Featured post

Jaguar Armoured Reconnaissance and Combat Vehicle (EBRC)

The Jaguar 6×6 armoured reconnaissance and combat vehicle (EBRC) is being developed by a consortium of Nexter Systems, Thales, and Renault Trucks Defense, primarily for the French Army.

A total of 248 Jaguar EBRC units are planned for acquisition by the French Defense Procurement Agency (DGA) through its Scorpion multi-role armoured vehicle programme, which will aid the French Army in meeting its mission requirements on the modern battlefield.

The new-generation vehicles are intended to replace the French Army’s ageing fleet of AMX10RC 6×6 light reconnaissance vehicles and ERC Sagaie 6×6 armoured vehicles, as well as the VAB (véhicule de l’avant blindé) HOT armoured fighting vehicles.

The Jaguar vehicle offers high protection, increased mobility, and enhanced firepower for land-based forces.

Jaguar EBRC orders and deliveries

French companies Nexter Systems, Thales, and Renault Trucks Defense established a consortium in January 2014 for the collaborative development of two types of armoured vehicle solutions for the Scorpion programme, which covers the Jaguar EBRC and Griffon multi-role armoured vehicle (VBMR).

The French DGA awarded a contract to the three-member consortium in December 2014 to design, develop and manufacture the Jaguar vehicle. The deal also covers armament and logistics support for the vehicles during the qualification and manufacturing phases.

France’s DGA awarded a contract to the consortium to manufacture and deliver 20 Jaguar armoured vehicles in April 2017.

The vehicles are currently expected to be delivered to the French Army by 2020.

Jaguar EBRC design details


The Jaguar armoured reconnaissance and combat vehicle is based on all-terrain six-wheeled chassis.

Shephard Media

It features a gross weight of 25t and can carry a crew of up to three members.


Shephard Media

The crew stations are placed in a fully enclosed armoured crew compartment, which is equipped with air-conditioning and internal overpressure systems.

Emergency escape hatch – Forcesoperations

Weaponry of Jaguar armoured vehicle

ACTA International 40mm Cased Telescoped Armament System (CTAS) is the main armament of the Jaguar EBRC.

The 40mm cannon unit is mounted on a remote-control weapon system, and is able to defeat light armoured, urban, and soft targets at a rate of fire of 200 rounds a minute.

40mm Cased Telescoped Armament System (CTAS)

The 40 CTAS has been conceived as the next generation weapon of choice for medium calibre systems within Armoured Fighting Vehicles and Infantry Fighting Vehicles. The novel rotating breach technology and the associated cased telescope ammunition of the 40 CTAS is such that it is easily integrated within both manned and unmanned turrets with the benefit of minimum intrusion within the turret. The benefits are multiple in that the crew has greater space within which to operate, the unmanned turret has more space for additional equipments or better stealth profile, the vehicle having a more powerful weapon at its disposal than those with similar calibre equivalents. The 40 CTAS has been designed to provide a future proof capability against armoured threats, urban targets and soft targets in all combat theatres.

– 40 mm Cased Telescope Armament System
– Novel rotating breach mechanism,
– Up to 200 rounds per minute rate of fire, single shot, burst and continuous
– Ability to fire over a wide range of elevation (-10° to +75°)
– Ammunition Natures (GPR-AB-T, GPR-PD-T, APFSDS-T, TP-T and TPRR-T)

Status: CTAI is currently under contract with the UK MoD and French DGA to qualify the 40 CTAS Cannon and Ammunition in readiness for use on the UK MoD WCSP and FRES-SV programmes and for the French DGA for the future EBRC programme. Source nexter-group.fr

Shephard Media

The range of munitions developed for the 40 CTAS has been conceived to provide the operators of medium calibre systems within Armoured Fighting Vehicles and Infantry Fighting Vehicles a wide range of capabilities with levels of performance above that from weapons of a similar calibre.

The currently available ammunition types are:
– General Purpose – Air Burst – Tracer (GPR-AB-T) to neutralize dismounted infantry,
– GPR – Point Detonation – Tracer (GPS-PD-T) to defeat reinforced concrete walls with delay fuze,
– Armour Piercing Fin Stabilised Discarding Sabot – Tracer (APFSDS-T) able to penetrate 140mm of RHA (frontal arc of some first generation MBT and all IFV’s),
– Target Practice – Tracer (TP-T) and TP Reduced Range – Tracer (TPRR-T).

40 mm Cased Telescope Armament System Ammunition
– Munition projectile “Cased” and surrounded by propellant,
– High muzzle exit velocity across the range of munitions,
– High levels of precision,
– Cylindrical shape allowing ease of handling for automatic loading into weapon and reloading by the operator within the turret.

Status: CTAI is currently under contract with the UK MoD and French DGA to qualify the 40 CTAS Cannon and Ammunition in readiness for use on the UK MoD WCSP and FRES-SV programmes and for the French DGA for the future EBRC programme. Source nexter-group.fr

“In terms of firepower, French will replace the high caliber weapons such as the 90mm and 105mm with the new 40mm CT medium caliber cannon in the reconnaissance role.

I think this will give them, rapid firing capability supported by a new generation sighting system for the gunner and commander plus a modern fire-control system that will satisfy a high first round hit probability.

Coupled with the 40mm ammunition’s acclaimed high penetration and the capabilities coming from the use of  programmable rounds, Jaguar will have a quite good lethality against a large range of targets.

The modern sighting equipment and data communication capability will also have an impact on the performance and success of the reconnaissance missions.

The UK’s Scout SV a 40+ ton tracked vehicle with 40mm CT two-men turret and France’s 6×6 25 ton wheeled vehicle with a similar weapon system show two different approaches in armored reconnaissance and only time will tell how they will perform.” Source warfare757.rssing.com

The vehicle is also armed with MBDA’s man-portable medium-range missile (Missile Moyenne Portée), which is effective against both static and moving targets.

It offers superior fire power against a variety of targets, including infantry vehicles and heavily armoured vehicles.

Missile Moyenne Portée

MMP is the latest (fifth) generation land combat missile system designed for dismounted infantry as well as for integration on combat vehicles.

Featuring both fire-and-forget and man-in-the-loop operation, network-enabled MMP also receives third party target designation for indirect firing scenarios.

MMP’s design includes the growth potential necessary for a future family of missiles for modern land combat.

Shephard Media

MMP will replace the Milan and Javelin anti-tank missiles in service with the French Army and special forces from 2017. Taking into account the battle experience gained from recent conflicts in which the French Army has been engaged, MMP is a response to the demands that have been expressed in terms of required capabilities: firing from confined spaces, “fire-and-forget”, and self-guidance with a “man-in-the-loop” facility.

  • Lightweight weapon system, easily man-portable
  • High level of day and night, all-weather reconnaissance and identification capability
  • Confined space firing capability
mage: janes.com


  • Weight (incl. Tube) : 15 kg
  • Length : 1.3 m in tactical canister
  • Diameter : 140 mm
  • Range : 4.000 m

Source mbda-systems.com

A 7.62mm machine gun can be fitted to further increase the vehicle’s firepower capabilities.

7.62mm machine gun (FN) T3 RCWS

Armée de Terre
7.62x51mm NATO Gas operated, open breech 1.260mm (49.60″) Rifled portion: 487.5mm (19.19″)
Overall: 630mm (24.80″)
Belt Weapon: ~ 11.8 kg (26.01 lb)
Barrel assembly: ~ 3.050 kg (6.75 lb)
650 to 1,000 RPM

Source fnherstal.com

Jaguar vehicle protection features

The French Army’s new-generation armoured fighting vehicle is designed to offer high levels of NATO STANAG-standard protection against small arms fire, projectiles, bullets and weapons.

It also incorporates nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) and mine protection kits for defence against improvised explosive devices (IED) and mine blasts.

Self-protection for the vehicle’s crew is provided by four smoke-grenade launchers, which are located on either side of the turret.

Galix grenade launchers

Galix grenade launchers on both sides of the turret – Armée de Terre
The system detects the position of the threat and transfers this data to the fire control systems of the infantry fighting vehicles and main battle tanks.
The Galix suite is not only for the purpose of self-defence (passive action) but also to actively neutralize hostile personnel.
Lacroix offers combat proven solutions which are unique and global in scope. Land passive defence systems manufactured by Lacroix have been installed on more than 5,000 military vehicles.

The Galix 360 degree automatic obscuration system protects armored vehicles against all types of guided missiles.

Galix grenade launchers at the rear – Shephard Media

Launchers Tubes

– Manual / stand alone system : 6 or 8 launch tubes
– Automatic System : up to 12 launch tubes
– Automatic / connected system, distributed architecture : up to 24 launch tubes

Source lacroix-defense.com

Thales’ Antares

Thales describes Antares as a “real-time day and night local awareness and softkill” for combat vehicles. The single payload provides 360° situation awareness and features an integrated laser warning system capable of providing self-protection against close-in threats; rear view and driving aids; and an external view for mounted soldiers ahead of egress from the vehicle. The laser warning system is capable of detecting laser range finders operating at 1.54 nm and 1.06 nm with threat localisation of less than 2°. An optional acoustic gunshot detection system is being considered for integration in the future. Source janes.com

Antares – Armée de Terre

Metravib Pilar V acoustic sensor

PILAR vehicle version is designed for the protection of heavy and light armoured vehicles, as well as police armoured vehicles. It is available as a tetrahedral acoustic array mounted on the vehicle roof. It can also include a display indicating the shot origin and identification.

Real time threat monitoring

  • Provides GPS coordinates and identification of the threats
  • Good accuracy for determining the shot origin:
    • Azimuth: ±2°
    • Elevation: ±3°
    • Range: ±10%
  • Operating during fighting attacks with multiple threats such as Small Arm Fires, RPGs and Mortars.

Source metravib-defence.com

Observation and fire control


The driver’s field of view is provided from a closed hatch via panoramic vision blocks.

Safran was selected to develop an optronics solution for the Jaguar EBRC based on the Paseo sighting system.

Driver hatch – arronlee33

The optronics system allows for detection, identification and tracking of land-based targets both during the day and at night.

Paseo sighting system

PASEO  for gunner – Shephard Media

Relying on its unique expertise in inertial and infrared technologies, Safran Electronics & Defense designed PASEO, the latest-generation of advanced panoramic sight to improve the survivability and fighting capabilities of the Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFV) and Main Battle Tanks (MBT). Highly versatile, PASEO is perfectly suited to 30-125 mm Gunner and Commander’s applications as well as Forward Observation Artillery. Effective day and night, it provides a true “fire-on-the-move” capability, with a high firstround hit probability, whether on static or moving targets. Source safran-electronics-defense.com

Gunner station left

The gunner is seated on the left, he is also equipped with a direct optical channel, on the left, and with a Safran E/O viewer, on the right, aligned with the gun. Close situational awareness is provided by Thales’ Antares, which also doubles as a laser warning receiver, two being mounted, one front right and one rear left, to provide all-round coverage. A Metravib Pilar V acoustic sensor is also installed. Thales also provides the entire vetronic architecture of the Jaguar. Source edrmagazine.eu

PASEO for commander  – Shephard Media

The commander observation systems are located on the right side of the turret, can use an all-optic panoramic sight located at the centre of the turret, as well as Safran’s dedicated Paseo electro-optic all-digital panoramic sight fitted on the remotely controlled weapon station. His hatch s fitted with episcopes allowing a 360° view.  Source edrmagazine.eu

Commander station

SAVAN 11 Fire Control System

The SAVAN 11 Fire Control System is suited to high-performance IFVs and AFVs either as first-mount equipment or a mid-life up grade.
It provides a high first-round hit probability in all combat conditions.

Key features:

• Compact and modular
• Excellent performance-to-cost ratio, ideal for medium caliber turrets, whether manned or unmanned
• True fire-on-the-move capability
• Integrated fire-control computer for direct or indirect firing with coordinates
• High-performance stabilization, allowing single-shot or burst firing with the same high firstround hit probability
• Long-range target identification, making the SAVAN 11 ideal for asymmetrical or symmetrical operations
• Ready for NCW.

SAVAN 11 is composed of 2 main assemblies:

• The LST 11 gunner optronic sight
• The LJ 11 gunner day sight
(manned turret version only)

Source angelopodesta.com
SAVAN 11 for gunner  – Tim Fish

Command and control for the Jaguar armoured vehicle is provided by the onboard Scorpion forward information system (SICS), which has been equipped with a Bull battle management capability.

The system enables the transmission and sharing of information through a Thales Contact software-defined radio device.

Thales is in charge of the vetronics subsystem, and will develop and manufacture the SCORPION common vetronics solution, communication solutions, including the intercom system, perimeter vision system, self-protection suite and navigation system for all variants of the EBMR. In addition, Thales is responsible for the sensor payload for the VOA artillery observation vehicle (Véhicule d’Observation de l’Artillerie), which comprises a day/night sight with a laser target designator mounted on a telescopic mast and coupled to a GO12 radar. The vetronics network is designed to support the future Contact software-defined radio system, the SCORPION forward information system (SICS) and the Atlas artillery system, developed under separate contracts. The network also supports broader platform digitisation and network-centric operations. Source thalesgroup.com

Navigation and communications onboard Jaguar armoured vehicle

Thales is responsible to develop and supply navigation and communication for the Jaguar armoured vehicle, with integrated systems such as vetronics, an intercom unit and self-protection suite, as well as perimeter vision and navigation systems.

The vetronics system allows for internal data transfer and video management and provides support for the SICS and contact radio device.

The Jaguar EBRC comes with a number of countermeasures, including laser warning system, missile detection system, barrage jamming, and acoustic sniper localisation system.

As for communications, the vehicle will be equipped with one Thales Contact radio, allowing simultaneous data and voice communications in VHF and UHF bands, and with two PR4G radios. Source edrmagazine.eu

Thales Contact radio

ion of communication architecture standards and on the European waveform developed by the ESSOR partners to guarantee interoperability. Software radios and waveforms developed within this framework will meet new requirements with high operational value as armed forces transition to the digitised battlespace and increase their reliance on C4I, video transmissions and other value-added services during multinational operations.

Future CONTACT radio products will be fielded with the French Army, Air Force and Navy, providing faster transmission speeds, better security and heightened interoperability. They will be interoperable with the communication systems of other nations to support coalition operations.

These products will be interoperable with the PR4G waveform, thus assuring upward interoperability with PR4G radio equipment currently in service. Source: thalesgroup.com

PR4G radio

TRC 9310 B/C (2 radios) ?

TRC 9310 B/C (2 radios) PR4G F@stnet – VHF Vehicular Dual Fit Station

  • Dual fit solutions: Relay (B version) – 2×50 W (C version)
  • Dimensions (WxHxD): 400x195x320 mm
  • Operating in proximity with several radios thanks to high performance co-site filter
  • Dismountable for manpack use

Source thalesgroup.com

number of countermeasures, including laser warning system, missile detection system, barrage jamming, and acoustic sniper localisation system.

Engine and mobility

The Jaguar reconnaissance and combat vehicle is powered by a single diesel engine located in the front portion, delivering increased mobility across all terrain conditions.

On road the Jaguar uses the four rear wheels, the 6×6 traction being used only when going cross country, differentials being blocked progressively, depending on terrain conditions. The suspensions, provided by Quiri, allow to change the ground clearance depending on situations, lower on roads and higher in cross country, suspensions stiffness also changing depending on the height. An extra-low position allowing to better hide the vehicle when observing; it is also used for maintenance, to ease access to some elements, and when the vehicle is transported by rail. To reduce the turning radius both the first and third axle are steerable.

The Jaguar is fitted with the same pneumatics adopted on the Griffon, and is equipped with CTIS and run-flat systems. The front and rear axles are identical to those of the Griffon, which increases commonality, each axle being able to carry 9 tons. The Jaguar has a range of 800 km thanks to its 465 litres fuel tank; the one in the prototype is provisional, the final design foreseeing tne fuel tank heavily protected and one less protected but of the self-sealing type. Source edrmagazine.eu


DXi 13-liter engine?

The 6×6 chassis was developed by RTD and is fitted with a Volvo engine providing 500 hp, coupled to the same ZF automatic six-speed transmission used in the Griffon 6×6 APC. It is to note that the reverse movement is obtained through an inverter and not through the transmission, which provides a much higher reverse speed. To reduce the vehicle’s length the engine and transmission, located at the back, are not mounted in sequence but in a ”U” configuration, through a horizontal transfer box. Source edrmagazine.eu

Source fandjexports.com

Specification military-today.com

Main material source army-technology.com

Materials from edrmagazine.eu

Images are form public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image by Olivier Berger

Revised Nov 04, 2018

Featured post

Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II

The F-35 Lightning II joint strike fighter (JSF), is being developed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company for the US Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps and the UK Royal Navy.

The stealthy, supersonic multirole fighter was designated the F-35 Lightning II in July 2006. The JSF is being built in three variants: a conventional take-off and landing aircraft (CTOL) for the US Air Force; a carrier variant (CV) for the US Navy; and a short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft for the US Marine Corps and the Royal Navy. A 70%-90% commonality is required for all variants.

The requirement is for: USAF F-35A air-to-ground strike aircraft, replacing F-16 and A-10, complementing F-22 (1763); USMC F-35B – STOVL strike fighter to replace F/A-18B/C and AV-8B (480); UK RN F-35C – STOVL strike fighter to replace Sea Harriers (60); US Navy F-35C – first-day-of-war strike fighter to replace F/A-18B/C and A-6, complementing the F/A-18E/F (480 aircraft).

Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) development

The Lockheed Martin JSF team includes Northrop Grumman, BAE Systems, Pratt and Whitney and Rolls-Royce. Final assembly of the aircraft took place at Lockheed Martin’s Fort Worth plant in Texas.

Major subassemblies were produced by Northrop Grumman Integrated Systems at El Segundo, California and BAE Systems at Samlesbury, Lancashire, England. BAE Systems is responsible for the design and integration of the aft fuselage, horizontal and vertical tails and the wing-fold mechanism for the CV variant, using experience from the Harrier STOVL programme. Terma of Denmark and Turkish Aerospace Industries of Turkey are supplying sub-assemblies for the centre fuselage.

In January 2001, the UK MoD signed a memorandum of understanding to co-operate in the SDD (system development and demonstration) phase of JSF and, in September 2002, selected the STOVL variant to fulfil the future joint combat aircraft (FJCA) requirement. Following the contract award, other nations signed up to the SDD phase are: Australia, Canada, Denmark, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Singapore and Turkey.

The development of the centre fuselage for the first international F-35 joint strike fighter began on 30 October 2009. It is being developed by Northrop Grumman, principally for the UK. The centre fuselage including composite air inlet ducts were supplied by Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI).



The F-35B short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) variant, designated BK-1, completed its assembly in November 2011. It will be delivered to the UK Ministry of Defence by 2012. The variant is being developed as part of the low-rate initial production (LRIP) 3 and is expected to produce 138 F-35Bs for the UK.

Training centre at Elgin Air Force Base and F-35 operational bases

An integrated training centre for the F-35 fighter programme has been set up at Elgin Air Force Base in the US. The training centre was inaugurated in November 2010 and will be fully operational by 2013.

A total of 11 base locations were unveiled for the F-35 Lightning joint strike fighter. Of the 11, six were selected to carry out operations and five to be training bases.

The six bases implementing F-35 operations are Burlington International Airport Guard Station, Vermont; Hill AFB, Utah; Jacksonville International Airport Air Guard Station, Florida; Mountain Home AFB, Idaho; Shaw AFB, South Carolina; and McEntire Air Guard Base, South Carolina. The five bases for training purposes are Boise Air Terminal Air Guard Station, Idaho; Eglin Air Force Base, Florida; Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico; Luke AFB, Arizona; and Tucson International Airport Air Guard Station, Arizona.

The selected locations will be finalised after implementing environmental impact analysis.

Concept demonstration phase led by Boeing and Lockheed

The concept demonstration phase of the programme began in November 1996 with the award of contracts to two consortia, led by Boeing Aerospace and Lockheed Martin. The contracts involved the building of demonstrator aircraft for three different configurations of JSF, with one of the two consortia to be selected for the development and manufacture of all three variants.

In October 2001, an international team led by Lockheed Martin was awarded the contract to build JSF. An initial 22 aircraft (13 flying test aircraft and eight ground-test aircraft) will be built in the programme’s system development and demonstration (SDD) phase. Flight testing will be carried out at Edwards Air Force Base, California, and Naval Air Station, Patuxent River, Maryland.

In April 2003, JSF completed a successful preliminary design review (PDR). The critical design review (CDR) for the F-35A was completed in February 2006, for the F-35B in October 2006 and for the F-35C in June 2007. The first flight of the CTOL F-35A took place on 15 December 2006.

Low-rate initial production (LRIP) for the F-35A/B was approved in April 2007 with an order for two CTOL aircraft. An LRIP 2 contract for six CTOL aircraft was placed in July 2007. The STOVL F-35B was rolled out in December 2007 and made its first flight, a conventional take-off and landing, in June 2008. STOVL flights began in early 2009. An LRIP contract for six F-35B STOVL aircraft was placed in July 2008.

First flights of Lockheed’s F-35 variations

The F-35C took off on its first flight in November 2011. The F-35A fighter was delivered to Eglin Air Force Base in October 2011 and is under functional test; the F-35B was inaugurated in October 2011.

The first flight of the F-35 is powered by the GE Rolls-Royce F136 engine. Critical design review was completed in February 2008.

By the end of 2006, Australia, Canada, the Netherlands and the UK had signed the MoU for the F-35 Production, Sustainment and Follow-on Development (PSFD) phase.

Norway and Turkey (requirement 100 F-35A) signed in January 2007. Denmark and Italy (requirement 131 F-35A and B) signed in February 2007. In May 2008, Israel requested the sale of 25 F-35A aircraft with 50 options.

Participating nations were to sign up to the initial operation test and evaluation (IOT&E) phase by the end of February 2009. In October 2008, Italy announced that it intended not to participate in the IOT&E.

In September 2004, Lockheed Martin announced that, following concerns over the weight of the STOVL F-35B, design changes had reduced the aircraft weight by 1,225kg while increasing propulsion efficiency and reducing drag. The weight requirements will also call for a smaller internal weapons bay than on the other variants.

International orders and deliveries to forces in the UK, US and Canada

The USAF ordered 32 new F-35A aircraft in 2010. USMC ordered 16 F-35B aircraft and is considering more 13 more aircraft. The USN ordered seven F-35Bs aircraft in 2009, and 12 F-35s were delivered to the US in 2011.

The UK ordered two F-35B’s in 2009 and one F-35C in 2010. The Netherlands ordered three F-35A aircraft, one in 2010 and two in 2011. Australia decided to purchase 14 F-35A aircraft in October 2010.



Israel ordered 20 F-35I variant aircraft in 2010 following the Israeli Government’s decision to select the F-35 as its next-generation aircraft. In June 2011, the Norwegian Parliament unanimously approved the funding of four F-35 Lightning II training jets to stabilise Norway’s future air-combat capability requirements.

yourfile (1)


Canada also announced its choice of F-35 aircraft for its future fighter requirements. The Italian Parliament has approved the purchase of 131 F-35 aircraft and construction of a final assembly facility at Cameri Air Base.

Design differences between variants of the Joint Strike Fighter


In order to minimise the structural weight and complexity of assembly, the wingbox section integrates the wing and fuselage section into one piece. To minimise radar signature, sweep angles are identical for the leading and trailing edges of the wing and tail (planform alignment).

The fuselage and canopy have sloping sides. The seam of the canopy and the weapon bay doors are sawtoothed and the vertical tails are canted at an angle.


The marine variant of JSF is very similar to the air force variant, but with a slightly shorter range because some of the space used for fuel is used for the lift fan of the STOVL propulsion system.


F-35B – Lockheed Martin

The main differences between the naval variant and the other versions of JSF are associated with the carrier operations. The internal structure of the naval version is very strong to withstand the high loading of catapult-assisted launches and tailhook arrested landings.

The aircraft has larger wing and tail control surfaces for low-speed approaches for carrier landing. Larger leading edge flaps and foldable wingtip sections provide a larger wing area, which provides an increased range and payload capacity.


F-35C – Lockheed Martin

The canopy (supplied by GKN Aerospace), radar and most of the avionics are common to the three variants.

The centre fuselage assembling process includes loading of an all-composite air inlet duct into a special tooling structure called a jig, followed by 18 major steps such as bonding metal frames around the duct. The frames serve to brace and position the duct properly within the centre fuselage.





In 2017, Lockheed Martin awarded a contract to Harris Corp. to provide the computing infrastructure for new panoramic cockpit displays, advanced memory systems and navigation technology for its fifth-generation fighter jet, the F-35. Under the upgrade, every F-35 will receive new hardware and software to include seven racks per aircraft consisting of 1,500 module components such as new antennas and weapons release systems. Source avionicsmaintenancetoday.com



Block IV



Cockpit and avionics systems from BAE Systems, Honeywell and Raytheon


L-3 Display Systems is developing the panoramic cockpit display system, which will include two 10in×8in active matrix liquid crystal displays and display management computer.


Lockheed Martin


Lockheed Martin


Lockheed Martin

The following will also supply F-35 avionics systems:

  • BAE Systems Avionics – side stick and throttle controls
  • Vision Systems International (a partnership between Kaiser Electronics and Elbit of Israel) – advanced helmet-mounted display
  • BAE Systems Platform Solutions – alternative design helmet-mounted display, based on the binocular helmet being developed for the Eurofighter Typhoon
  • Ball Aerospace – communications, navigation and integration (CNI) integrated body antenna suite (one S-band, two UHF, two radar altimeter, three L-band antennas in each aircraft)
  • Harris Corporation – advanced avionics systems, infrastructure, image processing, digital map software, fibre optics, high-speed communications links and part of the communications, navigation and information (CNI) system
  • Honeywell – radar altimeter, inertial navigation / global positioning system (INS/GPS) and air data transducers
  • Raytheon – 24-channel GPS with digital anti-jam receiver (DAR).

Cropped – hepic.se @instagram.com

Martin-Baker US16E ejection seat


The US16E Ejection Seat provides an unprecedented balanced optimisation between key performance parameters such as safe terrain clearance limits, physiological loading limits, pilot boarding mass and anthropometric accommodation ranges to fully meet the F-35 Escape System requirements. The US16E will be common to all F-35 aircraft variants.

The US16E is the only Qualified Ejection Seat that meets the US Government defined Neck Injury Criteria (NIC) across the pilot accommodation range.


  • Operating Ceiling: 65,000ft (19,812m)
  • Minimum height/Speed: Zero/zero in near level attitude
  • Crew boarding mass range: 63.5 to 106.0 kg
  • Crew size range: French Air Force specific crew size range, 3 – 98 percentile of estimated French pilot range in year 2015
  • Maximum Speed for ejection: 625 KEAS
  • Parachute type: GQ Type 5000
  • Parachute deployment: Cartridge initiated
  • Drogue parachute: Yes
  • Drogue deployment: Cartridge initiated
  • Aerosurface deployment system: Yes, gas operated
  • Harness type: Combined
  • Ejection seat operation type: Ejection guns and underseat rocket motor, Lateral thrust rocket motor (twin seat only)
  • Ejection gun: Twin
  • Ejection initiation: Handle on seat bucket initiates gas operated seat firing systemAutomatic
  • Automatic back-up unit: No, manual override available
  • Manual sequencer: Mechanical mode selector, used in combination with barostatic time-release unit
  • Barostatic time-release unit: Yes + g-restrictor, cartridge initiated
  • Timers: Drogue deployment unit timer
  • Seat adjustment: Up/down actuator operated 28 Vdc
  • Arm restraints: Yes
  • Leg restraints: Passive leg restraint system
  • Oxygen supply: Connection to On Board Oxygen Generating System (OBOGS), Emergency oxygen cylinder
  • NBC equipment: Nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) ventilator
  • Personal survival pack (PSP): Yes + automatic deployment and liferaft inflation
  • Aircrew services: Aircrew services package, interface for breathing gas, NBC ventilation supply, mic/tel and helmet-mounted display system interface
  • Command ejection: Yes
  • Canopy jettison: No
  • Canopy fracturing system: Yes, Canopy pyrotechnic cutting system
  • Interseat Sequencing System (ISS): Yes, via mode selector

Source martin-baker.com

Gen III helmet


Revolutionary situational awareness
The next-generation user interface serves as the pilot’s primary display system, and virtual capabilities enable them to see through the bottom of the fuselage or directly at a target. With an uninterrupted display of flight information and sensor data, the pilot experiences extreme spatial orientation, superior weapons targeting, and tactical superiority–both day and night.

Integrated HUD, Display and Night Vision
The head-up display (HUD), helmet-mounted display, and visor-projected night vision are fully integrated to provide pilots with unprecedented capability in the fighter cockpit. They can target their weapons and maintain advanced spatial orientation while continually monitoring critical flight information.

Bi-ocular display system with full day and night vision
Advanced bi-ocular, 30-by-40-degree-wide field-of-view has 100 percent overlap. For night missions, the HMDS projects directly onto the visor, eliminating the need for separate night-vision goggles

Visual targeting
The HMDS enables the pilot to target weapons by looking at and designating targets, and target verification when receiving steering cues from onboard sensors or via datalink.

High performance design with optimal center of gravity
The lightweight design has an optimal center of gravity and Active Noise Reduction (ANR). The custom helmet liner ensures precise fit and comfort for reduced pilot fatigue. Source rockwellcollins.com

Communications, Navigation and Identification (CNI) Avionics System


The Communications, Navigation and Identification (CNI) system is the most advanced integrated avionics system ever engineered. The integrated CNI is developed by Northrop Grumman and provides F-35 pilots with the capability of more than 27 avionics functions. Using software-defined radio technology, the CNI allows for simultaneous operation of multiple critical functions, such as identification friend or foe, precision navigation, and various voice and data communications, while greatly reducing size, weight and power demands.

Key Functions
• GUARD, Survival Radio
• IFF Interrogate/Transponder
• Voice Messaging, Voice Recognition
• Maintenance Intercom, Voice Synthesis

Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL)

The MADL is a high-data-rate, directional communications link that allows secure transmission of coordinated tactics and engagement for the fifth-generation fighter when operating in high-threat environments.

According to the Air Force, the F-35 has unprecedented situational awareness. The F-35’s advanced sensor package is designed to gather, fuse and distribute more information than any fighter in history, which gives pilots a decisive advantage over all adversaries.

“Having a common battlefield picture is one of the greatest assets in combat,” LeClair said. “This capability must be proven to be secure and ensure maximum interoperability between 4th and 5th-generation fighters. The F-35 has an incredible capability to show the entire tactical picture and being able to share this tactical picture with all forces is critical to maximizing lethality, survivability and minimizing the risk of fratricide.” Source realcleardefense.com

Tactical Targeting Network Technology


Low-latency, ad hoc, IP-based networking for today’s warfighter

Rockwell Collins’ Tactical Targeting Network Technology (TTNT) is a secure and robust IP-based waveform that delivers the fastest ad hoc mesh network to the tactical edge. It’s a proven and mature system that instantly and accurately shares secure voice, video and data across a dynamic battlespace, meeting the rapidly changing networking needs of today’s warfighter.





Features & benefits

  • Provides low-latency, ad hoc, IP-based networking to more than 200 users at any given time
  • Self-forming and self-healing, so platforms automatically enter and leave the network without the advanced planning required with other networking options
  • Allows for instant and accurate sharing of vast amounts of secure voice, video and data at speeds up to Mach 8
  • Statistical priority-based multiple access (SPMA) protocol ensures critical data is sent and received by holding off the transmission of lower priority data until needed
  • Strong anti-jam performance for contested environments that extends far beyond line-of-sight using multi-hop relay and automatic routing
  • Platforms simultaneously transmit and receive up to four data streams

Source rockwellcollins.com

Weapons and armaments used on Lockheed Martin’s JSF



Weapons are carried in two parallel bays located in front of the landing gear. Each weapons bay is fitted with two hardpoints for carrying a range of bombs and missiles.





AIM-9X Sidewinder


F-35A AIM-9X Sidewinder – Frank Crebas 2018 Bluelifeaviation.com

The AIM-9X missile is the next generation Sidewinder. AIM-9X will provide US and allied nations fighters with the following capabilities: full day/night employment, resistance to countermeasures, extremely high off-boresight acquisition and launch envelopes, enhanced maneuverability and improved target acquisition ranges. One of the main breakthrough of the AIM-9X missile is a thrust vector controlled airframe. AIM-9X carries a contact fuze device and a new IR seeker that will enable, through the JHMCS, high off-boresight engagements. Its digital design architecture will ensure future growth capability.

Diameter: 130 millimeter (5.12 inch)
Length: 3 meter (118 inch)
Wingspan: 350 millimeter (13.8 inch)
Max Range: 26,000 meter (14.0 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 850 mps (3,061 kph)
Warhead: 10 kilogram (22.0 pound)
Weight: 85 kilogram (187 pound)

Source deagel.com


F-35A AIM-9X Sidewinder – Frank Crebas 2018 Bluelifeaviation.com

Weapons to be cleared for internal carriage include: JDAM (joint direct attack munition), CBU-105 WCMD (wind-corrected munitions dispenser) for the sensor-fused weapon, JSOW (joint stand-off weapon), Paveway IV guided bombs, small diameter bomb (SDB), AIM-120C AMRAAM air-to-air missile and Brimstone anti-armour missile; for external carriage: JASSM (joint air-to-surface stand-off missile), AIM-9X Sidewinder, AIM-132 ASRAAM and Storm Shadow cruise missile.

AGM-154 JSOW (joint stand-off weapon)


AGM-154 JSOW (joint stand-off weapon)

Platforms: Navy: F/A-18 C/D, F/A-18 E/F, AV-8B, F-35. Air Force: F-16 Block 40/50, B-1, B-2, B-52, F-15, F-117, A-10, F-35A.

Warhead: AGM-154A/145 BLU-97 combined-effects bomblets; AGM-154A-1, 500-pound BLU-111 warhead; AGM-154B, six P3I BLU-108 sensor-fuzed-weapon submunitions; AGM-154C, Broach multi-stage warhead.

The AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW) precision strike weapon, manufactured by Raytheon Company, is a 1,000-pound air-to-surface missile that can carry several different lethal packages. The weapon’s standoff range of 12 to 63 nautical miles allows JSOW to remain outside the threat envelopes of enemy point defenses while effectively engaging and destroying targets. JSOW is integrated and in operational status on the F/A-18C/D/E/F, F-16, B-52, F-15E, B-1B and B-2 aircraft. Integration is underway on the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. It is a joint Navy-Air Force program, with the Navy as the lead service.

Contractor: Raytheon Co.
Service: Joint
Date Deployed: January 1999
Length: 160 inches
Diameter: 13 inches
Wingspan: 106 inches
Weight: 1,065
Range: Low-altitude, 12 nautical miles; high-altitude, 63 nautical miles.

Source military.com

AIM-120C AMRAAM air-to-air missile



The AIM-120 AMRAAM is a medium-range, air-to-air missile designed to meet the requirements of the United States and allied nations. The AIM-120 missile is faster, smaller and lighter than its predecessor the AIM-7 Sparrow medium-range missile and also has improved capabilities against low-altitude targets. AMRAAM incorporates active radar seeker with mid-course inertial navigation making it less dependent on aircraft’s fire control radar. That capability enables simultaneous AMRAAM launching against different targets. For better performance AMRAAM can receive target location updates from the radar system of the launch aircraft. It has a blast fragmentation warhead detonated by a proximity fuse.

The AIM-120C missile is the latest AMRAAM variant and is reprogrammable like the AIM-120B. The AIM-120C has smaller control surfaces to fulfill F/A-22’s internal carriage requirements and also features an improved warhead. The AIM-120C missile has been sold successfully to many countries in two main variants the AIM-120C5 and the AIM-120C7. Beginning in 2008 the AIM-120C was replaced by the AIM-120D as the standard production model for the AMRAAM missile.



Diameter: 180 millimeter (7.09 inch)
Length: 3.65 meter (144 inch)
Wingspan: 450 millimeter (17.7 inch)
Max Range: 120 kilometer (65 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 4 mach (4,782 kph)
Warhead: 20 kilogram (44 pound)
Weight: 157 kilogram (346 pound)

Source deagel.com

GUB-12B Paveway IV guided bombs


F. Crebas

In late 2003 the UK MoD selected the Paveway IV PGM in preference to the Boeing Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM). Paveway IV has the ability to engage targets in all types of weather with laser guidance for high terminal accuracy.

The Paveway IV kit, is equipped with a GPS/INS (Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System) and a SAL (Semi-Active Laser) terminal seeker. The total value of the contract is believed to be in the region of £100 million.


Lockheed Martin

Paveway IV is a joint development by the UK-based Raytheon Systems Ltd (RSL) and Raytheon Missile Systems (RMS) in the US.

Paveway IV kits, fitted to 227 kg (500 lb) bombs, entered service in 2008. During Operation Telic (Libya 2011) the UK’s precision guided bombing capability was provided by 240 x Enhanced Paveway II and 900 x Paveway IV.  Source armedforces.co.uk




The Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) is a tail kit which converts free fall unguided bombs into precision-guided weapons. The tail section contains a GPS/INS guidance system that guides the JDAM bomb through the selected target. The JDAM bombs is available for all the fighting aircraft of the US inventory (B-1B, B-2A, B-52H, F-16C/D, F/A-18C/D, F/A-18E/F, F-15E, F/A-22, F-35, A-10A, S-3, F-117, AV-8B, and F-14A/B/D) as well as aircraft in development and foreign aircraft. The JDAM were used for the first time during operation Allied Force in 1999.

The JDAM bombs can be released in day/night and adverse weather at up to 15 miles away from the selected target. The Pentagon claims that JDAM bomb accuracy is about 13 meters CEP (Circular Error Probable), but according to Boeing sources JDAM accuracy is 9.6 meters CEP. Without the GPS guidance system using only the INS guidance system JDAM accuracy is 30 meters. The advanced capabilities of these smart bombs make possible to attack multiple targets simultaneously as it has been demonstrated during operational representative tests carried out by a B-2 Spirit dropping 16 JDAMs against several targets in a single mission.

The GBU-31 bomb can use the BLU-109 or the Mk-84 warhead to destroy bunkers and hardened targets.

Diameter: 630 millimeter (24.8 inch)
Length: 3.88 meter (153 inch)
CEP: 9.60 meter
Max Launch Altitude: 13,700 meter (44,948 foot)
Max Range: 24,000 meter (13.0 nautical mile)
Weight: 960 kilogram (2,116 pound)

Source deagel.com



AIM-132 ASRAAM – BAE Systems

The AIM-132 ASRAAM (Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air Missile) missile has been designed to provide excellent performance in short range air-to-air engagements. The ASRAAM has been selected by the United Kingdom and the Australian Air Force for their Tornado F3, Harrier, F/A-18 and Eurofighter-Typhoon aircraft.

The ASRAAM features an advanced IR seeker (128×128 resolution) and the capability to operate in heavy ECM environments. It receives the target coordinates from the aircraft’s sensors (radar and IRST), the pilot’s helmet mounted sight or even from its own IR imaging sensor in the search and track mode. Its high speed and maneuverability provides the ASRAAM with a high kill probability once fired. ASRAAM has a single blast fragmentation warhead detonated by impact and laser proximity fuze.

The Russian AA-11, the American AIM-9X and the German IRIS-T missiles are the AIM-132 ASRAAM foreign counterparts. United Kingdom and Australia remain as the only known operators for ASRAAM as of September 2004. In the near future, it will undergo integration work on the F-35B Joint Strike Fighter weapon system to meet the requirements of the British Armed Forces.



Diameter: 170 millimeter (6.69 inch)
Length: 2.90 meter (114 inch)
Wingspan: 450 millimeter (17.7 inch)
Max Range: 15,000 meter (8.10 nautical mile)
Min Range: 300 meter (0.16 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 996 mps (3,587 kph)
Warhead: 10 kilogram (22.0 pound)
Weight: 88 kilogram (194 pound)

Source deagel.com

B61 nuclear bomb


The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter is slated to be armed with the B61 nuclear bomb as early as 2020, but could carry the weapon sooner, a general said.

The stealthy fifth-generation fighter made by Lockheed Martin Corp. is set to be fitted with the B61-12 Mod gravity bomb — the latest variant — sometime between 2020 and 2022, Air ForceBrig. Gen. Scott Pleus told Military.com during a recent interview at the Pentagon. Source military.com

“Detailed risk reduction activities have been completed ensuring the F-35A is fully compatible with the B61-12 weapon. Planning for Block 4 nuclear certification efforts have begun in anticipation of initial B61-12 integration on the F-35A this year,” Maj. Emily Grabowski, Air Force Spokeswoman, told Warrior Maven.

The Block 4 F-35, to fully emerge in the next decade, contains more than 50 technical adjustments to the aircraft designed as software and hardware builds — to be added in six-month increments between April 2019 to October 2024, she added.

The latest version of the B61 thermonuclear gravity bomb, which has origins as far back as the 1960s, is engineered as a low-to-medium yield strategic and tactical nuclear weapon, according to nuclearweaponsarchive.org, which also states the weapon has a “two-stage” radiation implosion design.

The most current Mod 12 version has demonstrated a bunker-buster earth-penetrating capability, according to the Federation of American Scientists (FAS).

“B61-12 is designed to have four selectable explosive yields: 0.3 kilotons (kt), 1.5 kt, 10 kt and 50 kt,” FAS writes.

Utilizing speed, maneuverability and lower-altitude flight when compared to how a bomber such as a B-2 would operate, a nuclear-capable F-35 presents new threats to a potential adversary. In a tactical sense, it seems that a high-speed F-35, fortified by long-range sensors and targeting technologies, might be well positioned to identify and destroy mobile weapons launchers or other vital, yet slightly smaller on-the-move targets. Furthermore, the B61 Mod 12 is engineered with a special “Tail Subassembly” to give the bomb JDAM-type GPS accuracy, giving a new level of precision targeting, according to data provided by the Federation of American Scientists. Source nationalinterest.org


by Dafydd RJ Phillips (flickr)

Hypersonic Air-breathing Weapon Concept hypersonic missile

In September 2002, General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products was selected as the gun system integrator. General Dynamics was awarded a contract for the internally mounted 25mm GAU-22/A gun system for the air force CTOL variant in November 2008. General Dynamics is developing an external gun system for the carrier and marine variants.

25mm GAU-22/A gun system



The 25mm GAU-22/A is an externally powered Gatling gun developed for both the internal and external F-35 gun systems. This four-barrel gun is a derivative of our highly successful five-barrel, 25mm GAU-12/U gun.

Each of the four gun barrels has a breech bolt assembly that fires once per gun revolution. This ensures long barrel and breech life by distributing the heat and firing forces over all four barrels and breech positions. Continuous rotary motion reduces the impact loads on gun components, extending parts life and resulting in extremely high gun reliability.

The GAU-22/A is over 40 pounds lighter and occupies 20 percent less volume than the comparably equipped 5-barrel counterpart. The demonstrated versatility, coupled with significant combat lethality, makes the GAU-22/A gun an ideal candidate for air, land and sea platforms.



GAU-22/A Specifications


230 pounds (104.3 kg)

Rate of fire

Up to 3,300 shots per minute


5 milliradians diameter, 80 percent circle
(1.4 milliradians, 1-sigma radius)

Muzzle velocity
(TP, HEI ammunition)
(API ammunition)

3,560 feet (1,085m) per second
3,400 feet (1,036m) per second

Average recoil force

3,700 pounds (16.5 kN)

Drive system

Hydraulic, electric, pneumatic

Feed system

Linked or linkless

Source gd-ots.com

AF-2 First Aerial Gun Fire 10/30/2015


Terma A/S multi-mission pod (MMP)

Fire control and targeting technology on the F-35 Lightning II



Lockheed Martin Missile & Fire Control and Northrop Grumman Electronic Sensors and Systems are jointly responsible for the JSF electro-optical system. A Lockheed Martin electro-optical targeting system (EOTS) will provide long-range detection and precision targeting, along with the Northrop Grumman DAS (distributed aperture system) thermal imaging system.

EOTS will be based on the Sniper XL pod developed for the F-16, which incorporates a mid-wave third-generation FLIR, dual mode laser, CCD TV, laser tracker and laser marker. BAE Systems Avionics in Edinburgh, Scotland will provide the laser systems.

Electro-optical target system (EOTS)


hepic.se @instagram.com

The Electro-Optical Targeting System (EOTS) for the F-35 Lightning II is an affordable, high-performance, lightweight, multi-function system that provides precision air-to-air and air-to-surface targeting capability.


The low-drag, stealthy EOTS is integrated into the F-35 Lightning II’s fuselage with a durable sapphire window and is linked to the aircraft’s integrated central computer through a high-speed fiber-optic interface.

As the first sensor to combine forward-looking infrared and infrared search and track functionality, EOTS enhances F-35 pilots’ situational awareness and allows aircrews to identify areas of interest, perform reconnaissance and precisely deliver laser and GPS-guided weapons. Lockheed Martin has delivered more than 300 systems for the F-35 Lightning II.



Advanced EOTS, an evolutionary electro-optical targeting system, is available for the F-35’s Block 4 development. Designed to replace EOTS, Advanced EOTS incorporates a wide range of enhancements and upgrades, including short-wave infrared, high-definition television, an infrared marker and improved image detector resolution. These enhancements increase F-35 pilots’ recognition and detection ranges, enabling greater overall targeting performance. Source lockheedmartin.com


Charlie Lee @flickr.com


Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 185.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
EOTS [IRST] – (F-35) Infrared
Role: Infrared, Navigation / Attack FLIR & Air-to-Air Tracking
Max Range: 185.2 km

Laser Designator

Type: Laser Designator Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 27.8 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Not Applicable (N/A)
EOTS [Laser Designator] – (F-35) Laser Designator
Role: Laser Target Designator & Ranger (LTD/R)
Max Range: 27.8 km

Source cmano-db.com

DAS consists of multiple infrared cameras (supplied by Indigo Systems of Goleta, California) providing 360° coverage using advanced signal conditioning algorithms. As well as situational awareness, DAS provides navigation, missile warning and infrared search and track (IRST). EOTS is embedded under the aircraft’s nose, and DAS sensors are fitted at multiple locations on the aircraft.

AN/AAQ-37 Distributed Aperture System (DAS)



Northrop Grumman has developed the only 360 degree, spherical situational awareness system in the electro-optical distributed aperture system (DAS). The DAS surrounds the aircraft with a protective sphere of situational awareness.


It warns the pilot of incoming aircraft and missile threats as well as providing day/night vision, fire control capability and precision tracking of wingmen/friendly aircraft for tactical maneuvering.

Designated the AN/AAQ-37 and comprising six electro-optical sensors, the full EO DAS will enhance the F-35’s survivability and operational effectiveness by warning the pilot of incoming aircraft and missile threats, providing day/night vision and supporting the navigation function of the F-35 Lightning II’s forward-looking infrared sensor.


The DAS provides:

  • Missile detection and tracking
  • Launch point detection
  • Situational awareness IRST & cueing
  • Weapons support
  • Day/night navigation

In addition to developing the EO DAS, Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems is supplying the F-35’s AN/APG-81 advanced electronically scanned array (AESA) fire-control radar. The AESA radar is designed to enable the pilot to effectively engage air and ground targets at long range, while also providing outstanding situational awareness.


AN AAQ-37 EO-DAS sensor – ふにに@54~6岩国・呉


AN AAQ-37 EO-DAS sensor – ふにに@54~6岩国・呉


AN AAQ-37 EO-DAS sensor – ふにに@54~6岩国・呉

F-35 DAS and APG-81 radar demonstrate ability to detect, track, target ballistic missiles


Northrop Grumman Corporation recently demonstrated the ballistic missile detection, tracking and targeting capabilities of the company’s AN/AAQ-37 distributed aperture system (DAS) and AN/APG-81 active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, both of which are featured on the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft. Northrop Grumman’s DAS and APG-81 autonomously detected, tracked and targeted multiple, simultaneous ballistic rockets. The DAS autonomously detected all five rockets, launched in rapid succession, and tracked them from initial launch well past the second stage burnout. Press release | Watch the video.

F-35 DAS demonstrates hostile fire detection capability


While being flown on Northrop Grumman’s BAC 1-11 test aircraft, the DAS detected and located tank fire from an operationally significant distance. In addition to artillery, the system is able to simultaneously detect and pinpoint the location of rockets and anti-aircraft artillery fired in a wide area. Although hostile fire detection is not an F-35 requirement for the DAS, the system design makes it ideal for this mission. This inherent capability enables DAS to harvest, process and deliver key battlespace information to ground forces and other aircraft autonomously, without the need for cueing or increasing pilot workload. Press release | Watch the videoSource northropgrumman.com


Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 111.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
AN/AAQ-37 EO-DAS – (F-35) Infrared
Role: Infrared, Day/Night Spherical Situational Awareness & Fire Control
Max Range: 111.1 km


General data:
Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 9.3 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 2010s
Properties: Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Sensors / EW:
AN/AAQ-37 EO-DAS MAWS – (F-35) Infrared
Role: MAWS, Missile Approach Warning System
Max Range: 9.3 km

Source cmano-db.com

AESA radar from Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems


Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems is developing the advanced electronically scanned array (AESA) AN/APG-81 multi-function radar. The AN/APG-81AESA will combine an integrated radio frequency subsystem with a multifunction array.



The radar system will also incorporate the agile beam steering capabilities developed for the APG-77. Northrop Grumman delivered the first radar to Lockheed Martin in March 2005 for flight testing.

AN/APG-81 Active electronically scanned array-radar


The AN/APG-81 is an advanced fire control radar developed by Northrop-Grumman for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). It features both air and surface modes and Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) antenna for enhanced performance. The APG-81 radar underwent rooftop integration range-testing phase entering flight testing on a Northrop-Grumman BAC 1-11 testbed aircraft in early 2005. The BAC 1-11 tested its air and surface modes. Northrop-Grumman handed over the first AN/APG-81 active electronically scanned array (AESA) fire control radar to F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) prime contractor Lockheed-Martin on March 3, 2005. APG-81 radar system will support air-to-air, air-to-surface and electronic warfare modes providing the pilot with all-weather precision targeting and advanced air-to-ground automatic target cueing.

The AN/APG-81 radar is a combination of the proven technologies from the F/A-22’s APG-77 and the F-16E/F’s APG-80 AESA radar systems. The APG-81 features features 1,000 transceivers with the ability to track aerial targets and moving targets on the ground. In the air surveillance mode can detect an airborne target of one square meter Radar Cross Section (RCS) at a range of 150 kilometers. Besides, can track 23 targets in 9 seconds while engaging 19 of them in 2.4 seconds.

Engaged Aerial Targets: 19
T/R Modules: 1,000
Tracked Aerial Targets: 23
Tracked Surface Targets: 1
Diameter: 700 millimeter (27.6 inch)
Max Detection Range: 150 kilometer (81 nautical mile)

Source deagel.com

Integrated electronic warfare suite from BAE Systems IEWS



BAE Systems information & electronic warfare systems (IEWS) will be responsible for the JSF integrated electronic warfare suite, which will be installed internally and have some subsystems from Northrop Grumman. BAE is developing a new digital radar warning receiver for the F-35.

AN/ASQ-239 F-35 electronic warfare / countermeasure system



The AN/ASQ-239 system protects the F-35 with advanced technology for next generation missions to counter current and emerging threats. Equipped with offensive and defensive electronic warfare options for the pilot and aircraft, the suite provides fully integrated radar warning, targeting support, and self-protection, to detect and defeat surface and airborne threats.



The system provides the pilot with maximum situational awareness, helping to identify, monitor, analyze, and respond to potential threats. Advanced avionics and sensors provide a real-time, 360-degree view of the battlespace, helping to maximize detection ranges and provide the pilot with options to evade, engage, counter or jam threats.

Always active, AN/ASQ-239 provides all-aspect, broadband protection, allowing the F-35 to reach well-defended targets and suppress enemy radars. The system stands alone in its ability to operate in signal-dense environments, providing the aircraft with radio-frequency and infrared countermeasures, and rapid response capabilities. Source baesystems.com

AN/ASQ-239 Barracuda 

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
Sensors / EW:
AN/ASQ-239 Barracuda – (F-35) ESM
Max Range: 926 km

Source cmano-db.com


Cropped – Frank Crebas 2018 Bluelifeaviation.com

Systems and suppliers including Honeywell, Goodrich and Paker Aerospace


Other suppliers include:

  • ATK Composites – upper wing skins
  • Vought Aircraft Industries – lower wing skins
  • Smiths Aerospace – electronic control systems, electrical power system (with Hamilton Sundstrand), integrated canopy frame
  • Honeywell – landing system wheels and brakes, onboard oxygen-generating system (OBOGS), engine components, power and thermal management system driven by integrated auxiliary power unit (APU)
  • Parker Aerospace – fuel system, hydraulics for lift fan, engine controls and accessories
  • Moog Inc – primary flight control electrohydrostatic actuation system (EHAS), leading edge flap drive system and wing-fold system
  • EDO Corporation – pneumatic weapon delivery system
  • Goodrich – lift-fan anti-icing system
  • Stork Aerospace – electrical wiring

Propulsion of the Joint Strike Fighter variation aircraft


by Ross Forsyth – tigerfastimagery (flickr)

Early production lots of all three variants will be powered by the Pratt and Whitney afterburning turbofan F-135 engine, a derivative of the F119 fitted on the F-22. Following production aircraft will be powered by either the F135 or the F-136 turbofan being developed by General Electric and Rolls-Royce. However, in the 2007 US Military Budget, published in February 2006, no funding was allocated for the development of the F-136 engine. The US Congress voted to restore funding for the F-136 in October 2006.

Pratt and Whitney afterburning turbofan F-135 engine



The Pratt & Whitney F135 two-spool afterburning turbofan engine powers all three variants of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II – Joint Strike Fighter. The F135 propulsion system is the most powerful fighter engine ever developed.

The F135-PW-100 powers the U.S. Air Force F-35A Conventional Take-Off and Landing (CTOL) variant and provides 28,000 pounds of thrust or as much as 43,000 pounds with afterburner.

The more complex (and almost twice as expensive) F135-PW-600 system is used on the Marine Corps F-35B Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) variant. The system is basically an F135 engine coupled to a lift system manufactured by Rolls-Royce (Rolls-Royce LiftSystem). The Rolls-Royce LiftSystem is comprised of a lift fan, a driveshaft, the 3 Bearing Swivel Module (3BSM), and two roll posts. The driveshaft connects the F135 engine to the lift fan and delivers as much as 29,000 shp. The lift fan provides the forward vertical lift. It is a 50-inch, two-stage counter-rotating fan, which is able to deliver more than 20,000 pounds of thrust. The 3BSM is a swiveling jet pipe, which redirects the main engine thrust downward to provide the rear vertical lift. It can rotate 95 degrees in 2.5 seconds and directs 18,000 pounds of thrust. Aircraft roll control is achieved using two roll posts mounted in the wings of the F-35. These roll posts provide 1,950 pounds of thrust each (bypass thrust from F135 engine). In total, the Rolls-Royce LiftSystem provides 41,900 pounds of thrust.

The F135-PW-400 powers the Navy’s F-35C Carrier Variant (CV) and provides 28,000 pounds of thrust or as much as 43,000 pounds with afterburner.

The F135 is developed from the proven Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 engine which powers the U.S. Air Force F-22 Raptor. By the end of the development phase of the F135, the F119 had performed approximately 600,000 operational flying hours, thus providing a strong level of maturity and performance for the F135 program. By 2013, almost 21,000 test hours had been completed (17,700 ground + 2,950 flight). In December 2014, the worldwide F-35 fleet reached the 25,000 flight hour mark. The 50,000 hours flight hour milestone was surpassed in February 2016. Source fi-powerweb.com



Each engine will be fitted with two BAE Systems full authority digital electronic control (FADEC) systems. Hamilton Sundstrand is providing the gearbox.


On the F-35B, the engine is coupled with a shaft-driven lift fan system for STOVL propulsion. The counter-rotating lift fan, developed by Rolls-Royce Defence, can generate more than 20,000lb of thrust. Doors installed above and below the vertical fan open as the fin spins up to provide vertical lift.


The main engine has a three-bearing swivelling exhaust nozzle. The nozzle, which is supplemented by two roll control ducts on the inboard section of the wing, together with the vertical lift fan provide the required STOVL capability.

1000w_q95 (3)

U.S. Marine Corps

F-35A Specification

General Characteristics
Primary Function:
 Multirole fighter
Prime Contractor: Lockheed Martin
Power Plant: One Pratt & Whitney F135-PW-100 turbofan engine
Thrust: 43,000 pounds
Wingspan: 35 feet (10.7 meters)
Length: 51 feet (15.7 meters)
Height: 14 feet (4.38 meters)
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 70,000 pound class
Fuel Capacity: Internal: 18,498 pounds
Payload: 18,000 pounds (8,160 kilograms)
Speed: Mach 1.6 (~1,200 mph)
Range: More than 1,350 miles with internal fuel (1,200+ nautical miles), unlimited with aerial refueling
Ceiling: Above 50,000 feet (15 kilometers)
Armament: Internal and external capability. Munitions carried vary based on mission requirements.
Crew: One

Source af.mil

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image – planesawesome.tumblr.com

Revised May 11, 2019

AC-130J Ghostrider

The AC-130J Ghostrider, a modified version of the MC-130J aircraft, is expected to replace the legacy AC-130H/U aircraft of the US Air Force. The first test flight of the AC-130J Ghostrider was completed in January 2014.

Lockheed Martin will deliver 37 AC-130J Ghostrider aircraft to the Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) by 2025. The total investment for the AC-130J Ghostrider programme is estimated to reach $2.4bn.



C-130J Hercules: Details

AC-130J Ghostrider development details

The first MC-130J arrived at Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) for conversion into the AC-130J configuration in January 2013. The aircraft was officially named Ghostrider in May 2012.

The preliminary design review (PDR) for the AC-130J programme was concluded in March 2013. The operational test readiness review (OTRR) and the critical design review (CDR) were conducted in April 2013 and August 2013 respectively.

Capt. Steve Visalli boards the newly created AC-130J Ghostrider in anticipation of its first official sortie Jan. 31, 2014 at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. The AC-130J’s primary mission is close air support, air interdiction and armed reconnaissance. Visalli is a flight test engineer with the 413th Flight Test Squadron. (U.S. Air Force photo/Chrissy Cuttita)

Northrop Grumman Corporation was awarded a contract by the AFSOC to supply radio frequency countermeasure platforms for the AC-130J aircraft in January 2016.

BAE systems was contracted to provide new electronic warfare systems for the AC-130J Ghostrider aircraft, in July 2017.

The initial operational capacity for 16 aircraft of the AC-130J Ghostrider fleet is scheduled for 2017, while the last delivery is scheduled for 2021.

AC-130J Ghostrider missions and capabilities

The hybrid AC-130J Ghostrider incorporates the flying proficiencies of the MC-130J and the air-to-ground combat capabilities of the AC-130. It will conduct continuous strike operations, including close air support (CAS) for troops in contact, convoy escort and point air defence. The deep air support missions are executed against pre-planned targets and targets of opportunity.

U.S. Air Force

The AC-130J Ghostrider’s primary missions are close air support, air interdiction and armed reconnaissance. Close air support missions include troops in contact, convoy escort and point air defense. Air interdiction missions are conducted against preplanned targets or targets of opportunity and include strike coordination and reconnaissance and overwatch mission sets. The AC-130J will provide ground forces an expeditionary, direct-fire platform that is persistent, ideally suited for urban operations and delivers precision low-yield munitions against ground targets. Source af.mil

The aircraft is capable of air refuelling with the universal air refueling receptacle slipway installation (UARRSI) system but is not fitted with the external hose-and-drogue pods for refuelling other aircraft.

Features of the AC-130J Ghostrider

Master Sgt. James Knight right, 18th Flight Test Squadron aerial gunner, instructs Staff Sgt. Rob Turner left, 1st Special Operations Group Detachment 2 aerial gunner, on new changes regarding pre-flight inspections in an AC-130J Ghostrider on Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., July 29, 2015. The aircrews of the 1st SOG Det. 2 were hand selected from the AC-130 community for their operational expertise and will begin initial operational testing and evaluation of the AC-130J later this year. (U.S. Air Force photo/Senior Airman Christopher Callaway)

The AC-130J is a highly modified C-130J aircraft that contains many advanced features.  It contains an advanced two-pilot flight station with fully integrated digital avionics. The aircraft is capable of extremely accurate navigation due to the fully integrated navigation systems with dual inertial navigation systems and global positioning system.  Aircraft defensive systems and color weather radar are integrated as well. The aircraft is capable of air refueling with the Universal Air Refueling Receptacle Slipway Installation system. Source af.mil

Lockheed Martin

AN/APN-241 Radar?


General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 92.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Early 2000s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
AN/APN-241 [MR-3000] – (2008) Radar
Role: Radar, Weather and Navigation
Max Range: 92.6 km

Source cmano-db.com

The AC-130J Ghostrider has an overall length of 29.3m, a height of 11.9m and wingspan of 39.7m. It can operate at a maximum altitude of 28,000ft with a payload of 42,000lb. Its maximum take-off weight is 164,000lb.

The fourth generation gunship aircraft can accommodate two pilots, two combat systems officers, and three enlisted gunners. The aircraft is also designed to accommodate the Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) system.

Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) system

Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) system

The AN/AAQ-24(V) Directional Infrared Countermeasure (DIRCM) system is the only DIRCM system in production today that will protect aircraft from today’s infrared guided missiles.

Traditional IR countermeasures are not effective against the modern IR missiles that are growing in popularity among terrorist groups and in thirdworld countries. A Directional Infrared Countermeasures (DIRCM) system is required to defeat the latest and future advanced IR threats, and has a lower life cycle cost compared to other IR countermeasure approaches.

  • Simultaneously tracks and defeats threats in clutter environments
  • Fast, accurate threat detection and simultaneous jamming in all current IR threat Bands (I, II and IV)
  • Counters all fielded IR missile threats using a single generic jam waveform
  • Complete end-to-end self-testing features reduce life-cycle maintenance
  • Compatible with existing support facilities

Customized installation

The AAQ-24(V) is available in a laser-based configuration. Northrop Grumman then selects from a modular family of transmitters, jammers and missile warning systems to provide a customized installation best able to meet your specific platform, mission and budget requirements. Upgrades to existing systems are easy to install without further airframe modifications.

Source northropgrumman.com

The AC-130J is fitted with an AN/ALR-56M radar warning receiver, AN/AAR-47 (V) 2 missile warning system, and AN/ALE-47 countermeasures dispensing system for reduced susceptibility. The safety and protection systems of the aircraft include a fuel protection system from ullage explosion, redundant flight critical components, and QinetiQ’s Last lightweight composite armour system to protect crew locations and oxygen supply areas from 7.62mm ball projectiles.

AN/ALR-56M radar warning receiver

BAE Systems

The AN/ALR-56M Advanced Radar Warning Receiver (ARWR) continuously detects and intercept RF signals in certain frequency ranges and analyzes and separates threat signals from non-threat signals. It displays threat signals to pilot on a priority basis and provides efficient and effective logistical support to the using command activities for the system. It contributes to full-dimensional protection by improving individual aircraft probability of survival through improved aircrew situational awareness of the radar guided threat environment. An RWR processor/memory capacity upgrade was required to allow incorporation of software algorithm enhancements (RAD, etc) to fix known threat ambiguity and false alarm problems. The F-16 SPO initiated an ALR-56M processor upgrade program which will provide a common processor for both the ALR-56M/56C configurations; the F-16 SPO committed funds to the common NRE tasks and the F-15 SPO is required to only fund unique F-15 RWR requirements. This upgrade will replace 7 SRUs with one. The ALR-56M includes a fast scanning superhet receiver, superhet controller, analysis processor, low band receiver/power supply, and four quadrant receivers. The ALR-56M is designed to provide improved performance in a dense signal environment and improved detection of modern threat signals, as compared to the version of the ALR-69 which it replaced. A miniaturized version of the F-15’s ALR-56C, the ALR-56M is a form and fit replacement for the ALR-69 RWR in the F-16 and other aircraft. It is installed primarily in F-16 Block 40 (Close Air Support – CAS) aircraft and above. ALR-69 upgrades are ongoing for earlier blocks of the F-16 and some other aircraft. The ALR-56M is the RWR chosen for integration into the open architecture Defensive System Upgrade Program (DSUP) in the B-1B bomber Conventional Mission Upgrade Program. Source fas.org

BAE Systems

AN/AAR-47 (V) 2 missile warning system


Employed on helicopters and transport aircraft, the AN/AAR-47 Missile Approach Warning System (MAWS) warns of threat missile approach by detecting radiation associated with the rocket motor and automatically initiates flare ejection.

The AN/AAR-47 is a passive Electro-Optic Missile Warning System designed to provide warning of Surface to Air Missiles (SAMS) and pass information to countermeasures systems. Employed on helicopters and transport aircraft, the AAR-47 Missile Approach Warning System (MAWS) warns of threat missile approach, enabling the effective employment of evasive maneuvers and electronic and infrared countermeasures.

Detection algorithms are used to discriminate against non-approaching radiation sources. The AN/AAR-47 system is similar to the AN/AAR-44, but instead of a revolving sensor unit it uses four IR sensors located in four quadrants on the Aircraft. The AAR-47 is a passive, missile- approach warning system consisting of four sensor assemblies housed in two or more sensor domes, a central processing unit, and a control indicator. The Warning System provides attacking missile declaration and sector direction finding and will be interfaced directly to the ALE-39/47 countermeasures dispenser. Without the AAR-47, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft have no infrared missile detection system. Source fas.org


AN/ALE-47 countermeasures dispensing system

The ALE-47 is so advanced, it thinks for itself. The system uses information from integrated electronic warfare sensors such as radar warning receivers and missile warning receivers to determine the correct response to defeat infrared and radio-frequency guided missiles. The cockpit crew has complete control of their threat situation by choosing to operate in any of the four modes: automatic, semi-automatic, manual, or bypass. Source baesystems.com

An AC-130U Gunship aircraft from the 4th Special Operation Squadron jettisons flares over an area near Hurlburt Field, Fla., on Aug. 20, 2008. The flares are used as a countermeasure to heat-seeking missiles that can track aircraft during real-world missions. (Air Force photo/Senior Airman Julianne Showalter)

USSOCOM’s Precision Strike Package (PSP) armament for the AC-130J Ghostrider

The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) developed and installed the modular Precision Strike Package (PSP) for the aircraft. The armament kits under the PSP include a 30mm GAU-23 automatic side firing chain gun, a 105mm cannon, and Standoff Precision Guided Munitions (SOPGM) comprising wing-mounted GBU-39 small diameter bombs and AGM-176 Griffin laser-guided missiles. The internally mounted missiles can be launched through the rear cargo door.



30mm GAU-23 automatic side firing chain gun


The GAU-23 Bushmaster® Automatic Cannon is a next-generation Chain Gun weapon available and in use today. It continues the Bushmaster tradition of excellence with its design simplicity, external power, positive round control, ease of maintenance, and constant velocity ammunition feed. It incorporates all of the battle-proven features of the 25mm M242 and Mk44 Bushmaster cannons, with significant system commonality for low-risk, proven performance. Source army-guide.com


Type Autocannon
Caliber 30x173mm NATO, 30x170mm Rarden/KCB
Mechanism Externally powered, chain driven
Barrel 2.242 m, rifled
Dimensions 3.405 m long, 343 mm wide, 392 mm tall
Weight 156 kg overall, 69.4 kg barrel
Feeding Double belt feed
Rate of fire Single shot, 200, 400 rpm
Muzzle velocity 1.080 m/s (standard ammunition), 1.385 m/s (APFSDS)
Recoil 35 kN
Remarks Muzzle brake
Source weaponsystems.net


M102 105mm Cannon


The M102 105mm Cannon was derived from the Army field artillery M1A1 howitzer and was modified to be fired from the left rear side door of the AC-130 gunship aircraft. To accomodate this cannon, one of the side-firing 40mm guns was removed from the aircraft and replaced by the radome that formerly had been installed in the door cavity. That change provided enough space for the 105mm gun to be mounted in the doorway in place of the radome. The gun was used extensively beginning with the Vietnam War. Source fas.org


Tech. Sgt. Jarred Huseman, left, and Tech. Sgt. Oscar Garcia, special missions aviators with the 1st Special Operations Group, Detachment 2, operate a 105 mm cannon on an AC-130J Ghostrider gunship, “Angry Annie,” during a training mission over Eglin Range, Fla., Jan. 23, 2017. The 105 mm cannon recoils back 49 inches, with 14,000 pounds of force. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Jeff Parkinson)

AC-130J Ghostrider gunship – USAF

Specification for towed howitzer

  • Length: 17.1 ft
  • Width: 6.4 ft
  • Height: 5.2 ft
  • Weight: 3,004 lbs
  • Crew: 8
  • Range: 11,500 m standard; 15,100 m rocket-assisted
  • Max. Rate of Fire: 10 rounds per minute for first 3 minutes
  • Sustained Rate of Fire: 3 rounds per minute
  • Ammunition: The M102 fires all standard NATO 105mm ammunition, but not the newer extended range ammo

Source militaryspot.com


GBU-39 small diameter bombs

The GBU-39B Small Diameter Bomb, or SDB, is an extended range all-weather, day or night 250-pound class, guided munition. The SDB relies on the Global Positioning System to provide navigation to the target. Additionally, its small size allows increased aircraft loadout to achieve multiple kills per sortie and inherently reduces the probability of collateral damage.

General Characteristics
Primary Function: Guided air-to-surface weapon
Contractor: Boeing Co.
Range: More than 40 nautical miles (46 miles)
Guidance System: Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System
Unit cost: Approximately $40,000
Initial operational capability: October 2006

Source af.mil

Two, Laser Guided Small Diameter Bombs are released from the wing of an AC-130J Ghostrider over White Sands Missile Range, N.M., Dec. 13, 2016. The AC-130J is outfitted with multiple weapons systems to include a 30mm and 105mm cannon, GBU-39 Small Diameter Bombs and AGM-176 Griffin missiles. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Jeff Parkinson) – Source: hurlburt.af.mil

AGM-176 Griffin laser-guided missiles

Description: The Griffin is a small, lightweight, flexible precision-guided weapon for irregular warfare operations developed and funded by Raytheon along with the Small Tactical Munition (STM) using components from other weapon systems developed by the company. The weapon reduced size makes possible to engage soft targets with minimal collateral damage. Its flexible guidance system and simple and user-friendly graphic interface allows the Griffin to operate easily as a fire and forget weapon using GPS coordinates or Inertial Navigation or as a high precision laser-guided missile switching between guidance modes depending on the target needs. The weapon system has been designed to be easily and quickly integrated onto existing platforms. In October 2010, the Griffin was already integrated and operational with the US Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) C-130W Dragon Spear aircraft. As of September 2011, the Griffin missile was in production and integrated on the C-130W Dragon Spear and the United States Marine Corps C-130 Harvest Hawk.

Diameter: 5 inch (127 millimeter)
Length: 43 inch (1,092 millimeter)
Max Range: 3 nautical mile (3.45 mile)
Launch Unit Weight: 44 pound (20.0 kilogram)
Warhead: 14 pound (6.35 kilogram)
Weight: 33 pound (15.0 kilogram)

Source deagel.com

The intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance equipment under the PSP include two electro-optical/infrared sensors, an all-weather synthetic aperture radar pod, a pilot helmet-mounted cueing system, and multiple video, data and communication links. A dual-console Mission Operator Pallet within the cargo bay controls all the PSP subsystems. The aircraft is also equipped with advanced fire control equipment.

Engines and performance

USMC KC-130J(QD-7982) Rolls-Royce AE2100D3 – wikimedia.org

The aircraft is fitted with four Rolls-Royce AE 2100D3 Turboprops with a thrust power of 3,458kW each. Each of the AE 2100D3 engines is 3.15m in length and 0.73m in diameter. The engines drive four six-bladed Dowty propellers.

4 x Rolls-Royce AE 2100D3

The Rolls-Royce AE 2100 is a 4,000-shp class two-spool turboprop engine with a 14-stage high-pressure compressor driven by a two-stage high-pressure gas turbine. The low-pressure shaft is driven by a two-stage power turbine and drives the compound planetary reduction gearbox connected to the propeller. The engine is the first to use dual FADECs (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) to control both engine and propeller.

The AE 2100 is a turboprop derivative of the AE 1107C-Liberty turboshaft engine. It has been developed to power military transports, long-range maritime patrol aircraft and the new generation of high-speed regional aircraft in the 50 to 70 seat category. The engine’s modular design and easily accessible components reduce maintenance costs, and operators benefit from over 80% parts commonality with the AE family of engines which includes the AE 3007 and AE 1107C-Liberty. The AE engine line overall has accumulated 65 million engine flight hours.

The AE 2100D3 engine is coupled to a six-bladed Dowty (GE Aviation Systems)) R391 propeller system for use on the Lockheed Martin C-130J Hercules Family (C-130J + C-130J-30 + HC/MC-130J + KC-130J + AC-130J) of military transport, special mission, aerial refueling, and gunship aircraft. It is also the engine of choice on Lockheed Martin’s LM-100J commercial freighter (a C-130J derivative aircraft).

Senior Airman Alexander Forest, 374th Maintenance Squadron maintainer, installs safety cable for fire-loop connections on a C-130J Super Hercules’ Rolls Royce AE2100D3 engine, Feb. 22, 2018, at Yokota Air Base, Japan. The 374 MXS isochronal inspection dock works on C-130’s from Yokota and Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan. Being responsible for aircraft from both bases, the 374 MXS work on aircraft 365 days a year to ensure all C-130’s are mission ready. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Donald Hudson)

Manufacturer: Rolls-Royce plc
AE 2100 A/P: 4,152 shp (3,096 kW)
AE 2100D2 and AE 2100D3: 4,637 shp (3,458 kW)
AE 2100J: 4,591 shp (3,423 kW)
Overall Pressure Ratio at Maximum Power: 16.6
Compressor: Two-spool, axial flow
Compressor Stages: 14 HP
Turbine: 2 HP + 2 PT
Engine Control: Dual FADEC
Combustor Type: Annular
Length: AE 2100D2 and AE 2100P: 118 in (2.99 m);
AE 2100D3: 124 in (3.15 m); AE 2100J: 114 in (2.89 m)
Diameter: 28.7 in (72.9 cm)
Dry Weight: AE 2100D2: 1,727 lbs (783 kg); AE 2100D3: 1,925 lbs (873 kg);
AE 2100J: 1,640 lbs (744 kg); AE 2100P: 1,610 lbs (730 kg)

Source fi-powerweb.com


The aircraft is equipped with 60/90KV amp generators providing increased direct current (DC) electrical output. The aircraft can reach a maximum distance of 3,000 miles without refuelling and can fly at a speed of 362k at 22,000ft altitude.



General Characteristics

Primary Function: Close air support and air interdiction with associated collateral missions
Builder: Lockheed Martin
Power Plant: Four Rolls-Royce AE 2100D3 Turboprops
Thrust: 4,700 shaft horsepower
Wingspan: 132 feet 7 inches (39.7 meters)
Length: 97 feet 9 inches (29.3 meters)
Height: 39 feet 2 inches (11.9 meters)
Speed: 362 knots at 22,000 feet
Ceiling: 28,000 feet with 42,000 lb payload
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 164,000 lbs
Range: 3,000 miles
Crew: Two pilots, two combat systems officers, one sensor operator and four special mission aviators

Armament: Precision Strike Package with 30mm and 105mm cannons and Standoff Precision Guided Munitions (i.e. GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb and AGM-176 Griffin missile)
Date Deployed: TBD
Unit Cost: $115 million
Inventory: Active force, 32 by fiscal 2021

Source: af.mil

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image Paul Callaghan

PPA Class Multi-purpose Offshore Patrol Vessels

A class of seven multi-role offshore patrol vessels (Pattugliatori Polivalenti d’Altura (PPA)) on order for the Italian Navy will be delivered by 2026. Italian shipbuilding company Fincantieri is the prime contractor for the PPA-class.

Construction on the first patrol vessel began in February 2017. The ships are intended to perform a number of duties in Italy’s territorial waters. Their mission capabilities include patrolling, surface combat, anti-piracy, monitoring, protection and control of maritime zones, and rescue of personnel in distress.



Left to right: Alberto Maestrini, Fincantiari General Manager; Adm Valter Girardelli, Chief of IT Navy; Domenico Rossi, IT Deputy Secretary of Defence; Adm Matteo Bisceglia, IT Naval Armament Director; Marco Tomassetti, OCCAR-EA PPA Programme Manager; Stefano Orlando, Shipyard Director

The First Steel Cutting ceremony for the Multipurpose Patrol Ship (Pattugliatore Polivalente d’Altura – PPA) took place in FINCANTIERI’s shipyard, in La Spezia, on 13 February 2017. The event represents the beginning of production of the first of seven PPA ships, and was honoured by the presence of the Italian Deputy Secretary of Defence, On. Domenico Rossi and the Chief of the Italian Navy, Admiral Valter Girardelli.

The OCCAR PPA Programme includes design, development and construction of 10 ships (7 + 3 optional), together with Temporary Support for ten years. The first ship will be delivered in 2021.

This new class of vessel is designed to operate in multiple scenarios, ranging from traditional military tasks to humanitarian support operations and disaster relief assistance, benefiting from an extensive use of the modularity concept (i.e. modular hospital, electrical power/drinkable water ashore and containers).

The ship presents many innovative features in both platform and combat system areas such as an advanced propulsion system and a piercing bow to enable a speed higher than 31 Kts, great flexibility due to the presence of modular areas and the integration of a cockpit which gathers bridge and Combat Information Center functions by using technologies and ergonomics, typically used in the aeronautical field. Source occar.int



The keel-laying ceremony of the first PPA was held at Fincantieri’s Muggiano shipyard in May 2017.

The first PPA will be delivered in 2021, and deliveries of the remaining vessels are scheduled to take place between 2022 and 2026.

PPA-class procurement details

The procurement of the PPA-class offshore patrol vessels is part of Italian Navy’s fleet renewal plan, which is aimed at replacing the ageing fleet of patrol boats, corvettes and frigates.

In May 2015, the Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation (OCCAR) awarded a €3.5bn ($3.89bn) multi-year contract to a consortium of Fincantieri and Finmeccanica (now Leonardo) for the construction of six PPAs, with an option for additional four units and one logistic support ship (LSS).


The contract also requires Fincantieri to provide integrated and in-service logistics support for the vessels for a period of ten years. A contract option was executed for the seventh vessel in November 2015, increasing the total contract value to approximately €5.4bn ($5.74bn).

The ships are being built at Fincantieri’s integrated naval shipyards at Riva Trigoso and Muggiano, Italy.

Design and features of Italy’s future offshore patrol vessels

Each offshore patrol vessel will be able to carry up to 171 crew members. The overall length is approximately 143m, while the length between perpendiculars is 133m. The depth and beams of the vessel are 10.5m and 16.5m respectively.


by gaston18

An 11m-long rigid hull inflatable boat (RHIB) will be carried in the middle of the ship for patrol and transportation missions. Launch and recovery of the RHIB will be performed either by the lateral cranes located beside the RHIB or through a hauling ramp located at the rear. The vessel’s bridge is placed amidships.

A hangar located at the aft of the vessel will hold up to two NH90 or one EH101 medium-lift utility helicopter. A flight deck, which is placed next to the hangar near the stern of the ship, is intended to support the operations of one NH90 or one EH101 helicopter.

Armament of the PPA-class vessels

The PPA-class offshore patrol vessels will be armed with OTO Melara 127/64 LW high-calibre Vulcano gun system (main armament) and OTO Melara 76/62 medium-calibre gun mounts for defence against surface, airborne, maritime, and asymmetric targets.

127 mm – Vulcano


The 127/64 LW – VULCANO System consists of four key sub-systems:

  • the large caliber 127/64 LW Gun assembly,
  • the Automated Ammunition Handling System,
  • the Naval Fire Control Support and
  • the VULCANO  family  of ammunition.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO is a state of art medium caliber gun suitable for installation on large and medium size ships and intended for surface fire and naval gunfire support as main role and anti-aircraft fire as secondary role. The compactness of the gun feeding system makes possible the installation on narrow section crafts.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO is equipped with a modular feeding magazine, composed by 4 drums with 14 ready to fire ammunition each, reloadable during firing, and highly flexible in terms of selection of ammunition, independently from their position in the drums. Ammunition flow is reversible as rounds can be downloaded automatically.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO can fire all standard 127mm / 5 inches ammunition as well as the new VULCANO  family of ammunition.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO has digital / analogical interface and ballistic calculation capabilities that allow a smooth integration with any Combat Management System.

The Automatic Ammunition Handling System is a modular solution adaptable to any ship ammunition magazine layout; it is able to load the feeding magazine of the gun without man assistance during operation to allow a sustained firing action of the gun. The system is able to handle both standard 127mm /5-inches ammunition and new VULCANO family of ammunition.

The Naval Fire Control Support is a mission planning system that may support the Combat Management System for definition of possible firing solutions, ammunition selection, trajectory definition, best ship course identification.

The 127mm VULCANO ammunition family, is composed by Ballistic Extended Range (BER) and Guided Long Range (GLR) ammunition with different multifunctional fuses, sensor and final guidance that extend the range of the gun up to 100km.

Source leonardocompany.com

Medium Caliber Gun – 76 mm SP – Davide?


Two 25mm remotely controlled small-calibre gun systems will be used for close-range combat operations, anti-smuggling and maritime interdiction. MBDA’s anti-ballistic missile system will be fitted to further increase the vessel’s anti-ship defence capability.


The MARLIN – WS  is an advanced system developed to meet the emerging requirements of modern naval warfare at best level of effectiveness and suitable either as main armament for small size vessels or as secondary armament for larger ship, with no deck penetration and simple installation.

The MARLIN – WS is a highly accurate and reliable multi-role system, particularly effective in the simultaneous engagement of multiple targets such as swarms of Fast Inshore Attack Crafts.

The MARLIN – WS can be fitted with either a 25mm or 30mm cannon and it is modular as to be configured according to an wide range of customers’ requirements.

The modular architecture offers an extensive combination of characteristics. Optical sensor suite with day and night vision and laser range finder can be mounted coaxially to or independent from the line of fire or not installed at all.

The excellent performance provided by the fast and accurate servo systems, are also ensured working either as a stand-alone system with own Remote Control Console or linked to the ship’s Combat Management System. The latest generation of built-in digital architecture provides a straightforward interface for being simply slaved to the ship’s Fire Control System or being fully integrated into the CMS through LAN technology with Fire Control System and video tracking capabilities residing within the weapon.

Source leonardocompany.com

The multi-role vessels will use a heavy-weight torpedo system to detonate under-water targets.

Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) capability 

“The PPA Full version will be able to embark and use the Aster 30 Block 1NT that is the anti-ballistic missile with the support of the radar system of the future LHD in terms of early warning detection” said Captain Esposito.

The long range detection of ballistic missiles will be realized with the L-band AESA radar based on gallium nitride (GaN) technology which allows the radar to have better performance in terms of range. The missile tracking capability will be provided by the C-band element of the new dual-band radar developed especially by Leonardo for the PPA.

An MBDA Italy representative explained that PPA Full will be able to detect and engage ballistic missiles on their own or in cooperation with other early warning sources via Link 16. He added that PPA Light+ variant could potentially have that BMD capability but the first real BMD capable ship for the Italian Navy will be the first PPA Full variant to be delivered in 2024. Source navyrecognition.com

Aster 30 Block 1 NT missile



The Aster 30 Block 1 NT missile evolution consists in a new seeker operating in Ka band, replacing the current Ku band seeker, as well as a new improved weapon controller. This change delivers a significant performance enhancement.

The new missile will be capable of intercepting threats of the entry of the MRBM (Medium Range Ballistic Missiles) domain whereas the current Aster 30 Block 1 deals with SRBM (Short Range Ballistic Missiles) of up to 600 km range and it will also be capable of dealing with missiles with separable warheads. This new version of Aster will extend the antiballistic capability of the missile from a range of 600km up to 1,500km. On December 20, OCCAR (Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation) notified to EUROSAM, a consortium formed by MBDA and Thales, the amendment 1 of the contract for the “B1NT” programme. This amendment embodies the participation of Italy in the programme. It follows the notification of the initial contract under French mandate on December 23, 2015, and the Arrangement of Cooperation, signed in June 2016 by the French and Italian Defence Ministers, laying down the framework of responsibilities and rights of the two countries vis-a-vis the missile to be developed in cooperation, and its multiple applications in land and naval defence systems against air attacks and ballistic missiles. Source navyrecognition.com



Anti-Ship Missile System TESEO



Enhanced version of the all weather OTOMAT MK2 missile system, providing improved performance in terms of OTHT (Over The Horizon Targeting) and operations in complex naval scenarios.

Capable of ranges from 6 to 180 km in all directions, the system relies on powerful mission planning (3D way-points, terminal sea skimming profile, simultaneous attack from different directions).



Target data is derived from the ship’s Command System or taken directly from the ship’s surface search radar. Mission Planning allows the selection of different firing modes (such as Fire and Forget or midcourse guided) and of specific trajectories and evasive manoeuvres.

Cruise and approach phases may be either fully inertial or partially guided from the launch ship through a radio-link. Mid course re-vectoring from a co-operating ship or helicopter is also possible.



The excellent capabilities of the new missile (short reaction time, Fire and Forget, INS/GPS navigation, high target selection, ECCM and anti-CIWS manoeuvres, warhead lethality with no collateral damage) allow the system to operate effectively in littoral warfare environments, as well as in blue waters. The terminal attack phase is based upon an autonomous terminal guidance using an active homing head with improved target selection capabilities in complex scenarios. Source mbda-systems.com


Protection features

Passive protection for the vessel will be provided by OTO Melara Decoy Launching System (ODLS) remote-control launching system, which is effective against infrared seeker-equipped missiles and radars as well as anti-submarine warfare decoys.

Decoy Launching System (ODLS)


The Decoy Launching System (ODLS) is a remote controlled system suitable for launching different types of multipurpose ammunition. Special versions can fire rockets of caliber other than 105-mm – 118-mm which represents the standard size. The ODLS is designed for accurate deployment of decoys, thus providing passive defence for a ship against radar and IR homing missiles and can also be employed in shore bombardment role.

The main characteristics of the ODLS are:

  • Capability  to simultaneously load different types of rockets (Chaff, IR, Illuminating);
  • Automatic  selection  of the type of rocket to be fired;
  • Continuous  engagement  action thanks to rapid reloading of launching units;
  • Complete automatic  control by the ship s EWS;
  • Safe operation  under all operational conditions;
  • No deck penetration.

Source leonardocompany.com

Elettronica’s electronic warfare system will be used to provide self-protection for the ship.

Navigation and communications


The vessel’s navigation and combat system operations will be performed by the crew members from the bridge using a combat management system, which integrates weapons, sensors and other units aboard the ship.


A number of sensors will be installed to ensure safe operation of the boat at sea. They include next-generation identification friend and foe (IFF) sensor with a circular antenna, infrared sensor, diver detection sonar, active towed array sonar system, NA30S MK2 weapon control system based on a multi-sensor fire control radar (X and Ka), LPI SPS732 air and ground surveillance radar, and KRONOS dual-band 3D multi-function active electronically-scanned array (AESA) radar with four C- and X-dual band radars.

NA30S MK2 weapon control system

NA-30S MK2 is a new generation Weapon Control System designed to control modern guns (up to three) against conventional and asymmetric air/surface threats with a reduced reaction time.

NA-30S MK2 is based on a dual-band (X and Ka) naval tracking radar with a stealth antenna design which combines high tracking accuracies with improved range performance. Both X and Ka bands are processed in order to optimise tracking performance according to the targets.

X Band
For search and acquisition purposes, medium-to-long range detection and tracking, and reliable processing in adverse weather conditions.

Ka Band
For close in targets, low flying threats, need for increased accuracies, and DART ammunition guidance.

The Ka band, with its very narrow beam width, is optimally suited for measuring targets at low-elevation, without suffering from multi-path interference.

NA-30S MK2 provides gun control and ammunition guidance. The system can be provided with a dedicated multifunction console or can be controlled by any console within the Combat Management System (CMS).

The Weapon Control System automatically selects the optimum ammunition and firing patterns according to the tracked threats. A set of combined sensors (TVcamera, IR cameras and laser) can be mounted on the radar antenna to enable firing assessment and to provide either an alternative or redundant line-of-sight. Source leonardocompany.com

LPI SPS732 air and ground surveillance radar

SPS-732 is a compact X-band air/surface surveillance naval radar with fully coherent solid state technology and Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) capability. SPS-732 is built upon experience in designing and delivering naval surveillance radars to the most demanding Navies. It performs bi-dimensional surface and air target detection in all weather conditions and features track-while-scan with automatic track initialisation. Short reaction time combined with small target detection allow sea-skimmer threat detection and designation.

The solid state fully coherent 2D X-band air/surface surveillance SPS-732 family combines typical features of naval radars belonging to different class in one radar series.

The SPS-732 radar family offers superior performance for any ship class, including Landing
Craft, Offshore Patrol Vessels, Large Support Ships and Corvettes/Frigates. On board of medium/large-size vessels, the SPS-732 middle and highend version are a valuable, higher performance/price ratio alternative to 3D radars even against high threating targets like sea-skimming missiles in all sea and weather conditions. Source leonardocompany.com

KRONOS dual-band 3D multi-function AESA radar


Leonardo Company

KRONOS® Power Shield is an early warning AESA radar for Anti Tactical Ballistic Missile (ATBM) guidance and Air Breathing Threat (ABT) defence. It is designed for naval application and is able to operate in both a rotating and staring mode.

The AESA fixed panels are coordinated by the system manager to minimize electromagnetic interferences and to allow the most effective coverage of the entire 360° x 90° surveillance volume.


To each task is associated a specific radiated waveform, time of execution and frequency for each direction of the surveillance volume. Scheduling /Prioritization and Task Execution are key blocks of the system architecture:

Scheduling and Prioritization set the sequence of tasks to be executed by each panel. Task Execution manages the physical implementation of all microevents (e.g. transmit/receive modules programming, gate enabling, etc.) which make up the task itself.

All functions operate typically on a time scale of seconds, except Scheduling and Prioritization which operate on a msec time scale and Task Execution
which operates on a nsec base.

Source leonardocompany.com

Multiple non-rotating optical heads will be fitted on the four sides of the ship to provide 360° surveillance. Target detection and tracking will be performed by a static IRST (infrared search and track) system. A bathythermograph unit will be used for measuring the water temperature.


Leonardo Company

Communication for the boat will be provided by integrated communications systems including multi-band satellite systems, software-defined radios and long-range acoustic devices (LRAD).


Leonardo Company

PPA-class OPVs propulsion and performance

The PPA-class will be powered by a combined diesel and gas (CODAG) propulsion system consisting of two MTU 20V 8000 M91L engines, each developing 10,000kW of power, and one GE LM2500+G4 gas turbine with a capacity of 35,320kW.

2 x MTU 20V 8000 M91L engines


1 x GE LM2500+G4 gas turbine

LM2500+G4 is the fourth generation of the industry-leading LM2500. Main features are increased power (17%) compared to the third generation LM2500+, and the same high reliability, availability and the same high efficiency (lower SFC).

The LM2500+G4 system’s modular design provides for easy and timely repair and refurbishment, with its split compressor casing, in-place blade and vane replacement, in-place hot-section maintenance and external fuel nozzles. The LM2500+G4 is ideal for the Italian, French and Moroccan FREMM frigates and other military ships, and is available as a generator set.


Output 47,370 shp (35,320 kW)
SFC .352 lb/shp-hr (214 g/kW-hr)
Heat rate 6,469 Btu/shp-hr
8,675 Btu/kWs-hr
9,150 kJ/kWs-hr
Exhaust gas flow 205 lb/sec (93 kg/sec)
Exhaust gas temperature 1,020°F (549°C)
Power turbine speed 3600 rpm
Average performance, 60 Hertz, 59°F, sea level, 60% relative humidity, no inlet/exhaust losses

Source geaviation.com

The vessel will also feature four MAN 12V175D GenSets, each rated at 1,640kW, and two shafts, driving controllable-pitch propellers.

Driven by GE’s shock-proof MV3000 drives, the small gearbox-mounted electric motors will be installed to drive the ship at low speeds, while generating power for the onboard sensors and weapons.

The offshore patrol vessel can achieve a maximum speed of more than 32kt and a range of 5,000nm. The MTU diesel engines alone allow the vessel to sail at speeds of 24kt.



Contactors involved

Sensors and weapon systems for the PPA multi-role offshore patrol vessels will be supplied by MBDA, OTO Melara, Elettronica, and WASS.

Leonardo’s subsidiary Selex is responsible for providing combat management system for the vessels. The company will develop a bridge system in co-operation with Fincantieri. In addition, Selex will provide assistance for subsystems such as sensors and weapons.

GE’s Marine Solutions was selected to supply seven LM2500+G4 gas turbines in March 2016. The turbines will be developed by Avio Aero in Italy, while GE Power Conversion will produce drives.

Rolls-Royce won a contract in October 2016 to provide 14 MTU 20V 8000 M91L engines for seven PPA vessels, with deliveries scheduled to commence in 2017.



Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

BAE Systems Armoured Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV)

BAE Systems is developing a new armoured multi-purpose vehicle (AMPV) to replace the existing M113 family of vehicles that have been in service with the US Army since 1960.

BAE Systems secured a contract from the US Army for the engineering, manufacturing and development (EMD) and low-rate initial production (LRIP) of the vehicles in December 2014.

Under the LRIP contract, BAE is responsible for the development of 29 AMPVs under the EMD phase and production of 289 vehicles in multiple configurations.

The first prototype in general configuration was presented to the armed forces in December 2016.

The vehicle combines mobility features with advanced technologies to enhance survivability of the occupants in the battlefield. The AMPVs are expected to be deployed by the Armoured Brigade Combat Team (ABCT).

BAE AMPV design and development details


BAE successfully concluded the critical design review (CDR) of the new AMPV in June 2016. The US Army took final delivery of the AMPVs built under the EMD phase in April 2018.

The vehicles will undergo strenuous testing in the next phase of development. The availability, maintainability, logistics and mission reliability of the vehicle will be tested during the phase. The vehicle will then enter the Milestone C review phase, followed by the LRIP phase in 2019.


British defense company BAE Systems on Tuesday said it had won additional funding up to $575 million from the US Army to begin production of its new armored vehicles that would replace the Vietnam War-era M113 fleet of personnel carriers.

The new vehicles, called the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV), are “more survivable” with all-terrain mobility capabilities, BAE said.

Total funding for the initial production of the new vehicles, including previously awarded funds to support production planning, stands at $873 million, the defense contractor said. Source businessinsider.com

Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle. LRIP: Low Rate Initial Production. BCT: Brigade Combat Team. SOURCE: Army – Via breakingdefense.com

BAE AMPV is based on the design of Bradley infantry fighting vehicle (IFV). It retains the layout of Bradley IFV, but incorporates a one-man open-top turret. The driver’s compartment and engine are located at the forward hull, while the troop’s section is positioned at the rear.

The rear hull of the vehicle features a hydraulic ramp, which allows rapid entry and exit of troops. The general-purpose configuration measures 3.7m-wide and 3.1m-high, and offers a ground clearance of 0.4m. The gross weight of the vehicle is approximately 36,000kg.

BAE AMPV variants


Five variants are being produced as follows:

  • General Purpose. This is an armored personnel carrier designed to move troops and materiel.
  • Mortar Carrier. This vehicle provides fire support to mechanized units. A 120mm mortar will be carried.

Mortar Carrier – Maj. Carson Petry

  • Armored Ambulance. This variant provides armored emergency transport of casualties to rearward medical facilities.

Armored Ambulance – baesystems.com

  • Mobile Medical Clinic. Allows the forward positioning of medical services closer to the combat area.

Mobile Medical Clinic – baesystems.com

  • Mobile Command Vehicle. Providing commanders superior battlefield situational awareness and command and control capability when and where it is needed most.

Mobile Command Vehicle – baesystems.com

Source globalresearch.ca

The BAE AMPV can be customised into multiple configurations based on the mission requirements. It is being developed in five variants, namely general-purpose vehicle, medical evacuation vehicle, mission command vehicle, mortar carrier vehicle, and medical treatment vehicle.

A sixth variant of the vehicle will also be developed to replace the engineer variant of M113 vehicles at Echelons Above Brigade (EAB). The engineer vehicle variant will provide advanced combat capability to the combat engineers at EAB.

The general-purpose vehicle can be used for the transportation of troops, supplying equipment and goods to the forces and carrying casualties from the battlefield. The variant can carry a maximum of six personnel, including a driver, a commander and four infantry troops.


The medical evacuation variant of the AMPV was exhibited at the AUSA 2016. It can carry three crew, six ambulatory patients or four litter patients or three ambulatory and two litter patients during casualty evacuation (CASEVAC) operations.

Engineer version

Military News

Armament and self-protection features of BAE AMPV

The one-man open turret of the AMPV can be installed with a roof-mounted protected weapon station housing 7.62mm or 12.7mm machine guns, or a 40mm automatic grenade launcher.

12.7mm machine guns one-man open turret

12.7mm machine guns – Jane’s by IHS Markit

M230LF 30mm cannon and Javelin

Defense & Aerospace Report

M230LF 30mm cannon


The 30 mm M230LF is a more capable version of the 30 mm cannon featured on the Apache helicopter and is a member of the Chain Gun® family of externally powered, combat-reliable conventional automatic weapons. The gun is effective, lightweight and easy to maintain and has multi-role, multi-target system capability.

The M230LF boasts a DC drive motor with a firing rate of 200 Rounds Per Minute. Other features include an anti-hangfire system, an extended-length barrel for enhanced muzzle velocity and a     de-linking feeder that allows the use of linked ammunition. The M230LF is ideal for use on ground vehicles and patrol boats.

The gun has a reliability of 22,000 mean rounds between failure. It fires M789 HEDP, M788 TP and NATO standard 30 mm ADEN/DEFA ammunition.

The M230LF is a link-fed version of ATK’s 30mm Chain Gun used on the Apache helicopter. The weapon fires M788, M789 and NATO standard 30mm ADEN/DEFA ammunition. The M230LF is ideal for use on ground vehicles and patrol boats in turrets or remote weapon stations.

Physical Data:

  • Length: 85.87 in. (2181mm)
  • Width: 10.915 in. (277.2mm)
  • Height: 11.37 in. (288.8mm)
  • Receiver Weight: 76 lb (34.5 kg)
  • Feeder Weight: 39 lb (17.7 kg)
  • Barrel Weight: 45 lb (20.4 kg)
  • Total Weight: 160 lb (72.6 kg)
  • Recoil Ground Vehicle: 6,300 lb (38,022 N)
  • Recoil Naval: 1,650 lb (7,339 N)
  • Power Required: 1.0 horsepower
  • Clearing Method: Cook off safe, open bolt
  • Safety: Absolute hangfire protection
  • Case Ejection: Side

Performance Data:

  • Rate of Fire: Cyclic, 200 Rounds Per Minute
  • Feed System: Dual feed, integral to weapon
  • Reliability: 22,000 mean rounds between failure

Source defence.nioa.com.au


3d_molier International

The FGM-148 Javelin is a US-made man-portable fire-and-forget anti-tank missile. It was fielded to replace the M47 Dragon.

In the mid 1970s the US Army adopted the M47 Dragon anti-tank guided missile. It was a shoulder-fired weapon with a wire guidance. This anti-tank missile had a reliable design and very good performance. However by the late 1980s the M47 became out-dated. Its effective range was limited to 1 000 m. Also penetration power of the M47 was insufficient to defeat latest main battle tanks with heavy armor. So the US Army awarded a contract to develop a new anti-tank guided missile to replace the M47 Dragon.

Currently the FGM-148 Javelin is one of the most advanced man-portable anti-tank guide missile system in the world. It can destroyed any current main battle tank. It can also target low flying helicopters. Only some existing anti-tank missiles, such as Israeli Spike can compare with the Javelin. However a close copy of the Javelin, called the HJ-12, recently emerged in China. This Chinese missile has similar specifications and capabilities as the Javelin.

The missile locks on the target before launch. During flight it guides automatically. During that time the operator can detach an empty tube and from the CLU and attach another tube with missile. It takes about 15 seconds. Alternatively the crew can leave a firing position.

   There are two modes of attack: top attack and direct attack. The top-attack flight mode is used to engage tanks and other armored vehicles. After the launch the missile climbs upward and then dives towards the target. This method is very suitable to destroy main battle tanks, because most of them have only a minimum level of armor protection in the upper part of the turret. In direct attack mode the missile flies directly to the target. This mode is used to engage buildings, bunkers, weapon crews and concentrations of enemy troops. In the direct attack mode the Javelin can also engage low-flying helicopters.

   The missile is equipped with imaging infrared seeker. The missile has an 8.4 kg tandem shaped charge warhead. A precursor warhead detonates any explosive reactive armor and the primary warhead penetrates the base armor. The Javelin is capable of destroying any existing main battle tank in the world. Source military-today.com

The all-welded aluminium hull integrates enhanced underbody protection for increased survivability. Explosive reactive armour sheets fitted in front and either side of the hull offer protection against grenade launchers and guided ammunition.

Breaking Defense

Applique armour and spall liners on the crew compartment further enhance the protection level offered by the vehicle.


Breaking Defense

Breaking Defense

Breaking Defense

The crew and engine compartments feature an advanced automatic fire suppression system.

Engine and mobility

The BAE AMPV is powered by a Cummins diesel engine, which offers a maximum power output of 600hp. The fuel tanks are stationed at the rear of the vehicle.

The new armored vehicle has the same engine and transmission as the Bradley M2A3. It is powered by Cummins VTA-903T diesel engine, developing 600 hp. Vehicle has good cross-country mobility and can keep up with main battle tanks. Source military-today.com

Cummins VTA-903T diesel engine


The 90° V8-cylinder engine with a displacement of 14.8 litres and with outputs of 265 to 660 hp (198 to 492 kW). Since the engine was introduced evolutionary changes have included a larger camshaft, air-to-air after cooling and increased cylinder pressures allowing horsepowers to rise to the current 447 kW (600 bhp) and 491 kW (660 bhp) and the soon to be introduced twin-turbo 558 kW (750 bhp) rating.

Source army-guide.com

The vehicle is expected to attain a maximum speed of 61km/h and maximum range of 362km. The on-board suspension system ensures smooth mobility of the vehicle while traversing through rough terrains.


Main material source army-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Izumo-Class Helicopter Destroyer

Izumo-class, the largest surface combatant in Japan, was put into service with the Japanese Maritime Self Defence Force (JMSDF) in March 2015. The Izumo Class destroyer ships replace the Hyuga-class destroyers, which were commissioned in March 2008.

The vessels can be used for multiple purposes, including anti-submarine warfare, command-and-control operations, humanitarian aid and disaster relief operations, as well as to protect Japanese territories in the East China Sea.



Japan Marine United Corporation, which was created by the integration of two companies, Universal Shipbuilding and IHI Marine United, custom-built the two Izumo-class ships at the Yokohama shipyard. The construction of Izumo-class destroyer was conceptualised by the Japanese Ministry of Defense (MOD) in November 2009. JMOD received a budget of 118.1 billion yen for the fiscal 2010 for the construction of a helicopter destroyer.

Construction of the first ship in the class, JS Izumo (DDH-183), began in 2011 at Yokohama shipyard. Its keel was laid down in January 2012 and the vessel was launched in August 2013. It was commissioned at Yokosuka port in Japan in March 2015. Investment on the vessel amounted to approximately ¥120bn ($1.01bn).

Keel for the second ship in the class was laid down in October 2013, and its launch will take place in August 2015. Commissioning will take place by March 2017.



Source military-today.com


DDH-184 JS KAGA – BakanekoFilm

“multi-purpose operation destroyer”

Although a Japanese naval vessel may be retrofitted to carry fighter jets, the ruling parties will call the Izumo a “multi-purpose operation destroyer” to avoid criticism that use as an aircraft carrier would violate the pacifist Constitution.

Members of the ruling parties’ working team on revising the National Defense Program Guidelines, which the government expects to approve later this month, reached a consensus on what to call the Izumo-class destroyers during a meeting on Dec. 5.

The Abe administration has been considering retrofitting the Maritime Self-Defense Force’s Izumo into an effective aircraft carrier that can deploy U.S.-made F-35B stealth fighter jets, which can take off and land vertically.

However, an issue on how to maintain compatibility of the use with the war-renouncing Article 9 of the Constitution will likely remain a problem with the Izumo becoming a de facto offensive aircraft carrier, the first in the Japanese fleet.

The 248-meter-long vessel would be reliant on its complement of F-35Bs, resulting in exceeding the defensive nature as specified in the Constitution.

In the meeting, Defense Ministry officials explained the plan of thickening the decks of two Izumo-class destroyers, which carry helicopters, and making other adjustments so that F-35Bs can be launched from there, according to a source who attended the meeting. Source asahi.com


New defense guidelines and midterm buildup program

The following is the gist of the new National Defense Program Guidelines and the fiscal 2019-2023 midterm defense buildup program approved by the Cabinet on Tuesday. Japan:

  • will upgrade Izumo-class helicopter carriers so that they can transport and launch fighter jets.
  • will buy 18 F-35B fighter jets capable of short takeoffs and vertical landings.
  • will beef up defense in new domains of warfare such as cyber and outer space.
  • aims to build “multidimensional” defense capabilities for operations across various domains.
  • expresses “strong concern” over China’s military activities.
  • will install two land-based Aegis missile systems.
  • will spend over ¥27 trillion — a record — in the five-year period.

Source japantimes.co.jp


DDH-184 JS KAGA – BakanekoFilm

The island structure, including the platforms, with five levels, is about around 70m long. Like the Hyuga class, considerable attention has been paid to reducing signatures. The 243m flight deck allows for relatively unimpeded aircraft movement and is able to simultaneously operate five helicopters. Weapons, except for the forward CIWS on the starboard side of the flight deck, are mounted on hull sponsons or the island structure. Another notable difference from the Hyuga class is the aft 14m x 15m deck edge elevator on the starboard deck edge behind the island structure. The forward 20m x13m elevator remains on the centreline as on the Hyuga class. There are three small elevators for weapons and supplies, two forward, one aft. Source rina.org.uk

JS Izumo (DDH-183)


Japan’s cabinet has approved a major additional purchase of 105 F-35s to add to the 42 aircraft already on order. Significantly, the number includes 42 of the F-35B STOVL (short takeoff, vertical landing) version, which will operate from island bases along Japan’s western seaboard and two converted Izumo-class helicopter carriers. Japan also approved work to modify the vessels, Izumo and Kaga, to operate up to 10 F-35Bs each—including deck strengthening. The announcement confirms Japanese press reports that have been circulating since earlier in the year. Source thaimilitaryandasianregion.blogspot.com

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

Japan considers refitting helicopter carrier for stealth fighters: gov’t sources: Here


Japan is considering refitting the Izumo helicopter carrier so that it can land U.S. Marines F-35B stealth fighters, government sources said on Tuesday, as Tokyo faces China’s maritime expansion and North Korea’s missile and nuclear development.

Japan has not had fully fledged aircraft carriers since its World War Two defeat in 1945.

Design features of Izumo-class destroyer



The Izumo-class destroyer has a length of 248m, beam of 38m, draught of 7.5m and depth of 33.5m. Its displacement is 19,500t when empty and 27,000t when fully loaded. It can complement 970 crew and troops, and as many as nine helicopters including seven anti-submarine warfare (ASW) helicopters and two search and rescue (SAR) helicopters.



JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews


JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews


JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

Flight deck

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews


JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews


JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

The destroyer features a spacious flight deck that can accommodate five helicopters to take off and land simultaneously. It also includes roll-on and roll-off ramp, and interior space for up to 50 vehicles.

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

Sensors and processing systems fitted to the vessel include OYQ-12 combat direction system, FCS-3 fire control system, OPS-50 AESA radar, OPS-28 surface-search radar, and OQQ-23 bow sonar.

FCS-3 fire control system


DDH-184 JS KAGA – Kz arashi

FCS-3 is an integrated naval weapons system developed by the Japanese Defense Ministry for the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force.

This system is composed of weapon-direction and fire-control subsystem and multi-function radar subsystem. The multi-function radar subsystem adopted active electronically scanned array (AESA) technology, and there are two sets of antennas: the larger one is a C-band radar for surveillance and tracking, the smaller one is a X-band radar as a fire-control radar.

DDH-184 JS KAGA – Kz arashi

After a prolonged sea trial on board JS Asuka, this system was introduced in 2007 on the JS Hyūga (DDH-181). The enhanced version, FCS-3A, was employed on the Akizuki-class destroyers., and limited-function version, OPS-50, was also delivered for the Izumo-class helicopter destroyers. The fire-control function are omitted in the OPS-50 system, so they have only one set of antennas operating C-band. Source wikipedia.org

OPS-50 AESA radar


DDH-184 JS KAGA – Osaka Japan大阪観光チャンネル

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 222.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination
Sensors / EW:
J/OPS-50 MFR – (Izumo Class) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 222.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

OPS-28 surface-search radar


DDH-184 JS KAGA – wikimedia.org

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 203.7 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.7 km Generation: Early 1980s
Properties: Track While Scan (TWS), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
J/OPS-28D – (1983) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 2D Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface
Max Range: 203.7 km

Source cmano-db.com

OQQ-21 bow sonar (OQQ-23 bow sonar?)

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km
Sensors / EW:
J/OQQ-21 – Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

Weapon systems fitted on Izumo-class destroyer



The Izumo-class destroyer is fitted with two Phalanx close-in weapon system (CIWS) guns, and two SeaRAM CIWS launchers. It is also equipped with electronic warfare and decoy systems, including NOLQ-3D-1 EW suite, Mark 36 SRBOC, anti-torpedo mobile decoy (MOD), and floating acoustic jammer (FAJ).

2 x Phalanx close-in weapon system (CIWS)

DDH-184 JS KAGA – Kz arashi

MK 15 Phalanx CIWS provides ships of the U.S. Navy with an inner layer point defense capability against anti-ship missiles (ASM), aircraft and littoral warfare threats that have penetrated other fleet defenses. Phalanx automatically detects, evaluates, tracks, engages and performs kill assessment against ASM and high speed aircraft threats. The current Phalanx variant (Block 1B) adds the ability to counter asymmetric warfare threats through the addition of an integrated, stabilized, Electro Optic sensor. These improvements give Phalanx the added ability to counter small high speed surface craft, aircraft, helicopters and unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Phalanx is the only deployed close-in weapon system capable of autonomously performing its own search, detect, evaluation, track, engage and kill assessment functions. Phalanx also can be integrated into existing ship combat control systems to provide additional sensor and fire-control support to other installed ship weapon systems.

General Characteristics, MK 15

Primary Function: Fast-reaction, detect-thru-engage, radar guided 20-millimeter gun weapon system.
Contractor: Raytheon Systems Company (preceded by Hughes Missile Systems Company and purchased from General Dynamics Pomona Division in 1992).
Date Deployed: Date Deployed: Block 0: 1980 (aboard USS Coral Sea)
Block 1: 1988 (aboard USS Wisconsin)
Block 1B: 1999 (aboard USS Underwood)
Weight: (Block 1B): 13,600 pounds (6,120 kg).
Type Fire: ASM & Aircraft: 4,500 rounds/min, Asymmetric Threats: 3,000 rounds/min.
Magazine Capacity: 1,550 rounds
Caliber: 20mm.
Ammunition: Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot.
Type: M-61A1 Gatling Gun.

Source navy.mil

2 x SeaRAM CIWS launchers


JMSDF DDH-183 SeaRam – wikimedia.org

The innovative SeaRAM system combines key attributes of the Phalanx® close-in weapon system and the RAM™ guided weapon system. The SeaRAM system combines the superior accuracy, extended range and high maneuverability of the RAM missile with the high resolution search-and-track sensor and reliable, quick-response capability of the Phalanx Block 1B system. An 11-missile RAM system launcher assembly replaces the Phalanx system’s 20 mm gun. Source raytheon.com

RAM Block 2

The RAM Block 2 is an upgraded version of the Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) ship self-defense missile system. The RAM Block 2 missile upgrade aim is to more effectively counter the emerging threat of more maneuverable anti-ship missiles. The US Navy awarded Raytheon Missile Systems a $105 million Block 2 RAM development contract on May 8, 2007, with the missile development expected to complete by December 2010.

The Block 2 upgrade includes a four-axis independent control actuator system and a redesigned rocket motor. These upgrades increase the RAM’s effective range and deliver a significant improvement in maneuverability. The improved missile also incorporates an upgraded passive radio frequency seeker, a digital autopilot and engineering changes in selected infrared seeker components. The US Navy took delivery of the first batch of RAM Block 2 weapons in August 2014 and declared IOC in May 2015.

Diameter: 146 millimeter (5.75 inch)
Length: 2.82 meter (111 inch)
Wingspan: 322 millimeter (12.7 inch)
Max Range: 15,000 meter (8.10 nautical mile)
Min Range: 400 meter (0.22 nautical mile)
Target’s Max Altitude: 8,100 meter (4.37 nautical mile)
Target’s Min Altitude: 1.50 meter
Warhead: 11 kilogram (24.3 pound)
Weight: 88 kilogram (194 pound)

Source deagel.com




The MK 44 guided missile round pack and the MK 49 guided missile launching system, which hold 21 missiles, comprise the MK 31 guided missile weapon system. The system is designed to be easily integrated into many different ships. A variety of existing ship sensors can readily provide the target and pointing information required to engage the anti-ship threat.

The MK 44 missile is also used in the SeaRAM® anti-ship missile defense system, replacing the M601A1 Gatling gun in the Phalanx® close-in weapon system with an 11-round launcher. The Phalanx system’s sensor suite and internal combat management system reduces dependency on the ship’s combat system and enables a fast reaction to stressing anti-ship missiles. The RAM Block 2 missile has been successfully fired from a SeaRAM system. Source raytheon.com

NOLQ-3D-1 EW suite


DDH-184 JS KAGA – Osaka Japan大阪観光チャンネル

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
Sensors / EW:
J/NOLQ-3D-1 [ESM] – (Izumo, Separate ESM Antenna) ESM
Role: ELINT w/ OTH Targeting
Max Range: 926 km

Source cmano-db.com

Mark 36 SRBOC


Decoy employment is used primarily to defend against anti-ship missiles which have avoided detection and penetrated to the terminal-defense area that represents an imminent threat to ownship. The MK 36 Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Countermeasures (SRBOC) Chaff and Decoy Launching System is an evolutionary development of the RBOC family with enhanced capability. The MK 36 is a deck-mounted, mortar-type countermeasure system that may be used to launch an array of chaff cartridges against a variety of threats. The purpose of the system is to confuse hostile missile guidance and fire control systems by creating false signals. The launching system is controlled from the Combat Information Center and is dependent on information provided by the detection and threat analysis equipment on the ship.

The DLS MK 36 Mod 12 is a morter-tube launched decoy countermeasures system that projects decoys aloft at specific heights and ranges. Each DLS launcher includes six fixed-angle (elevation) tubes: four tubes set at 45 degrees and two tubes set at 60 degrees. Decoy selection and firing is controlled from either the EW console of the bridge launcher control. The DLS launches the following types of decoys: SRBOC – which uses chaff to deceive RF-emitting missiles/radars, NATO Sea Gnat – which is similar to SRBOC but with extended range and a larget payload of chaff, and TORCH – which uses heat to deceive infrarad-seeking missiles. Source fas.org

Izumo-class destroyer propulsion and performance

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – reddit.com

The Izumo-class destroyers are propelled by four GE/IHI LM2500IEC gas turbine engines, which generate a power of 112,000hp (84,000kW). They can sail at a top speed of more than 30kn (56km/h).

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

4 x GE/IHI LM2500IEC gas turbine engines



LM2500PJ performance

SYSTEM TYPE Simple cycle Combined heat and power (cogeneration)
FUEL City gas/Natural gas City gas/Natural gas
FREQUENCY 50Hz 60Hz 50Hz 60Hz
POWER OUTPUT 21,170kW 22,100kW 20,530kW 21,460kW
FUEL CONSUMPTION RATE 10.37MJ/kWh 10.01MJ/kWh 10.32MJ/kWh 10.20MJ/kWh
NOX(O2=16%) 21ppm 21ppm

Inlet air temperature: 15℃
Atmospheric pressure: 101.3 kPa
Boiler supply water temperature: 60℃
*The above performance values list average performance in New & Clean mode.
*Note that the above performance values may be subject to change without prior notice.

Source hi.co.jp


Displacement standard, t 19500
Displacement full, t 24000
Length, m 248.0
Breadth, m 23.5 wl 38.0 fd
Draught, m 7.30
No of shafts 2
Machinery COGAG: 4 General Electric-IHI LM-2500 gas turbines
Power, h. p. 112000
Max speed, kts 30
Fuel, t gas turbine oil
Endurance, nm(kts) 6000(20)
Armament 2 x 21 Sea RAM SAM (42 RIM-116), 2 x 6 – 20/76 Mk 15 Block 1B Phalanx, 5 x 1 – 12.7/90, 14 helicopters (SH-60, MCH-101)
Sensors OPS-50, OPS-28D, FCS-3, OPS-20 radars, OQQ-23 sonar, NOLQ-3D-1 ECM suite, 6x SRBOC Mk 36 decoy RL, OLQ-1 anti-torpedo system, ACDS CCS
Complement 470

Source navypedia.org

Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Kongō Class Guided Missile Destroyers

The Kongō Class guided missile destroyers were built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and IHI Corporation for the Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force (JMSDF). The destroyer is a modified version of the US Navy’s Arleigh Burke Class destroyer. The Escort Flotillas of JMSDF operate four vessels. The Kongō Class is preceded by Hatakaze Class and succeeded by Atago Class destroyers.

The JS Myōkō (right) next to the Flight IIA Arleigh Burke-class USS Mustin (left). – reddit.com

The JMSDF built and commissioned four destroyers between 1990 and 1998. The keel for the lead vessel in class, JDS Kongō (DDG-173), was laid in May 1990. It was launched in September 1991 and commissioned in March 1993. JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) was laid down in April 1992, launched in August 1993 and commissioned in March 1995. JDS Myōkō (DDG-175) was laid down in April 1993, launched in October 1994 and commissioned in March 1996. The last vessel of class, JDS Chōkai (DDG-176), was laid down in May 1995. Chōkai was launched in August 1996 for the commissioning in March 1998.

Sejong the Great-class destroyer: Details

Ships in class


Kongō Class destroyer design


Based on the Arleigh Burke Class destroyer, the design of Kongō Class features a vertical mast and a bridge with sleek sides. The superstructure prevailed by the SPY-1 phased arrays incorporates stealth features to reduce radar cross section. The vessel is larger than traditional destroyers, featuring a longer helicopter deck aft than the Arleigh Burke Class destroyer. The deeper draught of the destroyer limits its capabilities to conduct operations in littoral environments.

The Kongō Class has a length of 161m, beam of 21m and draft of 6.2m. The full load displacement of the ship is 9,500t. The destroyer can accommodate a crew of 300.

Command and control

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The Kongō Class destroyers were the first vessels to be equipped with the Aegis combat system (ACS) after the US Navy warships.

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The system integrates an advanced command and control system, and a weapons control system (WCS). The high-performance phased array radar system combined with powerful computers can search, detect and track over 200 targets simultaneously.

JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) – AegisBMD

In July 2005, Lockheed Martin received a $124m contract under a foreign military sales (FMS) programme to supply the Aegis ballistic missile defence (BMD) system for four Kongō Class destroyers. Three destroyers were successfully modified with the Aegis BMD system. The system integration is expected to be complete by the end of 2010.

Kongō Class weapons layout


Kongō Class missiles

An SM-3 missile is launched from the JMSDF Aegis destroyer JS Kirishima (Kongo class) – reddit.com

The destroyer is armed with the RIM-66 SM-2MR block II surface-to-air missiles and the RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles. The mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS) can carry a total of 90 SM-2MR missiles, of which, 21 missiles are housed in the bow cells and 61 missiles in the aft cells of the VLS.

RIM-66 SM-2MR block II surface-to-air missiles

RIM-66 SM-2MR Standard Missile was launched from the forward Mk-41 VLS aboard USS Mustin (DDG 89) -seaforces.org

Standard Missile 2 (SM-2) is the U.S Navy’s primary surface-to-air air defense weapon. It is an integral part of the AEGIS Weapon System (AWS) aboard Ticonderoga-class cruisers and Arleigh Burke-class destroyers; and is launched from the Mark 41 vertical launcher system (VLS). Its primary missions are fleet area air defense and ship self-defense, but it also has demonstrated an extended area air defense projection capability. The SM-2 uses tail controls and a solid fuel rocket motor for propulsion and maneuverability. All variants are guided by inertial navigation and mid-course commands from AWS using semi-active radar or an infrared (IR) sensor for terminal homing.

SM-2 Blocks III, IIIA, IIIB and IV are in service with the U.S. Navy; these and other variants of Standard Missile are also in service with 15 allied navies.

Extended Range Active Missile (SM-6) provides an air defense force multiplier to the U.S. Navy to greatly expand the AWS battlespace. SM-6 provides an extended range anti-air warfare capability both over sea and over land by combining a modified advanced medium-range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM) active seeker onto the proven Standard Missile airframe. This low-risk approach, relying on non-developmental items, supported an FY 2011 initial operating capability. With integrated fire control support, SM-6 provides the Navy with an increased battlespace against anti-air warfare (AAW) threats over-the-horizon.

The Kirishima fires what appears to be an SM-2 missile from one of her stern VLS cells – reddit.com

General Characteristics, SM-2 Block III/IIIA/IIIB Medium Range

Primary Function: Surface to air missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems.
Date Deployed: 1981 (SM-2 MR).
Propulsion: Dual thrust, solid fuel rocket.
Length: 15 feet, 6 inches (4.72 meters).
Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.3 cm).
Wingspan: 3 feet 6 inches (1.08 meters).
Weight: SM-2: 1,558 pounds (708 kg).
Range: Up to 90 nautical miles (104 statute miles).
Guidance System: Semi-active radar homing (IR in Block IIIB).
Warhead: Radar and contact fuse, blast-fragment warhead.

Source navy.mil

RIM-161 Standard Missile SM-3 ABM

RIM-161 Standard Missile SM-3 was launched from the Japanese Destroyer JS Kongou (DDG 173)

The RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) is a ship-based missile system used by the US Navy to intercept aircraft, ships, ballistic and cruise missiles as a part of Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System. Although primarily designed as an anti-ballistic missile, the SM-3 has also been employed in an anti-satellite capacity against a satellite at the lower end of Low Earth orbit. The SM-3 is primarily used and tested by the United States Navy and also operated by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force and in the future by the Royal Netherlands Navy.


The SM-3 evolved from the proven SM-2 Block IV design. The SM-3 uses the same solid rocket booster and dual thrust rocket motor as the Block IV missile for the first and second stages and the same steering control section and midcourse missile guidance for maneuvering in the atmosphere. To support the extended range of an exo-atmospheric intercept, additional missile thrust is provided in a new third stage for the SM-3 missile, containing a dual pulse rocket motor for the early exo-atmospheric phase of flight.

Initial work was done to adapt SM-3 for land deployment (“Aegis ashore”) to especially accommodate the Israelis, but they then chose to pursue their own system, the NATO code-name Arrow 3. A group in the Obama administration envisioned a European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) and SM-3 was chosen as the main vector of this effort because the competing U.S. THAAD does not have enough range and would have required too many sites in Europe to provide adequate coverage. Compared to the GMD’s Ground-Based Interceptor however, the SM-3 Block I has about 1⁄5 to 1⁄6 of the range. A significant improvement in this respect, the SM-3 Block II variant widens the missile’s diameter from 0.34 m (13.5 in) to .53 m (21 in), making it more suitable against intermediate-range ballistic missiles.

The Block IIA missile is largely new sharing only the first-stage motor with the Block I. The Block IIA was “designed to allow for Japan to protect against a North Korean attack with fewer deployed ships” but it is also the key element of the EPAA phase 3 deployment in Europe. The Block IIA is being jointly developed by Raytheon and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries; the latter manages “the third-stage rocket motor and nose cone”. The U.S. budgeted cost to date is $1.51 billion for the Block IIA.

Lenght: 6.55 meters (21 feet 6 inch)
Diameter: 34.3 cm (13.5 in) for Block I missiles / 53.3 cm (21 in) for Block II
Wingspan: 1.57 meters (62 in)
Operational range: 700 km (378 miles) Block IA/B / 2,500 km (1,350 miles) Block IIA
Flight ceiling: 500 km (311 miles) Block IA/B / 1,500 km (933 miles) Block IIA
Speed: 3 km/s (Mach 10.2) Block IA/B / 4.5 km/s (Mach 15.25) Block IIA
Guidance: GPS/INS/semi-active radar homing/passive LWIR infrared homing seeker (KW)

Source seaforces.org

Mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS)

The Mk 41 is the standard Vertical Launch System employed by the US Navy fighting ships to store and launch a wide spectrum of naval missiles. It is installed below deck on surface ships in 13 different configurations ranging from a single module with 8-cell to 16 modules with 128-cell.

The Mk 41 Strike Length (Mk 41 SL) is the largest Mk 41 version currently deployed aboard US Navy ships. It can accommodate any existing missile in the US Navy Inventory.

The Mk 41 VLS has been adopted by the navies of Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, Republic of Korea (RoK), Norway, Spain, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

Mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS) Kongō Class Miyoko DDG 175 – 来島屋旗振男

As of early 2006, the Mk 41 VLS Baseline VII is the current production model and was introduced in 2004. More than 11,000 Mk 41 missiles cells have been ordered to date for 178 ships in 11 world navies.

Mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS) Kongō Class Miyoko DDG 175 – 来島屋旗振男

The BAE Systems Mk 14 canister is used to launch Tomahawk cruise missiles through the Mk 41 vertical launching system. The US Navy had ordered 1,036 Mk 14 canisters until April 2007.  Source deagel.com

GM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The A/U/RGM-84 Harpoon is an all- weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system that provides the Navy with a common missile for air and ship launches.

The Harpoon’s active radar guidance, warhead design, low-level cruise trajectory, and terminal mode sea-skim or pop-up maneuvers assure high survivability and effectiveness. The missile is capable of being launched from surface ships, submarines, shore batteries, or aircraft (without the booster).

In late 2010, plans for an updated U.S. Navy version of the Harpoon Block II began to formalize. The Harpoon Block II+ provides a rapid-capability enhancement for the Navy that includes a new GPS guidance kit, reliability and survivability of the weapon, a new data link interface that enables in-flight updates, improved target selectivity, an abort option and enhanced resistance to electronic countermeasures. When fielded to the fleet in the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2017, Harpoon Block II+ will join the Joint Standoff Weapon C-1 as the Navy’s only two air-to-ground network-enabled weapons.


General Characteristics

Primary Function: Air, ship, and foreign submarine and land-based coastal defense battery launched anti-ship cruise missile.
Contractor: The Boeing Company.
Date Deployed: 1977.
Unit Cost: $1,200,000 for Harpoon Block II.
Propulsion: Teledyne Turbojet / solid propellant booster for surface and submarine launch. Thrust: greater than 600 pounds (greater than 272.2 kg).
Length: Air launched: 12 feet, 7 inches (3.8 meters); Surface and submarine launched: 15 feet (4.6 meters)
Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.3 cm).
Wingspan: 3 feet (91.4 cm) with booster fins and wings.
Weight: 1,523 pounds (690.8 kg) with booster.
Speed: High subsonic.
Range: Over-the-horizon, in excess of 67 nautical miles (124 km).
Guidance System: Sea-skimming cruise monitored by radar altimeter / active radar terminal homing.
Warhead: Penetration / high-explosive blast (488 pounds/224 kg).
Last Update: 10 March 2017

Source navy.mil


JMSDF DDG-173 JS KONGO – binmei jp

The main gun fitted is a 127mm / 54-calibre Oto-Breda compact gun. The gun can fire 40 rounds a minute within a range of 30,000m. There are two 20mm Phalanx close-in weapon systems (CIWS) mounted on the vessel.

127mm / 54-calibre Oto-Breda compact gun



Manufactured by OTO-Melara, these weapons have a higher rate of fire and a greater maximum elevation than their rough equivalent, the USA 5″/54 (12.7 cm) Mark 45. Both use USN standard semi-fixed ammunition including surface, air, pyrotechnic and chaff rounds. Mounting reaction time is five seconds from target designation. The reloading, feeding and firing sequence is controlled by a central console which is operated by a single crewmember.



The Compact is intended for use on frigate and destroyer type warships. This mounting uses a water-cooled barrel mounted in a water-tight fiberglass gunhouse and has 66 ready-to-fire rounds in three drums located just below the gun house. Each drum can hold a different ammunition type and each can be independently selected. A central elevator hoists the ammunition and delivers it to two oscillating arms which move the rounds into the loading trays. The drums are automatically reloaded via two hoists which are manually loaded in the lower magazine. Reloading can take place while the gun is firing. As an option, this mounting can be fitted with a stabilized line of sight local control system. Source navweaps.com


The Otobreda 127mm/54-caliber Compact (127/54C) gun is a dual purpose naval gun system.
It fires the 127mm (5″) rounds which are also in use in the US Mk-45 5-inch/ 54-caliber gun.

Technical data:
Builder: Oto-Melara (now OtoBreda)
In service: 1972
Caliber: 5 inches / 127 mm
Barrel lenght: 270 inches / 6,858 meters (= 54 caliber)
Weight: 37500 kg (without ammunition)
Elevation: -15° / + 83°
Rate of fire: 40 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocity: 808 meters per second
Range: 23000 meters, max. (47°) / 15000 meters effective / 7000 meters AA (83°)
Ammunition stowage: 66 rounds ready to fire in 3 loader drums / 500-600 in magazine
Ammunition: High Explosive, Illumination

Source seaforces.org

2 x 20mm Phalanx close-in weapon systems

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

MK 15 Phalanx CIWS provides ships of the U.S. Navy with an inner layer point defense capability against anti-ship missiles (ASM), aircraft and littoral warfare threats that have penetrated other fleet defenses. Phalanx automatically detects, evaluates, tracks, engages and performs kill assessment against ASM and high speed aircraft threats. The current Phalanx variant (Block 1B) adds the ability to counter asymmetric warfare threats through the addition of an integrated, stabilized, Electro Optic sensor. These improvements give Phalanx the added ability to counter small high speed surface craft, aircraft, helicopters and unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Phalanx is the only deployed close-in weapon system capable of autonomously performing its own search, detect, evaluation, track, engage and kill assessment functions. Phalanx also can be integrated into existing ship combat control systems to provide additional sensor and fire-control support to other installed ship weapon systems.

General Characteristics, MK 15

Primary Function: Fast-reaction, detect-thru-engage, radar guided 20-millimeter gun weapon system.
Contractor: Raytheon Systems Company (preceded by Hughes Missile Systems Company and purchased from General Dynamics Pomona Division in 1992).
Date Deployed: Date Deployed: Block 0: 1980 (aboard USS Coral Sea)
Block 1: 1988 (aboard USS Wisconsin)
Block 1B: 1999 (aboard USS Underwood)
Weight: (Block 1B): 13,600 pounds (6,120 kg).
Type Fire: ASM & Aircraft: 4,500 rounds/min, Asymmetric Threats: 3,000 rounds/min.
Magazine Capacity: 1,550 rounds
Caliber: 20mm.
Ammunition: Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot.
Type: M-61A1 Gatling Gun.

Source navy.mil

The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force destroyer JDS Kongo (DDG 173) is underway in the Pacific Ocean. George Washington, the Navy’s only permanently forward deployed aircraft carrier, is participating in Annual Exercise, a yearly bilateral exercise with the U.S. Navy and the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. Photo by Seaman Apprentice Anthony R. Martinez

Torpedoes and ASW rockets

Two type 68 triple torpedo tubes are mounted on the destroyers for ASW roles. These tubes can launch six mk46 or Type 73 torpedoes. The ship is also equipped with RUM-139 vertically launched anti-submarine rockets. The RUM-139 rocket is powered by two-stage solid rocket fuel engines.

2 x Type 68 triple torpedo tubes

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

Mk-32 SVTT system was built under license for the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force as Type-68 (Model HOS-301, HOS-302A, HOS-303) torpedo tubes. Source seaforces.org

Mk46 torpedoes

Mk-46 Mod.5A recoverable exercise torpedo (REXTORP) was launched from Mk-32 torpedo tubes – seaforces.org

The Mk-46 torpedo, first introduced in 1965, is a surface ship and aircraft-launched anti-submarine weapon. It is presently identified as the NATO standard and has been acquired by more than 25 countries. Various modifications, including improved acoustics, guidance and control upgrades, and countermeasure-detection capability have been introduced into the weapon.

The resultant Mk-46 Mod 5A(S) torpedo, an active or passive/active, dual-speed torpedo, is the ASW weapon for surface ships and ASW fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft. The Mk-46 Mod 5A (SW) (Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) torpedo was introduced to the fleet in September 1996. The Mk-46 SLEP has improved counter-countermeasure performance, enhanced target acquisition, a bottom-avoidance preset, and improved maintainability and reliability. The Mk-46 Mod 5A (SW) also serves as the payload for the Vertical Launch Anti-Submarine Rocket (ASROC VLA).


General characteristics, Mark 46 Mod 5:
Primary Function: Air and ship-launched lightweight torpedo
Contractor: Alliant Techsystems
Power Plant: Two-speed, reciprocating external combustion; Mono-propellant (Otto fuel II)
Length: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) tube launch configuration (from ship), 14 ft 9 in (4.5 m) with ASROC rocket booster
Weight: 508 lb (231 kg) (warshot configuration)
Diameter: 12.75 in (324 mm)
Range: 12,000 yd (11 km)
Depth: > 1,200 ft (365 m)
Speed: > 40 knots (46 mph, 74 km/h)
Guidance System: Homing mode: Active or passive/active acoustic homing
Launch/search mode: Snake or circle search
Warhead: 96.8 lb (44 kg) of PBXN-103 high explosive (bulk charge)
Date Deployed: 1967 (Mod 0); 1979 (Mod 5)

Source seaforces.org

Type 73 torpedoes

JMSDF Type 73 Light Weight torpedo in JMSDF Kure Museum – Wikimedia Commons

RUM-139 vertically launched anti-submarine rockets

ASROC (Anti-Submarine Rocket) combines a solid propellant rocket with a torpedo payload to achieve a quick reaction, all weather, intermediate range anti-submarine weapon. ASROC was designed to be installed on US Navy’s surface ships inside eight-cell sealed canisters which also performed as launch ramp. Originally the US Navy deployed ASROC carrying torpedoes armed with both conventional and nuclear warheads. After launch the ASROC rocket directs to the submarine area to deliver the torpedo payload. After entry the water the torpedo powers up and searches for the submarine using either active or passive sonar.

The RUM-139 Verical Launch ASROC (VLA) was designed to be fired from vertical launch system (VLS) such as the Mk-41. VLS offers greater weapons availability and quicker response than ramps that need to be directed to the target area before launch. The VLA program was launched in 1980 with Loral as the lead contractor. The RUM-139A weapon system achieved initial operational capability (IOC) in 1993 and RUM-139B in 1996. RUM-139B is an improved variant featuring Mark 46 Mod 5A(SW) in lieu of Mark 46 Mod 5(S). Mark 46 Mod 5A(SW) is more capable than its predecessor in the shallow water environment.

Diameter: 420 millimeter (16.5 inch)
Length: 5.04 meter (198 inch)
Wingspan: 680 millimeter (26.8 inch)
Max Range: 28,000 meter (15.1 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 330 mps (1,188 kph)
Warhead: 45 kilogram (98 pound)
Weight: 639 kilogram (1,409 pound)

Source deagel.com

Helicopter system

JS Myoko (DDG 175) – seaforces.org

Kongō Class destroyers have a large aft flight deck to accommodate two ASW or patrol helicopters, but no helicopter hangar and support equipment is provided on these ships.

Radars and sensors

JMSDF DDG-173 JS KONGO – binmei jp

The sensor suite includes an SPY-1D air search radar, an OPS-28 surface search radar and a missile director radar. The sonar is an OQS-102 bow-mounted low-frequency sonar. There is a NOLQ-2 intercept or jammer fitted on the destroyer.

SPY-1D air search radar

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The AEGIS Weapon System (AWS) is a centralized, automated, command-and-control (C2) and weapons control system that was designed as a total weapon system, from detection to kill. The heart of the system is the AN/SPY-1, an advanced, automatic detect and track, multi-function phased-array radar. This high-powered radar is able to perform search, track, and missile guidance functions simultaneously, with a track capacity of more than 100 targets. The first Engineering Development Model (EDM-1) was installed in the test ship USS Norton Sound (AVM 1) in 1973.  Source navy.mil


General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 60960 m
Range Max: 324.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 1.1 km Generation: Early 1990s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
AN/SPY-1D MFR – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air, Long-Range
Max Range: 324.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) – AegisBMD

AN/SPG-62 Fire Control Radar

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The US Navy AN/SPG-62 is a fire control radar provided to the AEGIS-equipped warships allowing to guide surface-to-air missiles, primarily Standard Missile SM-2, to their intended targets. The SPG-62 has been ordered by the United States Navy as well as other international navies worldwide operating the AEGIS weapon system.

The radar system operates in the I and J bands and provides continuous illumination of the target operating along the SPY-1D fixed face radar. The SPG-62 radar was deployed in 1983 along the Ticonderoga-class destroyers with four such radars on each ship. The Burke class destroyers are provided with three such radars while other ships are equipped with either two or three radar antennas. The AN/SPG-62 is considered as the weak spot of the AEGIS weapon system because limits the number of missiles than can be guided simultaneously by a single ship.  Source deagel.com

JMSDF DDG-173 JS KONGO – binmei jp

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 305.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Late 1980s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination
Sensors / EW:
AN/SPG-62 [Mk99 FCS] – Radar
Role: Radar Illuminator, Long-Range
Max Range: 305.6 km

Source cmano-db.com

OPS-28 surface search radar

日本語: 海上自衛隊 護衛艦くらま(DDH-144) OPS-28水上レーダー。 13年10月27日 神戸港にて。-wikimedia.org

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 203.7 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.7 km Generation: Early 1980s
Properties: Track While Scan (TWS), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
J/OPS-28C – (1983) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 2D Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface
Max Range: 203.7 km

Source cmano-db.com

OQS-102 bow-mounted low-frequency sonar


For illustration – geospectrum.ca

The Sonar Set AN/SQS-53C is a computer-controlled surface-ship sonar that has both active and passive operating capabilities providing precise information for ASW weapons control and guidance. The AN/SQS-53C is designed to perform direct path ASW search, detection, localization, and tracking from a hull mounted transducer array. The AN/SQS-53C retains the transducer assembly from either the AN/SQS-53A or 53B. The AN/SQS-53C provides greater range and detection capability with only half of the electronics footprint and less weight than earlier versions. The AN/SQS-53C is equipped with high source level, fully stabilized beams, and wide convergence zone annuli coupled with computer-aided detection and automatic contact management. Implemented in standard electronic modules, the AN/SQS-53C is an all digital system with stable performance, on-line reconfiguration in the event of a component failure, and performance monitoring/fault location software to quickly isolate failures. The AN/SQS-53C provides apparent range, bearing, and true bearing of contacts when employing active sonar and provides true bearing of contacts detected by passive means.

The AN/SQS-53 is the most advanced surface ship ASW sonar in the US Navy inventory. It is a high-power, long-range system evolved from the AN/SQS-26CX, used actively and passively to detect and localize submarine contacts. The SQS-53B, located in a large dome at the bow of the ship, will detect, identify, and track multiple underwater targets. With its higher power and improved signal processing equipment, this sonar is the first in the Navy to be linked directly to digital computers, thus ensuring swift, accurate processing of target information. Functions of the system are the detection, tracking, and classification of underwater targets. It can also be used for underwater communications, countermeasures against acoustic underwater weapons, and certain oceanographic recording uses. Source fas.org

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1990s
Sensors / EW:
J/OQS-102 – (AN/SQS-53C Equivalent) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com


The AN/SQR-19 Tactical Towed Array SONAR (TACTAS) provides very long-range passive detection of enemy submarines. TACTAS is a long cable full of microphones that is towed about a mile behind the ship. It is towed so far behind the ship so as to not let noise radiating from the shipitself interfere with the noise picked up from targets. Using that noise can determine exactly what ship or submarine is being tracked. The AN/SQR-19B Tactical Array SONAR (TACTAS) is a passive towed array system which provides the ability to detect, classify, and track a large number of submarine contacts at increased ranges. TACTAS is a component sensor of the AN/SQQ-89(V)6 ASW Combat System, and provides significant improvements in passive detection and localization, searching throughout 360 degrees at tactical ship speeds. Processing of complex TACTAS data is performed by the largest computer program assembly ever developed for surface ship anti-submarine warfare.

Meteorology and Oceanography Center Detachment TACTAS support products describe oceanographic and acoustic conditions (using range dependent models) in the prosecution area for towed array ships tasked by CTF-69 for ASW operations. This message is provided when own ship Sonar In-situ Mode Assessment System (SIMAS) or the Mobile Environmental Team’s Mobile Oceanographic Support System MOSS) are not available. It is tailored to the specific towed array carried onboard. The message is transmitted prior to the start of a prosecution and daily thereafter or as requested. Source fas.org

General data:
Type: TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 129.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 1980s
Sensors / EW:
J/OQR-2 TACTASS [AN/SQR-19A(V)] – TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System
Role: TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System
Max Range: 129.6 km

Source cmano-db.com

NOLQ-2 intercept or jammer

JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) – reddit.com

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1990s
Sensors / EW:
J/NOLQ-2 [ESM] – (Kongo, Separate ESM Antenna) ESM
Role: ELINT w/ OTH Targeting
Max Range: 926 km

Source cmano-db.com

4 x Mk 36 SRBOC decoy RL


Decoy employment is used primarily to defend against anti-ship missiles which have avoided detection and penetrated to the terminal-defense area that represents an imminent threat to ownship. The MK 36 Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Countermeasures (SRBOC) Chaff and Decoy Launching System is an evolutionary development of the RBOC family with enhanced capability. The MK 36 is a deck-mounted, mortar-type countermeasure system that may be used to launch an array of chaff cartridges against a variety of threats. The purpose of the system is to confuse hostile missile guidance and fire control systems by creating false signals. The launching system is controlled from the Combat Information Center and is dependent on information provided by the detection and threat analysis equipment on the ship.

The DLS MK 36 Mod 12 is a morter-tube launched decoy countermeasures system that projects decoys aloft at specific heights and ranges. Each DLS launcher includes six fixed-angle (elevation) tubes: four tubes set at 45 degrees and two tubes set at 60 degrees. Decoy selection and firing is controlled from either the EW console of the bridge launcher control. The DLS launches the following types of decoys: SRBOC – which uses chaff to deceive RF-emitting missiles/radars, NATO Sea Gnat – which is similar to SRBOC but with extended range and a larget payload of chaff, and TORCH – which uses heat to deceive infrarad-seeking missiles. Source fas.org

AN/SLQ-25 Nixie

The Torpedo Countermeasures Transmitting Set AN/SLQ-25A, commonly referred to as Nixie, is a passive, electro-acoustic decoy system used to provide deceptive countermeasures against acoustic homing torpedoes. The AN/SLQ-25A employs an underwater acoustic projector housed in a streamlined body which is towed astern on a combination tow/signal-transfer coaxial cable. An onboard generated signal is used by the towed body to produce an acoustic signal to decoy the hostile torpedo away from the ship. The AN/SLQ-25A includes improved deceptive countermeasures capabilities. The AN/SLQ-25B includes improved deceptive countermeasures capabilities, a fiber optic display LAN, a torpedo alertment capability and a towed array sensor.

Modern acoustic towed decoys, such as the AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE and the older T-MK6 FANFAIR, employ electronic or electromechanical means to produce the required signals. The system provides an alternate target diversion for an enemy acoustic homing torpedo by stringing on cable a “noise maker”, aft of the ship, which has the capability of producing a greater noise than the ship; thereby diverting the incoming torpedo from the ship to the “fish”. The towed device receives the torpedoes ping frequency, amplifies it 2 to 3 times and sends it back to lure the torpedo away from the ship. They may be used in pairs or singularly. Source fas.org

Type: Decoy (Towed) Weight: 21 kg
Length: 0.94 m Span: 0.187 m
Diameter: 0.152 Generation: Late 1970s
Targets: Surface Vessel
AN/SLQ-25 Nixie – Decoy (Towed)
Surface Max: 1.9 km.

Source cmano-db.com


Kongō Class destroyers are equipped with a combined gas and gas (COGAG) propulsion system. Four Ishikawajima Harima / General Electric LM2500 gas turbines driving two shafts develop a power output of 75MW. The propulsion system provides a maximum speed of 30kt.

4 x Ishikawajima Harima / General Electric LM2500 gas turbines



LM2500PJ performance

System type Simple cycle Combined heat and power (cogeneration)
Fuel City gas/Natural gas City gas/Natural gas
Frequency 50Hz 60Hz 50Hz 60Hz
Power output 21,170kW 22,100kW 20,530kW 21,460kW
Fuel consumption rate 10.37MJ/kWh 10.01MJ/kWh 10.32MJ/kWh 10.20MJ/kWh
Thermal efficiency at the generator terminal 34.7% 36.0% 34.9% 35.3%
Total thermal efficiency 85.9% 86.8%
NOx(O2=16%) 21ppm 21ppm

Inlet air temperature: 15℃
Atmospheric pressure: 101.3 kPa
Boiler supply water temperature: 60℃
*The above performance values list average performance in New & Clean mode.
*Note that the above performance values may be subject to change without prior notice.

Source hi.co.jp

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT



Displacement standard, t 7250
Displacement full, t 9500
Length, m 150.5 pp 161.0 oa
Breadth, m 21.0
Draught, m 6.20 hull
No of shafts 2
Machinery COGAG: 4 General Electric LM-2500 gas turbines
Power, h. p. 100000
Max speed, kts 30
Fuel, t gas turbine oil 1000
Endurance, nm (kts) 4500(20)
Armament 2 x 4 Harpoon SSM (8 RGM-84), (1 x 61 + 1 x 29) Standard SM-2MR SAM / ASROC VLA ASuR Mk 41 VLS (74 RIM-66, 16 RUM-139), 1 x 1 – 127/54 OTO-Melara Compact, 2 x 6 – 20/76 Mk 15 Phalanx, 2 x 1 – 12.7/90, 2 x 3 – 324 HOS-302 TT, helicopter deck
Sensors SPY-1D, OPS-28D, 3x SPG-62, FCS-2-23, OPS-20, 2x Mk 90 radars, OQS-102, OQR-2 sonars, NOLQ-2, OLT-3, OPN-7B ECM suites, 4x Mk 36 SRBOC decoy RL, SLQ-25 Nixie torpedo decoy, OYQ-6 CCS
Complement 310

Source navypedia.org

Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

C-5M Super Galaxy Transport Aircraft

The C-5M Super Galaxy strategic transport aircraft, a modernised version of the legacy C-5,  was designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin to extend the capability of the C-5 fleet to remain in service at least until 2040. The C-5M aircraft is operated by the US Air Force (USAF).

The USAF initiated a two-phase upgrade programme to transform the C-5 aircraft fleet into the C-5M Super Galaxy. Under the programme, Lockheed Martin modernised 52 C-5 aircraft, including 49 C-5Bs, two C-5Cs and one C-5A by 2017. The company delivered 16 C-5M aircraft by December 2013.

The C-5M Super Galaxy transport aircraft achieved initial operational capability (IOC) in February 2014. The aircraft set 89 world aeronautical records to date.

Details of the C-5 Galaxy modernisation programme

The C-5 Galaxy is being modernised in two phases involving the avionics modernisation programme (AMP), and reliability enhancement and re-engining programme (RERP). Lockheed Martin secured a $454m contract for the first phase of the upgrade in January 1999. The AMP is aimed at upgrading the cockpit of the C-5 fleet.

The contract for the second phase was awarded in December 2001. It includes the installation of new engines, pylons, thrust reversers and wing attachment fittings to the C-5 aircraft. The first C-5 aircraft upgraded as part of AMP completed its maiden flight in December 2002 and was delivered to the USAF in October 2004. The second phase began in October 2004 was concluded in May 2006, renaming the modernised aircraft C-5M Super Galaxy.


The first of the three C-5M test aircraft performed a maiden flight in June 2006 and was delivered to the USAF for operational testing and evaluation in December 2008. The second and third aircraft completed their first flights in November 2006 and March 2007 respectively.

The USAF approved the upgrade of 49 additional aircraft, including 47 C-5Bs and two C-5Cs, under the RERP in February 2008.

In February 2009, Lockheed Martin secured a $299m RERP contract for the production of nine C-5Ms. The company was also awarded a $25m Interim Contractor Support (ICS) contract for the familiarisation and operational testing and evaluation of the C-5M.


The low-rate initial production of the first C-5M transport aircraft was commenced in August 2009. The test aircraft piloted by a joint USAF and Lockheed Martin flight crew in September 2009 set 41 world aeronautical records in one flight.

The maiden flight of the first C-5M production aircraft took place in September 2010, and the operational testing and evaluation was completed in October 2010. Joint acceptance flight by the USAF and Lockheed Martin was concluded in October 2012.

The third C-5M production aircraft made its first flight in July 2011 and was delivered to the USAF in August 2011.The USAF took delivery of the 52nd and final C-5M Super Galaxy aircraft in August 2018. All 52 aircraft are operational with the Air Mobility Command and Air Force Reserve Command units.



The C-5M Super Galaxy is a strategic transport aircraft and is the largest aircraft in the Air Force inventory. Its primary mission is to transport cargo and personnel for the Department of Defense. The C-5M is a modernized version of the legacy C-5 designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin. Currently the U.S. Air Force owns and operates 52 C-5B/C/M. They are stationed at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware; Travis AFB, California; Lackland AFB, Texas; and Westover Air Reserve Base, Massachusetts.

Looking to the future, modernization efforts include incorporating advanced weather radar, mission computing, communication systems and air traffic management to meet FAA mandates and survivability in theaterSource af.mil


Lockheed Martin to new mission computers and weather radars 

Military avionics experts at the Lockheed Martin Corp. Aeronautics segment in Marietta, Ga., will upgrade the mission computer and weather radar systems in the giant C-5M Super Galaxy cargo jet under terms of an $84.3 million contract announced late Tuesday.

The avionics upgrade contract calls for Lockheed Martin to begin full-scale development of the C-5 Core Mission Computer/Color Weather Radar, which is part of a long-term program to extend the life of the Air Force C-5 fleet beyond 2040.

The new distributed-architecture core mission computer will have a 100-megabit-per-second Ethernet interface over copper wire, and will have several sources of supply for components such as MIL-STD-1553 interface chips, single board computers, and I/O cards.

The core mission computers for the C-5 also will have commercial standard video interfaces with VGA as a minimum, at least one additional expansion data bus for federated systems or new line-replaceable units (LRUs) covering Ethernet, MIL-STD-1553, and ARINC 429 avionics databuses.

The computer will separate classified and non-classified data for at least one data bus type for proper isolation of classified information, Air Force officials say. It will support the weather radar, flight management system (FMS), and communication navigation surveillance (CNS) and air traffic management (ATM) subsystems, including automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) Out, and identification friend or foe (IFF) Mode 5.

The new computers also will be able to accommodate future capability like the Joint Tactical Radio System into the communication system; memory expansion and processing necessary for the Joint Position Approach and Landing System algorithms; and memory and processing power necessary for new data links on the C-5M such as Link 16 or the conceptual Mobility Air Force Data Link. Source militaryaerospace.com


C-5M Super Galaxy features


The C-5M Super Galaxy transport aircraft offers greater reliability and efficient performance at reduced operating and lifecycle costs. It integrates more than 70 enhancements and requires reduced maintenance per flight hour.


US Air Force

Lockheed Martin

Dewar tank


In May 2009, they put together a Dover Dewar Conference at Dover AFB that included two engineers from Robbins AFB, seven engineers from Lockheed Martin, C-5 community maintainers, and people from Parker Hannifin, the manufacturer.

“For two days we had the best and the brightest in one room talking about the system and what we needed to upgrade it,” Haller said .

The new system is putting liquid nitrogen, which is negative 320 degrees, into the Dewar tank. This not only helps with aircraft fires, but also puts a positive pressure on top of the wings and the fuel systems.

The Dewar and fire suppression system works by opening up the valves and letting the nitrogen flow through the plumbing into the non-manned areas of the aircraft. Oxygen is pushed out allowing the nitrogen to put out the fire. Also by placing nitrogen into the fuel itself there is no oxygen so there is less chance of having a fire inside the fuel tank.

What has been developed and improved through the AFSO21 process are re-designed valves, a universal wiring harness, an upgraded FSS control panel, and better seals and plumbing. Source af.mil

The aircraft has a length of 75.53m, height of 19.84m and wingspan of 67.91m. The operating and maximum take-off weights of the aircraft are 181,437kg and 381,018kg respectively. The aircraft has a fuel capacity of 150,819kg and payload-carrying capacity of 129,274kg.

The aircraft is equipped with five sets of landing gears with a total of 28 wheels.



The maintenance diagnostics system has the ability to record and analyze data from more than 7,000 test points, reducing maintenance and repair time.

The C-5M, with a cargo load of 281,001 pounds (127,460 kilograms), can fly 2,150 nautical miles, offload, and fly to a second base 500 nautical miles away from the original destination — all without aerial refueling. With aerial refueling, the aircraft’s range is limited only by crew endurance. Source af.mil

AiirSource Military

US Defense News

Underlining the capability of the C-5M are 89 FAI-certified records, the most held by any aircraft type. In operational terms, the C-5M is one of a tiny handful of aircraft that can carry main battle tanks, being able to haul two M1A1 Abrams tanks over intercontinental distances. With this capability, the Super Galaxy remains vital to the U.S. Air Force’s mission to rapidly deploy large equipment that would otherwise rely on sea transportation. Source ainonline.com

Cockpit and cargo compartment


The advanced glass cockpit integrates a multimode communications suite, a mission computer, enhanced navigation radios, digital autopilot, multifunctional display units, flight management system, safety equipment and surveillance components. It is also fitted with built-in controls and diagnostic systems for the identification of maintenance requirements.


Aero-News Network


Aero-News Network


Aero-News Network


Aero-News Network

The cockpit also features integrated datalink capabilities and situational awareness displays, and provides predictive flight performance cues. It also provides improved situational awareness to the crew.

New cockpit system features:

  • A digital flight-control system
  • A state-of-the-art communications and navigation suite, with satellite links and a GPS receiver.
  • An enhanced ground proximity warning system.
  • An ARINC-standard data bus.
  • Seven 15 x 20 centimeter (6 x 8 inch) color flat-panel displays, with six for the pilot and copilot, plus and one for the flight engineer.

The new scheme is built around Honeywell Versatile Integrated Avionics (VIA) processors. The Honeywell flight-management system permits electronic upload of preprepared flight plans and can store up to 200 navigation waypoints, compared to 10 in the old system. According to Lockheed Martin, which implemented the AMP program, all the new equipment was based on commercially-available products. Source airvectors.net

(U.S. Air Force photo/Lt. Col. Robert Couse-Baker)

US Defense News


US Air Force

The C-5M Super Galaxy can carry more air-transportable cargo than the C-5 aircraft, and can be loaded with cargo quickly and efficiently. The dedicated passenger compartment of the aircraft accommodates troops and their supplies.

Engine and performance of C-5M Super Galaxy

The C-5M Super Galaxy transport aircraft is powered by four GE CF6-80C2 turbofan engines developing a thrust of 50,580lb each. The length and diameter of the engine are 4.26m and 2.69m respectively. The dry weight of the engine is 9,860lb. The engines comply with Stage 4 noise and emission and provide the aircraft with 22% more thrust and 58% higher rate of climb.

GE F138 (CF6-80C2L1F)


The main feature of the RERP was the substitution of the original General Electric TF39 engines with the same company’s F138 (CF6-80C2L1F). De-rated to 50,000 lb thrust in the C-5M installation, the F138 provides 22 percent more thrust than the TF39, resulting in improvements in takeoff performance and climb rate, increased payload, and more economical cruise. The engines are also compliant with FAA Stage 4 noise requirements. Source ainonline.com

Source GE

Aero-News Network

The aircraft can fly at a normal cruise speed of 0.77 Mach. It has an un-refuelled range of about 4,800nm with 54,430kg of cargo and about 7,000nm with no load.


Lockheed Martin

General Characteristics 

Primary Function: Outsize cargo transport
Prime Contractor: Lockheed Martin-Georgia Co.
Power Plant: Four F-138-GE100 General Electric engines
Thrust: 51,250 pounds per engine
Wingspan: 222 feet 9 inches (67.89 meters)
Length: 247 feet 10 inches (75.3 meters)
Height: 65 feet 1 inch (19.84 meters)

Cargo Compartment:
Height: 13 feet 6 inches (4.11 meters)
Width: 19 feet (5.79 meters)
Length: 143 feet, 9 inches (43.8 meters)
Pallet Positions: 36
Maximum Cargo: 281,001 pounds (127,460 Kilograms)
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 840,000 pounds (381,024 kilograms)
Speed: 518 mph
Unrefueled Range of C-5M: Approximately 5,524 statute miles (4,800 nautical miles) with 120,000 pounds of cargo; approximately 7,000 nautical miles with no cargo on board.
Crew: Pilot, co-pilot, two flight engineers and three loadmasters

(Current as of February 2018)

Source af.mil

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Updated May 04, 2019

Diamond DART-450 / TA-20 Trainer

The DART-450 (Diamond Aircraft Reconnaissance Trainer), being developed by Austrian-based Diamond Aircraft Industries, is the world’s first all-carbon fibre, tandem twin-seat civil and military trainer.

The design of DART-450 was unveiled at the Aero Friedrichshafen 2015. The first DART-450 prototype aircraft made its first flight in May 2016. The successful flight test paved the way for the certification process, scheduled for completion by the end of 2016.

Maiden flight of the Diamond Aircraft DART-450

On May 17, 2016 the turbine powered DART-450 took off for its first flight.

The DART-450 (Diamond Aircraft Reconnaissance Trainer) is the world’s first all-carbon fiber tandem, 2-seat aerobati civilian and military trainer with sidestick control and ejection seats.

The +7/-4G aerobatic airplane has a maximum take-off power of 500 hp, is equipped with the Ivchenko-Progress / Motor Sich AI-450S turboprop engine, a 5-blade MT propeller, and a GARMIN avionic system. Maximum endurance of the DART is 8 hours plus reserve.

Within the first 60 minutes of flight time, speeds between 60 – 200 knots IAS have been tested at various altitudes. Expected top speed is 250 knots TAS.

“Company Chief Test Pilot Ingmar Mayerbuch and Flight Test Engineer Thomas Wimmer have been so excited about the first results that certification and serial production is green-lighted”, said Christian Dries, CEO Diamond Aircraft.

Diamond Aircraft Chief Designer Clemens Knappert: “We achieved our target from the first drawings to the first flight in one year. I’m already excited about what comes next.” Source diamond-air.at

The aircraft will be displayed at the Farnborough International Airshow to be held in July 2016 and is expected to enter service in 2017.

The aircraft is primarily intended for pilot training, acrobatics and reconnaissance missions. It is expected to offer low-cost competition to existing trainer aircraft in its class.


Diamond Aircraft’s DART-450 made its public debut this week at the U.K.’s Farnborough International Airshow. The single-engine turboprop first flew in May at Diamond’s facility in Austria, less than a year after initial design work began. Like Diamond’s other aircraft, such as the DA42, the DART (Diamond Aircraft Reconnaissance Trainer) will offer versatility, with potential uses including training and surveillance operations, and efficiency with a fuel burn of about 90 liters (24 gallons) per hour.

The airplane is built from carbon fiber in a low-wing, tandem two-seat configuration. It is fully aerobatic up to +7/-4Gs and has maximum takeoff power of 495 horsepower with a Ukrainian Ivchenko-Progress Motor Sich AI-450S turboprop and a five-blade MT propeller. It’s also equipped with ejection seats, Garmin avionics and a fuselage that is ready-to-mount for a retractable surveillance camera and other equipment. Diamond first announced the new model at the 2014 show, saying it planned to fly a prototype at this year’s event. Source avweb.com

Diamond Aircraft is at Dubai with its Dart-450


The Dart 450 single-engined turboprops on display in the company’s static exhibit are the first of two examples built so far, with chief executive Christian Dries expecting a third to make its debut flight before the end of the year. The lead pair are powered by the Ivchenko-Progress/Motor Sich AI-450S engine while the latest aircraft will use a GE Aviation engine with a 550hp (410kW) output.

The Austrian airframer will deliver its first Dart 450 to an undisclosed buyer shortly in a non-certificated kit version, and plans to hand over the first fully certificated aircraft in 2018.

The tandem-seat aircraft is developed as a civilian and military trainer, and with an endurance of up to 8.5h, Dries also sees a role for the Dart 450 in the surveillance and reconnaissance markets. “We have had so much interest in this product,” he says. “We expect it to be Diamond’s most successful model ever.”

Production of about 50 aircraft a year is planned at the airframer’s Weiner Neustadt facility. Source flightglobal.com

Diamond Aircraft chief executive officer Christian Dries told AIN earlier this year that the Dart-450 will be priced well below $3 million and have an operating cost of less than $500 per hour. He said that the company had already gained one firm order for the aircraft. Source ainonline.com

Chinese Company Buys Rest Of Diamond: Here


Austrian-based Diamond Aircraft Group has been acquired by the Chinese company that purchased Diamond’s North American operations last year. Almost a year to the day that Wanfeng Aviation Industry Co. Ltd. bought Diamond’s London, Ontario, plant, the Chinese firm bought the Austrian holdings of sole shareholder Christian Dries, who founded Diamond 25 years ago. Wanfeng said in a joint announcement it intends to increase production and sales, expand distribution and support networks and keep designing new aircraft.

Diamond DART-450/TA-20 single-engined turboprop trainer

Chinese internet image

China has flown the Diamond DART-450/TA-20 single-engined turboprop trainer aircraft: Here

Die TA-20 fliegt seit November 2018 (Foto: Hermes-sys)


China has flown a new military trainer aircraft derived from the Diamond DART-450 single-engined turboprop, state media disclosed in late 2018.

The flight of the tandem two-seat trainer developed by China Electronics Technology Corporation (CETC) Wuhu Diamond Aircraft Manufacturing Company, was reported to have taken place at the company’s facility in Jiangsu Province on 6 November.

Smart-210 Integrated Avionics System for TA-20

The image of the SMART-210 integrated avionics system simulator provided by Hermès official website shows that it uses a single large touch-screen display similar to the F-35. The rear seat of the instructor is equipped with a head-up display that monitors the student’s status. – hkpic.crntt.com

Smart-210 Integrated Avionics System adopts redundancy framework and has extremely high security; it is strictly developed and manufactured according to military standards to ensure reliability in harsh environments. The standard package includes functional modules, such as DU, HUD, DIU, COMM, NAV (VOR, ADF, ILS), XPDR, VMS, INS/GNSS, ADS-B, HOTAS, FDR, etc. It can be freely combined according to user needs and budget.  Under government permission, it can provide: fire control system, photoelectric pod, DataLink, autopilot, radar pod, weapons rack and other military modules. It also has night vision compatibility. The avionics system can be widely used in the development of new aircraft models and the transformation of active aircraft, including various types of agitation, jet trainers, and light military and civilian aircraft.


(1) Display control function: PFD function with synthetic vision function, customizable mobile map, HUD and backup instrument functions;

(2) Communication navigation function: provision of navigation information, e.g. VHF voice communication, GPS navigation, air data navigation, attitude, ILS, VOR, DME, RA, etc.;

(3) Sensor surveillance alarm: XPNDR function, TAWS function, RWR function, RADAR function, EVS function, FLIR function, IFF function;

(4) Data conversion: data format conversion of A429, RS422, RS232 and Ethernet data to realize the data interaction between different data interface devices;

(5) Automatic flight servo control: autopilot control function;

(6) Control panel : frequency tuning, mode control and status indication functions of communication navigation, etc.;

(7) Audio panel : control of audio information and volume adjustment of communication system and navigation system, etc.

(8) Weapon system: reserved interface, scalability of fire control system and load management functions.

DU-XV-210 Integrated Display Control Unit (DU)


DU-XV-210 Integrated Display Control Unit (DU)
Main functions Primary Flight Display Unit (PFD)

1) Attitude Director Indicator (ADI)

2) Barometric Altitude Indicator (ALT)

3) Air Speed Indicator (ASP)

4) Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)

5) Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)

6) Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)

7) Heading & Glide Slope Indicator (LOV&GS)

8) Synthetic Vision System (SVS)

9) 3D Terrain Awareness Warning System (3D-TAWS)

Multi-function display unit (MFD)

1) Electronic checklist

2) Engine parameter display

3) Flight plan management

4) Flight map (departure/approach, airspace, aeronautical chart, etc.)

5) Unit alarm

6) One-key toggle display (Six-Pack)

Tuning control panel (TCP)

1) Display of current frequency and status

2) Radio frequency tuning

3) Standby frequency activation

4) Mode control

Standard Minimum Performance Standard for Airborne Multipurpose Electronic Displays (SEA AS8034)

General Requirements for Ergonomic Design of Military Visual Displays (GJB 1062A-2008)

General Specification for Military Rugged Liquid Crystal Display (SJ 20987-2008)

HUD-XV-210 Head-Up Display Unit (HUD)


HUD-XV-210 Head-Up Display Unit (HUD)
Main functions Speed indicator (indicated airspeed, true airspeed, Mach number, ground speed, target speed, vertical speed);

Altitude indicator (barometric altitude, radar altitude, target altitude);

Attitude indicator (course angle, angle of pitch, roll range, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, track, FPV speed vector);

Warning information (resistance to scratch tail, recovery from abnormal attitude, avoidance of conflict);

Approach gliding indicator (glide path deviation indicator, orientation deviation indicator);

Mode control and switching;

Front camera function;

Video output function for record.

Standard Minimum Performance Standard for Airborne Head Up Display (HUD) (SAE AS 8055-1999)

Airborne Equipment- Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures (RTCA/DO-160G)

DIU-XV-210 Data Interface Unit (DIU)


DIU-XV-210 Data Interface Unit (DIU)
Main functions 20-channel ARINC429 signal processing capacity;

10-channel Ethernet signal processing capacity;

20-channel RS422/RS232 signal processing capacity;

20-channel I/O signal processing capacity;

10-channel analog signal processing capacity;

5-channel CAN signal processing capacity;

Standard Airborne Equipment- Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures (RTCA/DO-160G)

CNS-DF-210 Integrated Radio System (CNS)


CNS-DF-210 Integrated Radio System (CNS)
Main functions VHF two-way voice communication function;

VHF emergency communication function;

ILS navigation function (LOC, GS, MB);

VOR navigation function;

ADF navigation function;

DME navigation function;

RA altitude measurement function;

ATC response function (mode S);

Support ADS-B OUT broadcasting function;

ACP audio processing and control function;

Alarm audio presentation function.

Standard Minimum Performance Standard for VOR Radio Receiving Equipment with Working Range of 108~117.95MHz (DO-196);

Minimum Performance Standard for ILS Course Beacon Receiving Equipment with Working Range of 108~112MHz (DO-195);

Minimum Performance Standard for ILS Gliding Receiving Equipment with Working Range of 328.6~335.4MHz (DO-192);

Minimum Performance Standard for Airborne Automatic Orientation Equipment (DO-179);

Minimum Performance Standard for VHF Radio Communication Transmitting Equipment with Working Range of 117.975~137.00MHz (DO-186B);

Minimum Performance Standard for Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System/Mode Selection (ATCRBS/Mode S) Airborne Equipment (DO-181D);

Minimum Performance Standard for Audio Selection Panel and Amplifier (DO-170);

Minimum Performance Standard for Beacon Receiving Equipment (DO-143);

Minimum Working Performance Standard for Radio Altitude Measurement Equipment (DO-103);

Minimum Working Performance Standard for Radio Distance Measurement Equipment (DO-189);

Airborne Equipment- Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures (RTCA/DO-160G)

INS-DF-210 Integrated Navigation System (INS/GNSS)


INS-DF-210 Integrated Navigation System (INS/GNSS)
Main functions Attitude heading measurement: angle of pitch, roll angle, heading, angular rate, acceleration, speed, position;

Satellite positioning measurement: UTC, position, speed;

Dual redundancy architecture.

Standard Minimum Performance Standard for Tilt Pitch Instrument (SAE AS8001)

Minimum Performance Standard for Gyro Stability Magnetic Heading Device (SAE AS8031A)

Minimum Performance Standard for Turn & Sideslip Indicator (SAE AS8004)

Airborne Equipment- Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures (RTCA/DO-160G)

ADS-DF-210 Air Data System (ADS)


ADS-DF-210 Air Data System (ADS)
Main functions Dual redundancy architecture;

Air data measurement: indicated airspeed, true airspeed, total pressure/static pressure, total temperature/static temperature, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, Mach number, barometric altitude, vertical speed;

Airspeed head of air data system with pilot’s manual heating function.

Standard Airborne Equipment- Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures (RTCA/DO-160G)

FDR-DF-210 Flight Data Records & Cockpit Video Monitor System (FDR&VMS)


FDR-DF-210 Flight Data Records & Cockpit Video Monitor System (FDR&VMS)
Main Functions Toggle switch is provided to realize the toggle display of head-up display system images and front cockpit pilot’s operation images;

Operation interface of display brightness control is provided to realize the display brightness control, and support manual and automatic brightness control;

The avionics system data received are recorded and stored;

Mass memory can realize the quick plug for the convenience of quickly accessing recorded data.

Standard Minimum Performance Standard for Air Data Computer (SAE AS8002a)

Airborne Equipment- Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures (RTCA/DO-160G)

Source hermes-sys.com

DA62 MPP Special Mission Aircraft: Details

DART-450 low-wing monoplane design

The DART-450 trainer incorporates a low-wing monoplane design. The under fuselage is fitted with retractable tricycle landing gear.


Le train principal robuste, avec une distance d’atterrissage de l’ordre de 400 mètres, Diamond à imaginé le DART-450 pour être opérable depuis n’importe quelle piste même non préparée © Fabrice Morlon / Aerobuzz.fr

The aircraft has a provision to carry an electro-optical / infrared (EO / IR) sensor gimbal that can retract into the underbody. It has a wingspan of 10m, maximum take-off weight of 1,700kg and empty weight of 1,050kg.


En mode « reconnaissance » le DaRT-450 emporte une caméra de 15 pouces qui est opérée depuis la place arrière © Fabrice Morlon / Aerobuzz.fr

Cockpit and avionics

The DART-450 trainer accommodates two crew members in tandem configuration. The bubble glass canopy on the cockpit offers improved visibility and access for crew.

The cockpit is also installed with Garmin avionics suite, which includes high-resolution, primary flight displays (PFDs) and multi-functional displays (MFDs).


L’avion, configurable en deux versions (voltige ou reconnaissance) peut être équipé également de trois avioniques différentes, de pods et caméras, en fonction de la mission attribuée © Fabrice Morlon / Aerobuzz.fr

The cockpit is equipped with side-stick control and ejection seats. The side-stick will initially be mated to conventionally boosted flight controls, before being integrated into a fly-by-wire system when designed.

Buyers will be offered a Garmin G3000-equipped cockpit as standard, or can select a system from other suppliers, including Esterline, Dries says. The Dart features a sidestick controller, while customers have the option to select Martin-Baker Mk16 ejection seats or a pneumatic escape system from Zvezda. Source flightglobal.com

Garmin G3000-equipped cockpit as standard

Garmin 3000 cockpit on Dart 550 – Diamond Aircraft

Martin-Baker Mk16 ejection seats


Avec une cabine spacieuse à la fois en largeur et en hauteur, le poste de pilotage est confortable et ergonomique © Fabrice Morlon / Aerobuzz.fr



  • Operating Ceiling: 50 000ft (15,250m)
  • Minimum height/Speed: Zero/zero in near level attitude
  • Crew boarding mass range: 62.3 to 123.0 kg
  • Crew size range: JPATS multi-variate body size cases 1 to 7
  • Maximum Speed for ejection: 370 KIAS (aircraft limit 316 KIAS)
  • Parachute type: GQ Type 5000
  • Parachute deployment: Cartridge initiated
  • Drogue parachute: 5 ft
  • Drogue deployment: Cartridge initiated and deployed
  • Harness type: Torso
  • Ejection seat operation type: Ejection guns and underseat rocket motor
  • Ejection gun: Twin
  • Ejection initiation: Handle on seat bucket initiates gas operated seat firing system
  • Automatic back-up unit: No, manual override
  • Electronic sequencer: No
  • Barostatic time-release unit: Yes + g-restrictor, cartridge initiated
  • Timers: Time delays in sequencing system
  • Seat adjustment: Up/down actuator operated 28 Vdc
  • Arm restraints: No
  • Leg restraints: Yes, two garters
  • Oxygen supply: Bottled emergency oxygen
  • Personal survival pack (PSP): Yes + automatic deployment
  • Aircrew services: Connection to emergency oxygen supply
  • Command ejection: Yes, via Interseat Sequencing System (ISS)
  • Canopy jettison: No
  • Canopy fracturing system: Yes
  • Interseat Sequencing System (ISS): Yes

Source martin-baker.com

DART-450 turboprop engine

Diamond Aircraft

The aircraft is equipped with a single AI-450SD turboprop engine produced by Ivchenko Progress / Motor Sich. The engine drives a five-bladed MT propeller and offers a maximum take-off power of 400hp to 495hp. The emergency power rating of the engine is 495hp.

The AI-450S is a variant of the AI-450 engine and measures 1,108mm-long, 575mm-wide and 702mm-high. The engine has a dry weight of 130kg and is intended to offer 20% lower fuel burn than similar type of engines in its class.

The engine features a two-rotor design including rotors’ core and free turbine with output shaft, and is equipped with a full authority digital engine control (FADEC) system. The aircraft has a fuel tank capacity of 450l and is expected to offer a fuel consumption of 90l/h. The operating cost of the aircraft is expected to be $500 an hour.

Ivchenko-Progress Motor Sich AI-450S turboprop

The family of turboprop engines AI-450С/СD/СР is designed for the use on multipurpose general aviation aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Installed on the DA50-JP7, DART-450 (Austria)

Emergency rating (S/L static; ISA +5°С)
Рower, hp 495
Takeoff (SLS, ISA +15 °C)
Power, hp 400…495
Specific fuel consumption, kg/hp/h 0.28
Maximum cruise (H=3,000m, V=250 km/h)
Power, hp 280
Specific fuel consumption, kg/hp/h 0.28
Dimensions, mm 1,108 х 575 х 702
Weight, dry kg 130

Engine data ivchenko-progress.com

GE H-75? (Third aircraft)

The GE H-Series is a family of turboprop engines o ering a customized range of ratings and performance for commuters, personal and agricultural aircrafts and aerobatic trainers.

The engine is a two-shaft, reverse ow design featuring an axial-centrifugal compressor, an annular combustor with slinger ring fuel distributor and a single high pressure turbine stage. The slinger ring combustor architecture simpli es maintenance and eliminates the need for recurrent fuel nozzle inspections. The propulsion section is powered by a single-stage turbine driving a two-stage planetary gearbox.

GE H-Series is available with either hydromechanical control or rst-in-class Electronic Engine and Propeller Control (EEPC). The EEPC system reduces pilot workload by simplifying engine operation with a single lever power control.

GE H-Series aerobatic engine is equipped with EEPC, multi attitude lubrication system and strengthened structure for high g-force aerobatic maneuvers.

Source GE

DART-450 performance

Diamond Aircraft

The DART-450 aircraft has a stall speed of 111km/h (60kt), while the projected maximum true air speed (TAS) is 463km/h (250kt). It can reach a maximum distance of 2,296km (1,240nmi).

The maximum rate of climb of the aircraft exceeds 15m/s, while the maximum endurance is eight hours plus reserve capacity.

The aircraft has a maximum operational altitude of 7,000m and requires a take-off distance of 600m and landing roll of 400m. Its aerobatic design allows for manoeuvring between the g-limits of 7g and -5g.

Diamond Aircraft


Manufacturer Diamond Aircraft
Registration number OE-VDA
Length 9.75 m / 34 ft
Wingspan 11.79 m / 28 ft 8 in
Height 3.43 m / 11 ft 3 in
Max. takeoff weight 2,300 kg / 5,071 lbs
Empty weight 1,430 kg / 3,156 lbs
Max. payload 870 kg / 1,918 lbs
Service ceiling 7,010 m / 23,000 ft
Max. speed 426 km/h / 230 KTAS
Powerplant Ivchenko Progress / Motor Sich AI-450 S
Power 495 hp
Crew 2
Display Flying

Source airpower.gv.at

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated