS of Naresuan – Image:

The full suite of Saab’s Combat Management System (CMS)  and integrated fire control solutions in configurations for every type of Coast Guard and naval vessel, is on offer for the Royal Thai Navy

The latest generation of Saab 9LV solutions is built on operationally proven modules and fielded in the major combatants of navies such as the Royal Australian Navy, the Swedish Navy and many others. Building on the experience in over 230 warship installations, the CMS offering from Saab is the open architecture, flexible and extensible, 9LV family.

This offer is applicable to all types of vessels from patrol vessels, corvettes, frigates and aircraft carriers. Source

Saab CMS of Naresuan – Image:


9LV technology is able to interface many subsystems, and its architecture readily scales to corvettes and large frigate or destroyer-type vessels. These solutions will typically support a high number of MFCs. They meet the demanding needs of battle resilience through extensive redundancy and physical separation of critical assets.

Medium-sized configurations often focus on one type of mission, such as anti-submarine warfare (ASW) or surface warfare (SuW) using surface-to-surface missiles (SSM). Larger configurations provide a wide range of capabilities and typically include multiple tactical data links and highly automated tactical responses to a range of simultaneous threats, above and below the surface. They also integrate with command support systems to provide the ship with complete C4I capability. Source

IMG_2669Naresuan (421) – Image:

EOS 500 integrated with CMS

EOS 500.pngImage:

Saab EOS-500 is a lightweight stabilized electro-optical fire control director with high quality stabilization and advanced TV- and IR-cameras and Laser Range Finder for observation, gun fire, missile laser guidance and target identification. The new sensor replaced the Chinese-built Type 347G  I-band fire-control radar (Rice Bowl) above hangar, for the 37mm guns. The inherent video tracker provides automatic detection of up to four concurrent threats, enabling the operator to change target within fractions of a second. EOS-500 is capable of high accuracy 3-D tracking all types of threats, including sea skimming missiles. The advanced Saab video tracker uses simultaneous input from the TV- and the IR- cameras in a data fusion process. The two (2) Saab CEROS 200 radar and optronic tracking systems and the EOS 500 optronic tracking system are the core of the frigates fire control capability and are fully integrated with the small and large calibre guns as well as the Surface to Surface (SSM) and Surface to Air (SAM) Missile systems providing unprecedented self defence capabilities against all modern symmetric and asymmetric threats. Source



Type 2-axis, elevation over azimuth
Angular speed < 2 rad/s
Angular acceleration < 2 rad/s2
Weight < 112 kg including all sensors
IR Thermal imager
Type Third generation
Wavelength 3-5 um or 8-12 um
Laser range finder
Type OPO-shifted Nd YAG
Wavelength 1.57 um (eye-safe)
PRF 3 Hz continuous (8 Hz during 30-sec burst)
Power 115 V 50-60 Hz, 3kVA
Communication interface
Ethernet TCP/IP
Environmental conditions


IMG_2687(1)Naresuan (421) – Image:

The CEROS 200 radar and optronic tracking system can be interfaced with the 9LV Mk4 CMS Gun Fire Control and SAM modules to deliver self-defence capabilities against advanced sea-skimming missiles or asymmetric surface threats. The shipboard data-link equipment from Saab will allow communication between the frigates and Gripen and Saab 340 aircraft of the Royal Thai Air Force.


A01157625130914110001Thales Network centric to integrate with RTN developed by Avia Satcom/Rohde & SchwarImage: thaidefense-news.blogspot.gr57126993Image:

Saab upgraded RTN aircraft carrier H.T.M.S. Chakri Naruebet: Here


Weapon systems on the Chinese-built Thai Navy frigates

Naresuan Class is armed with eight RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles launched from two quad launchers. The Mk 41 vertical launch system fitted on the ship can launch Sea Sparrow and Evolved Sea Sparrow Missiles (ESSMs).

RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile


The Harpoon is an all weather, subsonic, over the horizon, anti-ship missile which can be launch from surface ships, submarines and aircraft. Its guidance system consists of a 3-axis integrated digital computer/ radar altimeter for midcourse guidance, and an active radar seeker for the terminal phase of the flight.

The Harpoon flies at subsonic speeds, with a sea-skimming flight trajectory for improved survivability through reduced probability of detection by enemy defenses. It was designed to strike enemy ships in an open ocean environment.

The ship launched RGM-84 Harpoon was introduced in 1977, as well as the encapsulated submarine launched UGM-84.

Diameter: 340 millimeter
Length: 4.63 meter (15.2 foot)
Wingspan: 910 millimeter
Max Range: 124 kilometer (67 nautical mile)

Top Speed: 237 mps (853 kph)
Thrust: 660 pound
Warhead: 224 kilogram (494 pound)
Weight: 691 kilogram


2 x 4 Mk141 Harpoon quad launchers

2 x 4 Harpoon launchersNaresuan (421) – Image:

Mk 41 vertical launch system


The MK 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) is the worldwide standard in shipborne missile launching systems. Under the guidance of the US Navy, Martin Marietta performs the design, development, production, and field support that make the battle-proven VLS the most advanced shipborne missile launching system in the world. The Mk 41 VLS simultaneously supports multiple warfighting capabilities, including antiair warfare, antisubmarine warfare, ship self-defense, strike warfare, and antisurface warfare.

The Vertical Launching System (VLS) Mk 41 is a canister launching system which provides a rapid-fire launch capability against hostile threats. The missile launcher consists of a single eight-cell missile module, capable of launching SEASPARROW missiles used against hostile aircraft, missiles and surface units. Primary units of the VLS are two Launch Control Units, one 8-Cell Module, one 8-Cell System Module, a Remote Launch Enable Panel and a Status Panel.

“quad pack” launcher (Mk-41 VLS)

HTMS Naresuan (421) “quad pack” launcher being loaded – Image:

The Launch Control Units receive launch orders from the Multi-Function Computer Plant (MFCP). In response to the orders, the Launch Control Units select and issue prelaunch and launch commands to the selected missile in the VLS launcher. During normal VLS operations, each Launch Control Unit controls half of the Launch Sequencers in the launcher. Either Launch Control Unit can be ordered by the MFCP where one Launch Control Unit is offline and the other Launch Control Unit assumes control of all Launch Sequencers in the launcher.

HTMS Naresuan (421) 8-Cell Module – Image:

The 8-Cell Module consists of an upright structure that provides vertical storage space for eight missile canisters. A deck and hatch assembly at the top of the module protects the missile canisters during storage and the hatches open to permit missile launches. The plenum and uptake structure capture and vent missile exhaust gases vertically up through the module to the atmosphere through the uptake hatch. Electronic equipment mounted on the 8-Cell Module monitors the stored missile canisters and the module components and assists in launching the missiles.


Sea Sparrow and Evolved Sea Sparrow Missiles (ESSMs)


RIM-162 ESSM was developed by the U.S. Navy in cooperation with an international consortium of other NATO partners plus Australia. ESSM is a short-range, semi-active homing missile that makes flight corrections via radar and midcourse data uplinks. The missile provides reliable ship self-defense capability against agile, high-speed, low-altitude anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs), low velocity air threats (LVATs), such as helicopters, and high-speed, maneuverable surface threats. ESSM is integrated with a variety of U.S. and international launchers and combat systems across more than 10 different navies.

ESSM has an 8-inch diameter forebody that tapers to a 10-inch diameter rocket motor. The forebody includes a guidance section uses a radome-protected antenna for semi-active homing and attaches to an improved warhead section. A high-thrust, solid-propellant 10-inch diameter rocket motor provides high thrust for maneuverability with tail control via a Thrust Vector Controller (TVC).

ESSM’s effective tracking performance and agile kinematics result from S- and X-band midcourse uplinks, high average velocity and tail control, increased firepower through a vertical “quad pack” launcher (Mk-41 VLS), and greater lethality with a warhead designed for defeating hardened ASCMs.


ESSM is a cooperative effort among 10 of 12 NATO Sea Sparrow nations governed by a Production Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and multinational work-share arrangement. In addition to the United States, ESSM Consortium Members include Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Turkey.

HTMS Naresuan (421) – Image: thaidefense-news.blogspot.grHTMS Naresuan (421) – Image:

The first production ESSM was delivered in late 2002 to the U.S. Navy by Raytheon Missile Systems (RMS) and has been in full operational use in the U.S. since 2004. ESSM is fired from the Mk-29 trainable launcher, Mk-41 Vertical Launch System (VLS), Mk-57 VLS (DDG 1000), Mk-48 Guided Missile VLS (Canadian, Greece, Japan), and Mk-56 Dual Pack ESSM Launching System (Danish Navy) configurations by the U.S. Navy, NATO, and other Foreign Military Sales (FMS) customers. ESSM interfaces with the Aegis (DDG 51 and CG 47 classes), NSSMS (LHD and CVN classes), Ship Self-Defense System (LHA-6 and future CVN classes), Total Ship Computing Environment (DDG 1000), ANZAC (Royal Australian Navy), Dutch Configuration (various European Navies), FLEXFIRE (Danish Navy), and APAR (various European Navies) combat systems.

HTMS Naresuan (421) – Image:

General Characteristics:
Primary Function: Surface-To-Air and Surface-To-Surface radar-guided missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems, Tuscson, Ariz.
Date Deployed: 2004
Unit Cost: $787000 – $972000 depending on configuration
Propulsion: NAMMO-Raufoss, Alliant (solid fuel rocket)
Length: 12 feet (3,64 meters)
Diameter: 8 inches (20,3 cm) – 10 inches (25,4 cm)
Weight: 622 pounds (280 kilograms)
Speed: Mach 4+
Range: more than 27 nmi (more than 50 km)
Guidance System: Raytheon semi-active on continuous wave or interrupted continuous wave illumination
Warhead: Annular blast fragmentation warhead, 90 pounds (40,5 kg)

RIM-162 ESSM data Source


ESSM is a medium range surface-to-air missile with a range of more than 27km. It can counter supersonic manoeuvring anti-ship missiles, while travelling at a speed of Mach 4.

The main gun fitted on the bow deck is an Mk-45 Mod 2 127mm naval artillery gun. The gun can fire at a rate of 16 to 20 rounds a minute for a maximum range of 24km.

Mk-45 Mod 2 127mm naval artillery gun


The 127mm Mk 45 is a naval gun turret of US origin. It was developed in the 1960’s by United Defense as a lighter alternative to the earlier Mk 42 turret. The Mk 45 is the smallest 127mm gun turret in the world and can be considered a direct competitor to the Italian 127mm Compatto. The Mk 45 is a lighter and easier to install design while the Compatto has a higher rate of fire and has more ammunition ready to fire. Both guns use the same US standard 127mm ammunition.

The Mk 45 is a single gun turret which is armed with the 127mm Mk 19 gun which was derived from the earlier Mk 18 that was used in the older Mk 42 turret. The Mk 45 is an unmanned turret with an automatic loader and a 20 round magazine below deck. Additional rounds are stored elsewhere in the ship and fed into the magazine using a feed chute. The gun is controlled using consoles below deck or in the command center. The latest development are a longer barrel and extended range guided munition (ERGM), the latter program was cancelled while the new barrel is in production.


The Mk 45 fires 127mm shells for use against shore targets, naval vessels and aircraft. The gun has a rate of fire of 16 to 20 rounds per minute. The maximum range is 23 km versus surface targets and the anti-aircraft range is quoted as 15 km. The latest Mk 45 design with longer barrel has a longer range and higher rate of fire. The ERGM round has a range of 117 km but was never fielded. Depending on the ship design the total ammunition load ranges between 475 and 680 rounds

The Mk 45 turret can be easily distinguished from the earlier Mk 42 turret by its shape and longer ordnance. The Mk 45 is one of the smallest 127mm gun turrets. The Mk 45 guns with original 54-caliber barrel can be identified by their round turret shapes since the Mod 4 uses an angled one.
Mk 45 Mod 0: Original production model with mechanical fuze setter and two piece barrel.
Mk 45 Mod 1: Improved Mod 0 with automatic fuze setter and unitary barrel.
Mk 45 Mod 2: Export version of US Navy Mod 1.

HTMS Naresuan (421) – Image:
Type Naval gun turret
Armament 127mm 54-caliber, 808 m/s muzzle velocity, 8.000 round barrel life
Rate of fire 16 to 20 rpm
Ammunition 20 rounds in loading system, single feed chute
Range 23 km vs surface targets, 15 km vs aircraft
Traverse -170 to +170°, 30°/s
Elevation -15 to +65°, 20°/s
Dimensions ?
Weight 24.1 t empty
Crew 3 or 6
Fire control ?

127mm mk45 mod 2 gun data


Targets: Aircraft, Helicopter, Missile, Surface Vessel, Land Structure – Soft, Mobile Target – Soft
127mm/54 HE-CVT [HiFrag] – (USN) Gun
Air Max: 2.8 km. Surface Max: 20.4 km. Land Max: 20.4 km.


Targets: Aircraft, Helicopter, Surface Vessel, Land Structure – Soft, Land Structure – Hardened, Mobile Target – Soft, Mobile Target – Hardened
127mm/54 HE-PD [HiCap] – (USN) Gun
Air Max: 2.8 km. Surface Max: 20.4 km. Land Max: 20.4 km.


Two Type 76 twin 37mm naval guns onboard defend the ship from anti-aircraft and anti-surface threats. (New MSI guns replaced the old Type 76s naval guns)

MSI Defense Systems 30mm DS30M Mark 2 (Seahawk A2) gun systems

MSI Defense Systems 30mm gun

The two secondary Chinese-built Type 76 twin 37mm dual-purpose gun systems that were equipping originally the ships, were removed and replaced by the MSI Defense Systems 30mm DS30M Mark 2 (Seahawk A2) gun systems consisting of a 30mm Mark 44 Bushmaster II cannon on a fully automated mount with an off-mount electro-optical director (EOD) and with below deck control console. The gun has a rate of fire of approximately 650 rounds per minute in a maximum range of less than 3km in anti-aircraft role. Except the main naval gun, the ships are equipped with 2-4 MH2B heavy machine guns. The M2 has a maximum (effective) range of around 1,830m and a cyclical rate of fire of approximately 600 rounds per minute. Source

HTMS Naresuan (421) – Image:

2-4 MH2B heavy machine guns

Calibre 12.7x99mm NATO (.50 cal)
Operating principle Short recoil of the barrel
Overall length 1,656mm (65.2″)
Weapon weight 38.150 kg (84 lb)
Barrel type Quick Change Barrel
Barrel weight 13 kg (28.63 lb)
Barrel length 1,143 mm (45″)
Buttstock type N/A
Cyclic rate of fire 485 to 635 RPM
Effective range 2,000m (2,187 yds)
Feed Disintegrating link belt (M2 or M9 link)
Firing mode Single shot, full automatic
Handguard type N/A
Role Heavy Machine Gun

FN® M2HB-QCB data

Anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capability is provided by the Mark 32 anti-submarine torpedo launching system. Two 324mm Mk-32 Mod.5 torpedo tubes can launch Mk 46 or Mk 50 torpedoes against submarines.

324mm mk32 torpedo tube

HTMS Naresuan (421) Mk32 torpedo launcher – Image:

12.75 inch (324mm) Mark 32 Surface Vessel Torpedo Tubes (Mk 32 SVTT):

Mk-32 / Mod. 5, 7, 14, 15 (3 tubes) – for Mk-44, Mk-46 torpedoes
Mk-32 / Mod. 17, 19 (3 tubes) – for Mk-46, Mk-50, Mk-54 LHT torpedoes
Mk-32 / Mod. 9 (2 tubes) – for Mk-44, Mk-46 torpedoes
Mk-32 / Mod. 11 (1 tube) – for Mk-44, Mk-46 torpedoes

Mk-32 SVTT can be modified to use other 12.75″ torpedoes (such as EuroTorp MU90 / Eurotorp A244S LWT / BAE Systems Stingray)


MK 54 Mod 0 Lightweight Torpedo

An exercise MK 54 Mod 0 Torpedo is launched from the Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Roosevelt (DDG 80) in 2014. Photo: US Navy – Source

The U.S. Navy has awarded Raytheon a $37.7 million contract for the procurement of MK 54 lightweight torpedo support parts.

Under the contract, Raytheon will provide lightweight torpedo common parts kits and MK 54 Mod 0 lightweight torpedo kits. Additionally, the company will provide MK 54 exercise fuel tanks, spares, production support material, engineering support, and hardware repair support.

This contract, which combines purchases for the U.S. Navy and the Government of Thailand, includes options which could bring the cumulative value of this contract to $448,737,790 if they were to be exercised.

The MK 54 Mod 0 Lightweight Torpedo integrates existing torpedo hardware and software from the MK 46, MK 50 and MK 48 torpedo programs with commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) digital signal-processing technology. It incorporates a guidance and control (G&C) section employing COTS processing technologies and tactical software improvements to significantly increase shallow water counter-countermeasure capability at reduced lifecycle costs. Source

Weight 608 lb (276 kg)[2]
Length 106.9 in (2.72 m)[2]
Diameter 12.75 in (324 mm)[2]

Warhead PBXN-103
Warhead weight 96.8 lb (43.9 kg)[2]
Blast yield 238lb TNT

Engine reciprocating external combustion
Propellant Otto II (liquid)
Speed >40 kn (74.1 km/h; 46.0 mph)
Active or passive/active Acoustic homing
Mark 32 Surface Vessel Torpedo Tubes, ASW Aircraft, RUM-139 VL-ASROC


Sensors, radars and aircraft carrying capabilities of the guided-missile frigates

HTMS Taksin (422) – Image:

Naresuan Class is equipped with Saab Sea Giraffe AMD 3D surveillance radar, Thales LW-08 long range air search radar, Thales STIR fire control radar and DE-1160 hull mounted sonar. (Thales STIR fire control radar replaced with Ceros 200 fire control director and DE-1160 hull mounted sonar replaced with Atlas Elektronik DSQS-24D hull-mounted sonar )

Saab Sea Giraffe AMD 3D surveillance radar

SEA GIRAFFE AMB radar surveillance equipment designed to be capable of detecting both on the coast and in the air precisely. Designed to connect directly combat 9LV (CMS)

The radar is able to detect the angle of 0-70 degrees to 360 degrees, covering a 180 kilometer surveillance can detect targets with high accuracy. And detect even the target object invisible. Small as well as the 3D GIRAFFE AMB radar is versatile with the ability to cover all the needs. Featured in Add the time to meet and make decisions. Low radar footprint Can observe the motion of the target by land, sea and air radar highlights three critical limit.

  • Investigator in the air and can interfere with the radar track of the enemy.
  • Can observe and track the motion of the enemy on the side.
  • Be alert gunshot detection and neck where the bullet was fired.
  • Can distinguish between different types of goals Even the up and down motion of the helicopter.
  • Can pointing to fight missile defense land. Naval and air precisely.
  • To support gunnery ship.
Main mast with the new sensors – Image:


Radar type Stacked beam 3D radar
Antenna type 3D phased array, digital beam forming
Frequency C (G/H)-band
Elevation coverage > 70 degrees
Rotation rate 60 RPM
Instrumented range 180 km

Source Saab

Thales LW-08 long range air search radar

Thales LW08 radar of Naresuan – Image

The LW08 is a radar system for long-range surveillance, providing target indication to weapon control systems. It meets all vital requirements for any naval surveillance system: LW08 presents a clear picture of the environment; it does so, reliably, under any circumstances; and it does it without adding great weight to the superstructure of the ship. The aspect which distinguishes LW08 from its competitors is its wide range and superb accuracy. The system has proven its worth time and time again, operating in various configurations. LW08 performs with great frequency agility over a wide band, due to its synthesizer-driven TWT transmitter.

Excellent performance under various clutter conditions is ensured by the wide dynamic range receiver with application of digital video processing, supported by circular polarization. Moreover, due to its lightweight construction and hydraulically controlled stabilization platform, this antenna can be installed at a high mast position, thereby improving performance.

Main characteristics

  • Long-range detection, with very short minimum range
  • Fully coherent system
  • Frequency agility over a wide band
  • Pulse compression
  • Linear and circular polarization
  • Digital video processor, using MTI
  • Hydraulic roll and pitch stabilization

Performance Data

Detection range

  • Small missile : 100 km
  • Fighter aircraft : 230 km
  • Target speed : up to Mach 4
  • Surface targets : radar horizon
  • Minimum range : 2 km
  • Instrumented range : 135/270 km
  • Tracking capacity : 400

Technical Data

Antenna parameters

  • Type : horn-fed parabolic reflector
  • Beamwidth

             – horizontal : 2.2º

             – vertical : cosec2 up to 40º

  • Polarization : linear/circular
  • Rotation speeds : 7.5 and 15 rpm

Transmitter parameters

  • Type : TWT
  • Frequency : D-band
  • Frequency modes : fixed frequency and frequency agility
  • Transmission modes : full scan and sector transmission
  • Average power : 5.2 kW

Receiver parameters

  • Receiver channels

             – air surveillance : MTI and LIN

             – surface surveillance : LIN or LOG

  • Video processing : MTI: digital canceller and

                                     video correlator

                                     Digital ISU and LOG with


  • Compressed pulse length : 0.6 µs


Saab CEROS 200 fire control director

Image00031Naresuan – Image:

The CEROS 200 comprises multiple sensors, including EO, IR, TV and Laser. In addition, it has an advanced video tracker to enable simultaneous TV and IR tracking. The radar director pedestal is of twoaxis, elevation over azimuth type, and incorporates direct-drive hydraulic motors with built-in hydrostatic bearings. The freedom of motion in azimuth is unlimited and all electrical signals are transferred via slip rings. In elevation the motion is controlled both by electrical and mechanical end stops. For stabilisation against ship motion and angular rate measurements of the pedestal, a two-axis measurement gyro is used. The gyro features high performance and reliability. At turn-off, the director is automatically slewed to parking position and secured with hydraulic locking pins. A key feature is its high ability when tracking with low angular speed. The CEROS 200 has a hydraulically-driven pedestal with a much higher Mean Time Between Failure compared with alternative approaches such as electro-driven systems.


  • Extremely high accuracy
  • Fast reaction
  • Extremely high availability
  • Patented CHASE algorithm
  • Proven performance
  • Unique capabilities
  • Long range
  • Extremely wide bandwidth (2 GHz)
  • Low weight
  • Low lifecycle cost
  • Inherent growth potential

Source Saab

General data:  
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Early 2000s
Properties: Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Continuous Wave Illumination
Sensors / EW:
CEROS 200 Tracker [9LV Mk4 ESSM] – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface, Short-Range
Max Range: 74.1 km


Among other equipment, the ships, after the upgrade have received the Atlas Elektronik DSQS-24D hull-mounted sonar that replaced the DE-1160, the Selex Communications SIT422 CI and M425 NGIFF, two Saab Bridge Pointer Target Designation Sights (TDS, INMARSAT-M, Saab Link E Link G (TIDLS), Saab Link 11 (TADIL-B) etc. Source

Atlas Elektronik DSQS-24D hull-mounted sonar

Atlas Elektronik hull sonarTaksin (422) – Image:

2 Kelvin Hughes SharpEye I-Band and E/F-Band (X & S-Band) radars


The ships are also equipped with one Furuno navigation radar (replaced Raytheon AN/SPS-64) and two Kelvin Hughes SharpEye I-Band and E/F-Band (X & S-Band) radars that replaced other Chinese-built radars in the class. SharpEye transmits a low power patented pulse sequence, which enables short, medium and long range radar returns to be detected simultaneously, allowing the radar operator to maintain situational awareness regardless of the range scale setting of the radar display. Other users of the radar can select their own radar display range scale. A low peak transmission power (less than 300W) equivalent to a 25kW magnetron reduces the probability of intercept by ESM systems. Doppler processing of radar returns provides coherent information concerning a target’s velocity (radial) and enable the detection of very small and slow moving objects and targets with a low RCS (Radar Cross Section) and through a series of electronic filters is able to distinguish between the targets of interest and sea, rain and land clutter. SharpEye I-Band (X-Band) transmitters are the first in their class to employ Gallium Nitride GaN power transistor technology. The significant performance benefits of GaN transistors have been harnessed to directly improve the performance of the radar. Other differentiating technologies include Moving Target Detection (MTD) providing enhanced clutter suppression at the Doppler processing stage and pulse compression of the return signal, enabling a low transmit power, providing efficient use of the radar and reducing the probability of detection by ESM equipment. SharpEye is a truly multipurpose naval radar transceiver and is/can be used for navigation, surface search and helicopter control and recovery.  Source

The frigate has an aft helicopter deck to allow the operations of a single helicopter, such as a Bell212 ASW or Super Lynx helicopter. There is also a hangar.

RTN Super Lynx

A4013207091734758RTN Super Lynx multi-purpose military helicopter


Building on the proven capabilities of the highly successful Lynx family, the 5.3 tonne Super Lynx 300 is equipped with advanced sensors, mission systems and a wide range of weapons, providing maritime commanders with Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR), Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO), Anti Surface Warfare (ASuW), Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Search and Rescue (SAR) capabilities, typical of larger helicopters.

The unique maritime features of Super Lynx 300 enable operations from the smallest helicopter-capable ships in the harshest environments.


  • Purpose built maritime helicopter optimised for harsh maritime, small ship, operations; day/night, all weather capability
  • Two powerful LHTEC CTS800-4N engines with FADEC, highly responsive main rotor system with negative pitch, excellent tail rotor authority, high decent rate undercarriage, harpoon deck-lock and proven deck handling system enable operations in severe weather and high sea states
  • Main rotor blade and tail fold minimise hangar space requirements
  • Low workload Night Vision Goggle (NVG) compatible glass cockpit and integrated avionics suite provides excellent situational awareness and mission effectiveness
  • ASuW mission system includes maritime radar, Electronic Support Measures (ESM), Electro Optic / Infra-Red (EO/IR) device, Anti-Ship Missiles (ASM), rockets and guns
  • ASW mission system includes maritime radar, Electronic Support Measures (ESM), Active Dipping Sonar (ADS) and torpedoes
  • Extensive role equipment including troop seats, stretchers, cargo hook, rescue hoist, internal weapon mounts and external weapon carriers


Leading Features

MTOW: 5.3 tonne

Power plant: 2 x LHTEC CTS800-4N with FADEC

Crew: 1 pilot and 1 co-pilot / TACCO

Technical Data

Max take Off (Int. Loads) 5330 kg 11750 lb
Engine Rating (2 x LHTEC CTS800-4N)
Take Off Power 1014 kW 1361 shp
Crew 2/3
Passengers Up to 7
External Dimensions    
Overall Length (Rotors turning) 15.24 m  50 ft 0 in
Overall Height (Rotors turning) 3.67 m  12 ft 0 in
Rotor Diameter 12.80 m  42 ft 0 in
Cruise speed 244 km/h 132 kt
Hovering IGE > 3350 m > 11000 ft
Hovering OGE 2620 m 8600 ft
Max Range (Max Std Fuel, No Reserve, @ 6,000 ft) 574 km 310 nm
Max endurance (Max Std Fuel, No Reserve, @ 6,000 ft) 3 h


  • Anti Surface Warfare Missile
  • Torpedo
  • Depth Charges
  • Pintle Mounted 12.7/7.62mm Machine Guns
  • Rockets    

Super Lynx data


HTMS Taksin (422) – Image:

Terma SKWS (Soft Kill Weapon System) C-Guard

Image: Terma

Terma SKWS (Soft Kill Weapon System) C-Guard is the decoy launching system of the ships that replaced the obsolete Chinese ones. The system is integrated with the Combat Managment System, that can fire all existing 130 mm decoys – also known as SeaGnat decoys, made to defeat stream attack with multiple missiles and torpedoes from multiple directions. The system is based on two Terma DL-12T launchers (12 firing tubes each) on each side of the ship and four Terma Mk137 SRBOC launchers (6 firing tubes each) atop the bridge. The total number of decoy launchers is 48 (!), which is the maximum system configuration supporting the 48 launchers, three Control Units and uses two Launcher Interface Units providing a dual network. This configuration and the dual voltage power supply in each LIU secure a high MTBCF and graceful degradation in case of any malfunction. Source

Terma DL-12T launchers

Terma DL-12T launchers (12 firing tubes each) Naresuan – Image:

Terma Mk137 SRBOC launchers

Terma Mk137 SRBOC launchers on Naresuan – Image: defense-studies.blogspot.grImage:

ES-3601S – Tactical Radar ESM and Surveillance System


The ES-3601S is a cost effective high-capability radar Electronic Support Measures system for surface naval applications. The ES-3601S uses an innovative monopulse direction-finding system for accurate bearing measurements, and has been integrated into a variety of combat system environments. The ES-3601 is currently operational on platforms from Europe to Asia.

Tactical Radar ESM and Surveillance Capabilities

  • 100% Probability of Intercept
  • Instantaneous DF over 360°
  • Accurate 2 x 4 element monopulse DF
  • Long range detection, DF and tracking
  • Measures all radars simultaneously


Naresuan Class propulsion and speed

Naresuan Class is powered by combined diesel or gas (CODOG) propulsion system. It includes two General Electric LM2500 gas turbine and two MTU 20V1163 TB83 diesel engines, driving two controllable pitch propellers through twin shafts. The propulsion system provides a maximum speed of 32kt and a range of 4,000nmi at 18kt speed.

2 x General Electric LM2500 gas turbine


The General Electric LM2500 is an industrial and marine gas turbine produced by GE Aviation. The LM2500 is a derivative of the General Electric CF6 aircraft engine.

The LM2500 is available in 3 different versions:

  • The LM2500 delivers 33,600 shaft horsepower (shp) (25,060 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 37 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 24 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 36 percent at ISO conditions.
  • The improved, 3rd generation, LM2500+ version of the turbine delivers 40,500 shp (30,200 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 29 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 38 percent at ISO conditions.
  • The latest, 4th generation, LM2500+G4 version was introduced in November 2005 and delivers 47,370 shp (35,320 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39.3 percent at ISO conditions.

LM2500 installations place the engine inside a metal container for sound and heat isolation from the rest of the machinery spaces. This container is very near the size of a standard 40-foot (12 m) intermodal shipping container – but not the same, the engine size very slightly exceeds those dimensions. The air intake ducting may be designed and shaped appropriately for easy removal of the LM2500 from their ships. Source

2 x MTU 20V1163 TB83 diesel engines

Series 1163        
No. of cylinders
12V 16V 20V
Cylinder configuration
60°V 60°V 60°V
Bore/Stroke mm
230/280 230/280 230/280
Rated power max. kW
4440 5920 7400
Speed max. 1/min.
1300 1300 1300


General characteristics
Type: Frigate
Displacement: 2,985 tons full load
Length: 120.5 m
Beam: 13.7 m
Draught: 6 m
Propulsion: 1 × General Electric LM2500+gas turbine and 2 × MTU20V1163 TB83 diesel engines, driving two shafts with controllable pitch propellersin CODOG configuration.
Speed: 32 knots (59 km/h) max
Range: 4000 nmi(7408 km) at 18 kn
Complement: 150
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
  • ESM ITT ES-3601 (AN/SLQ-4)
  • ECM Type 984-1 noise jammer&Type 981-3 deception jammer
  • Decoys Terma SKWS (C-Guard)
Aircraft carried: 1 x Super Lynx 300


Main material source

Koonasia Ch


20 APRIL 2017

 Trieste, April 20, 2017 – The frigate “Rizzo” was delivered today to the Italian Navy at Fincantieri’s shipyard in Muggiano (La Spezia). It is the sixth vessel of the FREMM program – Multi Mission European Frigates – commissioned to Fincantieri within the international Italian-French program, coordinated by OCCAR (the Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation). Orizzonte Sistemi Navali (51% Fincantieri and 49% Leonardo) is the prime contractor for Italy in the FREMM program, which envisions the building of 10 units, all already ordered.

“Rizzo” is the sixth unit built by Fincantieri including the combat system, the second in multipurpose configuration after the “Carlo Bergamini”, delivered to the Italian Navy in 2012. 144 meters long and with a displacement at full load of approximately 6,700 tons, the FREMM frigates represent technological excellence: designed to reach a maximum speed of 27 knots and to provide accommodation for 200 people (crew and staff), these vessels are able to always guarantee a high degree of flexibility and to operate in a wide range of scenarios and tactical situations.

The FREMM program, representing the Italian and European defence state of the art, stems from the renewal need of the Italian Navy line “Lupo” (already removed) and “Maestrale” (some already removed, other close to the attainment of operational limit) class frigates, both built by Fincantieri in the 1970s.

These units – which will become the backbone of the naval fleet over the next decades –significantly contribute to the development of the tasks assigned to the Italian Navy, being able to operate in various sectors, from specific military purposes to those in favour of the community.

Original post


Related post:

Seventh Italian FREMM “FEDERICO MARTINENGO” European Multi-Mission Frigate Launched

Italian FREMM-class frigate docks in Adelaide in hopes of winning the Australian $35-billion Future Frigates deal

Bergamini class (FREMM) frigates: Details

Textron offers Scorpion and AT-6 for USAF effort to obtain off-the-shelf light attack aircraft

Textron offers Scorpion and AT-6 for OA-X effort


Textron Aviation is promoting both the Scorpion jet and Beechcraft AT-6 turboprop to the US Air Force for its OA-X light attack demonstration effort.

Speaking on a first quarter earnings call on 19 April, Scott Donnelly, chief executive of parent company Textron, confirmed that it had responded to the service with both models.

“We think both aircraft, whilst they’re different aircraft in terms of the performance envelope, can both fit within the realm of what kinds of capabilities the air force is looking to see demonstrated,” he says.

Donnelly anticipates a decision from the service in May on whether one or both aircraft will be invited to participate in a flight-test phase, due to take place in August or September this year at Holloman AFB in New Mexico.

The USAF has no programme of record for a light-attack type, but is keen to see if the capabilities offered could provide a more cost-effective solution against certain targets than expensive fourth- or fifth-generation fighters.

Donnelly says a second production-conforming Scorpion got airborne “earlier this week”, adding to an example that first flew in December 2016.

With a third flight-test vehicle currently in final assembly, Donnelly says the expanded fleet could allow it to devote two aircraft to the OA-X campaign and a third to the certification effort.

He says there is already “a fair bit of work” being carried out to prepare the Scorpion’s mission systems for OA-X “which is very specific to what we know the air force is going to want to see demonstrated”.

The aircraft need to be ready before August, he adds, “because the program will require flight training for some of the air force pilots”.

In addition, conversations are continuing with potential export customers, with a series of demonstration flights now being scheduled for “one of the more important” prospects, says Donnelly.

“As you can imagine, the foreign customers are also very interested in this US Air Force programme because they like to see what the US Air Force is doing,” he says.

Developed by the Textron AirLand joint venture, the Scorpion is intended as a low-cost ground attack or surveillance platform.

Powered by twin Honeywell TFE731 engines, it has already conducted a number of tests, including a series of weapons firings in October 2016.

Original post


Related post:

US Air Force planning a light attack aircraft experiment this summer

USAF plan to request funding for light-attack aircraft experimentation

The USAF needs more than 300 light attackaircraft—now

US Air Force eyeing potential commercial-off-the-shelf light attack aircraft

US Air Force to asses improved Scorpion jet

First production Scorpion test flown

Scorpion jet may have a shot in possible Air Force contest

Textron Begins a Limited Production Run of Scorpion Jet, But No Contract Yet

US Air Force Mulls Fly Off for Possible Light Attack Aircraft Buy

Textron’s Scorpion jet completes first weapons exercise

Air Force reaches deal through Wright-Patterson to test Scorpion jet

Cessna Manufacturer Gears Up For War

Air Force to Certify Scorpion Jet, Broadening Its International Appeal

Scorpion Selected for ASDOT Proposal

OPINION: Can Scorpion jet fight its way to sales success?

Scorpion Attack Aircraft: Details


Beechcraft AT-6: Details

Royal Navy orders 6th Astute class submarine for £1.4 Billion

£1.4 Billion Royal Navy Submarine Deal Agreed

Wed, 19/04/2017 – 15:03

The Ministry of Defence has agreed a new £1.4 billion contract for the Royal Navy’s new attack submarine.

Agamemnon is the sixth out of seven in the Astute class fleet and will protect the UK’s nuclear deterrent and new aircraft carriers.

The class of submarines are being built by BAE Systems.

Construction of the 7,400 tonne, 97-metre long Agamemnon began in 2012, alongside Anson, the fifth boat of the fleet, and the currently unnamed ‘Boat 7’.

Their sister submarines, HMS Astute, Ambush and Artful are already in service with the Royal Navy on global operations.

Defence Secretary, Sir Michael Fallon, said: “This latest investment means we are well on our way to completing our fleet of Astute submarines.

“These are the most advanced submarines ever operated by the Royal Navy and are already providing unprecedented levels of stealth and attack capability across the world.”

The Astute class submarines are able to travel the world completely submerged underwater, as it manufactures oxygen for its crew using seawater.

The fleet is replacing the Royal Navy’s current Trafalgar class of submarines.

Original post


Astute Class SSN: Details

South Korea’s Navy develops new ship-to-ground missile

Navy develops new ship-to-ground missile

South Korea’s Navy on Tuesday released photos of successful test-firings of a new tactical ship-to-ground guided missile from a battleship on an unidentified date. [YONHAP]

Apr 19,2017

South Korea’s Navy has completed the development of new tactical ship-to-ground guided missiles that would enhance its ability to strike North Korea’s key military facilities, the country’s arms procurement agency said Tuesday.

South Korea will start mass-producing the missiles with two types of launch systems – inclined and vertical – next year after a seven-year project led by the Agency for Defense Development, according to the Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA).

The missiles have met all the required operational capabilities in a recent test for use by next-generation frigates, it added.

The shrapnel of the missiles’ warhead can penetrate armored vehicles and destroy an area with the size of two football fields at a shot, the agency said.

The nation’s warships have largely depended on anti-ship or anti-aircraft guided missiles. But the successful development of the new missile will upgrade its capability to attack ground targets.

Especially, ship-to-ground missiles with a vertical launch platform that can be used by various naval ships will be operational beginning in 2019.

“[South Korea] has become able to strike from sea not only the enemy’s major bases on the ground but also core facilities, including those related to ballistic missile launches,” said Lee Sang-moon, head of the DAPA’s guided weapon development team.

The new missile will serve as key maritime equipment for the military’s Kill Chain pre-emptive strike system against North Korea’s provocations, he added.


Original post


Looks like the SSM-700K Haeseong (C-Star) Anti-ship Missile…….So I assume it is the land attack version……

 SSM-700K Haeseong (C-Star)

SSM-700K Haeseong (C-Star) Anti-ship Missile (Hangul: 해성 미사일) is a ship launched anti-ship cruise missile developed by the Korea Agency for Defense Development (ADD), LIG Nex1 and the Republic of Korea Navy in 2003.[1] The missiles are deployed on KDX-II and KDX-III destroyers as of 2006, each carrying 8 and 16 of the missiles respectively.

Development History

During the 1970s the Republic of Korea Navy decided to import Exocet anti-ship missiles to deter North Korean naval provocations. Considering the fact that the DPRK Navy was then and now mostly composed of numerous small to midsize ships, a cheap, small guided anti-ship missile was proposed. In 1978 the Korean Agency for Defense Development (ADD) started the development of the Hae Ryong anti-ship missile, and by 1987 the ROK Navy approved for the mass production of the missiles. But the Hae Ryong was fitted with a semi-active laser guidance system, limiting its tactical capability during bad weather. Additional pressure from the USA ultimately resulted in the termination of the project.

In 1990, the problem of large proportions of the defense budget going into buying anti-ship missiles from foreign countries was brought up. The ROK Navy ordered the ADD to develop a missile that was in par with or better in performance than the Harpoon Block 1C missile. The new missile was codenamed Haeseong, and research of the following core missile technologies was started in 1996.

  • Microwave Seeking System
  • Inertial Navigation System
  • Radio Altimeter
  • Electronic Jamming system
  • Turbofan Engine

After 7 years of research, on August 21, 2003, the ADD successfully test fired the Haeseong and sunk the target dummy vessel. On December 20, 2005 the first production model was successfully fired from ROKS Dae Joyeong (DDH 977) KDX-II class destroyer.

Cruise missiles

In September 2011, South Korean defense officials confirmed the development of a supersonic cruise missile based on the Haeseong I anti-ship missile, called the Haeseong II. The Haeseong II is designed as a ship-to-surface cruise missile that travels faster than Mach 1 that can evade defense systems and accurately strike ground targets, particularly North Korean missile launch pads. The missile was developed without the assistance of the United States and will not be offered for export due to restrictions of the Missile Technology Control Regime. Ships will launch the missile with the installation of vertical and slant launch systems, and strike targets over 500 km (310 mi; 270 nmi) away.[2] There is a version of the Haeseong cruise missile designed to be launched underwater from submarines called the Haeseong III.[3] The Haeseong cruise missiles are believed to have become operational in 2013.[4]   Source

Weight 718 kg(with launcher:1,016kg)
Length 5.46 m
Width 0.34 m
180 km+
Flight altitude Sea-skimming
Speed 1013 km/h (Mach 0.85)


F-22 to Get Software Update 6 for Datalink and Sensor Targeting Technology

Air Force Plans to Better Link F-22 and F-35 Sensor Targeting Technology


The F-22 upgrade allows full functionality for the AIM-120D and AIM-9X Air-to-Air missiles as well as enhanced Air-to-Surface target location capabilities.

The Air Force is in the early phases of designing new sensors for its stealthy 5th-generation F-22 Raptor as it proceeds with software upgrades, hardware adjustments, new antennas and data link improvements designed to better enable to connect the F-22 and F-35 sensor packages to one another, industry officials explained.

Sensor interoperability, two-way data links and other kinds of technical integration between the two 5th-Gen stealth aircraft are considered key to an Air Force combat strategy which intends for the F-22 speed and air-to-air combat supremacy to complement and work in tandem with the F-35’s next-gen sensors, precision-attack technology, computers and multi-role fighting mission ability.

“The F-22 is designed to fly in concert with F-35. Software Update 6 for the F-22 will give the Air Force a chance to link their sensor packages together. Sensors are a key component to its capability. As the F-22 gets its new weapons on board – you are going to need to upgrade the sensors to use the new weapons capability,” John Cottam, F-22 Program Deputy, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics, told Scout Warrior in an interview.

While the F-35 is engineered with dog-fighting abilities, its advanced sensor technology is intended to recognize enemy threats at much further distances – enabling earlier, longer-range attacks to destroy enemies in the air. Such technologies, which include 360-degree sensors known as Northrop Grumman’s Distributed Aperture System and a long range Electro-Optical Targeting System, are designed to give the F-35 an ability to destroy targets at much longer ranges – therefore precluding the need to dogfight.

Like the F-35, the latest F-22s have radar (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and data-links (F-22 has LINK 16), radar warning receivers and targeting technologies. Being that the F-22 is regarded as the world’s best air-to-air platform, an ability for an F-35 and F-22 to more quickly exchange sensor information such as targeting data would produce a potentially unprecedented battlefield advantage, industry developers and Air Force senior leaders have explained. The combined impact of each of the airplanes respective technological advantages makes for an unrivaled air-combat supremacy, observers have argued.

For example, either of the aircraft could use stealth technology to penetrate enemy airspace and destroy air defense systems. Once a safe air corridor is established for further attacks, an F-22 could maintain or ensure continued air supremacy while an F-35 conducted close-air-support ground attacks or pursued ISR missions with its drone-like video-surveillance technology. Additionally, either platform could identify targets for the other, drawing upon the strengths of each.

Conversely, an F-35 could use its long-range sensors and “sensor fusion” to identify airborne targets which the F-22 may be best suited to attack.

Air Force developers are, quite naturally, acutely aware of the Chinese J-20 stealth fighter and Russia’s PAK-FA T-50 stealth aircraft as evidence that the US will need to work vigorously to sustain its technological edge.

Along these lines, both the F-22 and F-35 are engineered to draw from “mission data files,” described as on-board libraries storing information on known threats in particular geographical locations. This database is integrated into a radar warning receiver so that aircraft have the earliest possible indication of the threats they are seeing.

Air Force officials have told Scout Warrior that, by 2019, the service will begin upgrading F-22 functionality for the AIM-120D and AIM-9X Air-to-Air missiles as well as enhanced Air-to-Surface target location capabilities. The F-22 currently carries the AIM-9X Block 1 and the current upgrade will enable carriage of AIM-9X Block 2.

Raytheon AIM-9X weapons developers explain that the Block 2 variant adds a redesigned fuze and a digital ignition safety device that enhances ground handling and in-flight safety. Block II also features updated electronics that enable significant enhancements, including lock-on-after-launch capability using a new weapon datalink to support beyond visual range engagements, a Raytheon statement said.

Another part of the weapons upgrade includes engineering the F-22 to fire the AIM-120D, a beyond visual range Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM), designed for all weather day-and-night attacks; it is a “fire and forget” missile with active transmit radar guidance, Raytheon data states. The AIM-120D is built with upgrades to previous AMRAAM missiles by increasing attack range, GPS navigation, inertial measurment units and a two-way data link, Raytheon statements explain.

As the Air Force and Lockheed Martin move forward with weapons envelope expansions and enhancements for the F-22, there is of course a commensurate need to upgrade software and its on-board sensors to adjust to emerging future threats, industry developers explained. Ultimately, this effort will lead the Air Force to draft up requirements for new F-22 sensors.

Cottam also explained that the House and Senate have directed the Air Force to look at two different potential sensor upgrades for the F-22, an effort the service is now in the conceptual phase of exploring.

“A sensor enhancement program is now being configured. We do not know what that is going to entail because it is not yet funded by the Air Force and we have not seen a requirements documents,” Cottam said. “Threats in the world are always evolving so we need to evolve this plane as well.”

An essential software adjustment, called “Update 6,” is now being worked on by Lockheed Martin engineers on contract with the Air Force. Work on the software is slated to be finished by 2020, Cottam added.

A hardware portion of the upgrades, called a “tactical mandate,” involves engineering new antennas specifically designed to preserve the stealth configuration of the F-22.

“New antennas have to be first constructed. They will be retrofitted onto the airplane. Because of the stealth configuration putting, antennas on is difficult and time consuming,” Cottam said.

Meanwhile, the Air Force is performing key maintenance on the F-22 Raptor’s stealth materials while upgrading the stealth fighter with new attack weapons to include improved air-to-air and air-to-surface strike technology, service officials said.

The AIM-120D also includes improved High-Angle Off-Boresight technology enabling the weapon to destroy targets at a wider range of angles.

Additional upgrades to the stealth fighter, slated for 2021, are designed to better enable digital communications via data links with 4th and 5th generation airplanes.

“The backbone of this upgrade also includes the installation of an open systems architecture that will allow for future upgrades to be done faster and at less expense than could be previously accomplished,” 1st Lt. Carrie J. Volpe, Action Officer, Air Combat Command Public Affair, Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Va., told Scout Warrior.

 Stealth Coating Maintenance

The Air Force has contracted Lockheed Martin to perform essential maintenance to the F-22’s low-observable stealth coating to ensure it is equipped to manage fast-emerging threats.

Lockheed Martin completed the first F-22 Raptor at the company’s Inlet Coating Repair (ICR) Speedline, a company statement said.

“Periodic maintenance is required to maintain the special exterior coatings that contribute to the 5th Generation Raptor’s Very Low Observable radar cross-section,” Lockheed stated.

The increase in F-22 deployments, including ongoing operational combat missions, has increased the demand for ICR. Additionally, Lockheed Martin is providing modification support services, analytical condition inspections, radar cross section turntable support and antenna calibration.

F-22 Attack & Supercruise Technology 

At the moment, targeting information from drones is relayed from the ground station back up to an F-22.  However, computer algorithms and technology is fast evolving such that aircraft like an F-22s will soon be able to quickly view drone video feeds in the cockpit without needing a ground station — and eventually be able to control nearby drones from the air. These developments were highlighted in a special Scout Warrior interview with Air Force Chief Scientist Greg Zacharias.

Zacharias explained that fifth generation fighters such as the F-35 and F-22 are quickly approaching an ability to command-and-control nearby drones from the air. This would allow unmanned systems to deliver payload, test enemy air defenses and potentially extend the reach of ISR missions.

Newer F-22s have a technology called Synthetic Aperture Radar, or SAR, which uses electromagnetic signals or “pings” to deliver a picture or rendering of the terrain below, allow for better target identification.

The SAR technology sends a ping to the ground and then analyzes the return signal to calculate the contours, distance and characteristics of the ground below.

Overall, the Air Force operates somewhere between 80 and 100 or more F-22s. Dave Majumdar of The National Interest writes that many would like to see more F-22s added to the Air Force arsenal. (Story HERE). For instance, some members of Congress, such as former Rep. Randy Forbes, R-Va., have requested that more F-22s be built, given its technological superiority.

Citing budget concerns, Air Force officials have said it is unlikely the service will want to build new F-22s, however it is possible the Trump administration could want to change that.

F-22 Technologies

The F-22 is known for a range of technologies including an ability called “super cruise” which enables the fighter to reach speeds of Mach 1.5 without needing to turn on its after burners.

“The F-22 engines produce more thrust than any current fighter engine. The combination of sleek aerodynamic design and increased thrust allows the F-22 to cruise at supersonic airspeeds. Super Cruise greatly expands the F-22’s operating envelope in both speed and range over current fighters, which must use fuel-consuming afterburner to operate at supersonic speeds,” Col. Larry Broadwell, the Commander of the 1st Operations Group at Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Virginia, told Scout Warrior in a special pilot interview last year.

The fighter jet fires a 20mm cannon and has the ability to carry and fire all the air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons including precision-guided ground bombs, such Joint Direct Attack Munitions called the GBU 32 and GBU 39, Broadwell explained. In the air-to-air configuration the Raptor carries six AIM-120 AMRAAMs and two AIM-9 Sidewinders, he added.

“The F-22 possesses a sophisticated sensor suite allowing the pilot to track, identify, shoot and kill air-to-air threats before being detected. Significant advances in cockpit design and sensor fusion improve the pilot’s situational awareness,” he said.

It also uses what’s called a radar-warning receiver – a technology which uses an updateable data base called “mission data files” to recognize a wide-range of enemy fighters, Broadwell said.

Made by Lockheed Martin and Boeing, the F-22 uses two Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 turbofan engines with afterburners and two-dimensional thrust vectoring nozzles, an Air Force statement said.  It is 16-feet tall, 62-feet long and weighs 43,340 pounds. Its maximum take-off weight is 83,500.

The aircraft was first introduced in December of 2005, and each plane costs $143 million, Air Force statements say.

“Its greatest asset is the ability to target attack and kill an enemy without the enemy ever being aware they are there,” Broadwell added.

The Air Force’s stealthy F-22 Raptor fighter jet delivered some of the first strikes in the U.S.-led attacks on the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, when aerial bombing began in 2014, service officials told Scout Warrior.

After delivering some of the first strikes in the U.S. Coalition-led military action against ISIS, the F-22 began to shift its focus from an air-dominance mission to one more focused on supporting attacks on the ground.

“An F-22 squadron led the first strike in OIR (Operation Inherent Resolve). The aircraft made historic contributions in the air-to-ground regime,” he added.

Even though ISIS does not have sophisticated air defenses or fighter jets of their own to challenge the F-22, there are still impactful ways in which the F-22 continues to greatly help the ongoing attacks, Broadwell said.

“There are no issues with the air superiority mission. That is the first thing they focus on. After that, they can transition to what they have been doing over the last several months and that has been figuring out innovative ways to contribute in the air-to-ground regime to support the coalition,” Broadwell said.

Original post


Software Update 6 Details

In 2012, Government Accountability Office (GAO) documents show that the USAF plans to bring 143 F-22As to the Block 35 standard with full Increment 3.2 upgrades at a total cost of $1.5653 billion and a unit cost of $10.298 million per airframe.[11] These 143 airframes likely consist of 123 PMAI (Primary Mission Aircraft Inventory) aircraft as well as those squadron’s accompanied 12 BAIs (Backup Aircraft Inventory) airframes and the remaining 8 airframes would plausibly be assigned to Nellis for TES or USAF Weapons School roles. Major F-22 upgrade programs are detailed below, the upgrades are generally understood to be associated with the following Block designations:

  • Increment 2.0 = Block 20 – earlier airframes upgraded to this baseline
  • Increment 3.1 = Block 30
  • Increment 3.2 = Block 35

In addition to the upgrade programs below, the F-22 is receiving additional upgrades through the Increment 3.2 follow-on, “Budget Program Activity Code [BPAC]: 674788 – F-22 Tactical Mandates” which consists of Update 5 and Update 6.

GAO vs USAF description of F-22 modernization effort components retrieved via CRS. Auto GCAS capability has been withdrawn from the Increment 3.2 upgrade and is now featured within the Update 5 software modification. Much more detailed examination of F-22 upgrades is available here: – Image:

The F-22 Tactical Mandates series of software upgrades have three principal objectives: reduce the risk of fratricide, improve fourth-to-fifth generation communication, and complete risk reduction measures for the Increment 3.2B upgrade via partial integration of the AIM-9X.[12] The most substantial Tactical Mandates components not listed under either Update 5 or Update 6 are Link-16 transmit capability and Identification friend or foe (IFF) mode 5 integration. A total of 72 F-22As will receive Link-16 transmit capability by 2020; the distribution of these 72 aircraft among the PMAI squadrons and the nature of the Link-16 modification, i.e. use of L-3 developed “Chameleon” waveform to reduce probability of detection, have not been specified. [13] In the interim period prior to the 2020 Link-16 upgrade, Raptor pilots will continue to utilize a series of ad-hoc operational procedures to share information over UHF and VHF radio with 4th generation pilots when there are no Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN) aircraft is not present; Update 5 modified aircraft will also be able to utilize the Intra-Flight Data Link (IFDL) GWY Mode as a means to communicate with 4th generation aircraft.[14][15]  

            In 2014, pilots from the 422d TES tested the Scorpion helmet mounted cueing system (HMCS) for integration with the F-22. However, the Scorpion was ultimately not funded as the Air Force was struggling to fund Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) mandated items such as mode 5 IFF as part of the Tactical Mandates program.[16] While integration of a HMCS or helmet mounted display (HMD) may seem of greater utility to F-22 combat capabilities than IFF upgrades, aircraft than have not featured the latest available IFF standard have often been relegated to subordinate roles or have had to adhere to strict rules of engagement which greatly diminish the capabilities of their aircraft. For example, F-4 Phantoms often struggled to identify distant radar contacts in the early years of the Vietnam War such that full use of the Phantom’s beyond visual range (BVR) capabilities was not realized until the fielding of the APX-80 IFF in 1972.  

BAE PowerPoint slide showing contract award for AN/DPX-7 transponder integration into the F-22. TACAN = Tactical Air Navigation, ADS-B = Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast, M5L2 = Mode 5 Level 2 – Broadcast. Image Credit: BAE systems.  Image:

The APX-80 IFF was developed under the “Combat Tree” program in which the U.S. covertly acquired Soviet SRO-2 IFFs from Arab MiGs downed during the Six Day War. APX-80 equipped Phantoms enabled pilots to not only recognize friendly IFF contacts, but also to definitely recognize adversary aircraft at BVR.[17]

The Update 5 software modification component of the Tactical Mandates program is actively being integrated within the F-22 fleet, “The Update 5 Operation Flight Program (OFP) includes Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (AGCAS), Intra Flight Data Link Mode 5th to 4th generation IFDL capability (IFDL GWY Mode), and basic to Block I AIM-9X missile launch capability”.[20] Full integration of the more capable AIM-9X Block II requires Increment 3.2B upgrades which prove two-way datalink functionality between the F-22 and AIM-9X Block II thereby enabling lock-after launch (LOAL) capability. Furthermore, the symbology, possibly the weapons engagement zone (WEZ), for the AIM-9X is displayed with AIM-9M characteristics on the F-22’s HUD under the Update 5 modification. Increment 3.2B will rectify the symbology issues but is not scheduled to incorporate a HMD which facilitate AIM-9X HOBS. However, Raptor pilots will still be able to fully utilize the AIM-9X’s increased range and maneuverability enhancements over the AIM-9M as a result of the Update 5 modification. While the AIM-9X integration component of Update 5 is significant, the AGCAS capability is critical to mitigating the potential of future write-offs within the small F-22 fleet; the Update 5 modification also improves general software stability.

Update 6 appears to be geared towards both denying potential adversaries a source of signals intelligence and bolstering the cyber security, and possibly the resilience of, of Link-16 and IFDL:

U6 will develop, test and field new capabilities and capability enhancements including changes driven by real world evolving threats, emergency/safety of flight issues, and deficiency reports. U6 Interoperability provides cryptographic updates required by the National Security Agency (NSA) to IFDL, Link-16, and Tactical Secure Voice (TSV) and development to maintain interoperability with the enhancements to Link-16 and Secure Voice networks. The U6 Interoperability program will absorb and build upon the development work already accomplished in the KOV-20 Cryptographic Modernization Program and integrate that development into a single Operational Flight Program (OFP) for fleet release. In addition, U6 Interoperability will develop and deliver software fixes identified as critical to the operational community. – Exhibit R-2, RDT&E Budget Item Justification: PB 2016 Air Force – PE 0207138F: F, 2015.[22] [Emphasis added]

While the current F-22 modernization program represents a holistic approach to increasing the combat capabilities of the fleet with respect to suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD)/destruction of enemy air defense (DEAD) roles, augmenting the F-22’s already formidable beyond visual range (BVR) and within visual range (WVR) capabilities, and improving 4th to 5th generation compatibility – planned upgrades to not remedy deeper design deficiencies within the F-22A. While the F-22 is unambiguously the most lethal air-to-air platform in existence, the F-22 was designed during the 1980s and 1990s under a different threat and technological environment. Namely the F-22’s antiquated internal computing capabilities, software, high maintenance requirements, and limited combat radius degrade the utility of the F-22 within the context of operating in the Asia-Pacific against increasingly capable great power threats. Source

Thales Scorpion Helmet Mounted Cueing Systems (HMCS)


Thales to supply Scorpion® helmet display

Key points

  • This is the first helmet mounted display that features colour symbology and video imaging for both daytime and nighttime missions.
  • Thales will be responsible for the viability study, testing phase, integration with test aircraft, qualification support and integration in the fleet.

Thales will also be responsible for the development and production of the specific configuration for the Spanish Air Force EF-18. The system is already operational in multiple platforms in the United States

Image @thalesvisionix.comImage

Scorpion® is a ‘force multiplier’ system offering full colour symbology (navigation, intelligence, combat, etc.) for both nighttime and daytime missions, in addition to target cueing in potentially degraded visual environments, therefore easily allowing target designation and allocation of points of interest with the aircraft’s sensors. Scorpion® is fully interchangeable between helmets/pilots as it is installed directly over standard helmets, allowing the total amount of equipment necessary for the fleet to be reduced, thus favouring maintenance and reducing life-cycle costs.

Sensor Video Capability

Thales will be responsible for the viability study, testing phase, integration with test aircraft, qualification support and integration in the fleet. Thales will also be responsible for the development and production of the specific Scorpion® configuration for the Spanish EF-18 including ejection safety analysis. The qualification phase includes inter-operability with the IRIS-T missile and the daytime/ nighttime-imaging pod for cueing lightening targets.

Note to editors

The HMCS uses the patented and innovative HObIT (Hybrid Optical based Inertial Tracking) technology, the hybrid reference system that warrants high precision with minimum cabin intrusion. For nighttime missions, Scorpion can be operated with standard unmodified night vision goggles (NVG), therefore offering the same quality colour/video imaging symbol combination.
The system is already operational on multiple platforms in the United States such as the F16 Block 30/32 and the A10 ‘Thunderbolt II’ and has been flight tested on the F-22, the NH-90 and many other platforms. At present, the system is being actively evaluated by other clients globally.


F-22 Raptor: Details

Formidable Class Frigate, Singapore

Six Formidable Class multi-mission frigates have been built for the Singapore Navy. The first of class, RSS Formidable, was launched on 7 January 2004 at the Lorient dockyard in Brittany, France.

The Republic of Singapore Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) awarded the contract in March 2002 to DCN (now DCNS) in France for the design and construction of the frigates. The contract included a technology transfer programme under which the construction of the first frigate was carried out in France and then five further frigates were built in Singapore by Singapore Technology Marine (STM) at the Benoi shipyard. The frigate programme is named Project Delta and is being managed by Singapore’s state-owned Defence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA).


Following the launch of the RSS Formidable in January 2004, work started on fitting the combat and platform systems. The frigate arrived at Changi Naval Base, Singapore, in August 2005 and was commissioned in May 2007. The six Formidable Class frigates were declared fully operational in January 2009.

Name Pennant
Launched Commissioned Status
RSS Formidable 68 7 January 2004 5 May 2007
RSS Intrepid 69 3 July 2004 5 February 2008
RSS Steadfast 70 28 January 2005 5 February 2008
RSS Tenacious 71 15 July 2005 5 February 2008
RSS Stalwart 72 9 December 2005 16 January 2009
RSS Supreme 73 9 May 2006 16 January 2009

Formidable Class frigates

Click to enlarge: modified photo of a Formidable class frigate prior the improvements. High resolution image here. – Source

As well as RSS Formidable (68), the class consists of: RSS Intrepid (69) launched in July 2004, RSS Steadfast (70) launched in January 2005 and RSS Tenacious (71) launched in July 2005 – all commissioned in February 2008; RSS Stalwart (72), launched in December 2005 and delivered in October 2007; and RSS Supreme (73), launched in May 2006 and delivered in August 2008. Stalwart and Supreme were commissioned in January 2009.

The frigates replace the six Sea Wolf Class missile gunboats that entered service in 1972 and are approaching the end of operational life.

Sea Wolf Class missile gunboats

The Sea Wolf class missile gunboats were acquired in 1968, based on the TNC 45 design from Fredrich Lürssen Werft. The first two gunboats were constructed in Germany, while the remaining four were constructed locally by ST Marine (then known as Singapore Shipbuilding and Engineering).

As new technology became available, these gunboats underwent a number of upgrading programmes in the 1980s and 1990s to increase their strike capability and sophistication. These gunboats became the first missile-armed naval vessels in Southeast Asia when they were upgraded to launch Boeing Harpoon (SSM) surface-to-surface missiles. On 13 May 2008, all six gunboats were retired at a sunset decommissioning ceremony held at Changi Naval Base following 33 years of service.

Length 45 metres
Beam 6.5 metres
Displacement 270 tonnes
Crew 40
Speed 30 knots (56 km/h)


La Fayette Class based frigate design

The Project Delta design is a smaller derivative of the French La Fayette Class stealth frigate with low radar, acoustic, infrared and electromagnetic signatures.

La Fayette Class Frigate: Details

(F-710) La Fayette

A high level of automation and closely integrated combat and ship management systems have been selected to allow the frigate to be operated with a crew of just 70. The overall length is 114.8m with a beam of 16.3m and draught of 6.0m. The full load displacement is 3,200t.

Command and control

The combat management system was developed by the state-owned DSTA with ST Electronics to meet the operational requirements of the Republic of Singapore Navy. DSTA also has responsibility for the combat systems integration. The standard operating common consoles, with 20in LCD displays, are supplied by Singapore Technologies Electronics, a subsidiary of ST Engineering.

Combat management system

Image: globalsecurity.orgImage:

The Integrated Communications System is also supplied by Singapore Technologies Electronics.


Formidable missiles


The frigate is armed with the Boeing Harpoon surface-to-surface anti-ship missile. The Harpoon missile has a range of 130km and uses active radar guidance. The missile is armed with a 227kg warhead.

Harpoon anti-ship missile

096be7cca51cbfaff9d777a9b82412abRGM-84D Harpoon

The Harpoon is an all weather, subsonic, over the horizon, anti-ship missile which can be launch from surface ships, submarines and aircraft. Its guidance system consists of a 3-axis integrated digital computer/ radar altimeter for midcourse guidance, and an active radar seeker for the terminal phase of the flight.

The Harpoon flies at subsonic speeds, with a sea-skimming flight trajectory for improved survivability through reduced probability of detection by enemy defenses. It was designed to strike enemy ships in an open ocean environment.

The ship launched RGM-84 Harpoon was introduced in 1977, as well as the encapsulated submarine launched UGM-84.

Diameter: 340 millimeter
Length: 4.63 meter (15.2 foot)
Wingspan: 910 millimeter
Max Range: 124 kilometer (67 nautical mile)

Top Speed: 237 mps (853 kph)
Thrust: 660 pound
Warhead: 224 kilogram (494 pound)
Weight: 691 kilogram



The frigate is fitted with the DCNS Sylver vertical launch system with MBDA Aster 15 surface-to-air missiles. There are four eight-cell SYLVER A43 launch modules with 32 missiles. The two-stage Aster missile is a high-agility and high-manoeuvrability defence missile for deployment against incoming sea skimming anti-ship missiles which use evasive terminal manoeuvres and re-attack modes. In anti-missile mode the Aster 15 has a range of 15km. Aster also provides protection against manned and unmanned aircraft to a range of 30km.

DCNS Sylver vertical launch system


ASTER 15 – Image:

The two-stage ASTER missiles are provided with two different solid propellant boosters resulting in the ASTER 15 and the ASTER 30 models. The ‘Pif-Paf’ control system enables the ASTER missile to counter high maneuverable missiles achieving a direct impact (hit-to-kill). The ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion combines conventional aerodynamic control with control by gas jets acting through the centre of gravity of the missile. Until mid-course the guidance of an ASTER missile is based on the Inertial Navigation System (INS) updated through an uplink, in the terminal phase the guidance is provided by an active Radiofrequency seeker. The final stage of the ASTER missile is a ‘dart’ equipped with the seeker, a sustainer motor, a proximity fuze and a blast fragmentation warhead.

aster_missileThe ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion – Image:

The ASTER 15 is a short range missile intended for self-defense (point defense) purposes against highly maneuverable threats. The ASTER 15 is integrated on the SAAM and beginning in 2006 in the PAAMS system. The SAAM is installed on French-built frigates and the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier. The PAAMS will be provided to the Horizon frigates (France and Italy) and the Type 45 destroyers (United Kingdom).

8d5494eef01f3a29564afa529825bc315d607cafThe basic structure of -ASTER 15/30 – Image:

ASTER 15 version

Diameter: 180 millimeter (7.09 inch)
Length: 4.20 meter (165 inch)
Max Range: 30,000 meter (16.2 nautical mile)
Min Range: 1,700 meter (0.92 nautical mile)
Target’s Max Altitude: 13,000 meter (8.08 mile)
Top Speed: 1,000 mps (3,601 kph)
Weight: 310 kilogram (683 pound)

ASTER 15 data Source

Launch of Aster 15 missile. Photo: Republic of Singapore Navy 


The main gun is the Oto Melara 76mm / 62 Super Rapid gun which fires 6kg shells to a range of 16km at a firing rate up to 120 rounds a minute.

Oto Melara 76mm / 62 Super Rapid gun


Technical data:

Caliber: 3 inches / 76,2 mm
Barrel lenght: 186 inches / 4,72 meters (= 62 caliber)
Weight: 7900kg, empty (Super Rapid)
Shell: 76 x 900 mm / 12,34 kilograms
Elevation: – 15° to + 85°
Traverse: 360°
Rate of fire: Compact: 85 rpm / Super Rapid: selectable from single shot up to 120 rpm
Muzzle Velocity: 925 m/s (1100 m/s – DART)
Magazine: Compact: 80 rounds / SR: 85 rounds
16 kilometers with standard ammunition
20 km with extended range ammunition
up to 40 km with VULCANO ammunition

HE (high explosive) – 6,296kg / Range 16km / effective range 8km (4km vs. air targets at elev. 85°)
MOM (multi-role OTO munition)
PFF (pre-formed fragmentation) – anti-missile ammunition
SAPOM (semi-armored piercing OTO munition) – 6,35kg / Range 16km
SAPOMER (semi-armored piercing OTO munition, extended range) – Range 20km
DART (driven ammunition reduced time of flight) – sub-calibre guided ammunition against multiple targets
(missiles and maneuvering targets at sea) 4,2kg in barrel / 3,5kg in flight / 660mm lenght / effective range >8km
VULCANO (76mm unguided and guided extended range ammunition) – under development


2 x Rafael Typhoon Mk25 naval stabilized gun

Image: David Boey

Typhoon is a family of lightweight, stabilized, remote controlled weapon systems for a full range of weapons, including:

  • Battle proven
  • Highly accurate in day and night operations
  • Lightweight
  • No deck penetration is required
  • Simple operation with high reliability
  • Cost effective
  • Modular design enable future upgrades


Toplite, highly stabilized, multi-role, multi-sensor optronic payload, is a day/night observation and targeting, configured for naval, air and ground surveillance and targeting systems.

Toplite provides the services required for precision guidance for guided weapons, day or night and under adverse weather conditions. Toplite enables observation, target detection, recognition and identification by the use of various sensors including FLIR, CCD and laser rangefinder. Toplite features both manual and automatic target tracking. The system includes the following sub-systems:

  • FLIR: 3rd GEN (3-5micron) or 8-12micron TDi
  • CCD camera B/W or color
  • Eye safe laser rangefinder
  • Laser designator (optional)
  • Advanced correlation tracker  


Close-In Weapon System
  • Mount: General Motors Defence Australia (GMDA) under licence from Rafael.
  • Bushmaster Cannon: Alliant Tech Systems (formerly produced by Boeing).
Rate of Fire
200 rounds per minute
25 millimetre


12.7mm/50 MG Burst

Image: Republic of Singapore Navy
Targets: Surface Vessel, Land Structure – Soft, Mobile Target – Soft
12.7mm/50 MG Burst [10 rnds] – (Facility/Ship, No Anti-Air Capability) Gun
Surface Max: 1.9 km. Land Max: 1.9 km.


Anti-submarine warfare

The EDO Model 980 ALOFTS active low-frequency towed sonar provides long-range detection and classification capability against submarines. ALOFTS comprises a variable depth sonar (VDS) towed body with a towed array. The frigate has two triple-barrelled lightweight torpedo launchers and is armed with the Eurotorp A244S torpedo.

EDO Model 980 ALOFTS active low-frequency towed sonar

General data:  
Type: VDS, Active/Passive Sonar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 2000s
Sensors / EW:
EDO 980 ALOFTS – VDS, Active/Passive Sonar
Role: VDS, Active/Passive Variable Depth Sonar
Max Range: 74.1 km


2 x triple-barrelled lightweight torpedo launchers

RSS Tenacious. Image:

Eurotorp A244S torpedo

Image: EuroTorp
eneral data:  
Type: Torpedo Weight: 254 kg
Length: 2.75 m Span: 0.324 m
Diameter: 0.324 Generation: None
Properties: Search Pattern, Bearing-Only Launch (BOL)
Targets: Submarine
Sensors / EW:
Torpedo Seeker – (A.244S [CIACIO-S]) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Torpedo Seeker, Active/Passive Shallow Water
Max Range: 0.5 km


Frigate aircraft capacities

The frigate has the capacity to operate a single medium-size helicopter in the 10t class. The helicopter deck at the stern, approximately 22m×16m (360m²), has a single landing spot. The hangar is fully equipped with helicopter support and maintenance systems. The frigate carries an additional 15 aircrew for helicopter flight operations.

The Republic of Singapore Air Force will fly the shipborne helicopter and helicopter mission crew will be from the Republic of Singapore Navy. In January 2005, MINDEF placed an order for six Sikorsky S-70B Seahawk helicopters to operate from the frigates.

Sikorsky S-70B Seahawk


Engine – 2 X General Electric T700-GE401C

Power – 1,911.00 Horsepower

Avionics – Rockwell Collins glass cockpit

Maximum Cruising Speed – 270.00 km per hr   167.78 mph

Service Ceiling – 3,616.15 metres   11,864.00 feets

Rate of Climb – 363.32 mpm   1,192.00 fpm

Numbers Ordered/Sold – 0

Cabin Height – 1.30 metres  4.27 feets

Cabin Width – 1.80 metres  5.91 feets

Cabin Length – 3.20 metres  10.50 feets

Exterior Length – 19.76 metres  64.83 feets

Wingspan / Rotor Diameter – 16.36 metres  53.67 feets

Fuselage Diameter – N/A   N/A

Baggage Volume – N/A   N/A

Maximum Take Off Weight – 9,927.00 kgs  21,885.06 lbs

Maximum Payload – 3,628.80 kgs  8,000.00 lbs

Fuel Tank Capacity – 594.45 gallon  2,250.00 litres

Fuel Economy – 0.29 km per litre  0.68 NM per gallon



The Herakles multi-function radar, supplied by Thales, is the frigate’s primary surveillance radar. The phased array radar is a passive, three-dimensional, search and fire control radar operating over E and F bands. The radar, installed in a radome on top of the main mast, carries out long-range air and surface surveillance and weapon control. The Herakles radar is integrated with the Aster air defence missile system.

The frigates surface search and navigation radar is the Terma Scanter 2001, operating at I-band.

Herakles 3D S-band radar

freda_air_defense_fremm_dcns_french_navy_herakles-1Thales’ Herakles S-band multifunction radar. Illustration: Thales

Thales Herakles is installed in a radome on top of the main mast which is a rotating 3D passive electronically scanned array multi-function radar in the E/F-band (S-band) combining air and surface surveillance and fire control radar and thus performing all functions involved in the establishment of air and surface pictures. Herakles performs target detection and tracking, environment mapping, target classification, weapon assignment and deployment and missile uplink guidance. Herakles is optimized to detect and track multiple SSM, ARM, diving missiles, fighters and helicopters in littoral environments. Herakles provides 3D surveillance for up to 250 km (200 km on aircrafts, 60 km on missiles and 20+ km for sea skimming missiles). and it has a track capacity of more than 500 air and surface targets. Each ship is equipped with two Terma SCANTER 2001 navigation radars. One of the radar systems is utilized primarily for navigation and surveillance, whereas the other guides helicopters when landing on the frigates. Source

General data:  
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 203.7 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
Herakles 3D – Radar
Role: Radar, Air & Surface Search, 3D Medium-Range
Max Range: 203.7 km


2 x Terma SCANTER 2001 navigation radar

Terma Radar Systems

The SCANTER 2000 series is an X-band, 2D, fully coherent pulse compression radar, based on Solid State transmitter technology with digital software-defined functionality. It is especially suited for Vessel Traffic Services (VTS), river, and inner port surveillance. The outdoor transceiver unit is very small, weighs only 26 kg, and can be placed up-mast close to the antenna to minimize installation requirements and costs as well as waveguide loss between antenna and transceiver to acheive a high effecient solution. This SCANTER 2000 series provides a fully integrated solution with automated processing and low lifetime cost. Source


Terma has more than 60 years of experience in developing and manufacturing radars, and more than 2,200 radar systems are installed worldwide. Terma provides radar sensors to Vessel Traffic Services

(VTS), Coastal Surveillance Radar (CS), and Surface Movement Radar (SMR) segments. More than 85 of all major airports around the world and 65% of all coastal shores rely on Terma’s sensor technology.


  • Based on Terma’s high-quality and state-of-the-art radar technology
  • Weight only 26 kg
  • Easy integration – standard IP network
  • Low installation life-time cost


Weight 26 kg
Hxwxd 466 mm x 422 mm x 422 mm
Type Solid State power amplifier
Frequency 9.3-9.5GHz
Sector Transmission Blank/reduced tx-power
Sampling 12 bit @ 200 MHz
Dynamic range > 100 db (incl. processing)
Noise figure 2.5 dB typical
Emitter >80W peak (equivalent to 25 kw magnetron)
Min. detection range 30 m


Stir 1.2 Mk2 (Upgraded)

Sting EO Tracking system

Some of the vessels such as RSS Tenacious, RSS Stalwart and RSS Steadfast have received recently various improvements, including the Stir 1.2 Mk2 of Thales on bridge roof, a highly capable medium-to-long range tracking and illumination dual-band (I/K) radar system. A full set of electro-optic equipment (TV/IR/laser) complements the system for optimal performance in demanding environments, The system has been designed primarily to control point and area defence missile systems such as NATO Sea Sparrow, ESSM, Aster and Standard Missiles. A secondary application is the direct control of various caliber guns. Source

Image result for STING-EO Mk2Image:

STING-EO Mk2, Thales’s lightweight dual band (I and K) weapon control system, supports gun fire control, performs kill assessment and makes a valuable contribution to classification and identification of threats. In addition, the system can be used as a surveillance sensor, even under radar silence conditions.

The three data sources (I, K, EO) provide high redundancy, performance and ECCM resistance. STING EO Mk2 incorporates the latest solid-state I-band and K-band radars transmitters (low life cycle cost and high operational availability) and a new generation of electro-optical components (especially a third generation focal plane array infrared camera).

For operation in the littoral environment, STING EO Mk2 offers a list of benefits, such as: superior stealth target detection in strong (land) clutter, higher resistance against more stressing jamming scenarios and an extended EO capability for target identification and observation. 

Instrumented range
– I-band : 120 km
– K-band : 36 km


*Note – seems it has no bow sonar


The vessel’s electronic support measures (ESM) system is the Rafael C-PEARL-M radar intercept. C-PEARL-M is a lightweight ESM system consisting of two line replaceable units (LRU) – an antenna unit and a receiver-processor unit – which provide automatic detection, data measurement and identification of threats.

Rafael C-PEARL-M radar intercept

C-Pearl-M on main mast – Image:

The C-Pearl-M is a ship-mounted, miniature, lightweight, cost-effective electronic support measures system that enables automatic detection, data measurement and identification of threats. It consists of two line replaceable units: an antenna unit and a receiver-processor unit. C-PEARL-M is currently in service with the Navy of Israel and was selected by Australia for integration in Perry-class frigates. The C-Pearl-M has been designed to easily interface with the ship’s combat management system and fit with many types of vessels. It features modularity, high reliability and low maintainability. A single crew member can operate the C-PEARL-M system. Source

Specification table
Corresponding frequency 2 – 18 GHz
(option: 0.5 – 18 GHz)
2 – 18 GHz 
(Option: 0.5 – 40 GHz)
0.5 – 40 GHz
sensitivity -60 dBm -65 dBm
Frequency accuracy 1.5 MHz 3 MHz 2 MHz
Direction accuracy 1 degree 3 degrees 2 times


Three Sagem Défense Sécurité (formerly EADS Defence & Electronics) new-generation Dagaie systems (NGDS) are fitted. Each system consists of a pair of two-axis launchers with 12 infrared, radar or acoustic decoys.

Dagaie systems (NGDS)


Each of the vessels is equipped with three eight (8) barrel 130mm Sagem NGDS (New-Generation Dagaie System) multiple decoy launchers to counter a variety of threats such as anti-ship missiles and torpedoes. Two decoy launchers are in front of the bridge and behind the VLS while the third one is located at the top of the helicopter hangar (it seems that the third launcher has been removed from the vessels). NGDS is integrated in the ship’s combat system’s detection and warning system and can react automatically to current or emerging threats, in extremely short times. Each system is equipped with a single dual launcher including decoys (infrared, radar or acoustic) adapted to the threat to be neutralized. The NGDS system adapts to all types of munitions: electromagnetic or IR decoys, Active Offboard Decoy (AOD), Anti-Torpedo Decoy and/or laser jammer, deployed at short, medium or long range. The launchers are linked to a computer that selects the decoying best-suited technique. The Electronic Warfare Coordination Center provides the commanding officer with the ship’s tactical situation and coordinates the various Electronic Warfare (EW) tactics: threat evaluation, tactics optimization, coordination of decoys, radar jammer and more generally, electronic countermeasures Electronic Support Measures (ESM).

SAGEM NGDS II (Upgraded)


Some of the ships which were mentioned earlier, have been spotted with different decoy launchers, the SAGEM NGDS II, which are a newer version of the EADS NGDS as it is advertised on company’s website and it looks very similar with the only one photo that the system is uncovered (see photos and information here). The new configuration is two forward launching systems replacing the two previous NGDS and two WASS countermeasure launching systems atop the hangar. Source

Leonardo-Finmeccanica WASS anti-torpedo defence countermeasure launching system

The C310 represent Defence Systems Division’ high-performance anti-torpedo countermeasure system. It’s designed to resist the attacks of the most technologically advanced torpedoes, wire-guided or not (launch-and-forget)

They are realized with electronic items that generate disturbance noise for the acoustic head of the enemy torpedo.

This kind of countermeasure can both represent dummy mobile targets (MTE) and generate disturbance noise for the acoustic head of the enemy torpedo (Jammers). The combination of mobile Decoys and Jammers has the purpose of cheating the torpedo, which directs its attacks towards the dummy targets, thus allowing the ship to perform an evasive countermeasure.

The definition of optimal reaction results using a elaboration software (ORACOM) that, based on multiple parameters, elaborates the more suitable operation to maximize surviving probabilities, even against last generation torpedoes with high potentials against contermeasures. Source


Compact, lightweight and designed for applications ranging from fixed security installations to mid-sized vehicles and vessels, the LRAD 500X-RE easily mounts and transports to provide law enforcement, homeland security, and defense personnel unparalleled long-range communication and scalable non-lethal, non-kinetic Escalation of Force.

The U.S. Navy and U.S. Army’s acoustic hailing device (AHD) of choice for small vessels and vehicles, the extended frequency range of the LRAD 500X-RE ensures broadcasts are clearly heard and understood on the ground, from the air or at sea in all environments.

LRAD 500X device on RSS Intrepid – Image: cks2k22
  1. Rugged, military tested construction
  2. Low power requirements
  3. All-weather use
  4. Simple to operate
  5. Increased coverage with single operator
  6. Safer alternative to non-lethal and kinetic measures
  7. HD Camera (optional)
    • Highly intelligible communication up to 2,000 meters
    • Safely communicates beyond stand-off distances to determine intent
    • Variable beam width
    • Extended coverage
    • Clear, long-range, directional communication
    • Creates instant acoustic standoff perimeter



The frigate is powered by four MTU 20V 8000 diesel engines in a combined diesel and diesel (CODAD) configuration. Each engine is rated at 8,200kW. The engines drive two shafts with constant pitch propellers.

The cruise and maximum speeds are 18kt and 27kt and the range is 7,200km (4,000nm).

4 x MTU 20V 8000 M90 diesel engine

Engine model   20V 8000 M91
Rated power to DIN ISO 3046       ICFN
Rated power max.   kW ( bhp )   9100 (12203)
Speed max.   rpm   1150
Exhaust emission       18,34
Dimensions and masses without gearbox
Length (L)   mm (in)   6645 (261,6)
Width (W)   mm (in)   2040 (80,3)
Height (H)   mm (in)   3375 (132,9)
Mass (dry)   kg (lbs)   49600.00 (109348.00)

Engine data source

4 x Isotta-Fraschini ISM V1708 diesel generators

Engine with 4-stroke diesel cycle, direct fuel injection, supercharger by one exhaust gas turbocharger type KKK with charge air cooling by see water in tube type heat exchanger; engine cooling system complete with fresh water / sea-water tube type heat exchanger incorporating make-up tank, thermostatic temperature control, exhaust gas manifold cooled by engine water.

Tipo moto:
Power (Kw):
Number of revolutions (RPM):
Frequency (Hz):
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860-RINa 710-LRS



Builder: DCNS France (68) / ST Engineering Singapore (69-73)
114,8 meters (376 feet 8 inches)
Beam: 16,3 meters (53 ft 6 in)
Draft: 6 meters (19 ft 8 in)
Displacement: 3200 tons
Speed: 27 knots (50 km/h)
Range: 4200 NM (7780 km)
Complement: 71 ship / 19 aircrew

(combined diesel and diesel)
4 x
MTU 20V 8000 M90 diesel engine (4 x 9100 KW / 12200 shp = total output 48800 shp)
2 shafts, 2

1 x
DCNS Sylver A-50 Vertical Launching System (VLS) (32 cells)
for MBDA Aster 15 and/or Aster 30 SAM missiles
1 x Oto-Melara/OtoBreda 76/62 Super Rapid DP gun (3″/76mm)
2 x
Mk-141 quad missile laucher for up to 8 RGM-84 Harpoon SSM
2 x
Rafael ADS 25mm Typhoon machine gun systems
2 x
B515 12.75″ (324mm) triple torpedo tubes for EuroTorp A244/S torpedoes
Aviation: flight deck and hangar for up to 2 helicopters (Sikorsky S-70 Seahawk)

Electronic warfare & decoys:
Rafael C-PEARL-M
Sagem Defense Securite New Generation Dagaie System (2 forward / 1 aft)
Anti-Torpedo Decoys:
Leonardo Finmeccanica Morpheus anti torpedo suite with WASS C310 launchers (2 aft)

Search Radar:
Thales Herakles multi-function Passive electronically scanned array radar
Fire Control Radar:
Thales STING EO Mk2
Navigation Radar:
Terma Electronic Scanter 2001
EDO Model 980 active low frequency towed sonar
Electric power: 4x Isotta-Fraschini ISM V1708 diesel generators (860 KW / 1150 shp each)


Main material source