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Project 22160 Class Patrol Ships

JSC Zelenodolsk plant is building six patrol ships of the Project 22160 class that is named after A. M. Gorky and intended for use by the Russian Navy’s Black Sea Fleet command. The vessels are designed by Russian ship designing firm JSC Severnoye Design Bureau.

The vessels are primarily intended for duties such as patrol, monitoring and protection in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and territorial waters of Russia in open and closed seas. It can also be used to offer protection for ships in transit, water areas as well as naval bases against enemy attack in wartime.

Other missions of the patrol ship are search and rescue, assistance to disaster victims, environmental monitoring, and combat smuggling and piracy activities.

Construction details of Project 22160 class patrol ships

Keel for the lead ship in the Project 22160 class, designated Vasily Bykov, was laid in February 2014 and is expected to be commissioned into the Russian Navy in 2017.


Dmitry Rogachev – Максим

Construction on the second patrol ship in the series, named Dmitry Rogachev, began in July 2014. Keel laying ceremony of the third ship, designated Pavel Derzhavin, was held in February 2016.

Deliveries of all six vessels are expected for completion by 2020.

Project 22160




Shipyard named after A.M.Gorky, Zelenodolsk

Yard №
Laid Down
Vasily Bykov
Dmitriy Rogachev
Pavel Derzhavin
plan 2020
under construction, Zaliv Shipyard, Kerch
Sergey Kotov
plan 2021
under construction, Zaliv Shipyard, Kerch
Viktor Velikyy
plan 2022
under construction
Nikolay Sipyagin
plan 2023
under construction

Source russianships.info

Project 22160 class design and features



Featuring modular design, the Project 22160-class patrol ship is 94m-long, 14-m-wide, and 3.4m- high, has a standard displacement of 4,550t, and can accommodate up to 80 personnel.


Vasily Bykov – Новости на Первом Канале


Vasily Bykov – Новости на Первом Канале


Vasily Bykov – Новости на Первом Канале

The vessel is equipped with a telescopic hangar and helicopter deck with facilities at the aft to facilitate take-off, landing and maintenance of one 12t rescue helicopter such as Kamov Kа-27 PS. An inflatable boat can be carried for patrol and transportation tasks.

Vasily Bykov – russiadefence.net

Vasily Bykov – russiadefence.net


Vasily Bykov – Russian Navy


Телеканал Звезда



Project 02800 assault landing boat



Project 02800 assault boats are suitable for high-speed naval operations and delivery of assault groups on shore. It can also provide fire support for marines and conduct patrol operations.

The boat has shallow draft and armored shell, and can reach a speed of 75kph, with excellent maneuverability. It can operate both on the open sea and near the coast.

Among its key advantages are stealth and on-board capability. The 10-meter long, 3.6-meter wide boat can hold 12 military personnel, which it is able to put ashore in the blink of an eye.

It was first presented by St. Petersburg’s Ferrumland factory at the International Maritime Defense Show (IMDS-2017) in July. Source rt.com


Телеканал Звезда

General characteristics – Project 02800

Displacement (tons):
Standard: 6,5
Full load: 10
Dimensions (m):
Length: 10
Beam: 3,6
Speed (knots): 40
Autonomy (days): 1
Propulsion: 2×420 hp diesels, 2 pump-jets
Complement: 2+10

Source russianships.info

Russian corvettes will have complexes with two drones


Russian patrol ships of project 22160 will equip drones to search for submarines, survey ships and shorelines, and to provide targeting, according to Izvestiya. In the future, uavs can be used to solve impact problems. According to the defense ministry currently modular unmanned systems preparing for the tests. All equipment, including the operator, can fit in one or two standard containers that can be installed on the deck of the corvette. “The complex includes two unmanned helicopters bpv-500, constructed according to the coaxial scheme. Maximum take-off mass of the uav is 500 kg, body length less than 5 m and payload up to 150 kg. The machine can stay aloft for up to five and a half hours and to operate up to 320 km from the carrier”, – the newspaper writes with reference to the military. Coaxial circuit provides a drone high precision hovering and makes them less sensitive to gusts of wind. It is clarified that for the collection of information used optical-electronic system and airborne radar. Source weaponews.com

Russia’s Radar MMS BPV-500 unmanned helicopter



Russia-based Radar MMS released further details of its BPV-500 vertical-takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned aircraft system (UAS) at the MAKS 2017 airshow in Zhukovsky near Moscow.

Radar MMS representative Sergey Prokofiev told Jane’s that the BPV-500 is designed to operate from land and naval vessels, and is intended to fill a range of mission sets.

“The BPV-500 has been designed in accordance with global VTOL UAS development tendencies. Military bodies and law enforcement agencies can use the vehicle to conduct search-and-rescue [SAR], patrol, and counter-insurgency [COIN] missions,” he said.

A complete UAS consists of a single BPV-500 air vehicle, ground control elements that feature two work stations, communications equipment, and a set of payloads for the aircraft. The control stations can be fitted on board naval vessels or integrated on ground vehicles.

Prokofiev explained that the air vehicle is based on a Rotor-Flight helicopter and utilises only Russian-built components. Source uasvision.com


Ambient temperature, ºС -30 … + 50
Relative humidity of environment at 35 ºС <98
Wind speed near the ground, m / s <12
Intensity of precipitation in the form of rain and snow, mm / h <5


Take-off weight, kg 500
Weight of payload equipment, kg 180
Diameter of the main rotor, m 6.2
Duration of flight, h 8
The radius of action of the BPW, km 500
Cruising speed of horizontal flight, km / h 180
Vertical lift speed, m / s 7.0
Dynamic ceiling, m 4000
Dimensions of the HPV (Length / Width / Height), m 6.1 / 1.9 / 2.85
Equipped with a BPV: an internal combustion engine with a silencer, fuel-gasoline A-95; power supply of equipment-battery
Navigation systems: Onboard inertial navigation system; Satellite navigation (GPS, GLONASS)
Source radar-mms.com
Головной патрульный корабль проекта 22160 Василий Быков -2 (1)

Vasily Bykov – forums.airbase.ru

Armament of Project 22160

The Project 22160-class is armed with one 57mm А-220М naval artillery weapon on the bow of the main deck. With a rate of fire of 300rpm, the gun is designed to defeat air, surface and coastal targets. Two 14.5mm heavy machine guns are mounted on the bridge deck.

Redut and Pantsir-M anti-aircraft complexes

Project 20386 corvettes and project 22160 patrol ships will receive container Redut and Pantsir-M anti-aircraft complexes. The Defense Ministry has decided to create a container anti-aircraft complexes and has already formulated tactical and technical requirements for them, according to Izvestia, with reference to the Main Committee of the Russian Navy. Source topwar.ru

57mm А-220М naval artillery weapon


Vasily Bykov – russiadefence.net

This 57-mm automatic rapid-fire naval gun is an upgraded version of А-220 naval gun. It has successfully passed extended trials and is recommended for service introduction.

А-220М is a multipurpose system designed to engage air, surface and coastal targets. It may be installed on surface ships with the displacement of 250 ton and more such as missile boats of 205/ 20970 projects and others.

The gun operates at the ambient temperature from -40° С to +50° С provided the ship’s speed is below 45 knots.


Vasily Bykov – Russian MoD

The naval gun consists of:

– an automatic gun unit comprising a barrel and a breech with a wedge breechblock and a cradle. Integrated with the cradle, there are a cross-feed mechanism, a rammer, a trigger, an empty case extractor, recoil and counterrecoil brakes and a barrel-cooling system;
– a carriage with an artillery unit, an ammunition feed mechanism and quick electrohydraulic actuators with gun laying systems and hydraulics;
– a magazine with a double-lead screw for ammunition storage and feed. The magazine is attached to the collector in the bottom part of the carriage;
– a cupola made of aluminium alloy;
– a fire control panel interfacing the artillery mount with any fire control system that provides total laying angles;
– an automatic command and control system.


А-220М gun fires case ammunitions developed for S-60 with 53-UOR-281U HE projectiles.

There are 400 rounds in the magazine; the rest munitions can be stored in special racks under the deck. The munitions are fed from the magazine by the feed screw through a transferring mechanism to the collector connected with the vertical elevator. From the elevator receiver the munitions are transferred to the harp transporter of the gun unit. Coming to the last position on the transporter, the ammunition descends to the ramming line. Then the round is rammed and fired.

The feeding mechanisms of the gun oscillating mass are recoil-operated. The transfer of rounds from the magazine to the oscillating mass receiver is power-driven. Empty cases are ejected into the gun under-turret area. Ammunitions are reloaded to the magazine between firing activities.


Vasily Bykov – Россия. Кубань

The gun’s Automatic Command and Control System provides the means of control required for the gun preparation for combat operation and firing as well as continuous diagnostics of the gun system and status data transferring. It also allows the operators training without activating the main gun mechanisms.

The power is supplied to the gun from the ship’s electric system:
– power equipment – 3-phase, 380 V, 50 Hz;
– switching, alarm and fire circuits – 27 V DC.

Consumed power = 14 kW. The cooling system uses sea water under pressure 5.5 – 8.0 kgf/cm², the flow-rate = 5.3 ltr/s. Source burevestnik.com

2 x 14.5mm heavy machine guns



Vasily Bykov – Телеканал Звезда

14.5 mm marine pedestal machine-gun mount (14.5 mm MTPU) is intended for fight against lightly armoured surface, coast and air targets. It is mounted on decks of war boats and ensures defeat of surface and coast targets at the distances of up to 2000 m at the height of up to 1500 m.

Cartridges with armour-piercing-incendiary bullet B-32, armour-piercing-tracer bullet BZT and incendiary of instant action MDZ are used for firing at surface, coast and air targets.

Technical Characteristics
Weapon machine-gun KPVT
Machine-gun calibre, mm 14.5
Rate of fire, shot/min, not less 450
Mass of a mount with a machine-gun (without ammunition and SPT&A),kg 350
Overall dimensions (with the height
of foundation from the deck 100 mm), mm:
Angle of elevation guidance, degrees -15 to +60
Angle of traverse guidance, degrees ±180
Direction of a machine-gun feed right
Method of guidance manual
Crew, persons 1

Data zid.ru

The ship is also equipped with two DP-65 grenade launchers and one Gibka air defence missile turret mount, armed with eight Igla man-portable air defence systems. It is optionally offered with one Club-N integrated missile system as well as one Shtil-1 air defence system with two 3S90E.1 modular launchers.

1 x Gibka air defence missile



The Gibka turret mount for Igla-type MANPADS is designed to assist aiming and remote-controlled launching of Igla surface-to-air missiles used to defend surface ships, displacing 200 and more tonnes at a very short close-in range against enemy anti-ship missiles, aircraft and helicopters in the conditions of background clutter and enemy jamming.



– shipborne missile launch turret that mounts an optronic receiver unit, a rotary support unit, and Strelets commonised launch modules, with two missiles in each. One turret mount can accommodate from two to four launch modules with a total ammunition load varying from four to eight missiles respectively;

– control module is an operator’s workstation with a monitor, a control panel, and a computer;

– power supply system.


Standard shipborne facilities are used to search for and acquire aerial targets. The target data is fed from them into the Gibka system, and its operator completes the search, locks on, and tracks targets. Igla SAMs are aimed and launched at a target by the operator from the control panel. Igla/Igla-S fire-and-forget missiles have optical passive seekers with IR jamming signal discriminators to guide them to the target. Source roe.ru

1 Shtil-1 Air Defense System with two 3S90E.1 modular launchers


The weight of the missile is 581 kg, including the 62 kg blast fragmentation warhead initiated by a dual-mode radar proximity fuze. Dimensions of the hull are 5.18 m length; 0.36 m maximum diameter. Range is 2.5–32 km in a 3S90M “Shtil-1” naval missile system. Altitude of targets from 15 m up to 15 km (and from 10 m to 10 km against other missiles). 9M317ME missiles can be fired at 2-second intervals, while its reaction (readiness) time is up to 10 s.

9M317ME missile


Club-N integrated missile system


by selena3D


High-performance submarine-based Club-S and ship-based Club-N integrated missile systems are designed to engage surface ships and submarines in conditions of intensive enemy fire and electronic countermeasures. Both systems employ unified combat assets – two types of anti-ship cruise missiles and an anti-submarine ballistic missile. Club-N missile system features standardized launch units and transport-launch containers.


Integrated missile systems include:

  • 3M-54E anti-ship cruise missile (Club-S) comprises a booster, low-altitude subsonic sustainer, and a separable supersonic warhead. 3M-54TE ASM (Club-N) features a TLC to ensure vertical launch;
  • 3M-54E1 ASM (Club-S) comprises a booster and a low-altitude subsonic sustainer. 3M-54TE1 ASM (Club-N) differs from 3M-54E1 only by having a TLC;
  • 3M-14E land-attack cruise missile (Club-S system) consists of a booster and a low-flying subsonic sustainer. Launched from the Club-N system this missile is designated the 3M-14TE, with the only difference being a TLC;
  • 91RE1 anti-submarine ballistic missile (Club-S) performs a controlled flight to the target area. Its separable warhead is a high-speed homing torpedo with a sonar target seeker.

91RTE2 anti-submarine ballistic missile (Club-N) differs from 91RE1 missile in size and booster design

Source roe.ru

3M-54E ASM



The SS-N-27 Sizzler or 3M-54 Klub missile is designed to destroy submarine and surface vessels, but also has the capability to engage static or slow moving ground targets. There are two modifications to this missile known to be used by the Russian military. The Klub-S for submarines and the Klub-N for surface vessels. The difference between the two modifications being the design of the missile launchers and transport containers. The Sizzler has a max range of 300 km, travelling 10-15 m above the surface at high subsonic speeds. Perhaps the most effective feature of the Sizzler is during its third solid-fuel stage where it accelerates to supersonic speeds; increasing the difficulty associated with missile defense intercept. Another advantage is the Sizzler’s size, just under 2000 kg, which allows it to be deployed onto most naval ships in large quantities. The Sizzler’s high cruising speed during its final stage and the missile’s advanced guidance system make it an effective weapon of choice for the Russian Navy.


Kalibr launch from small missile boat Grad Slavyazhsk – southfront.org


Russian/NATO Designation 3M-54 Klub/SS-N-27 Sizzler
Variants 3M-54E, 3M-54E1, 3M-14E, 91RE1, 91RE2
Mobility and Role Submarine and Ship Launched Anti-Ship Cruise Missile
Designer/Producer Novator Experimental Design Bureau
Range 220-300 km
Warhead Type and Weight Conventional 1920 kg; Reported Nuclear
MIRV and Yield No MIRV/450 kg
Guidance System/Accuracy Inertial; TERCOM; GPS; DSMAC /reported 3m CEP
Cruise Altitude 10-15 m
Stages/Propellant 3/Solid
IOC/Retirement 1987/Still Active
Status/Number of Units Operational/Unknown
Launch Vehicles Sub-Surface Ships – Kilo, Lada, Akula, Yasen, Borei class submarines;Surface Ships – Admiral Gorshkov, Admiral Grigorovich, Gepard, Gremyashchy, second batch of Steregushchy, and Buyan-M class ships

Containers and Transport Erector Launchers

Source missiledefenseadvocacy.org




Russia’s Kalibr cruise missiles are believed to be the land-attack version the Klub family cruise missiles, yet, not much is currently known about these variations. The 3M-14TKalibr-NK is a land-attack cruise missile carried by Russia’s surface vessels. Reports put its max range at 1,500 – 2,500 km. In October and November 2015, Russia launched a salvo of Kalibr missiles from the Caspian Sea at ISIS targets inside Syria. The Kalibr-NK cruise missiles were launched from a Russian Gepard-class frigate and Buyan-M-class corvettes and travelled 1,500 km to reach their targets. It has been reported it is capable of carrying a 450 kg conventional or (reported) nuclear warhead.

The missile is believed to fly 64 ft above the sea and 164 ft above the ground at speeds up to 965 km/hour. It is believed to be guided, using GPS and terminal-phase active radar seekers to achieve a reported three m CEP. The 3M-14K Kalibr-PL is similar to the 3M-14T except that is launched from a submarine. This variant was reported to have been launched from an improved Kilo-class submarine in the Mediterranean to strike targets inside Syria in December 2015. Russia plans to equip most of its submarines and surface ships with the respective versions of the Klub anti-ship and Kalibr land-attack cruise missiles. This will include ships in Russia’s Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Northern, and Pacific Fleets. Novator Design Bureau, the designers of the Klub launch system, have developed a shipping container version of the launcher, capable of holding up to four missiles. This shipping container version allows the cruise missile to be forward deployed on ships, trucks, and trains without detection.




Russian/NATO Designation 3M-14 Kalibr/SS-N-30A
Variants 3M-14T Kalibr-NK; 3M-14K Kalibr-PL
Mobility and Role Sea Launched Strategic and Tactical Land-Attack Cruise Missile
Designer/Producer Novator Design Bureau
Range 1,500-2,500 km
Warhead Type and Weight Conventional -450 kg; Reported Nuclear
MIRV and Yield 1 x Unknown
Guidance System/Accuracy Inertial; TERCOM; GPS; Terminal-Phase Active Radar Seeker/Reported 3 m CEP
Cruise Altitude 20 m over sea; 50 m over ground
Stages/Propellant 2/1st liquid-fuel booster; 2nd solid-fuel turbojet engine
IOC/Retirement Oct. 2015/Unknown
Status/Number of Units Operational/Unknown
Launch Vehicles Kalibr-PL (sub-surface ships) – Kilo, Lada, Akula, Yasen, Borei class submarines; Kalibr-NK (surface ships) – Admiral Gorshkov, Admiral Grigorovich, Gepard, Gremyashchy, second batch of Steregushchy, and Buyan-M class ships

Source missiledefenseadvocacy.org

91RTE2 anti-submarine ballistic missile


The 91RTE2 Club-N is a ship-based ballistic missile designed to engage submarines using its payload which includes a small-size MPT-1UME torpedo fitted with an active homing head. It is suitable for engagements of hostile submarines located at 40 km using a built-in Inertial Navigation System (INS) to reach the target area. The 91RE1 and 91RTE2 ballistic missiles differ in size and booster design. They are expected to replace the SS-N-15 and SS-N-16 missiles in the Russian Navy.


Diameter: 533 millimeter (21.0 inch)
Length: 6.50 meter (256 inch)
Max Range: 40,000 meter (21.6 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 664 mps (2,391 kph)
Warhead: 76 kilogram (168 pound)
Weight: 1,300 kilogram (2,866 pound)

Source deagel.com

2 x DP-65 grenade launchers



It is designed for protection of ships against attacks of underwater combat swimmers at external roadstead open anchor stops and bases, for protection against attacks of underwater combat swimmers at water-development works, sea platforms and other important sea and coastal installations.

It is mounted both on the ships (sea installations) and on the coastal installations.

The system ensures single-shot and salvo fire with rocket grenades RG-55M and RGS-55.

Guidance of the system and fire control is carried out remotely or manually. Rocket grenades launching in manual control mode is carried out by the autonomous power source.



The control panel and the power source provide the possibility of simultaneous connection of one to four grenade launchers.

The system is equipped with blocking device ensuring security of loading and unloading of the grenade launcher, blocking of firing circuits in the zones forbidden for firing.

Detection of a target is performed with the sonar dipping station. When using the system with the sonar “ANAPA-ME” automatic detection of the target, guidance of the system by the sonar to the target and its tracking up to defeat is ensured.


Vasily Bykov – Телеканал Звезда

Technical Characteristics
Calibre, mm 55
Quantity of barrels 10
Angle of elevation guidance, degrees -33 to +48
Angle of traverse guidance, degrees -165 to +165
Speed of elevation guidance, degrees/s 10
Speed of traverse guidance, degrees/s 15
Range of fire, m minimum 50
maximum 500
Mass of the grenade launcher (without grenades), kg 132
Overall dimensions of the grenade launcher, mm 970×780×1820

Source zid.ru


The onboard PK-10 close-range decoy dispensing system offers protection against electro-optical guided weapons and radars. A TK-25 ship-based electronic countermeasure system is used to deceive sonar, radar and lasers.

PK-10 «Smely» Electronic CounterMeasures (ECM) system (KL-121 launcher)


Launcher – 10 trunks, two types of static installation on the deck – up trunks and at an acute angle to the horizon.
Caliber – 120 mm
shell length – 1,220 mm
Installation length – 655 mm (without shells)
installation width – 962 mm (without shells)
Installation height – 540 mm (without shells)
shell weight – 25 kg
Unit weight without rotating mechanism – 205 kg
Weight of a rotary mechanism – 336 kg
Ammunition – projectiles have the same weight and size characteristics and differ only in equipment warhead.
Application :
– MRK pr.1234
– MRK pr.1239 “Bora” (4 installed on the ship aft)
– Small artillery ships pr.21630 “Brawler”
– Dr.tipy ships

TK-25E Electronic CounterMeasures (ECM) system


The TK-25E shipborne electronic suppression system is designed to intercept emissions of airborne and shipborne target acquisition radars, weapons control radars and anti-ship missile radar seekers, to perform automatic signal classification, to determine most dangerous approaches of attacks against the ship, and to provide jamming in threat directions.

TK-25E’s configuration depends on carrier-ship type and displacement


Source roe.ru

Navigation and communications


Dmitry Rogachev – Новости на Первом Канале


Dmitry Rogachev – Новости на Первом Канале


Dmitry Rogachev – Новости на Первом Канале

Fitted atop the bridge, a Pal-N ship borne navigation radar is used to scan, detect, identify and track air or surface targets for safe manoeuvring. A Pozitiv-ME1 air / surface flat phased array search radar, also located on the top of the bridge, is designed for the detection and tracking of air and surface targets.

Pozitiv-ME1 air / surface flat phased array search radar


Vasily Bykov – russiadefence.net

Pozitiv-ME and Pozitiv-ME1.2 3D active shipborne radars are designed to search, detect and track air and surface targets. Radars are mounted at small- and medium-displacement ships and are an integral self-contained part of multi-purpose electronic system.


Pozitiv-ME family radars perform the following tasks:

  • air/surface sea-situation surveillance;
  • search, detection and tracking of surface and air targets, including small-size, low-flying, and dive ones;
  • target detection and tracking in preselected sectors with automated mode selection depending on the ECM environment;
  • state identification of detected targets (”friend-or-foe”) by IFF equipment and built-in antennas;
  • target coordinates and motion parameters determination;
  • target classification according to trajectory parameters;
  • target threat prioritisation;
  • automatic target distribution and plan display with on-line correction possibility;
  • targeting data feed to weapons and other cooperating systems;
  • automatic operational modes selection and operability control and trouble-shooting;
  • recording of target data processing output, worked-out solutions, and interfaced system status;
  • staff training in simulated radar environment.



Source roe.ru


Vasily Bykov – Телеканал Звезда

MR-123 radar system (LASKA)



•Self-sustained acquisition and identification of radar-contrast targets in circular and sector scanning modes;
•Track-while-scan of up to four air/surface/coastal tar-gets in one-layer circular or sector surveillance mode;
•Fire control of one or two artillery gun mounts of various calibres against one aerial or two surface targets(among the tracked ones);
•Reception of designation data from ship’s surveillance radars and mono-pulse tracking of one target with firing data generation;
acquisition and lock on the attacking missile launched from the tracked target with solution of the engagement priority problem.


Laska fire control radar is designed to monitor surface/air situation and to control fire of 30mm-76mm close-range shipborne artillery systems against air/missile and small-size surface targets.
•surveillance and precision tracking radar 
•integrated laser/TV channels
•fire control system comprising display and control panel
•interfaces with artillery mounts and ship systems
Source roe.ru

Pal-N ship borne navigation radar


Vasily Bykov – Россия. Кубань

NRLS “PAL-N” is intended for the circular radar review, detection, an identification and auto maintenance of the found surface purposes with development of recommendations on a safe divergence and tactical maneuvering





A Pallada sonar system aboard the patrol ship detects and tracks divers, while a Vinyetka-EM active / passive sonar system detects the surface ships, submarines and torpedoes. The ship is also fitted with a MGK-335EM-03 sonar system on the hull.

Pallada sonar system


Vasily Bykov – Телеканал Звезда


Pallada sonar is designed for underwater detection in the active mode of combat swimmers with (and without) their delivery vehicles, from the stopped ship. The sonar is capable of classifying and tracking up to three detected targets.




  • receiving/emitting acoustic antenna
  • single-unit switchboard/receiver-amplifier
  • control console, comprising data processing and control equipment, video monitor and transceiver


The sonar provides a 360-deg underwater coverage, and its acoustic array can be dipped to a depth of up to 20 m. Electronic equipment housed in the junction box and control console serves to emit, receive and process hydroacoustic signals. All relevant data is represented on a display panel with a keyboard and a trackball. Pallada sonar is controlled by one operator. Source Rosoboronexport

Vasily Bykov – russiadefence.net

MGK-335EM-03 sonar system (?)

sonar mgk-335m-5




Propulsion and performance of the patrol vessels


Vasily Bykov – Телеканал Звезда

The Project 22160-class is driven by CODAG (combined diesel and gas) type propulsion system with a total output power of 25,000kW. Electrical systems installed in the ship include four 300kW diesel-generators and one 100kW emergency and harbour diesel generator.

Kolomna 16D49 diesel engine


Vasily Bykov – Телеканал Звезда



Kolomensky plant sent the customer a diesel-reverse-gear unit for the main power plant of the new patrol ship

As part of the import substitution program, Kolomensky Zavod OJSC manufactured and manufactured a diesel-reverse gear unit DRRA6000 for OAO Zelenodolsky Plant named after AM Gorky to be installed on a new 22160 patrol ship Dmitry Rogachev.

The diesel-reverse gear unit DRRA6000 is designed to work on a propeller of a fixed pitch. The main ship power plant of the project includes two units – ДРРА6000 and ДРРА6000-01 (each with a capacity of 6000 hp), which are located on the left and right sides of the ship. Each unit consists of a 16D49 diesel engine built by the Kolomna plant, a reverse gear drive produced by PJSC Zvezda and a local control system from JSC Concern NPO Avrora.


Diesel-reverse gear unit DRRA6000

The patrol ship “Dmitry Rogachev” – the first serial ship of the project 22160, was laid at the Zelenodolsk plant in July 2014. The main ship of the project “Vasily Bykov” was equipped with a power plant of MAN (Germany).

A total of 6 ships of Project 22160 will be built at the Zelenodolsk Plant. All of them will replenish the Black Sea Fleet until 2020. Source kolomnadiesel.com

The patrol and maximum speeds of the ship are 16kt and 30kt respectively. The ship has a cruising range of 6,000mi at patrol speeds and an endurance of 60 days.

General characteristics – Project 22160

Displacement (tons):
Full load: 1965
Dimensions (m):
Length: 91,3
Beam: 4,5
Draft: 4,8
Speed (knots): 22,5
Range: 6000 nmi
Autonomy (days): 60
Propulsion: 2×6000 hp 16D49 diesels, 4×300 kW diesel-generators, 1×100 kW diesel-generator, 2 fixed pitch propellers
Armament: 1 Ka-27PS helicopter
1 high-speed assault boat Project 02800
9K338 «Igla-S» SAM system (8 9M342 missiles)
1×1 76 mm AK-176MA-01 – MR123-02/3 «Bagira» fire control system
2×1 14,5 mm MTPU-1 «Zhalo»
1×10 55 mm DP-65 grenade launcher (RG-55M, GRS-55 grenades)
2×2 45 mm DP-64 grenade launchers (SG-45, FG-45 grenades)
Electronics: TK-25E Electronic CounterMeasures (ECM) system, «Pallada» anti-saboteur sonar
PK-10 «Smely» Electronic CounterMeasures (ECM) system (KL-121 launcher)
Complement: 32+8

Source russianships.info

Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Revised Aug 6, 2019

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Kamov Ka-50 Hokum

In the 1980s the Soviet Kamov design bureau, well-known for its coaxial-rotor naval helicopters, began development of a single-seat coaxial-rotor helicopter gunship — which emerged as the

In the mid-1960s, the Kamov helicopter experimental design bureau (OKB in its Russian acronym) had designed a gunship version of the Ka-25 coaxial-rotor naval helicopter, the “Ka-25F” — but it was rejected, the authorities selecting the Mil Mi-24 “Hind” gunship for production instead.

Although the Mi-24 gunship proved a great success in service with the Red Army and Soviet allies, it wasn’t long after its introduction that the brass began to wonder if it was really the right tool for the job. The Mi-24 was a large machine, capable in principle of carrying a squad of infantry that could provide a ground combat capability to back up the machine’s air combat capability. It didn’t work out that way: it rarely carried infantry except in a pinch, and its large size cut into performance.

In 1972, the US began the “Advanced Attack Helicopter” program, which would ultimately result in the AH-64 Apache helicopter gunship. The Soviets felt obligated to respond in kind, and so in 1976 the authorities initiated work on their own advanced attack helicopter, focused on the anti-armor mission. Mil and Kamov, the two Soviet helicopter design bureaus, both submitted proposals. The Mil proposal would emerge as the “Mi-28 Havoc”, which is discussed elsewhere; the Kamov proposal was the “V-80”, to be designed by a team under Sergei Mikhelev. Two prototypes of each were ordered in 1980. The initial V-80 prototype, built at the Kamov plant in Moscow, performed its initial flight on 17 June 1982, with Nikolai Bezdetnov at the control. The second performed its first flight in August 1983.



V-80.01 – the first prototype of the Ka-50 helicopter ( Hokum A ). This machine has been dedicated to examining performance characteristics, stability and maneuverability. For this reason, he lacked the installation of a range of planned on-board systems, including a weapon system, cannon, and ejection seat. Its drive was provided by a pair of TV3-117V engines. But all of the following prototypes also differed in the installation of a differently shaped fuselage tip without an optics shielding system, and a differently shaped SOP with a lower height and depth. Source ruslet.webnode.cz



V-80.02  – the second prototype of the helicopter type Ka-50 ( Hokum A ). This machine was reserved for testing the weapon system. From the prototype of the first distinguished in particular the installation of an automated flight-navigation-offensive complex type PrPNK-80 Rubikon K-041, remotely operated firing range type NPPU-80 with one moving 30 mm cannon type 2A42, more powerful engines type TV3-117VMA and new SOP with larger height. Compared to the first prototype, it also had a more robust fuselage tip. Directly beneath it was the rectangular optics cover of the Škval-type sighting system. Later, while running tests, on the back of the bow of the fuselage of this machine was added a dummy cover of the TV sight of the Merkurij type, which works even in low light. Source ruslet.webnode.cz

The first V-80 prototype was lost in a crash on 3 April 1985, pilot Yevgeny Laryushkin being killed. The V-80 featured the coaxial rotor system traditionally associated with Kamov helicopters; investigation showed that the rotor blades had collided with each other in the course of maneuvers, with the spacing between the rotor systems increased as a result. A third prototype followed before the end of 1985. Initial evaluation was complete by the summer of 1986, with the V-80 being favored over the Mi-28. There was room for improvement, with the appropriate recommendations made, and the V-80 was ordered into production in late 1987, to be made at the state plant in Arseneyev. The Mi-28 still being seen as promising, its development was continued.



V-80.03 – the third prototype of the helicopter type Ka-50 ( Hokum A ). This machine was created as a replacement for the lost first prototype and was reserved for testing to test performance characteristics, stability and maneuverability. From a structural point of view, but coincided with the second prototype. From the prototype of the second it was easy to recognize especially the parts of the installation of dust filters in the air intakes of the power units. Later, while running the tests, this machine was additionally equipped, as well as the second prototype, the installation of a dummy cover for TV sights of the type Mercury on the back of the fuselage tip. Source ruslet.webnode.cz



V-80.04 – fourth prototype helicopter type Ka-50 ( Hokum A ). This machine differed from the previous prototypes, especially the installation of dummy targets ejectors type UV-26, laser warning system and a modified air-navigation-attack complex type Rubikon with four independent computers. In 1999 it was rebuilt to prototype model Ka-50N.  Source ruslet.webnode.cz



V-80.05 – the fifth prototype helicopter type Ka-50 ( Hokum A ). This machine became the standard for the serial model and was the first in the V-80 series to be equipped with ejection seat. In addition, it was also equipped with the installation of a dummy IR sensor type TpSPO-V at the tip of the fuselage, directly above the optics of the sighting system of the type Scale.  Source ruslet.webnode.cz

Two more V-80 helicopters were built, the fifth machine being close to expected production configuration. Further trials were performed into 1990 with the four surviving prototypes, an initial batch of production machines being ordered in that year, being given the service designation of “Ka-50”. Production was to be at the Progress Aircraft Plant in Arseneyev. The Ka-50 was authorized for fielding with the Russian Army in 1995; however, by that time it was apparent the collapse of the Soviet Union had largely sidelined the program. Source airvectors.net



The Ka-50 Black Shark helicopter, developed by Kamov Helicopters JSC, carries the Nato codename Hokum A, with Hokum B the two-seat version, Ka-52. Ka-50 is also known as Werewolf. It is a high-performance combat helicopter with day and night capability, high survivability and fire power to defeat air targets and heavily armoured tanks armed with air defence weapons. It entered service with the Russian Army during 1995 and is manufactured at the Sazykin Aviation Company Progress based in Arseniev Maritime Territory, Russia.


A first batch of eight Ka-50 aircraft has been delivered. 12 Ka-52 were to be procured for Russian Air Force special operations in 2005, but funding for the programme was cut from the 2005 budget. As of late 2008, the Russian Air Force operated 15 Ka-50 and ten Ka-52 helicopters

A night attack version, Ka-50N, with Samshit-50T thermal imager, day TV and laser rangefinder has been developed, and Kamov has also joined with Israeli Aircraft Industries (IAI) to produce a version, the Ka-50-2 Erdogan that is compatible with Nato weapons and has an Israeli equipped cockpit.



Ka-50 attack helicopter design



The coaxial rotor design provides a hovering ceiling of 4,000m and vertical rate of climb of 10m a second at an altitude of 2,500m. The rotor blades are made from polymer materials. The coaxial-rotor configuration results in moments of inertia values relative to vertical and lateral axes between 1.5 to two times less than the values found in single-rotor helicopters with tail rotors. Absence of the tail rotor enables the helicopter to perform flat turns within the entire flight speed range. A maximum vertical g-load of 3.5 combined with low moments of inertia give the Ka-50 a high level of agility.



Extensive all-round armour installed in the cockpit protects the pilot against 12.7mm armour-piercing bullets and 23mm projectile fragments. The rotor blades are rated to withstand several hits of ground-based automatic weapons.



The Ka-50 is the world’s first operational helicopter with a rescue ejection system, which allows the pilot to escape at all altitudes and speeds. The K-37-800 rocket-assisted ejection system is manufactured by the Zvezda Research and Production Enterprise Joint Stock Company in the Moscow region.



Ka-50 Black Shark orders

A request for proposal (RFP) to buy 22 attack helicopters was issued by the Indian Defence Ministry on 30 May 2008 as part of the $550m contract. The request determnined the attack helicopter should encompass weapons to boost the Indian Air Force’s surveillance and combat capabilities.



The air force also required that the helicopter would weigh 2,500kg or more when empty and have two engines. It should encompass a modern anti-armour capability along with a turret gun of 20mm or higher calibre and be able to fire 70mm rockets a range of 1.2km. The helicopter should be capable of working in all weather, day and night, and in desert and mountaineous regions.

The second RFP was issued in June 2009, stating that around 384 additional light helicopters were cleared for purchase. The $2bn order was for the Indian Air Force and Army, of which 125 would be for the air force and 259 for the army.




A combination of various armaments to a maximum weapon load of 2t can be selected according to the mission, including anti-tank missiles, unguided aerial rockets of different calibres, air-to-air missiles, guns, bombs and other weapons.

The helicopter has small mid-mounted wings, fitted with four underwing suspension units and wingtip countermeasures pods. Up to 12 Vikhr supersonic anti-tank missiles can be mounted on the helicopter’s two underwing external stores. The laser beam-riding Vikhr missile is stated as having a target hit probability close to one, against a tank at a range of up to 8km, and the capability of penetrating all types of armour, including active armour up to 900mm thick.

The Ka-50 is armed with a 2A42 quick-firing 30mm gun, which has an unrestricted azimuth and elevation range mounting for use against airborne or ground targets. The gun is equipped with 460 rounds of ammunition: two types being carried, high-fragmentation and explosive incendiary rounds and armour-piercing rounds. The pilot selects the type of ammunition in flight. The weight of the ammunition is 0.39kg each round, the muzzle velocity is 980m/s and the range is up to 4km. The gun provides an angular firing accuracy of two to 4 mrad.

2A42 30mm gun




Vikhr missile


APU-6 launcher

The 9A4172 Vikhr is a Russian long-range anti-tank guided missile. It is known in the West as the AT-16 or Scallion. It was developed in the Soviet Union during the 1980s. At the time Soviets needed a new missiles, to replace the 9K114 Shturm (Western reporting name AT-6 or Spiral) system, that could penetrate contemporary Western main battle tanks with composite and explosive reactive armor, such as the American M1 Abrams, German Leopard 2, and British Challenger. Prototypes were tested by the Soviet armed forces in 1989. First production missiles were delivered in 1992. During the same year the Vikhr was first publicly revealed. Since its introduction sales of the Vikhr missile have been slow, partly because Russia also uses Ataka missile, developed by another manufacturer, which is similar in function, but uses different guidance. In 2013 Russian MoD ordered over 6 000 Vikhr-1 missiles in order to prevent the manufacturer from going bankrupt. Delivery of these missiles commenced in 2015 and was completed in 2016. The Vikhr has been exported to Egypt, and possibly some countries. Source military-today.com


9K121 “Vikhr”

The anti-tank missile system 9K121 “Vikhr” includes:

  • supersonic, ACLOS8 anti-tank missile 9A4172;
  • automatic sight I-251 “Skval”9 (Ka-50), I-251 “Skval-M” (Su-25T) working both by day and night;
  • aviation moveable 10 launcher APU 11-8 (Su-25T with 8 missiles) or APU-6 (Ka-50/52 6 missiles).

The system allows to launch single missile and two missiles volley. Supersonic speed missile (up to 610 m/s) reduces the operating time of the helicopter allowing for one entering to hit more targets. The missile system is designed to destroy non-armoured, semi-armoured and armoured ground targets, including reactive armoured targets and low-speed air targets, which fly at a speed up to 800 km/h.

The missile guidance system is Line-Of-Sight Beam Riding Guidance (LOSBR) and it uses a
“beam” of laser, which is pointed at the target. I think this beam riding system is Automatic Command to Line-Of-Sight (ACLOS). LOSBR suffers from the inherent weakness of inaccuracy with increasing range as the beam spreads out. Laser beam riders are more accurate in this regard, but are all short-range, and even the laser can be degraded by bad weather conditions.


The automatic sight is provided with TV (daylight) and IR (night) channels for target sighting. Missile control and target tracing are automatic and the automatic sight is provided with a laser beam channel for missile control, a laser range-finder and with an automatic target tracking unit. The automatic sight completes target detection and identifies that by day and night. After tracking the target automatically it generates exact information for missile launching or gun firing.


The multi-purpose warhead consists of a high explosive anti-tank tandem-charge and an
additional fragmentation sleeve with proximity and contact (impact) fuse. The warhead allows the missile to be used against armoured, semi-armoured and non-armoured targets alike, for example tanks, vehicles, airborne and other area targets.

The target hit probability is reported to be about 0.95 against stationary targets and 0.8 against moving targets. That is provided by the automatic target tracking system and the highly accurate missile control system that makes allowance for changes in the parameters of the carrier and the target in the course of firing. Source repulestudomany.hu



Kamov Ka-50 Hokum – net-maquettes.com

Double-wall steel armoured cockpit, able to protect pilot from hits by 20 and 23mm gunfire over ranges as close as 100m. Interior black-painted for use with NVGs. Specially designed Zvezda K-37-800 ejection system, ostensibly for safe ejection at any altitude (actually from 100m); following explosive separation of rotor blades and opening of cockpit roof, pilot is extracted from cockpit by large rocket; alternatively, he can jettison doors and stores before rolling out of cockpit sideways. Associated equipment includes automatic radio beacon, activated during ejection, inflatable liferaft and NAZ 7M survival kit. Source aviastar.org


Kamov Ka-50 Hokum – rocketumbl.tumblr.com


Kamov Ka-50 Hokum – rocketumbl.tumblr.com

Kamov Ka-50 Hokum

Kamov Ka-50 Hokum – net-maquettes.com

Kamov Ka-50 Hokum

Kamov Ka-50 Hokum – net-maquettes.com

Zvezda K-37-800 ejection system

The К-37-800М system consists of two parts: a seat and an onboard part. The system is designed to serve as a working station for Ка-50 and Ка-52 helicopter pilot and provide (in complete with the ZSH-7ВS crash helmet and the ККО-VК-LP oxygen equipment) safe emergency escape by ejection with the use of the towing rocket motor at an equivalent air speed from 90 to 350 km/h in the range of altitudes from 0 to 5000 m; moreover, the system reduces the G-loads the pilot is exposed to at emergency landing by the seat’s shock-absorbing suspension.


Kamov Ka-50 Hokum – net-maquettes.com

At simultaneous ejection from two-seat air vehicles, the trajectories of the pilots and their parachutes may be diverged.

The ejection & shock-absorbing system is produced in several versions.


Kamov Ka-50 Hokum – net-maquettes.com

The К-37-800М ejection & shock-absorbing system features:

  • comfortable cockpit accommodation and a reliable crewmember restraint system;
  • safe emergency escape from the air vehicle by ejection;
  • reduction of emergency landing impact G-loads to the values a human being can withstand by the way of shock-absorption.

There are no analogues of this system.


  • Ejection speed range: from 90 to 350 km/h;
  • Ejection altitude range: from 0 to 5000 m;
  • Total mass of the pilot gear: from 6.5 to 12.8 kg;
  • Allowable pilot parameters:
    • weight:  from 57.0 to 91.4 kg;
    • sitting stature: from 810 to 980 mm;
  • Mass of the seat loaded with pyrocharges: no more than 57.25 kg.

Source zvezda-npp.ru


Kamov Ka-50 Hokum – net-maquettes.com


Kamov Ka-50 Hokum – net-maquettes.com


Flight systems include inertial navigation system (INS), autopilot and head-up display (HUD). Sensors include forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and terrain-following radar.



AVIONICS: Integrated by NPO Elektro Avtomatika.

Comms: Two R800L1 and one R-868 UHF transceivers. SPU-9 intercom, P-503B headset recorder, Almaz-UP-48 voice warning system and HF com/nav; IFF (‘Slap Shot’).
Flight: INS; autopilot; Doppler box under tailboom; ARK-22 radio compass; A-036A radio altimeter.


Kamov Ka-50 Hokum – net-maquettes.com

Instrumentation: Conventional instruments; ILS-31 HUD; moving map display (Kronshtadt Abris on some aircraft); small IT-23MV CRT beneath HUD, with rubber hood, to display only FLIR and monochrome LLLTV imagery. Pilot has Obzor-800 helmet sight effective within �60� azimuth and from -20 to +45� elevation; when pilot has target centred on HUD, he pushes button to lock sighting and four-channel digital autopilot into one unit. Displays compatible with OVN-1 Skosok NVGs.

Mission: To reduce pilot workload and introduce a degree of low observability, target location and designation are assigned to other aircraft; equipment behind windows in nose includes I-25IV Shkval-V daylight electro-optical search and auto-tracking system, laser marked target seeker and range-finder; FOV �35� in azimuth +15 to -80� in elevation. FLIR turret to be added in nose for use with NVGs.  Source aviastar.org




The Ka-50 is fitted with a radar warning receiver, electronic warfare system and chaff and flare dispenser.

L150 Pastel RWR


Kamov Ka-50 Hokum – net-maquettes.com

Self-defence: L150 Pastel RWR in tailcone, at rear of each wingtip EW pod and under nose; total of 512 chaff/ flare cartridges (in four UV-26 dispensers) in each wingtip pod. L-140 Otklik laser detection system; L-136 Mak IR warning. Source aviastar.org


Scans from 1.2-18GHz threat frequencies.
Accuracy is 3-5° with pinpoint location antenna, 10° in rough location antenna. 128 reprogrammable radar types. Detection range minimum of 120% of the radar’s range. 3 modes- operational target, programmed target, most dangerous target.
Detects and finds direction for pulse, pulse-doppler and CW mode radars in search, track and illumination modes. Classifies multiple threats by danger, with full display of all information about most threatening radar presented to crew. Controls EW systems, has the ability to control and assign targets to 6 anti-radiation missiles such as the Kh-31. Aural warnings for high threat situations.
Pastel may be made available for upgrade packages or built into new export models of the Mig-29 and Su-27 families. Source aerospace.boopidoo.com

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m Range Max: 222.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1990s

Sensors / EW: SPO-32 Pastel [L-150] – ESM
Role: RWR, Radar Warning Receiver
Max Range: 222.2 km

Source forums.eagle.ru



Kamov Ka-50 Hokum – net-maquettes.com

The Ka-50 is powered by two TV3-117VMA turboshafts engines, each providing 2,200hp (1,660kW). The engines are placed on either side of the fuselage to enhance the combat survivability. The helicopter also has an auxiliary power unit (APU) for self-contained operation.

2 x TV3-117VMA turboshafts engines


Engine TV3-117VMA
2.5- minute power rating,
with one engine inoperative (OEI) (SLS, ISA):
Power, shp (kW) 2400 (1765)
30- minute power rating,
with one engine inoperative (OEI) (SLS, ISA):
Power, shp (kW) 2200 (1618)
Specific fuel consumption, kg/hp•h (kg/kW•h) 0.210 (0.286)
Cruise power condition (SLS, ISA):
Power, shp (kW) 1500 (1103)
Dry weight, kg 294

Source motorsich.com


Kamov Ka-50 Hokum – net-maquettes.com

SYSTEMS: All systems configured for operational deployment away from base for up to 12 days without need for maintenance ground equipment; refuelling, avionics and weapon servicing performed from ground level. AI-9V APU for engine starting, and ground supply of hydraulic and electrical power, in top of centre-fuselage. Anti-icing system for engine air intakes, rotors, AoA and yaw sensors; de-icing of windscreen and canopy by liquid spray. Source aviastar.org




The Ka-50 attack helicopter can climb at a rate of 16m/s. It can fly at a maximum speed of 390km/h. The maximum range and service ceiling of the helicopter are 1,180km and 5,500m respectively. It can fly at a cruise speed of 270km/h. The combat radius and disc loading of the helicopter are 460km and 30kg/m² respectively. The endurance of the helicopter is three hours. The helicopter weighs around 7,800kg and the maximum take-off weight is 10,800kg.


Ø supporting rotors:  14.45 m
Wingspan: 7.34 m
Total length : 15.96 m
Length of hull: 14,43 m
Height: 4.93 m
Empty weight: 7 692 kg
Max. takeoff weight: 10,800 kg
Max. speed: 340 km / h
Practical access: 5 500 m
Max. range without / s PTB: 455/1 160 km

Source ruslet.webnode.cz

Main material source army-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Revised Aug 13, 2019

Diamond DART-550 Aerobatic Trainer Aircraft

DART-550 (Diamond Aircraft Reconnaissance Trainer) is the second variant of the DART series developed by Austrian aircraft manufacturer, Diamond Aircraft Industries.

DART series aircraft are intended for civilian and military pilot training, aerobatic, utility, and reconnaissance missions. The series was first introduced at the Farnborough Airshow 2014, while the first aircraft in the series, DART-450, made its maiden flight in May 2016.

The aircraft is designed primarily for aerobatic training purposes and is also available in multiple variants with varying power rating, avionics, and seat configuration.


The DART-550 on Diamond Aircraft’s display at Farnborough Airshow stand no. OE18 –  diamondaircraft.com

The maiden flight of the DART-550 took place in May 2018 and the aircraft was first displayed to the public during the Farnborough Airshow 2018. First customer demonstration flights were made in April 2019, when Paraguay Air Force and the airforce of an undisclosed European country participated.

EASA certification process of the DART-550 is underway as of May 2019. The aircraft is expected to receive type certification by the first quarter of 2021.

DART-550 aerobatic trainer aircraft design and features


Built using carbon fibre materials, the DART-550 trainer features low-wing configuration with double-slotted wing flaps, which help attain maximum lift, low stalling speeds, and short-distance landings.

DART’s full carbon fiber safety cell – diamondaircraft.com

The wing leading edge is fitted with de-icing system to ensure uninterrupted flight during adverse weather conditions.

Wings are designed to accommodate large internal fuel tanks, which can support aircraft flight for eight hours. They are tested to withstand 0.65 Mach speeds in the wind tunnel.

Retractable tricycle landing gear is designed to absorb high impact and operate on unpaved surfaces.



The aerobatic trainer aircraft features electric control seats in tandem configuration with a bird strike-proof canopy. The seats are designed to provide enhanced comfort and an improved view.



The total wingspan of the aircraft is 11.79m, while its length is 9.75m and total height is 3.43m.


DART-550 cockpit and avionics



DART-550 features an advanced Garmin G3000 dual glass cockpit for the pilot and trainer in the front and rear.



Its avionics include 14.1in WXGA resolution primary flight display and multi-function display, 5.7in dual Garmin touchscreen controllers (GTCs) GTC 570, a pilot interface for flight display with infrared technology allowing the pilots to use gloves.



The Garmin G3000 system offers round-the-globe communication, navigation, surveillance, and air traffic management (CNS / ATM), low flight warning using terrain awareness warning system (TAWS), and global automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) system.

Garmin G3000 system



Fingertip Control Meets Integrated Flight Deck

  • Advanced flight deck for light turbine jets
  • Bright high-resolution displays with SVT™ let you see clearly even in IFR conditions
  • Displays divide into 2 pages to help display multiple systems and sensors
  • Intuitive touchscreen interface with shallow menus and audible feedback
  • Automatic Flight Guidance and Control Systems
  • Weather, charts, traffic, terrain and Global connectivity options

This digital avionics suite revolutionizes the interface between pilots and electronics: Streamlining menu structures. Eliminating visual clutter. Replacing a whole host of mechanical knobs, buttons and selector switches. What’s more, by centralizing data entry in one easy-to-access location, G3000 takes flight deck management to a whole new level — giving pilots more focused control with less wasted motion and effort. In short, your fingertips have never touched anything quite like this.

A new glass touchscreen controller, the GTC serves as your primary point of entry for the G3000 system. Featuring a desktop-style, icon-driven interface built on a new “shallow” menu structure, the GTC enables you to access more systems and sensors with fewer keystrokes or page sequences. Its user interface is totally software-based. So, it’s easily configurable for specific airframes and avionics configurations. What’s more, future enhancements, applications and system growth capabilities can be readily accommodated without physically altering the mechanical controls.

GTC touchscreen controller

Responsive, icon-identified “touchkeys” on the GTC controller make functions easy to locate and access with fewer hand/eye movements in the cockpit. In addition to full NAV/COMM radio management and simplified page navigation on the MFD, you can also use the 5.7-inch high-resolution GTC screen to control your remote audio/intercom system, as well as transponder codes and idents, electronic checklist entries, flight plan entry and editing, plus optional synoptic data and other selected mapping, traffic, weather, entertainment, and custom display options*. What’s more, handy “Back” and “Home” keys on the display let you quickly retrace steps or return to the desktop from any page — so you’ll never get lost in the software or need to memorize lengthy user sequences. The GTC controller can even double as a standby flight display in some configurations. Simplicity just comes naturally with G3000’s touchscreen design. Source garmin.com


The aircraft’s flight is controlled using the hands-on throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) system. A side-stick control system is fitted to enable manual control of the aircraft.

Other avionics systems can be fitted optionally based on customer and mission requirements.

The aircraft allows for the integration of high-resolution cameras to support multi-role operations.

Safety features



Martin-Baker’s MK16 lightweight ejector seats are fitted in the aircraft to train pilots on basic flying skills and ejection techniques. The ejector seat provides quick escape when the aircraft is travelling at maximum velocity within certain parameters.

The MK16 ejection system is operated by cartridges powered by a rocket motor. The ejection is sequenced by the use of a gas-operated inter-seat sequencing system (ISS).

Россия, Aircraft and Croquetas @IG

Martin-Baker’s MK16 ejector seats

The JPATS (Joint Primary Aircraft Training System) is designed to train students in basic flying skills and is common to the U.S. Air Force and Navy. Designated the US16LA, this lightweight ejection seat is designed for training aircraft, such as the T-6 Texan II.

It optimises the pilot field of view, improves comfort and pilot efficiency, and provides increased reliability and maintainability. With the Mk16 lightweight low-speed seat, ejection performance is optimised throughout the escape envelope, from zero height at zero velocity in a near level attitude through to 370 knots. It is designed to accommodate a very wide size and weight range.



  • Operating Ceiling: 50 000ft (15,250m)
  • Minimum height/Speed: Zero/zero in near level attitude
  • Crew boarding mass range: 62.3 to 123.0 kg
  • Crew size range: JPATS multi-variate body size cases 1 to 7
  • Maximum Speed for ejection: 370 KIAS (aircraft limit 316 KIAS)
  • Parachute type: GQ Type 5000
  • Parachute deployment: Cartridge initiated
  • Drogue parachute: 5 ft
  • Drogue deployment: Cartridge initiated and deployed
  • Harness type: Torso
  • Ejection seat operation type: Ejection guns and underseat rocket motor
  • Ejection gun: Twin
  • Ejection initiation: Handle on seat bucket initiates gas operated seat firing system
  • Automatic back-up unit: No, manual override
  • Electronic sequencer: No
  • Barostatic time-release unit: Yes + g-restrictor, cartridge initiated
  • Timers: Time delays in sequencing system
  • Seat adjustment: Up/down actuator operated 28 Vdc
  • Arm restraints: No
  • Leg restraints: Yes, two garters
  • Oxygen supply: Bottled emergency oxygen
  • Personal survival pack (PSP): Yes + automatic deployment
  • Aircrew services: Connection to emergency oxygen supply
  • Command ejection: Yes, via Interseat Sequencing System (ISS)
  • Canopy jettison: No
  • Canopy fracturing system: Yes
  • Interseat Sequencing System (ISS): Yes

Source martin-baker.com

DART-550 engine and performance

GE-powered-Dart-550-credit-Diamond-Aircraft (1)

The H75-100 also comes with electronic engine controls (EEPC, for electronic engine propeller control) that enable pilots to fly with a single lever, so they can focus on flying, similar to what they would experience on a jet- or turbofan-equipped airplane. The EEPC technology has since further evolved, and GE’s advanced Catalyst line of turboprop engines now embeds a state-of-the-art FADEC (full authority digital engine control), on top of numerous 3D-printed components. – ge.com

The airframe of the DART-550 aerobic trainer aircraft is designed to accommodate a power plant with an output of 1,000hp. The aircraft is powered by General Electric GE H75-100 turboprop engine coupled to five-blade reversible MTV-5-1-E-C-F-R(P) MT propeller with feathering functionality.

GE H75-100 turboprop engine



The GE H75 expands the GE Aviation turboprop lineup with power and performance tailored for business and general aviation aircraft. Featuring a maximum 750 SHP rating for both Takeoff and Maximum Continuous operation, the H75 is the ideal power solution to meet the requirements of many turboprop aircraft.


The GE H75 features sophisticated technologies to reach higher levels of performance than preceding engine models. These technologies deliver sustained shaft horsepower capability for hot-day takeoffs and high altitude performance combined with improved engine fuel efficiency and increased temperature margins.

In addition, the unique configuration of the engine simplifies maintenance by eliminating the need for recurrent fuel nozzle maintenance and periodic hot section inspections.


With the standard auto start and limiting unit for ground operations along with linear throttle response, the GE H75 eases pilot workload and enhances engine value and operability. Source air-tecm.com



The aircraft requires a take-off distance of 600m and landing roll of 400m. The maximum power required for take-off is 550hp, while the ceiling altitude is 7,600m. The power plant can produce 550hp of continuous power during level flight.

MTV-5-1-E-C-F-R(P) MT propeller – ge.com

Fuel types such as Jet A-1, Jet A, TS-1, RT, No 3 jet fuel, and JP-8 can be used by the aircraft. The maximum usable fuel carried by the DART-550 is 826l and it has a flight endurance of more than eight hours.

The maximum take-off weight of the aircraft is 2,400kg, while its empty weight is 1,600kg. The top speed that it can fly at is 491km/h at 6,096m altitude.


Eric Denison @flickr.com





Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

DA62 MPP Special Mission Aircraft

The DA62 MPP (multipurpose platform) is a new special mission aircraft developed by Diamond Aircraft Industries. Based on the DA62 twin-engine light aircraft, the DA62 MPP was unveiled at the 2017 Paris Air Show.

The aircraft is an ideal platform for law enforcement, search-and-rescue (SAR), land and coastal surveillance, disaster management, infrastructure and environmental monitoring missions.

DA62 MPP design and dimensions

The fixed-wing aircraft features a sleek all-carbon composite airframe with advanced aerodynamics. The fuselage is of monocoque construction with corrosion-resistant subsystems. The structure integrates new-generation passive safety technology to deliver high-performance and superior crew protection.


The ergonomically optimised cabin provides enough space to accommodate up to two pilots and two operators. The occupants can enter and exit the aircraft through two forward gull-wing doors. The fuselage also offers ample storage volume for mission equipment and systems.


The DA62 MPP has a length of 9.19m, height of 2.82m and a wingspan of 14.55m. It has an empty weight of 1,590kg and maximum take-off weight (MTOW) of 2,300kg. The aircraft can carry a maximum payload of 710kg.


Garmin G1000 avionics in DA62 MPP



The cockpit of DA62 MPP integrates a state-of-the-art Garmin G1000 NXi avionics suite and fully integrated GFC700 three-axis automatic flight control system with flight director and yaw damper.



The Garmin G1000 integrated flight deck is equipped with high-resolution primary and multifunction displays, GMC/GCU remote controllers, an air data computer, an air data and attitude heading reference system (ADAHRS), a magnetometer and a transponder.


The avionics suite also integrates the SurfaceWatch runway identification and alerting technology, as well as an automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) for traffic and subscription-free weather data.


The Garmin glass cockpit’s large displays plus the pilot’s slave unit that duplicates the observer’s screen. Source: monch.com

The production DA62 MPP will be equipped with Garmin G1000Nxi avionics with fully integrated three-axis GFC700 autopilot. With 10in primary flight and multifunction displays, G1000Nxi incorporates features such as wireless cockpit connectivity, including wireless database updates using Garmin Flight Stream, enhanced situational awareness with SurfaceWatch, visual approaches, and map overlay on the HSI.

The DA62 is equipped with the lightweight FLIR Systems Star SAFIRE 380 HD camera, digital line of sight (LOS) bi-directional datalink and beyond line of sight (BLOS) Ku-band SATCOM. It is fitted with the compact Garmin GWX 70 weather radar, UHF and VHF voice communication systems and the observer station is equipped with a Diamond in-house designed ABACUS 2.0 mission computer with a 17in full HD screen. The Carte Nav AIMS-HD situational awareness system is installed on the ABACUS 2.0 with integrated, on-board mission data recording. It is mission system software that process live video and data from cameras and other sensors including radar and the AIS global ship tracking system, and geo-references and displays that data in real-time in a customisable user interface. Combining sensor management with a variety of pre-mission planning, and post-mission review features it delivers enhanced situational awareness and improves mission effectiveness. Source: monch.com

Garmin GWX 70 weather radar


With its advanced solid-state transmitter design eliminating the need for life limited magnetron tubes, the GWX 70 — and GWX 70H that’s been made more rugged for helicopter operations — comprises the very latest and most reliable technology in onboard weather radar.

Scan with Doppler Accuracy

Bringing full-color storm cell tracking to your compatible Garmin multifunction display, this Doppler-capable weather avoidance tool combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with precision target definition — for accurate, easy-to-interpret, weather analysis in the cockpit. With pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles of up to 120°, you can easily focus scanning on the areas you want to watch, while vertical scanning lets you focus on storm tops, gradients and cell buildup at various altitudes. Plus, Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH™) can identify areas beyond the radar’s capability that may contain even more hazardous areas of precipitation.


Reduce Pilot Workload

On compatible displays, altitude compensated tilt in the GWX 70 reduces your workload by needing to manually adjust the radar’s tilt; simply set it once to the tilt angle you want, and it will automatically adjust with any change in altitude. Also, when interfaced with your aircraft’s analog gyro or AHRS system, the GWX 70 offers full radar stabilization to 30 degrees of pitch and roll. The GWX 70 also has a ground mapping mode that can assist in a number of applications — including navigation. Ground mapping mode provides a real-time depiction of the terrain below you. Source: garmin.com

Diamond Aircraft together with PIDSO developed an all-new antenna solution


Two Austrian high-tech companies, the aircraft manufacturer Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH and PIDSO-Propagation Ideas & Solutions GmbH, producer of antennas, jointly developed a brand-new antenna solution.

For the first time reception of S-band and C-band frequencies has been combined in just one antenna, whereas until now two antennas were needed. Diamond Aircraft was in the need for such an antenna solution for its special mission aircraft DA42 MPP and DA62 MPP and found the perfect partner in PIDSO. Source: diamond-air.at

Special mission systems aboard DA62 MPP

The nose section of the aircraft houses electro-optical (EO)/infrared (IR) turrets with a maximum weight of up to 100kg.

Star SAFIRE 380-HDc


Long Range Performance in a Compact System

Introducing the Star SAFIRE 380-HDc, the first in a new class of compact, high performance, stabilized, HD imaging systems specifically engineered for helicopter ISR operators. Star SAFIRE 380-HDc provides an unmatched SWaP-C advantage for airborne applications that demand high performance ISR in a light-weight, compact package. Specifically tailored to excel at long range performance under extreme rotary aircraft conditions.



Size, Weight, Power & Clearance (SWAP-C) Advantage

  • Lightweight (67lbs): Reduced weight minimizes center of gravity and balance concerns and increases mounting options and aircraft endurance
  • Reduced Power Requirements (200W): Reduced power demands on the aircraft
  • Built-in vibration isolation eliminates effects from high energy rotor blades

Long Range Performance


  • 1000mm optics provide 2x-4x greater magnification for longer reach than other light weight systems – fly higher for stealth and safety, or see more detail farther away
  • 4-axis stability delivers clear and sharp image detail
  • Continuous zoom lenses for thermal, color & low light offers uninterrupted viewing
  • Multi-FOV spotter enables instant / fast FOV changes to ensure nothing is missed
  • “Dual-view” capability for setting one camera to wide for awareness while zooming in on the detail with another
  • Real HD thermal and color provide extra resolution to enhance mission effectiveness
  • SWIR effective at imaging through smog, smoke and haze providing imagery when other sensors cannot

3rd Generation FLIR Real HD

The Star SAFIRE 380-HDc is the newest member of the Star SAFIRE HD family of interchangeable and digital, high definition, single LRU imaging systems providing a full spectrum of ISR capabilities. At FLIR, when we say Real HD, we mean it. All our HD cameras have native, high definition digital components and outputs, and we maintain that fidelity throughout the system. FLIR doesn’t compress, resize, or scale HD imagery, neither is the data file converted to another format. The HD imagery stays digital from its capture all the way to the output – same resolution, uncompressed, clear and pristine the entire way through. Source flir.com

The under-fuselage can support the carriage of payloads of up to 50kg for maritime or land radar applications. The aircraft also integrates a newly designed satellite communication (SATCOM) pod carrying L, Ku and Ka-band antennae.


A larger version of the DA42 MPP and the latest of its Special Mission offerings, the DA62 MPP, like the DA42 MPP, can be equipped with three different sensors. A belly pod is designed to house a gamma ray spectrometer, for measuring radiation levels, either natural or from a nuclear powerplant or weapon. The wingtips can be outfitted with magnetic sensors sensitive to the earth’s magnetic field, capable of detecting unexploded. The nose boom hosts a low frequency sensor that can be employed in mineral exploration and/or locating sources of groundwater. Source ainonline.com

The aircraft is also equipped with an operator station with consoles for one or two operators to control and monitor the sensors on-board. The DA62MPP is also offered with special mission turnkey solutions.


The turnkey solutions include a fixed-wing remote sensing platform, airborne sensors, data-links, and land-based stations. The operators are also provided with global support, spares, tooling, transport and associated pilot, and operator and maintenance training.







The DA62 MPP is powered by two Austro Engine AE330 turbo-charged common-rail injected 2.0l jet fuel engines equipped with the single lever electronic engine control unit (EECU). Each engine is coupled to a MTV-6-R-C-F/CF 194-80 three-bladed constant speed propeller.


The engines are compatible with Jet A-1, Jet A, TS-1, RT, No. 3 jet fuel and JP-8 fuels. The aircraft burns 28l/h, while utilising 35% of power at loiter speed.

AE330 turbo-charged common-rail injected 2.0l jet fuel engines



The most powerful heavy fuel engine in its class. Based on the successful and reliable AE300, the next Generation engine has evolved -the AE330. It provides more power than the AE300 at the same weight. Great fuel efficiency, reliability and easy operation make the AE330 the best aviation engine of today and the future.

screenshotAtUploadCC_1507975776236The AE330 produces 132 kW for take off and maximum cruise power. The low vibration level and the single power lever design improve the engine operation comfort and take a lot of workload from the pilot. This makes the engine the ideal powerplant for flight schools, private pilots and even special mission aircraft. Source: austroengine.at



The aircraft can carry a maximum fuel load of 326l. Its main tank has the capacity to hold 189l, while the auxiliary tank can carry 137l of fuel.

The exhaust system on top of the power-plant blends fresh air with engine exhaust and uses the cowling as a shield to suppress the noise and IR signatures.

DA62 MPP performance


The aircraft has a minimum operational speed of 140km/h and can fly at a maximum speed of 352km/h. The maximum airborne endurance of the aircraft is 11.7 hours. The DA62 MPP can attain a maximum range of 1,356km at 50% power at 14,000ft.



The take-off distance required for the aircraft is 883m, while ground roll/landing distance needed for the landing operation is 441m/779m. The aircraft can reach a maximum altitude of 6,096m. It delivers superior performance than larger and expensive conventional turboprop aircraft.


Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

AC-130J Ghostrider

The AC-130J Ghostrider, a modified version of the MC-130J aircraft, is expected to replace the legacy AC-130H/U aircraft of the US Air Force. The first test flight of the AC-130J Ghostrider was completed in January 2014.

Lockheed Martin will deliver 37 AC-130J Ghostrider aircraft to the Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) by 2025. The total investment for the AC-130J Ghostrider programme is estimated to reach $2.4bn.



C-130J Hercules: Details

AC-130J Ghostrider development details

The first MC-130J arrived at Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) for conversion into the AC-130J configuration in January 2013. The aircraft was officially named Ghostrider in May 2012.

The preliminary design review (PDR) for the AC-130J programme was concluded in March 2013. The operational test readiness review (OTRR) and the critical design review (CDR) were conducted in April 2013 and August 2013 respectively.

Capt. Steve Visalli boards the newly created AC-130J Ghostrider in anticipation of its first official sortie Jan. 31, 2014 at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. The AC-130J’s primary mission is close air support, air interdiction and armed reconnaissance. Visalli is a flight test engineer with the 413th Flight Test Squadron. (U.S. Air Force photo/Chrissy Cuttita)

Northrop Grumman Corporation was awarded a contract by the AFSOC to supply radio frequency countermeasure platforms for the AC-130J aircraft in January 2016.

BAE systems was contracted to provide new electronic warfare systems for the AC-130J Ghostrider aircraft, in July 2017.

The initial operational capacity for 16 aircraft of the AC-130J Ghostrider fleet is scheduled for 2017, while the last delivery is scheduled for 2021.

AC-130J Ghostrider missions and capabilities

The hybrid AC-130J Ghostrider incorporates the flying proficiencies of the MC-130J and the air-to-ground combat capabilities of the AC-130. It will conduct continuous strike operations, including close air support (CAS) for troops in contact, convoy escort and point air defence. The deep air support missions are executed against pre-planned targets and targets of opportunity.

U.S. Air Force

The AC-130J Ghostrider’s primary missions are close air support, air interdiction and armed reconnaissance. Close air support missions include troops in contact, convoy escort and point air defense. Air interdiction missions are conducted against preplanned targets or targets of opportunity and include strike coordination and reconnaissance and overwatch mission sets. The AC-130J will provide ground forces an expeditionary, direct-fire platform that is persistent, ideally suited for urban operations and delivers precision low-yield munitions against ground targets. Source af.mil

The aircraft is capable of air refuelling with the universal air refueling receptacle slipway installation (UARRSI) system but is not fitted with the external hose-and-drogue pods for refuelling other aircraft.

Features of the AC-130J Ghostrider

Master Sgt. James Knight right, 18th Flight Test Squadron aerial gunner, instructs Staff Sgt. Rob Turner left, 1st Special Operations Group Detachment 2 aerial gunner, on new changes regarding pre-flight inspections in an AC-130J Ghostrider on Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., July 29, 2015. The aircrews of the 1st SOG Det. 2 were hand selected from the AC-130 community for their operational expertise and will begin initial operational testing and evaluation of the AC-130J later this year. (U.S. Air Force photo/Senior Airman Christopher Callaway)

The AC-130J is a highly modified C-130J aircraft that contains many advanced features.  It contains an advanced two-pilot flight station with fully integrated digital avionics. The aircraft is capable of extremely accurate navigation due to the fully integrated navigation systems with dual inertial navigation systems and global positioning system.  Aircraft defensive systems and color weather radar are integrated as well. The aircraft is capable of air refueling with the Universal Air Refueling Receptacle Slipway Installation system. Source af.mil

Lockheed Martin

AN/APN-241 Radar?


General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 92.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Early 2000s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
AN/APN-241 [MR-3000] – (2008) Radar
Role: Radar, Weather and Navigation
Max Range: 92.6 km

Source cmano-db.com

The AC-130J Ghostrider has an overall length of 29.3m, a height of 11.9m and wingspan of 39.7m. It can operate at a maximum altitude of 28,000ft with a payload of 42,000lb. Its maximum take-off weight is 164,000lb.

The fourth generation gunship aircraft can accommodate two pilots, two combat systems officers, and three enlisted gunners. The aircraft is also designed to accommodate the Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) system.

Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) system

Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) system

The AN/AAQ-24(V) Directional Infrared Countermeasure (DIRCM) system is the only DIRCM system in production today that will protect aircraft from today’s infrared guided missiles.

Traditional IR countermeasures are not effective against the modern IR missiles that are growing in popularity among terrorist groups and in thirdworld countries. A Directional Infrared Countermeasures (DIRCM) system is required to defeat the latest and future advanced IR threats, and has a lower life cycle cost compared to other IR countermeasure approaches.

  • Simultaneously tracks and defeats threats in clutter environments
  • Fast, accurate threat detection and simultaneous jamming in all current IR threat Bands (I, II and IV)
  • Counters all fielded IR missile threats using a single generic jam waveform
  • Complete end-to-end self-testing features reduce life-cycle maintenance
  • Compatible with existing support facilities

Customized installation

The AAQ-24(V) is available in a laser-based configuration. Northrop Grumman then selects from a modular family of transmitters, jammers and missile warning systems to provide a customized installation best able to meet your specific platform, mission and budget requirements. Upgrades to existing systems are easy to install without further airframe modifications.

Source northropgrumman.com

The AC-130J is fitted with an AN/ALR-56M radar warning receiver, AN/AAR-47 (V) 2 missile warning system, and AN/ALE-47 countermeasures dispensing system for reduced susceptibility. The safety and protection systems of the aircraft include a fuel protection system from ullage explosion, redundant flight critical components, and QinetiQ’s Last lightweight composite armour system to protect crew locations and oxygen supply areas from 7.62mm ball projectiles.

AN/ALR-56M radar warning receiver

BAE Systems

The AN/ALR-56M Advanced Radar Warning Receiver (ARWR) continuously detects and intercept RF signals in certain frequency ranges and analyzes and separates threat signals from non-threat signals. It displays threat signals to pilot on a priority basis and provides efficient and effective logistical support to the using command activities for the system. It contributes to full-dimensional protection by improving individual aircraft probability of survival through improved aircrew situational awareness of the radar guided threat environment. An RWR processor/memory capacity upgrade was required to allow incorporation of software algorithm enhancements (RAD, etc) to fix known threat ambiguity and false alarm problems. The F-16 SPO initiated an ALR-56M processor upgrade program which will provide a common processor for both the ALR-56M/56C configurations; the F-16 SPO committed funds to the common NRE tasks and the F-15 SPO is required to only fund unique F-15 RWR requirements. This upgrade will replace 7 SRUs with one. The ALR-56M includes a fast scanning superhet receiver, superhet controller, analysis processor, low band receiver/power supply, and four quadrant receivers. The ALR-56M is designed to provide improved performance in a dense signal environment and improved detection of modern threat signals, as compared to the version of the ALR-69 which it replaced. A miniaturized version of the F-15’s ALR-56C, the ALR-56M is a form and fit replacement for the ALR-69 RWR in the F-16 and other aircraft. It is installed primarily in F-16 Block 40 (Close Air Support – CAS) aircraft and above. ALR-69 upgrades are ongoing for earlier blocks of the F-16 and some other aircraft. The ALR-56M is the RWR chosen for integration into the open architecture Defensive System Upgrade Program (DSUP) in the B-1B bomber Conventional Mission Upgrade Program. Source fas.org

BAE Systems

AN/AAR-47 (V) 2 missile warning system


Employed on helicopters and transport aircraft, the AN/AAR-47 Missile Approach Warning System (MAWS) warns of threat missile approach by detecting radiation associated with the rocket motor and automatically initiates flare ejection.

The AN/AAR-47 is a passive Electro-Optic Missile Warning System designed to provide warning of Surface to Air Missiles (SAMS) and pass information to countermeasures systems. Employed on helicopters and transport aircraft, the AAR-47 Missile Approach Warning System (MAWS) warns of threat missile approach, enabling the effective employment of evasive maneuvers and electronic and infrared countermeasures.

Detection algorithms are used to discriminate against non-approaching radiation sources. The AN/AAR-47 system is similar to the AN/AAR-44, but instead of a revolving sensor unit it uses four IR sensors located in four quadrants on the Aircraft. The AAR-47 is a passive, missile- approach warning system consisting of four sensor assemblies housed in two or more sensor domes, a central processing unit, and a control indicator. The Warning System provides attacking missile declaration and sector direction finding and will be interfaced directly to the ALE-39/47 countermeasures dispenser. Without the AAR-47, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft have no infrared missile detection system. Source fas.org


AN/ALE-47 countermeasures dispensing system

The ALE-47 is so advanced, it thinks for itself. The system uses information from integrated electronic warfare sensors such as radar warning receivers and missile warning receivers to determine the correct response to defeat infrared and radio-frequency guided missiles. The cockpit crew has complete control of their threat situation by choosing to operate in any of the four modes: automatic, semi-automatic, manual, or bypass. Source baesystems.com

An AC-130U Gunship aircraft from the 4th Special Operation Squadron jettisons flares over an area near Hurlburt Field, Fla., on Aug. 20, 2008. The flares are used as a countermeasure to heat-seeking missiles that can track aircraft during real-world missions. (Air Force photo/Senior Airman Julianne Showalter)

USSOCOM’s Precision Strike Package (PSP) armament for the AC-130J Ghostrider

The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) developed and installed the modular Precision Strike Package (PSP) for the aircraft. The armament kits under the PSP include a 30mm GAU-23 automatic side firing chain gun, a 105mm cannon, and Standoff Precision Guided Munitions (SOPGM) comprising wing-mounted GBU-39 small diameter bombs and AGM-176 Griffin laser-guided missiles. The internally mounted missiles can be launched through the rear cargo door.



30mm GAU-23 automatic side firing chain gun


The GAU-23 Bushmaster® Automatic Cannon is a next-generation Chain Gun weapon available and in use today. It continues the Bushmaster tradition of excellence with its design simplicity, external power, positive round control, ease of maintenance, and constant velocity ammunition feed. It incorporates all of the battle-proven features of the 25mm M242 and Mk44 Bushmaster cannons, with significant system commonality for low-risk, proven performance. Source army-guide.com


Type Autocannon
Caliber 30x173mm NATO, 30x170mm Rarden/KCB
Mechanism Externally powered, chain driven
Barrel 2.242 m, rifled
Dimensions 3.405 m long, 343 mm wide, 392 mm tall
Weight 156 kg overall, 69.4 kg barrel
Feeding Double belt feed
Rate of fire Single shot, 200, 400 rpm
Muzzle velocity 1.080 m/s (standard ammunition), 1.385 m/s (APFSDS)
Recoil 35 kN
Remarks Muzzle brake
Source weaponsystems.net


M102 105mm Cannon


The M102 105mm Cannon was derived from the Army field artillery M1A1 howitzer and was modified to be fired from the left rear side door of the AC-130 gunship aircraft. To accomodate this cannon, one of the side-firing 40mm guns was removed from the aircraft and replaced by the radome that formerly had been installed in the door cavity. That change provided enough space for the 105mm gun to be mounted in the doorway in place of the radome. The gun was used extensively beginning with the Vietnam War. Source fas.org


Tech. Sgt. Jarred Huseman, left, and Tech. Sgt. Oscar Garcia, special missions aviators with the 1st Special Operations Group, Detachment 2, operate a 105 mm cannon on an AC-130J Ghostrider gunship, “Angry Annie,” during a training mission over Eglin Range, Fla., Jan. 23, 2017. The 105 mm cannon recoils back 49 inches, with 14,000 pounds of force. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Jeff Parkinson)

AC-130J Ghostrider gunship – USAF

Specification for towed howitzer

  • Length: 17.1 ft
  • Width: 6.4 ft
  • Height: 5.2 ft
  • Weight: 3,004 lbs
  • Crew: 8
  • Range: 11,500 m standard; 15,100 m rocket-assisted
  • Max. Rate of Fire: 10 rounds per minute for first 3 minutes
  • Sustained Rate of Fire: 3 rounds per minute
  • Ammunition: The M102 fires all standard NATO 105mm ammunition, but not the newer extended range ammo

Source militaryspot.com


GBU-39 small diameter bombs

The GBU-39B Small Diameter Bomb, or SDB, is an extended range all-weather, day or night 250-pound class, guided munition. The SDB relies on the Global Positioning System to provide navigation to the target. Additionally, its small size allows increased aircraft loadout to achieve multiple kills per sortie and inherently reduces the probability of collateral damage.

General Characteristics
Primary Function: Guided air-to-surface weapon
Contractor: Boeing Co.
Range: More than 40 nautical miles (46 miles)
Guidance System: Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System
Unit cost: Approximately $40,000
Initial operational capability: October 2006

Source af.mil

Two, Laser Guided Small Diameter Bombs are released from the wing of an AC-130J Ghostrider over White Sands Missile Range, N.M., Dec. 13, 2016. The AC-130J is outfitted with multiple weapons systems to include a 30mm and 105mm cannon, GBU-39 Small Diameter Bombs and AGM-176 Griffin missiles. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Jeff Parkinson) – Source: hurlburt.af.mil

AGM-176 Griffin laser-guided missiles

Description: The Griffin is a small, lightweight, flexible precision-guided weapon for irregular warfare operations developed and funded by Raytheon along with the Small Tactical Munition (STM) using components from other weapon systems developed by the company. The weapon reduced size makes possible to engage soft targets with minimal collateral damage. Its flexible guidance system and simple and user-friendly graphic interface allows the Griffin to operate easily as a fire and forget weapon using GPS coordinates or Inertial Navigation or as a high precision laser-guided missile switching between guidance modes depending on the target needs. The weapon system has been designed to be easily and quickly integrated onto existing platforms. In October 2010, the Griffin was already integrated and operational with the US Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) C-130W Dragon Spear aircraft. As of September 2011, the Griffin missile was in production and integrated on the C-130W Dragon Spear and the United States Marine Corps C-130 Harvest Hawk.

Diameter: 5 inch (127 millimeter)
Length: 43 inch (1,092 millimeter)
Max Range: 3 nautical mile (3.45 mile)
Launch Unit Weight: 44 pound (20.0 kilogram)
Warhead: 14 pound (6.35 kilogram)
Weight: 33 pound (15.0 kilogram)

Source deagel.com

The intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance equipment under the PSP include two electro-optical/infrared sensors, an all-weather synthetic aperture radar pod, a pilot helmet-mounted cueing system, and multiple video, data and communication links. A dual-console Mission Operator Pallet within the cargo bay controls all the PSP subsystems. The aircraft is also equipped with advanced fire control equipment.

Engines and performance

USMC KC-130J(QD-7982) Rolls-Royce AE2100D3 – wikimedia.org

The aircraft is fitted with four Rolls-Royce AE 2100D3 Turboprops with a thrust power of 3,458kW each. Each of the AE 2100D3 engines is 3.15m in length and 0.73m in diameter. The engines drive four six-bladed Dowty propellers.

4 x Rolls-Royce AE 2100D3

The Rolls-Royce AE 2100 is a 4,000-shp class two-spool turboprop engine with a 14-stage high-pressure compressor driven by a two-stage high-pressure gas turbine. The low-pressure shaft is driven by a two-stage power turbine and drives the compound planetary reduction gearbox connected to the propeller. The engine is the first to use dual FADECs (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) to control both engine and propeller.

The AE 2100 is a turboprop derivative of the AE 1107C-Liberty turboshaft engine. It has been developed to power military transports, long-range maritime patrol aircraft and the new generation of high-speed regional aircraft in the 50 to 70 seat category. The engine’s modular design and easily accessible components reduce maintenance costs, and operators benefit from over 80% parts commonality with the AE family of engines which includes the AE 3007 and AE 1107C-Liberty. The AE engine line overall has accumulated 65 million engine flight hours.

The AE 2100D3 engine is coupled to a six-bladed Dowty (GE Aviation Systems)) R391 propeller system for use on the Lockheed Martin C-130J Hercules Family (C-130J + C-130J-30 + HC/MC-130J + KC-130J + AC-130J) of military transport, special mission, aerial refueling, and gunship aircraft. It is also the engine of choice on Lockheed Martin’s LM-100J commercial freighter (a C-130J derivative aircraft).

Senior Airman Alexander Forest, 374th Maintenance Squadron maintainer, installs safety cable for fire-loop connections on a C-130J Super Hercules’ Rolls Royce AE2100D3 engine, Feb. 22, 2018, at Yokota Air Base, Japan. The 374 MXS isochronal inspection dock works on C-130’s from Yokota and Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan. Being responsible for aircraft from both bases, the 374 MXS work on aircraft 365 days a year to ensure all C-130’s are mission ready. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Donald Hudson)

Manufacturer: Rolls-Royce plc
AE 2100 A/P: 4,152 shp (3,096 kW)
AE 2100D2 and AE 2100D3: 4,637 shp (3,458 kW)
AE 2100J: 4,591 shp (3,423 kW)
Overall Pressure Ratio at Maximum Power: 16.6
Compressor: Two-spool, axial flow
Compressor Stages: 14 HP
Turbine: 2 HP + 2 PT
Engine Control: Dual FADEC
Combustor Type: Annular
Length: AE 2100D2 and AE 2100P: 118 in (2.99 m);
AE 2100D3: 124 in (3.15 m); AE 2100J: 114 in (2.89 m)
Diameter: 28.7 in (72.9 cm)
Dry Weight: AE 2100D2: 1,727 lbs (783 kg); AE 2100D3: 1,925 lbs (873 kg);
AE 2100J: 1,640 lbs (744 kg); AE 2100P: 1,610 lbs (730 kg)

Source fi-powerweb.com


The aircraft is equipped with 60/90KV amp generators providing increased direct current (DC) electrical output. The aircraft can reach a maximum distance of 3,000 miles without refuelling and can fly at a speed of 362k at 22,000ft altitude.



General Characteristics

Primary Function: Close air support and air interdiction with associated collateral missions
Builder: Lockheed Martin
Power Plant: Four Rolls-Royce AE 2100D3 Turboprops
Thrust: 4,700 shaft horsepower
Wingspan: 132 feet 7 inches (39.7 meters)
Length: 97 feet 9 inches (29.3 meters)
Height: 39 feet 2 inches (11.9 meters)
Speed: 362 knots at 22,000 feet
Ceiling: 28,000 feet with 42,000 lb payload
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 164,000 lbs
Range: 3,000 miles
Crew: Two pilots, two combat systems officers, one sensor operator and four special mission aviators

Armament: Precision Strike Package with 30mm and 105mm cannons and Standoff Precision Guided Munitions (i.e. GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb and AGM-176 Griffin missile)
Date Deployed: TBD
Unit Cost: $115 million
Inventory: Active force, 32 by fiscal 2021

Source: af.mil

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image Paul Callaghan

PPA Class Multi-purpose Offshore Patrol Vessels

A class of seven multi-role offshore patrol vessels (Pattugliatori Polivalenti d’Altura (PPA)) on order for the Italian Navy will be delivered by 2026. Italian shipbuilding company Fincantieri is the prime contractor for the PPA-class.

Construction on the first patrol vessel began in February 2017. The ships are intended to perform a number of duties in Italy’s territorial waters. Their mission capabilities include patrolling, surface combat, anti-piracy, monitoring, protection and control of maritime zones, and rescue of personnel in distress.



Left to right: Alberto Maestrini, Fincantiari General Manager; Adm Valter Girardelli, Chief of IT Navy; Domenico Rossi, IT Deputy Secretary of Defence; Adm Matteo Bisceglia, IT Naval Armament Director; Marco Tomassetti, OCCAR-EA PPA Programme Manager; Stefano Orlando, Shipyard Director

The First Steel Cutting ceremony for the Multipurpose Patrol Ship (Pattugliatore Polivalente d’Altura – PPA) took place in FINCANTIERI’s shipyard, in La Spezia, on 13 February 2017. The event represents the beginning of production of the first of seven PPA ships, and was honoured by the presence of the Italian Deputy Secretary of Defence, On. Domenico Rossi and the Chief of the Italian Navy, Admiral Valter Girardelli.

The OCCAR PPA Programme includes design, development and construction of 10 ships (7 + 3 optional), together with Temporary Support for ten years. The first ship will be delivered in 2021.

This new class of vessel is designed to operate in multiple scenarios, ranging from traditional military tasks to humanitarian support operations and disaster relief assistance, benefiting from an extensive use of the modularity concept (i.e. modular hospital, electrical power/drinkable water ashore and containers).

The ship presents many innovative features in both platform and combat system areas such as an advanced propulsion system and a piercing bow to enable a speed higher than 31 Kts, great flexibility due to the presence of modular areas and the integration of a cockpit which gathers bridge and Combat Information Center functions by using technologies and ergonomics, typically used in the aeronautical field. Source occar.int



The keel-laying ceremony of the first PPA was held at Fincantieri’s Muggiano shipyard in May 2017.

The first PPA will be delivered in 2021, and deliveries of the remaining vessels are scheduled to take place between 2022 and 2026.

PPA-class procurement details

The procurement of the PPA-class offshore patrol vessels is part of Italian Navy’s fleet renewal plan, which is aimed at replacing the ageing fleet of patrol boats, corvettes and frigates.

In May 2015, the Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation (OCCAR) awarded a €3.5bn ($3.89bn) multi-year contract to a consortium of Fincantieri and Finmeccanica (now Leonardo) for the construction of six PPAs, with an option for additional four units and one logistic support ship (LSS).


The contract also requires Fincantieri to provide integrated and in-service logistics support for the vessels for a period of ten years. A contract option was executed for the seventh vessel in November 2015, increasing the total contract value to approximately €5.4bn ($5.74bn).

The ships are being built at Fincantieri’s integrated naval shipyards at Riva Trigoso and Muggiano, Italy.

Design and features of Italy’s future offshore patrol vessels

Each offshore patrol vessel will be able to carry up to 171 crew members. The overall length is approximately 143m, while the length between perpendiculars is 133m. The depth and beams of the vessel are 10.5m and 16.5m respectively.


An 11m-long rigid hull inflatable boat (RHIB) will be carried in the middle of the ship for patrol and transportation missions. Launch and recovery of the RHIB will be performed either by the lateral cranes located beside the RHIB or through a hauling ramp located at the rear. The vessel’s bridge is placed amidships.


A hangar located at the aft of the vessel will hold up to two NH90 or one EH101 medium-lift utility helicopter. A flight deck, which is placed next to the hangar near the stern of the ship, is intended to support the operations of one NH90 or one EH101 helicopter.

Armament of the PPA-class vessels

The PPA-class offshore patrol vessels will be armed with OTO Melara 127/64 LW high-calibre Vulcano gun system (main armament) and OTO Melara 76/62 medium-calibre gun mounts for defence against surface, airborne, maritime, and asymmetric targets.

127 mm – Vulcano


The 127/64 LW – VULCANO System consists of four key sub-systems:

  • the large caliber 127/64 LW Gun assembly,
  • the Automated Ammunition Handling System,
  • the Naval Fire Control Support and
  • the VULCANO  family  of ammunition.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO is a state of art medium caliber gun suitable for installation on large and medium size ships and intended for surface fire and naval gunfire support as main role and anti-aircraft fire as secondary role. The compactness of the gun feeding system makes possible the installation on narrow section crafts.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO is equipped with a modular feeding magazine, composed by 4 drums with 14 ready to fire ammunition each, reloadable during firing, and highly flexible in terms of selection of ammunition, independently from their position in the drums. Ammunition flow is reversible as rounds can be downloaded automatically.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO can fire all standard 127mm / 5 inches ammunition as well as the new VULCANO  family of ammunition.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO has digital / analogical interface and ballistic calculation capabilities that allow a smooth integration with any Combat Management System.

The Automatic Ammunition Handling System is a modular solution adaptable to any ship ammunition magazine layout; it is able to load the feeding magazine of the gun without man assistance during operation to allow a sustained firing action of the gun. The system is able to handle both standard 127mm /5-inches ammunition and new VULCANO family of ammunition.

The Naval Fire Control Support is a mission planning system that may support the Combat Management System for definition of possible firing solutions, ammunition selection, trajectory definition, best ship course identification.

The 127mm VULCANO ammunition family, is composed by Ballistic Extended Range (BER) and Guided Long Range (GLR) ammunition with different multifunctional fuses, sensor and final guidance that extend the range of the gun up to 100km.



Source leonardocompany.com


Medium Caliber Gun – Leonardo 76/62 SOVRAPONTE naval cannon



The 76/62 Sovraponte naval gun is a light medium-caliber rapid-fire caliber that offers unparalleled performance and flexibility in any role of air and surface defense, particularly in the anti-missile function.

There is also the ability to very effectively involve ground targets for unique multi-role services.

The new 76/62 version is suitable for installation on ships of any type and class, including small naval units.

An interface will be available with a wide variety of naval and / or FCS / EOS combat management systems, according to digital and analogue standards, including open architecture.

The engagement speed can be selected from a single shot up to 120 shots per minute.
In operating conditions, the tactical time is less than 3 seconds and the standard deviation at cooking is less than 0.3 mrad, thus ensuring excellent precision.

0 76 SOVRA IMG_20160702_090438_zps8lctpptl


The 76/62 in all its continuous evolutions is the only naval cannon available in the capacity of prolonged fire, a fundamental requisite in any scenario that foresees the simultaneous engagement of more maneuver targets, as required by the emerging asymmetric war scenarios.

The automatic loading takes place through a revolving loader and quick loading is easily done even during the shooting by two ammunition handling personnel.

The standard supply includes the new Digital Control Console (DCC) which uses digital technology to increase the functions available to the operator and maintenance personnel.


The 76/62 is ready for operation of the 3AP programmable multifunction fuse and is equipped with the flexibility to be equipped with:

– Integral Stealth Shield to reduce the ship’s total RCS;
– nose speed radar to update the FCS of any deviations from the range table values;
– Multiple feeding device for the handling, selection and automatic feeding of any type of loaded ammunition;
– STRALES system – a DART-guided projectile guidance system.

Translated by google – Source svppbellum.blogspot.com

Two 25mm remotely controlled small-calibre gun systems will be used for close-range combat operations, anti-smuggling and maritime interdiction. MBDA’s anti-ballistic missile system will be fitted to further increase the vessel’s anti-ship defence capability.


The MARLIN – WS  is an advanced system developed to meet the emerging requirements of modern naval warfare at best level of effectiveness and suitable either as main armament for small size vessels or as secondary armament for larger ship, with no deck penetration and simple installation.

The MARLIN – WS is a highly accurate and reliable multi-role system, particularly effective in the simultaneous engagement of multiple targets such as swarms of Fast Inshore Attack Crafts.

The MARLIN – WS can be fitted with either a 25mm or 30mm cannon and it is modular as to be configured according to an wide range of customers’ requirements.

The modular architecture offers an extensive combination of characteristics. Optical sensor suite with day and night vision and laser range finder can be mounted coaxially to or independent from the line of fire or not installed at all.

The excellent performance provided by the fast and accurate servo systems, are also ensured working either as a stand-alone system with own Remote Control Console or linked to the ship’s Combat Management System. The latest generation of built-in digital architecture provides a straightforward interface for being simply slaved to the ship’s Fire Control System or being fully integrated into the CMS through LAN technology with Fire Control System and video tracking capabilities residing within the weapon.

Source leonardocompany.com

The multi-role vessels will use a heavy-weight torpedo system to detonate under-water targets.

Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) capability 

“The PPA Full version will be able to embark and use the Aster 30 Block 1NT that is the anti-ballistic missile with the support of the radar system of the future LHD in terms of early warning detection” said Captain Esposito.

The long range detection of ballistic missiles will be realized with the L-band AESA radar based on gallium nitride (GaN) technology which allows the radar to have better performance in terms of range. The missile tracking capability will be provided by the C-band element of the new dual-band radar developed especially by Leonardo for the PPA.

An MBDA Italy representative explained that PPA Full will be able to detect and engage ballistic missiles on their own or in cooperation with other early warning sources via Link 16. He added that PPA Light+ variant could potentially have that BMD capability but the first real BMD capable ship for the Italian Navy will be the first PPA Full variant to be delivered in 2024. Source navyrecognition.com

Aster 30 Block 1 NT missile



The Aster 30 Block 1 NT missile evolution consists in a new seeker operating in Ka band, replacing the current Ku band seeker, as well as a new improved weapon controller. This change delivers a significant performance enhancement.

The new missile will be capable of intercepting threats of the entry of the MRBM (Medium Range Ballistic Missiles) domain whereas the current Aster 30 Block 1 deals with SRBM (Short Range Ballistic Missiles) of up to 600 km range and it will also be capable of dealing with missiles with separable warheads. This new version of Aster will extend the antiballistic capability of the missile from a range of 600km up to 1,500km. On December 20, OCCAR (Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation) notified to EUROSAM, a consortium formed by MBDA and Thales, the amendment 1 of the contract for the “B1NT” programme. This amendment embodies the participation of Italy in the programme. It follows the notification of the initial contract under French mandate on December 23, 2015, and the Arrangement of Cooperation, signed in June 2016 by the French and Italian Defence Ministers, laying down the framework of responsibilities and rights of the two countries vis-a-vis the missile to be developed in cooperation, and its multiple applications in land and naval defence systems against air attacks and ballistic missiles. Source navyrecognition.com



Anti-Ship Missile System TESEO



Enhanced version of the all weather OTOMAT MK2 missile system, providing improved performance in terms of OTHT (Over The Horizon Targeting) and operations in complex naval scenarios.

Capable of ranges from 6 to 180 km in all directions, the system relies on powerful mission planning (3D way-points, terminal sea skimming profile, simultaneous attack from different directions).



Target data is derived from the ship’s Command System or taken directly from the ship’s surface search radar. Mission Planning allows the selection of different firing modes (such as Fire and Forget or midcourse guided) and of specific trajectories and evasive manoeuvres.

Cruise and approach phases may be either fully inertial or partially guided from the launch ship through a radio-link. Mid course re-vectoring from a co-operating ship or helicopter is also possible.



The excellent capabilities of the new missile (short reaction time, Fire and Forget, INS/GPS navigation, high target selection, ECCM and anti-CIWS manoeuvres, warhead lethality with no collateral damage) allow the system to operate effectively in littoral warfare environments, as well as in blue waters. The terminal attack phase is based upon an autonomous terminal guidance using an active homing head with improved target selection capabilities in complex scenarios. Source mbda-systems.com


Protection features

Passive protection for the vessel will be provided by OTO Melara Decoy Launching System (ODLS) remote-control launching system, which is effective against infrared seeker-equipped missiles and radars as well as anti-submarine warfare decoys.

Decoy Launching System (ODLS)


The Decoy Launching System (ODLS) is a remote controlled system suitable for launching different types of multipurpose ammunition. Special versions can fire rockets of caliber other than 105-mm – 118-mm which represents the standard size. The ODLS is designed for accurate deployment of decoys, thus providing passive defence for a ship against radar and IR homing missiles and can also be employed in shore bombardment role.

The main characteristics of the ODLS are:

  • Capability  to simultaneously load different types of rockets (Chaff, IR, Illuminating);
  • Automatic  selection  of the type of rocket to be fired;
  • Continuous  engagement  action thanks to rapid reloading of launching units;
  • Complete automatic  control by the ship s EWS;
  • Safe operation  under all operational conditions;
  • No deck penetration.

Source leonardocompany.com

Elettronica’s electronic warfare system will be used to provide self-protection for the ship.

Navigation and communications


The vessel’s navigation and combat system operations will be performed by the crew members from the bridge using a combat management system, which integrates weapons, sensors and other units aboard the ship.


Marina Militare

A number of sensors will be installed to ensure safe operation of the boat at sea. They include next-generation identification friend and foe (IFF) sensor with a circular antenna, infrared sensor, diver detection sonar, active towed array sonar system, NA30S MK2 weapon control system based on a multi-sensor fire control radar (X and Ka), LPI SPS732 air and ground surveillance radar, and KRONOS dual-band 3D multi-function active electronically-scanned array (AESA) radar with four C- and X-dual band radars.

NA30S MK2 weapon control system

NA-30S MK2 is a new generation Weapon Control System designed to control modern guns (up to three) against conventional and asymmetric air/surface threats with a reduced reaction time.

NA-30S MK2 is based on a dual-band (X and Ka) naval tracking radar with a stealth antenna design which combines high tracking accuracies with improved range performance. Both X and Ka bands are processed in order to optimise tracking performance according to the targets.

X Band
For search and acquisition purposes, medium-to-long range detection and tracking, and reliable processing in adverse weather conditions.

Ka Band
For close in targets, low flying threats, need for increased accuracies, and DART ammunition guidance.

The Ka band, with its very narrow beam width, is optimally suited for measuring targets at low-elevation, without suffering from multi-path interference.

NA-30S MK2 provides gun control and ammunition guidance. The system can be provided with a dedicated multifunction console or can be controlled by any console within the Combat Management System (CMS).

The Weapon Control System automatically selects the optimum ammunition and firing patterns according to the tracked threats. A set of combined sensors (TVcamera, IR cameras and laser) can be mounted on the radar antenna to enable firing assessment and to provide either an alternative or redundant line-of-sight. Source leonardocompany.com

LPI SPS732 air and ground surveillance radar

SPS-732 is a compact X-band air/surface surveillance naval radar with fully coherent solid state technology and Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) capability. SPS-732 is built upon experience in designing and delivering naval surveillance radars to the most demanding Navies. It performs bi-dimensional surface and air target detection in all weather conditions and features track-while-scan with automatic track initialisation. Short reaction time combined with small target detection allow sea-skimmer threat detection and designation.

The solid state fully coherent 2D X-band air/surface surveillance SPS-732 family combines typical features of naval radars belonging to different class in one radar series.

The SPS-732 radar family offers superior performance for any ship class, including Landing
Craft, Offshore Patrol Vessels, Large Support Ships and Corvettes/Frigates. On board of medium/large-size vessels, the SPS-732 middle and highend version are a valuable, higher performance/price ratio alternative to 3D radars even against high threating targets like sea-skimming missiles in all sea and weather conditions. Source leonardocompany.com

KRONOS dual-band 3D multi-function AESA radar



KRONOS® Power Shield is an early warning AESA radar for Anti Tactical Ballistic Missile (ATBM) guidance and Air Breathing Threat (ABT) defence. It is designed for naval application and is able to operate in both a rotating and staring mode.

The AESA fixed panels are coordinated by the system manager to minimize electromagnetic interferences and to allow the most effective coverage of the entire 360° x 90° surveillance volume.


To each task is associated a specific radiated waveform, time of execution and frequency for each direction of the surveillance volume. Scheduling /Prioritization and Task Execution are key blocks of the system architecture:

Scheduling and Prioritization set the sequence of tasks to be executed by each panel. Task Execution manages the physical implementation of all microevents (e.g. transmit/receive modules programming, gate enabling, etc.) which make up the task itself.

All functions operate typically on a time scale of seconds, except Scheduling and Prioritization which operate on a msec time scale and Task Execution
which operates on a nsec base.

Source leonardocompany.com

Multiple non-rotating optical heads will be fitted on the four sides of the ship to provide 360° surveillance. Target detection and tracking will be performed by a static IRST (infrared search and track) system. A bathythermograph unit will be used for measuring the water temperature.


Leonardo Company

Communication for the boat will be provided by integrated communications systems including multi-band satellite systems, software-defined radios and long-range acoustic devices (LRAD).


Leonardo Company

PPA-class OPVs propulsion and performance


The PPA-class will be powered by a combined diesel and gas (CODAG) propulsion system consisting of two MTU 20V 8000 M91L engines, each developing 10,000kW of power, and one GE LM2500+G4 gas turbine with a capacity of 35,320kW.

2 x MTU 20V 8000 M91L engines


1 x GE LM2500+G4 gas turbine

LM2500+G4 is the fourth generation of the industry-leading LM2500. Main features are increased power (17%) compared to the third generation LM2500+, and the same high reliability, availability and the same high efficiency (lower SFC).

The LM2500+G4 system’s modular design provides for easy and timely repair and refurbishment, with its split compressor casing, in-place blade and vane replacement, in-place hot-section maintenance and external fuel nozzles. The LM2500+G4 is ideal for the Italian, French and Moroccan FREMM frigates and other military ships, and is available as a generator set.


Output 47,370 shp (35,320 kW)
SFC .352 lb/shp-hr (214 g/kW-hr)
Heat rate 6,469 Btu/shp-hr
8,675 Btu/kWs-hr
9,150 kJ/kWs-hr
Exhaust gas flow 205 lb/sec (93 kg/sec)
Exhaust gas temperature 1,020°F (549°C)
Power turbine speed 3600 rpm
Average performance, 60 Hertz, 59°F, sea level, 60% relative humidity, no inlet/exhaust losses

Source geaviation.com

The vessel will also feature four MAN 12V175D GenSets, each rated at 1,640kW, and two shafts, driving controllable-pitch propellers.

Driven by GE’s shock-proof MV3000 drives, the small gearbox-mounted electric motors will be installed to drive the ship at low speeds, while generating power for the onboard sensors and weapons.

Marina Militare

The offshore patrol vessel can achieve a maximum speed of more than 32kt and a range of 5,000nm. The MTU diesel engines alone allow the vessel to sail at speeds of 24kt.


Contactors involved

Sensors and weapon systems for the PPA multi-role offshore patrol vessels will be supplied by MBDA, OTO Melara, Elettronica, and WASS.

Leonardo’s subsidiary Selex is responsible for providing combat management system for the vessels. The company will develop a bridge system in co-operation with Fincantieri. In addition, Selex will provide assistance for subsystems such as sensors and weapons.

GE’s Marine Solutions was selected to supply seven LM2500+G4 gas turbines in March 2016. The turbines will be developed by Avio Aero in Italy, while GE Power Conversion will produce drives.

Rolls-Royce won a contract in October 2016 to provide 14 MTU 20V 8000 M91L engines for seven PPA vessels, with deliveries scheduled to commence in 2017.



Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image © GIORGIO ARRA

Updated Jul 15, 2019

BAE Systems Armoured Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV)

BAE Systems is developing a new armoured multi-purpose vehicle (AMPV) to replace the existing M113 family of vehicles that have been in service with the US Army since 1960.

BAE Systems secured a contract from the US Army for the engineering, manufacturing and development (EMD) and low-rate initial production (LRIP) of the vehicles in December 2014.

Under the LRIP contract, BAE is responsible for the development of 29 AMPVs under the EMD phase and production of 289 vehicles in multiple configurations.

The first prototype in general configuration was presented to the armed forces in December 2016.

The vehicle combines mobility features with advanced technologies to enhance survivability of the occupants in the battlefield. The AMPVs are expected to be deployed by the Armoured Brigade Combat Team (ABCT).

BAE AMPV design and development details


BAE successfully concluded the critical design review (CDR) of the new AMPV in June 2016. The US Army took final delivery of the AMPVs built under the EMD phase in April 2018.

The vehicles will undergo strenuous testing in the next phase of development. The availability, maintainability, logistics and mission reliability of the vehicle will be tested during the phase. The vehicle will then enter the Milestone C review phase, followed by the LRIP phase in 2019.


British defense company BAE Systems on Tuesday said it had won additional funding up to $575 million from the US Army to begin production of its new armored vehicles that would replace the Vietnam War-era M113 fleet of personnel carriers.

The new vehicles, called the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV), are “more survivable” with all-terrain mobility capabilities, BAE said.

Total funding for the initial production of the new vehicles, including previously awarded funds to support production planning, stands at $873 million, the defense contractor said. Source businessinsider.com

Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle. LRIP: Low Rate Initial Production. BCT: Brigade Combat Team. SOURCE: Army – Via breakingdefense.com

BAE AMPV is based on the design of Bradley infantry fighting vehicle (IFV). It retains the layout of Bradley IFV, but incorporates a one-man open-top turret. The driver’s compartment and engine are located at the forward hull, while the troop’s section is positioned at the rear.

The rear hull of the vehicle features a hydraulic ramp, which allows rapid entry and exit of troops. The general-purpose configuration measures 3.7m-wide and 3.1m-high, and offers a ground clearance of 0.4m. The gross weight of the vehicle is approximately 36,000kg.

BAE AMPV variants


Five variants are being produced as follows:

  • General Purpose. This is an armored personnel carrier designed to move troops and materiel.
  • Mortar Carrier. This vehicle provides fire support to mechanized units. A 120mm mortar will be carried.

Mortar Carrier – Maj. Carson Petry

  • Armored Ambulance. This variant provides armored emergency transport of casualties to rearward medical facilities.

Armored Ambulance – baesystems.com

  • Mobile Medical Clinic. Allows the forward positioning of medical services closer to the combat area.

Mobile Medical Clinic – baesystems.com

  • Mobile Command Vehicle. Providing commanders superior battlefield situational awareness and command and control capability when and where it is needed most.

Mobile Command Vehicle – baesystems.com

Source globalresearch.ca

The BAE AMPV can be customised into multiple configurations based on the mission requirements. It is being developed in five variants, namely general-purpose vehicle, medical evacuation vehicle, mission command vehicle, mortar carrier vehicle, and medical treatment vehicle.

A sixth variant of the vehicle will also be developed to replace the engineer variant of M113 vehicles at Echelons Above Brigade (EAB). The engineer vehicle variant will provide advanced combat capability to the combat engineers at EAB.

The general-purpose vehicle can be used for the transportation of troops, supplying equipment and goods to the forces and carrying casualties from the battlefield. The variant can carry a maximum of six personnel, including a driver, a commander and four infantry troops.


The medical evacuation variant of the AMPV was exhibited at the AUSA 2016. It can carry three crew, six ambulatory patients or four litter patients or three ambulatory and two litter patients during casualty evacuation (CASEVAC) operations.

Engineer version

Military News

Armament and self-protection features of BAE AMPV

The one-man open turret of the AMPV can be installed with a roof-mounted protected weapon station housing 7.62mm or 12.7mm machine guns, or a 40mm automatic grenade launcher.

12.7mm machine guns one-man open turret

12.7mm machine guns – Jane’s by IHS Markit

M230LF 30mm cannon and Javelin

Defense & Aerospace Report

M230LF 30mm cannon


The 30 mm M230LF is a more capable version of the 30 mm cannon featured on the Apache helicopter and is a member of the Chain Gun® family of externally powered, combat-reliable conventional automatic weapons. The gun is effective, lightweight and easy to maintain and has multi-role, multi-target system capability.

The M230LF boasts a DC drive motor with a firing rate of 200 Rounds Per Minute. Other features include an anti-hangfire system, an extended-length barrel for enhanced muzzle velocity and a     de-linking feeder that allows the use of linked ammunition. The M230LF is ideal for use on ground vehicles and patrol boats.

The gun has a reliability of 22,000 mean rounds between failure. It fires M789 HEDP, M788 TP and NATO standard 30 mm ADEN/DEFA ammunition.

The M230LF is a link-fed version of ATK’s 30mm Chain Gun used on the Apache helicopter. The weapon fires M788, M789 and NATO standard 30mm ADEN/DEFA ammunition. The M230LF is ideal for use on ground vehicles and patrol boats in turrets or remote weapon stations.

Physical Data:

  • Length: 85.87 in. (2181mm)
  • Width: 10.915 in. (277.2mm)
  • Height: 11.37 in. (288.8mm)
  • Receiver Weight: 76 lb (34.5 kg)
  • Feeder Weight: 39 lb (17.7 kg)
  • Barrel Weight: 45 lb (20.4 kg)
  • Total Weight: 160 lb (72.6 kg)
  • Recoil Ground Vehicle: 6,300 lb (38,022 N)
  • Recoil Naval: 1,650 lb (7,339 N)
  • Power Required: 1.0 horsepower
  • Clearing Method: Cook off safe, open bolt
  • Safety: Absolute hangfire protection
  • Case Ejection: Side

Performance Data:

  • Rate of Fire: Cyclic, 200 Rounds Per Minute
  • Feed System: Dual feed, integral to weapon
  • Reliability: 22,000 mean rounds between failure

Source defence.nioa.com.au


3d_molier International

The FGM-148 Javelin is a US-made man-portable fire-and-forget anti-tank missile. It was fielded to replace the M47 Dragon.

In the mid 1970s the US Army adopted the M47 Dragon anti-tank guided missile. It was a shoulder-fired weapon with a wire guidance. This anti-tank missile had a reliable design and very good performance. However by the late 1980s the M47 became out-dated. Its effective range was limited to 1 000 m. Also penetration power of the M47 was insufficient to defeat latest main battle tanks with heavy armor. So the US Army awarded a contract to develop a new anti-tank guided missile to replace the M47 Dragon.

Currently the FGM-148 Javelin is one of the most advanced man-portable anti-tank guide missile system in the world. It can destroyed any current main battle tank. It can also target low flying helicopters. Only some existing anti-tank missiles, such as Israeli Spike can compare with the Javelin. However a close copy of the Javelin, called the HJ-12, recently emerged in China. This Chinese missile has similar specifications and capabilities as the Javelin.

The missile locks on the target before launch. During flight it guides automatically. During that time the operator can detach an empty tube and from the CLU and attach another tube with missile. It takes about 15 seconds. Alternatively the crew can leave a firing position.

   There are two modes of attack: top attack and direct attack. The top-attack flight mode is used to engage tanks and other armored vehicles. After the launch the missile climbs upward and then dives towards the target. This method is very suitable to destroy main battle tanks, because most of them have only a minimum level of armor protection in the upper part of the turret. In direct attack mode the missile flies directly to the target. This mode is used to engage buildings, bunkers, weapon crews and concentrations of enemy troops. In the direct attack mode the Javelin can also engage low-flying helicopters.

   The missile is equipped with imaging infrared seeker. The missile has an 8.4 kg tandem shaped charge warhead. A precursor warhead detonates any explosive reactive armor and the primary warhead penetrates the base armor. The Javelin is capable of destroying any existing main battle tank in the world. Source military-today.com

The all-welded aluminium hull integrates enhanced underbody protection for increased survivability. Explosive reactive armour sheets fitted in front and either side of the hull offer protection against grenade launchers and guided ammunition.

Breaking Defense

Applique armour and spall liners on the crew compartment further enhance the protection level offered by the vehicle.


Breaking Defense

Breaking Defense

Breaking Defense

The crew and engine compartments feature an advanced automatic fire suppression system.

Engine and mobility

The BAE AMPV is powered by a Cummins diesel engine, which offers a maximum power output of 600hp. The fuel tanks are stationed at the rear of the vehicle.

The new armored vehicle has the same engine and transmission as the Bradley M2A3. It is powered by Cummins VTA-903T diesel engine, developing 600 hp. Vehicle has good cross-country mobility and can keep up with main battle tanks. Source military-today.com

Cummins VTA-903T diesel engine


The 90° V8-cylinder engine with a displacement of 14.8 litres and with outputs of 265 to 660 hp (198 to 492 kW). Since the engine was introduced evolutionary changes have included a larger camshaft, air-to-air after cooling and increased cylinder pressures allowing horsepowers to rise to the current 447 kW (600 bhp) and 491 kW (660 bhp) and the soon to be introduced twin-turbo 558 kW (750 bhp) rating.

Source army-guide.com

The vehicle is expected to attain a maximum speed of 61km/h and maximum range of 362km. The on-board suspension system ensures smooth mobility of the vehicle while traversing through rough terrains.


Main material source army-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Izumo-Class Helicopter Destroyer

Izumo-class, the largest surface combatant in Japan, was put into service with the Japanese Maritime Self Defence Force (JMSDF) in March 2015. The Izumo Class destroyer ships replace the Hyuga-class destroyers, which were commissioned in March 2008.

The vessels can be used for multiple purposes, including anti-submarine warfare, command-and-control operations, humanitarian aid and disaster relief operations, as well as to protect Japanese territories in the East China Sea.



Japan Marine United Corporation, which was created by the integration of two companies, Universal Shipbuilding and IHI Marine United, custom-built the two Izumo-class ships at the Yokohama shipyard. The construction of Izumo-class destroyer was conceptualised by the Japanese Ministry of Defense (MOD) in November 2009. JMOD received a budget of 118.1 billion yen for the fiscal 2010 for the construction of a helicopter destroyer.

Construction of the first ship in the class, JS Izumo (DDH-183), began in 2011 at Yokohama shipyard. Its keel was laid down in January 2012 and the vessel was launched in August 2013. It was commissioned at Yokosuka port in Japan in March 2015. Investment on the vessel amounted to approximately ¥120bn ($1.01bn).

Keel for the second ship in the class was laid down in October 2013, and its launch will take place in August 2015. Commissioning will take place by March 2017.



Source military-today.com


DDH-184 JS KAGA – BakanekoFilm

“multi-purpose operation destroyer”

Although a Japanese naval vessel may be retrofitted to carry fighter jets, the ruling parties will call the Izumo a “multi-purpose operation destroyer” to avoid criticism that use as an aircraft carrier would violate the pacifist Constitution.

Members of the ruling parties’ working team on revising the National Defense Program Guidelines, which the government expects to approve later this month, reached a consensus on what to call the Izumo-class destroyers during a meeting on Dec. 5.

The Abe administration has been considering retrofitting the Maritime Self-Defense Force’s Izumo into an effective aircraft carrier that can deploy U.S.-made F-35B stealth fighter jets, which can take off and land vertically.

However, an issue on how to maintain compatibility of the use with the war-renouncing Article 9 of the Constitution will likely remain a problem with the Izumo becoming a de facto offensive aircraft carrier, the first in the Japanese fleet.

The 248-meter-long vessel would be reliant on its complement of F-35Bs, resulting in exceeding the defensive nature as specified in the Constitution.

In the meeting, Defense Ministry officials explained the plan of thickening the decks of two Izumo-class destroyers, which carry helicopters, and making other adjustments so that F-35Bs can be launched from there, according to a source who attended the meeting. Source asahi.com


New defense guidelines and midterm buildup program

The following is the gist of the new National Defense Program Guidelines and the fiscal 2019-2023 midterm defense buildup program approved by the Cabinet on Tuesday. Japan:

  • will upgrade Izumo-class helicopter carriers so that they can transport and launch fighter jets.
  • will buy 18 F-35B fighter jets capable of short takeoffs and vertical landings.
  • will beef up defense in new domains of warfare such as cyber and outer space.
  • aims to build “multidimensional” defense capabilities for operations across various domains.
  • expresses “strong concern” over China’s military activities.
  • will install two land-based Aegis missile systems.
  • will spend over ¥27 trillion — a record — in the five-year period.

Source japantimes.co.jp


DDH-184 JS KAGA – BakanekoFilm

The island structure, including the platforms, with five levels, is about around 70m long. Like the Hyuga class, considerable attention has been paid to reducing signatures. The 243m flight deck allows for relatively unimpeded aircraft movement and is able to simultaneously operate five helicopters. Weapons, except for the forward CIWS on the starboard side of the flight deck, are mounted on hull sponsons or the island structure. Another notable difference from the Hyuga class is the aft 14m x 15m deck edge elevator on the starboard deck edge behind the island structure. The forward 20m x13m elevator remains on the centreline as on the Hyuga class. There are three small elevators for weapons and supplies, two forward, one aft. Source rina.org.uk

JS Izumo (DDH-183)


Japan’s cabinet has approved a major additional purchase of 105 F-35s to add to the 42 aircraft already on order. Significantly, the number includes 42 of the F-35B STOVL (short takeoff, vertical landing) version, which will operate from island bases along Japan’s western seaboard and two converted Izumo-class helicopter carriers. Japan also approved work to modify the vessels, Izumo and Kaga, to operate up to 10 F-35Bs each—including deck strengthening. The announcement confirms Japanese press reports that have been circulating since earlier in the year. Source thaimilitaryandasianregion.blogspot.com

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

Japan considers refitting helicopter carrier for stealth fighters: gov’t sources: Here


Japan is considering refitting the Izumo helicopter carrier so that it can land U.S. Marines F-35B stealth fighters, government sources said on Tuesday, as Tokyo faces China’s maritime expansion and North Korea’s missile and nuclear development.

Japan has not had fully fledged aircraft carriers since its World War Two defeat in 1945.

Design features of Izumo-class destroyer



The Izumo-class destroyer has a length of 248m, beam of 38m, draught of 7.5m and depth of 33.5m. Its displacement is 19,500t when empty and 27,000t when fully loaded. It can complement 970 crew and troops, and as many as nine helicopters including seven anti-submarine warfare (ASW) helicopters and two search and rescue (SAR) helicopters.



JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews


JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews


JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

Flight deck

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews


JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews


JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

The destroyer features a spacious flight deck that can accommodate five helicopters to take off and land simultaneously. It also includes roll-on and roll-off ramp, and interior space for up to 50 vehicles.

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

Sensors and processing systems fitted to the vessel include OYQ-12 combat direction system, FCS-3 fire control system, OPS-50 AESA radar, OPS-28 surface-search radar, and OQQ-23 bow sonar.

FCS-3 fire control system


DDH-184 JS KAGA – Kz arashi

FCS-3 is an integrated naval weapons system developed by the Japanese Defense Ministry for the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force.

This system is composed of weapon-direction and fire-control subsystem and multi-function radar subsystem. The multi-function radar subsystem adopted active electronically scanned array (AESA) technology, and there are two sets of antennas: the larger one is a C-band radar for surveillance and tracking, the smaller one is a X-band radar as a fire-control radar.

DDH-184 JS KAGA – Kz arashi

After a prolonged sea trial on board JS Asuka, this system was introduced in 2007 on the JS Hyūga (DDH-181). The enhanced version, FCS-3A, was employed on the Akizuki-class destroyers., and limited-function version, OPS-50, was also delivered for the Izumo-class helicopter destroyers. The fire-control function are omitted in the OPS-50 system, so they have only one set of antennas operating C-band. Source wikipedia.org

OPS-50 AESA radar


DDH-184 JS KAGA – Osaka Japan大阪観光チャンネル

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 222.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination
Sensors / EW:
J/OPS-50 MFR – (Izumo Class) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 222.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

OPS-28 surface-search radar


DDH-184 JS KAGA – wikimedia.org

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 203.7 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.7 km Generation: Early 1980s
Properties: Track While Scan (TWS), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
J/OPS-28D – (1983) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 2D Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface
Max Range: 203.7 km

Source cmano-db.com

OQQ-21 bow sonar (OQQ-23 bow sonar?)

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km
Sensors / EW:
J/OQQ-21 – Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

Weapon systems fitted on Izumo-class destroyer



The Izumo-class destroyer is fitted with two Phalanx close-in weapon system (CIWS) guns, and two SeaRAM CIWS launchers. It is also equipped with electronic warfare and decoy systems, including NOLQ-3D-1 EW suite, Mark 36 SRBOC, anti-torpedo mobile decoy (MOD), and floating acoustic jammer (FAJ).

2 x Phalanx close-in weapon system (CIWS)

DDH-184 JS KAGA – Kz arashi

MK 15 Phalanx CIWS provides ships of the U.S. Navy with an inner layer point defense capability against anti-ship missiles (ASM), aircraft and littoral warfare threats that have penetrated other fleet defenses. Phalanx automatically detects, evaluates, tracks, engages and performs kill assessment against ASM and high speed aircraft threats. The current Phalanx variant (Block 1B) adds the ability to counter asymmetric warfare threats through the addition of an integrated, stabilized, Electro Optic sensor. These improvements give Phalanx the added ability to counter small high speed surface craft, aircraft, helicopters and unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Phalanx is the only deployed close-in weapon system capable of autonomously performing its own search, detect, evaluation, track, engage and kill assessment functions. Phalanx also can be integrated into existing ship combat control systems to provide additional sensor and fire-control support to other installed ship weapon systems.

General Characteristics, MK 15

Primary Function: Fast-reaction, detect-thru-engage, radar guided 20-millimeter gun weapon system.
Contractor: Raytheon Systems Company (preceded by Hughes Missile Systems Company and purchased from General Dynamics Pomona Division in 1992).
Date Deployed: Date Deployed: Block 0: 1980 (aboard USS Coral Sea)
Block 1: 1988 (aboard USS Wisconsin)
Block 1B: 1999 (aboard USS Underwood)
Weight: (Block 1B): 13,600 pounds (6,120 kg).
Type Fire: ASM & Aircraft: 4,500 rounds/min, Asymmetric Threats: 3,000 rounds/min.
Magazine Capacity: 1,550 rounds
Caliber: 20mm.
Ammunition: Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot.
Type: M-61A1 Gatling Gun.

Source navy.mil

2 x SeaRAM CIWS launchers


JMSDF DDH-183 SeaRam – wikimedia.org

The innovative SeaRAM system combines key attributes of the Phalanx® close-in weapon system and the RAM™ guided weapon system. The SeaRAM system combines the superior accuracy, extended range and high maneuverability of the RAM missile with the high resolution search-and-track sensor and reliable, quick-response capability of the Phalanx Block 1B system. An 11-missile RAM system launcher assembly replaces the Phalanx system’s 20 mm gun. Source raytheon.com

RAM Block 2

The RAM Block 2 is an upgraded version of the Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) ship self-defense missile system. The RAM Block 2 missile upgrade aim is to more effectively counter the emerging threat of more maneuverable anti-ship missiles. The US Navy awarded Raytheon Missile Systems a $105 million Block 2 RAM development contract on May 8, 2007, with the missile development expected to complete by December 2010.

The Block 2 upgrade includes a four-axis independent control actuator system and a redesigned rocket motor. These upgrades increase the RAM’s effective range and deliver a significant improvement in maneuverability. The improved missile also incorporates an upgraded passive radio frequency seeker, a digital autopilot and engineering changes in selected infrared seeker components. The US Navy took delivery of the first batch of RAM Block 2 weapons in August 2014 and declared IOC in May 2015.

Diameter: 146 millimeter (5.75 inch)
Length: 2.82 meter (111 inch)
Wingspan: 322 millimeter (12.7 inch)
Max Range: 15,000 meter (8.10 nautical mile)
Min Range: 400 meter (0.22 nautical mile)
Target’s Max Altitude: 8,100 meter (4.37 nautical mile)
Target’s Min Altitude: 1.50 meter
Warhead: 11 kilogram (24.3 pound)
Weight: 88 kilogram (194 pound)

Source deagel.com




The MK 44 guided missile round pack and the MK 49 guided missile launching system, which hold 21 missiles, comprise the MK 31 guided missile weapon system. The system is designed to be easily integrated into many different ships. A variety of existing ship sensors can readily provide the target and pointing information required to engage the anti-ship threat.

The MK 44 missile is also used in the SeaRAM® anti-ship missile defense system, replacing the M601A1 Gatling gun in the Phalanx® close-in weapon system with an 11-round launcher. The Phalanx system’s sensor suite and internal combat management system reduces dependency on the ship’s combat system and enables a fast reaction to stressing anti-ship missiles. The RAM Block 2 missile has been successfully fired from a SeaRAM system. Source raytheon.com

NOLQ-3D-1 EW suite


DDH-184 JS KAGA – Osaka Japan大阪観光チャンネル

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
Sensors / EW:
J/NOLQ-3D-1 [ESM] – (Izumo, Separate ESM Antenna) ESM
Role: ELINT w/ OTH Targeting
Max Range: 926 km

Source cmano-db.com

Mark 36 SRBOC


Decoy employment is used primarily to defend against anti-ship missiles which have avoided detection and penetrated to the terminal-defense area that represents an imminent threat to ownship. The MK 36 Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Countermeasures (SRBOC) Chaff and Decoy Launching System is an evolutionary development of the RBOC family with enhanced capability. The MK 36 is a deck-mounted, mortar-type countermeasure system that may be used to launch an array of chaff cartridges against a variety of threats. The purpose of the system is to confuse hostile missile guidance and fire control systems by creating false signals. The launching system is controlled from the Combat Information Center and is dependent on information provided by the detection and threat analysis equipment on the ship.

The DLS MK 36 Mod 12 is a morter-tube launched decoy countermeasures system that projects decoys aloft at specific heights and ranges. Each DLS launcher includes six fixed-angle (elevation) tubes: four tubes set at 45 degrees and two tubes set at 60 degrees. Decoy selection and firing is controlled from either the EW console of the bridge launcher control. The DLS launches the following types of decoys: SRBOC – which uses chaff to deceive RF-emitting missiles/radars, NATO Sea Gnat – which is similar to SRBOC but with extended range and a larget payload of chaff, and TORCH – which uses heat to deceive infrarad-seeking missiles. Source fas.org

Izumo-class destroyer propulsion and performance

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – reddit.com

The Izumo-class destroyers are propelled by four GE/IHI LM2500IEC gas turbine engines, which generate a power of 112,000hp (84,000kW). They can sail at a top speed of more than 30kn (56km/h).

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

4 x GE/IHI LM2500IEC gas turbine engines



LM2500PJ performance

SYSTEM TYPE Simple cycle Combined heat and power (cogeneration)
FUEL City gas/Natural gas City gas/Natural gas
FREQUENCY 50Hz 60Hz 50Hz 60Hz
POWER OUTPUT 21,170kW 22,100kW 20,530kW 21,460kW
FUEL CONSUMPTION RATE 10.37MJ/kWh 10.01MJ/kWh 10.32MJ/kWh 10.20MJ/kWh
NOX(O2=16%) 21ppm 21ppm

Inlet air temperature: 15℃
Atmospheric pressure: 101.3 kPa
Boiler supply water temperature: 60℃
*The above performance values list average performance in New & Clean mode.
*Note that the above performance values may be subject to change without prior notice.

Source hi.co.jp


Displacement standard, t 19500
Displacement full, t 24000
Length, m 248.0
Breadth, m 23.5 wl 38.0 fd
Draught, m 7.30
No of shafts 2
Machinery COGAG: 4 General Electric-IHI LM-2500 gas turbines
Power, h. p. 112000
Max speed, kts 30
Fuel, t gas turbine oil
Endurance, nm(kts) 6000(20)
Armament 2 x 21 Sea RAM SAM (42 RIM-116), 2 x 6 – 20/76 Mk 15 Block 1B Phalanx, 5 x 1 – 12.7/90, 14 helicopters (SH-60, MCH-101)
Sensors OPS-50, OPS-28D, FCS-3, OPS-20 radars, OQQ-23 sonar, NOLQ-3D-1 ECM suite, 6x SRBOC Mk 36 decoy RL, OLQ-1 anti-torpedo system, ACDS CCS
Complement 470

Source navypedia.org

Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Kongō Class Guided Missile Destroyers

The Kongō Class guided missile destroyers were built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and IHI Corporation for the Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force (JMSDF). The destroyer is a modified version of the US Navy’s Arleigh Burke Class destroyer. The Escort Flotillas of JMSDF operate four vessels. The Kongō Class is preceded by Hatakaze Class and succeeded by Atago Class destroyers.

The JS Myōkō (right) next to the Flight IIA Arleigh Burke-class USS Mustin (left). – reddit.com

The JMSDF built and commissioned four destroyers between 1990 and 1998. The keel for the lead vessel in class, JDS Kongō (DDG-173), was laid in May 1990. It was launched in September 1991 and commissioned in March 1993. JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) was laid down in April 1992, launched in August 1993 and commissioned in March 1995. JDS Myōkō (DDG-175) was laid down in April 1993, launched in October 1994 and commissioned in March 1996. The last vessel of class, JDS Chōkai (DDG-176), was laid down in May 1995. Chōkai was launched in August 1996 for the commissioning in March 1998.

Sejong the Great-class destroyer: Details

Ships in class


Kongō Class destroyer design


Based on the Arleigh Burke Class destroyer, the design of Kongō Class features a vertical mast and a bridge with sleek sides. The superstructure prevailed by the SPY-1 phased arrays incorporates stealth features to reduce radar cross section. The vessel is larger than traditional destroyers, featuring a longer helicopter deck aft than the Arleigh Burke Class destroyer. The deeper draught of the destroyer limits its capabilities to conduct operations in littoral environments.

The Kongō Class has a length of 161m, beam of 21m and draft of 6.2m. The full load displacement of the ship is 9,500t. The destroyer can accommodate a crew of 300.

Command and control

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The Kongō Class destroyers were the first vessels to be equipped with the Aegis combat system (ACS) after the US Navy warships.

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The system integrates an advanced command and control system, and a weapons control system (WCS). The high-performance phased array radar system combined with powerful computers can search, detect and track over 200 targets simultaneously.

JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) – AegisBMD

In July 2005, Lockheed Martin received a $124m contract under a foreign military sales (FMS) programme to supply the Aegis ballistic missile defence (BMD) system for four Kongō Class destroyers. Three destroyers were successfully modified with the Aegis BMD system. The system integration is expected to be complete by the end of 2010.

Kongō Class weapons layout


Kongō Class missiles

An SM-3 missile is launched from the JMSDF Aegis destroyer JS Kirishima (Kongo class) – reddit.com

The destroyer is armed with the RIM-66 SM-2MR block II surface-to-air missiles and the RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles. The mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS) can carry a total of 90 SM-2MR missiles, of which, 21 missiles are housed in the bow cells and 61 missiles in the aft cells of the VLS.

RIM-66 SM-2MR block II surface-to-air missiles

RIM-66 SM-2MR Standard Missile was launched from the forward Mk-41 VLS aboard USS Mustin (DDG 89) -seaforces.org

Standard Missile 2 (SM-2) is the U.S Navy’s primary surface-to-air air defense weapon. It is an integral part of the AEGIS Weapon System (AWS) aboard Ticonderoga-class cruisers and Arleigh Burke-class destroyers; and is launched from the Mark 41 vertical launcher system (VLS). Its primary missions are fleet area air defense and ship self-defense, but it also has demonstrated an extended area air defense projection capability. The SM-2 uses tail controls and a solid fuel rocket motor for propulsion and maneuverability. All variants are guided by inertial navigation and mid-course commands from AWS using semi-active radar or an infrared (IR) sensor for terminal homing.

SM-2 Blocks III, IIIA, IIIB and IV are in service with the U.S. Navy; these and other variants of Standard Missile are also in service with 15 allied navies.

Extended Range Active Missile (SM-6) provides an air defense force multiplier to the U.S. Navy to greatly expand the AWS battlespace. SM-6 provides an extended range anti-air warfare capability both over sea and over land by combining a modified advanced medium-range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM) active seeker onto the proven Standard Missile airframe. This low-risk approach, relying on non-developmental items, supported an FY 2011 initial operating capability. With integrated fire control support, SM-6 provides the Navy with an increased battlespace against anti-air warfare (AAW) threats over-the-horizon.

The Kirishima fires what appears to be an SM-2 missile from one of her stern VLS cells – reddit.com

General Characteristics, SM-2 Block III/IIIA/IIIB Medium Range

Primary Function: Surface to air missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems.
Date Deployed: 1981 (SM-2 MR).
Propulsion: Dual thrust, solid fuel rocket.
Length: 15 feet, 6 inches (4.72 meters).
Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.3 cm).
Wingspan: 3 feet 6 inches (1.08 meters).
Weight: SM-2: 1,558 pounds (708 kg).
Range: Up to 90 nautical miles (104 statute miles).
Guidance System: Semi-active radar homing (IR in Block IIIB).
Warhead: Radar and contact fuse, blast-fragment warhead.

Source navy.mil

RIM-161 Standard Missile SM-3 ABM

RIM-161 Standard Missile SM-3 was launched from the Japanese Destroyer JS Kongou (DDG 173)

The RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) is a ship-based missile system used by the US Navy to intercept aircraft, ships, ballistic and cruise missiles as a part of Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System. Although primarily designed as an anti-ballistic missile, the SM-3 has also been employed in an anti-satellite capacity against a satellite at the lower end of Low Earth orbit. The SM-3 is primarily used and tested by the United States Navy and also operated by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force and in the future by the Royal Netherlands Navy.


The SM-3 evolved from the proven SM-2 Block IV design. The SM-3 uses the same solid rocket booster and dual thrust rocket motor as the Block IV missile for the first and second stages and the same steering control section and midcourse missile guidance for maneuvering in the atmosphere. To support the extended range of an exo-atmospheric intercept, additional missile thrust is provided in a new third stage for the SM-3 missile, containing a dual pulse rocket motor for the early exo-atmospheric phase of flight.

Initial work was done to adapt SM-3 for land deployment (“Aegis ashore”) to especially accommodate the Israelis, but they then chose to pursue their own system, the NATO code-name Arrow 3. A group in the Obama administration envisioned a European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) and SM-3 was chosen as the main vector of this effort because the competing U.S. THAAD does not have enough range and would have required too many sites in Europe to provide adequate coverage. Compared to the GMD’s Ground-Based Interceptor however, the SM-3 Block I has about 1⁄5 to 1⁄6 of the range. A significant improvement in this respect, the SM-3 Block II variant widens the missile’s diameter from 0.34 m (13.5 in) to .53 m (21 in), making it more suitable against intermediate-range ballistic missiles.

The Block IIA missile is largely new sharing only the first-stage motor with the Block I. The Block IIA was “designed to allow for Japan to protect against a North Korean attack with fewer deployed ships” but it is also the key element of the EPAA phase 3 deployment in Europe. The Block IIA is being jointly developed by Raytheon and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries; the latter manages “the third-stage rocket motor and nose cone”. The U.S. budgeted cost to date is $1.51 billion for the Block IIA.

Lenght: 6.55 meters (21 feet 6 inch)
Diameter: 34.3 cm (13.5 in) for Block I missiles / 53.3 cm (21 in) for Block II
Wingspan: 1.57 meters (62 in)
Operational range: 700 km (378 miles) Block IA/B / 2,500 km (1,350 miles) Block IIA
Flight ceiling: 500 km (311 miles) Block IA/B / 1,500 km (933 miles) Block IIA
Speed: 3 km/s (Mach 10.2) Block IA/B / 4.5 km/s (Mach 15.25) Block IIA
Guidance: GPS/INS/semi-active radar homing/passive LWIR infrared homing seeker (KW)

Source seaforces.org

Mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS)

The Mk 41 is the standard Vertical Launch System employed by the US Navy fighting ships to store and launch a wide spectrum of naval missiles. It is installed below deck on surface ships in 13 different configurations ranging from a single module with 8-cell to 16 modules with 128-cell.

The Mk 41 Strike Length (Mk 41 SL) is the largest Mk 41 version currently deployed aboard US Navy ships. It can accommodate any existing missile in the US Navy Inventory.

The Mk 41 VLS has been adopted by the navies of Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, Republic of Korea (RoK), Norway, Spain, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

Mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS) Kongō Class Miyoko DDG 175 – 来島屋旗振男

As of early 2006, the Mk 41 VLS Baseline VII is the current production model and was introduced in 2004. More than 11,000 Mk 41 missiles cells have been ordered to date for 178 ships in 11 world navies.

Mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS) Kongō Class Miyoko DDG 175 – 来島屋旗振男

The BAE Systems Mk 14 canister is used to launch Tomahawk cruise missiles through the Mk 41 vertical launching system. The US Navy had ordered 1,036 Mk 14 canisters until April 2007.  Source deagel.com

GM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The A/U/RGM-84 Harpoon is an all- weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system that provides the Navy with a common missile for air and ship launches.

The Harpoon’s active radar guidance, warhead design, low-level cruise trajectory, and terminal mode sea-skim or pop-up maneuvers assure high survivability and effectiveness. The missile is capable of being launched from surface ships, submarines, shore batteries, or aircraft (without the booster).

In late 2010, plans for an updated U.S. Navy version of the Harpoon Block II began to formalize. The Harpoon Block II+ provides a rapid-capability enhancement for the Navy that includes a new GPS guidance kit, reliability and survivability of the weapon, a new data link interface that enables in-flight updates, improved target selectivity, an abort option and enhanced resistance to electronic countermeasures. When fielded to the fleet in the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2017, Harpoon Block II+ will join the Joint Standoff Weapon C-1 as the Navy’s only two air-to-ground network-enabled weapons.


General Characteristics

Primary Function: Air, ship, and foreign submarine and land-based coastal defense battery launched anti-ship cruise missile.
Contractor: The Boeing Company.
Date Deployed: 1977.
Unit Cost: $1,200,000 for Harpoon Block II.
Propulsion: Teledyne Turbojet / solid propellant booster for surface and submarine launch. Thrust: greater than 600 pounds (greater than 272.2 kg).
Length: Air launched: 12 feet, 7 inches (3.8 meters); Surface and submarine launched: 15 feet (4.6 meters)
Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.3 cm).
Wingspan: 3 feet (91.4 cm) with booster fins and wings.
Weight: 1,523 pounds (690.8 kg) with booster.
Speed: High subsonic.
Range: Over-the-horizon, in excess of 67 nautical miles (124 km).
Guidance System: Sea-skimming cruise monitored by radar altimeter / active radar terminal homing.
Warhead: Penetration / high-explosive blast (488 pounds/224 kg).
Last Update: 10 March 2017

Source navy.mil


JMSDF DDG-173 JS KONGO – binmei jp

The main gun fitted is a 127mm / 54-calibre Oto-Breda compact gun. The gun can fire 40 rounds a minute within a range of 30,000m. There are two 20mm Phalanx close-in weapon systems (CIWS) mounted on the vessel.

127mm / 54-calibre Oto-Breda compact gun



Manufactured by OTO-Melara, these weapons have a higher rate of fire and a greater maximum elevation than their rough equivalent, the USA 5″/54 (12.7 cm) Mark 45. Both use USN standard semi-fixed ammunition including surface, air, pyrotechnic and chaff rounds. Mounting reaction time is five seconds from target designation. The reloading, feeding and firing sequence is controlled by a central console which is operated by a single crewmember.



The Compact is intended for use on frigate and destroyer type warships. This mounting uses a water-cooled barrel mounted in a water-tight fiberglass gunhouse and has 66 ready-to-fire rounds in three drums located just below the gun house. Each drum can hold a different ammunition type and each can be independently selected. A central elevator hoists the ammunition and delivers it to two oscillating arms which move the rounds into the loading trays. The drums are automatically reloaded via two hoists which are manually loaded in the lower magazine. Reloading can take place while the gun is firing. As an option, this mounting can be fitted with a stabilized line of sight local control system. Source navweaps.com


The Otobreda 127mm/54-caliber Compact (127/54C) gun is a dual purpose naval gun system.
It fires the 127mm (5″) rounds which are also in use in the US Mk-45 5-inch/ 54-caliber gun.

Technical data:
Builder: Oto-Melara (now OtoBreda)
In service: 1972
Caliber: 5 inches / 127 mm
Barrel lenght: 270 inches / 6,858 meters (= 54 caliber)
Weight: 37500 kg (without ammunition)
Elevation: -15° / + 83°
Rate of fire: 40 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocity: 808 meters per second
Range: 23000 meters, max. (47°) / 15000 meters effective / 7000 meters AA (83°)
Ammunition stowage: 66 rounds ready to fire in 3 loader drums / 500-600 in magazine
Ammunition: High Explosive, Illumination

Source seaforces.org

2 x 20mm Phalanx close-in weapon systems

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

MK 15 Phalanx CIWS provides ships of the U.S. Navy with an inner layer point defense capability against anti-ship missiles (ASM), aircraft and littoral warfare threats that have penetrated other fleet defenses. Phalanx automatically detects, evaluates, tracks, engages and performs kill assessment against ASM and high speed aircraft threats. The current Phalanx variant (Block 1B) adds the ability to counter asymmetric warfare threats through the addition of an integrated, stabilized, Electro Optic sensor. These improvements give Phalanx the added ability to counter small high speed surface craft, aircraft, helicopters and unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Phalanx is the only deployed close-in weapon system capable of autonomously performing its own search, detect, evaluation, track, engage and kill assessment functions. Phalanx also can be integrated into existing ship combat control systems to provide additional sensor and fire-control support to other installed ship weapon systems.

General Characteristics, MK 15

Primary Function: Fast-reaction, detect-thru-engage, radar guided 20-millimeter gun weapon system.
Contractor: Raytheon Systems Company (preceded by Hughes Missile Systems Company and purchased from General Dynamics Pomona Division in 1992).
Date Deployed: Date Deployed: Block 0: 1980 (aboard USS Coral Sea)
Block 1: 1988 (aboard USS Wisconsin)
Block 1B: 1999 (aboard USS Underwood)
Weight: (Block 1B): 13,600 pounds (6,120 kg).
Type Fire: ASM & Aircraft: 4,500 rounds/min, Asymmetric Threats: 3,000 rounds/min.
Magazine Capacity: 1,550 rounds
Caliber: 20mm.
Ammunition: Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot.
Type: M-61A1 Gatling Gun.

Source navy.mil

The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force destroyer JDS Kongo (DDG 173) is underway in the Pacific Ocean. George Washington, the Navy’s only permanently forward deployed aircraft carrier, is participating in Annual Exercise, a yearly bilateral exercise with the U.S. Navy and the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. Photo by Seaman Apprentice Anthony R. Martinez

Torpedoes and ASW rockets

Two type 68 triple torpedo tubes are mounted on the destroyers for ASW roles. These tubes can launch six mk46 or Type 73 torpedoes. The ship is also equipped with RUM-139 vertically launched anti-submarine rockets. The RUM-139 rocket is powered by two-stage solid rocket fuel engines.

2 x Type 68 triple torpedo tubes

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

Mk-32 SVTT system was built under license for the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force as Type-68 (Model HOS-301, HOS-302A, HOS-303) torpedo tubes. Source seaforces.org

Mk46 torpedoes

Mk-46 Mod.5A recoverable exercise torpedo (REXTORP) was launched from Mk-32 torpedo tubes – seaforces.org

The Mk-46 torpedo, first introduced in 1965, is a surface ship and aircraft-launched anti-submarine weapon. It is presently identified as the NATO standard and has been acquired by more than 25 countries. Various modifications, including improved acoustics, guidance and control upgrades, and countermeasure-detection capability have been introduced into the weapon.

The resultant Mk-46 Mod 5A(S) torpedo, an active or passive/active, dual-speed torpedo, is the ASW weapon for surface ships and ASW fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft. The Mk-46 Mod 5A (SW) (Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) torpedo was introduced to the fleet in September 1996. The Mk-46 SLEP has improved counter-countermeasure performance, enhanced target acquisition, a bottom-avoidance preset, and improved maintainability and reliability. The Mk-46 Mod 5A (SW) also serves as the payload for the Vertical Launch Anti-Submarine Rocket (ASROC VLA).


General characteristics, Mark 46 Mod 5:
Primary Function: Air and ship-launched lightweight torpedo
Contractor: Alliant Techsystems
Power Plant: Two-speed, reciprocating external combustion; Mono-propellant (Otto fuel II)
Length: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) tube launch configuration (from ship), 14 ft 9 in (4.5 m) with ASROC rocket booster
Weight: 508 lb (231 kg) (warshot configuration)
Diameter: 12.75 in (324 mm)
Range: 12,000 yd (11 km)
Depth: > 1,200 ft (365 m)
Speed: > 40 knots (46 mph, 74 km/h)
Guidance System: Homing mode: Active or passive/active acoustic homing
Launch/search mode: Snake or circle search
Warhead: 96.8 lb (44 kg) of PBXN-103 high explosive (bulk charge)
Date Deployed: 1967 (Mod 0); 1979 (Mod 5)

Source seaforces.org

Type 73 torpedoes

JMSDF Type 73 Light Weight torpedo in JMSDF Kure Museum – Wikimedia Commons

RUM-139 vertically launched anti-submarine rockets

ASROC (Anti-Submarine Rocket) combines a solid propellant rocket with a torpedo payload to achieve a quick reaction, all weather, intermediate range anti-submarine weapon. ASROC was designed to be installed on US Navy’s surface ships inside eight-cell sealed canisters which also performed as launch ramp. Originally the US Navy deployed ASROC carrying torpedoes armed with both conventional and nuclear warheads. After launch the ASROC rocket directs to the submarine area to deliver the torpedo payload. After entry the water the torpedo powers up and searches for the submarine using either active or passive sonar.

The RUM-139 Verical Launch ASROC (VLA) was designed to be fired from vertical launch system (VLS) such as the Mk-41. VLS offers greater weapons availability and quicker response than ramps that need to be directed to the target area before launch. The VLA program was launched in 1980 with Loral as the lead contractor. The RUM-139A weapon system achieved initial operational capability (IOC) in 1993 and RUM-139B in 1996. RUM-139B is an improved variant featuring Mark 46 Mod 5A(SW) in lieu of Mark 46 Mod 5(S). Mark 46 Mod 5A(SW) is more capable than its predecessor in the shallow water environment.

Diameter: 420 millimeter (16.5 inch)
Length: 5.04 meter (198 inch)
Wingspan: 680 millimeter (26.8 inch)
Max Range: 28,000 meter (15.1 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 330 mps (1,188 kph)
Warhead: 45 kilogram (98 pound)
Weight: 639 kilogram (1,409 pound)

Source deagel.com

Helicopter system

JS Myoko (DDG 175) – seaforces.org

Kongō Class destroyers have a large aft flight deck to accommodate two ASW or patrol helicopters, but no helicopter hangar and support equipment is provided on these ships.

Radars and sensors

JMSDF DDG-173 JS KONGO – binmei jp

The sensor suite includes an SPY-1D air search radar, an OPS-28 surface search radar and a missile director radar. The sonar is an OQS-102 bow-mounted low-frequency sonar. There is a NOLQ-2 intercept or jammer fitted on the destroyer.

SPY-1D air search radar

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The AEGIS Weapon System (AWS) is a centralized, automated, command-and-control (C2) and weapons control system that was designed as a total weapon system, from detection to kill. The heart of the system is the AN/SPY-1, an advanced, automatic detect and track, multi-function phased-array radar. This high-powered radar is able to perform search, track, and missile guidance functions simultaneously, with a track capacity of more than 100 targets. The first Engineering Development Model (EDM-1) was installed in the test ship USS Norton Sound (AVM 1) in 1973.  Source navy.mil


General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 60960 m
Range Max: 324.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 1.1 km Generation: Early 1990s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
AN/SPY-1D MFR – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air, Long-Range
Max Range: 324.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) – AegisBMD

AN/SPG-62 Fire Control Radar

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The US Navy AN/SPG-62 is a fire control radar provided to the AEGIS-equipped warships allowing to guide surface-to-air missiles, primarily Standard Missile SM-2, to their intended targets. The SPG-62 has been ordered by the United States Navy as well as other international navies worldwide operating the AEGIS weapon system.

The radar system operates in the I and J bands and provides continuous illumination of the target operating along the SPY-1D fixed face radar. The SPG-62 radar was deployed in 1983 along the Ticonderoga-class destroyers with four such radars on each ship. The Burke class destroyers are provided with three such radars while other ships are equipped with either two or three radar antennas. The AN/SPG-62 is considered as the weak spot of the AEGIS weapon system because limits the number of missiles than can be guided simultaneously by a single ship.  Source deagel.com

JMSDF DDG-173 JS KONGO – binmei jp

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 305.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Late 1980s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination
Sensors / EW:
AN/SPG-62 [Mk99 FCS] – Radar
Role: Radar Illuminator, Long-Range
Max Range: 305.6 km

Source cmano-db.com

OPS-28 surface search radar

日本語: 海上自衛隊 護衛艦くらま(DDH-144) OPS-28水上レーダー。 13年10月27日 神戸港にて。-wikimedia.org

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 203.7 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.7 km Generation: Early 1980s
Properties: Track While Scan (TWS), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
J/OPS-28C – (1983) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 2D Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface
Max Range: 203.7 km

Source cmano-db.com

OQS-102 bow-mounted low-frequency sonar


For illustration – geospectrum.ca

The Sonar Set AN/SQS-53C is a computer-controlled surface-ship sonar that has both active and passive operating capabilities providing precise information for ASW weapons control and guidance. The AN/SQS-53C is designed to perform direct path ASW search, detection, localization, and tracking from a hull mounted transducer array. The AN/SQS-53C retains the transducer assembly from either the AN/SQS-53A or 53B. The AN/SQS-53C provides greater range and detection capability with only half of the electronics footprint and less weight than earlier versions. The AN/SQS-53C is equipped with high source level, fully stabilized beams, and wide convergence zone annuli coupled with computer-aided detection and automatic contact management. Implemented in standard electronic modules, the AN/SQS-53C is an all digital system with stable performance, on-line reconfiguration in the event of a component failure, and performance monitoring/fault location software to quickly isolate failures. The AN/SQS-53C provides apparent range, bearing, and true bearing of contacts when employing active sonar and provides true bearing of contacts detected by passive means.

The AN/SQS-53 is the most advanced surface ship ASW sonar in the US Navy inventory. It is a high-power, long-range system evolved from the AN/SQS-26CX, used actively and passively to detect and localize submarine contacts. The SQS-53B, located in a large dome at the bow of the ship, will detect, identify, and track multiple underwater targets. With its higher power and improved signal processing equipment, this sonar is the first in the Navy to be linked directly to digital computers, thus ensuring swift, accurate processing of target information. Functions of the system are the detection, tracking, and classification of underwater targets. It can also be used for underwater communications, countermeasures against acoustic underwater weapons, and certain oceanographic recording uses. Source fas.org

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1990s
Sensors / EW:
J/OQS-102 – (AN/SQS-53C Equivalent) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com


The AN/SQR-19 Tactical Towed Array SONAR (TACTAS) provides very long-range passive detection of enemy submarines. TACTAS is a long cable full of microphones that is towed about a mile behind the ship. It is towed so far behind the ship so as to not let noise radiating from the shipitself interfere with the noise picked up from targets. Using that noise can determine exactly what ship or submarine is being tracked. The AN/SQR-19B Tactical Array SONAR (TACTAS) is a passive towed array system which provides the ability to detect, classify, and track a large number of submarine contacts at increased ranges. TACTAS is a component sensor of the AN/SQQ-89(V)6 ASW Combat System, and provides significant improvements in passive detection and localization, searching throughout 360 degrees at tactical ship speeds. Processing of complex TACTAS data is performed by the largest computer program assembly ever developed for surface ship anti-submarine warfare.

Meteorology and Oceanography Center Detachment TACTAS support products describe oceanographic and acoustic conditions (using range dependent models) in the prosecution area for towed array ships tasked by CTF-69 for ASW operations. This message is provided when own ship Sonar In-situ Mode Assessment System (SIMAS) or the Mobile Environmental Team’s Mobile Oceanographic Support System MOSS) are not available. It is tailored to the specific towed array carried onboard. The message is transmitted prior to the start of a prosecution and daily thereafter or as requested. Source fas.org

General data:
Type: TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 129.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 1980s
Sensors / EW:
J/OQR-2 TACTASS [AN/SQR-19A(V)] – TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System
Role: TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System
Max Range: 129.6 km

Source cmano-db.com

NOLQ-2 intercept or jammer

JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) – reddit.com

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1990s
Sensors / EW:
J/NOLQ-2 [ESM] – (Kongo, Separate ESM Antenna) ESM
Role: ELINT w/ OTH Targeting
Max Range: 926 km

Source cmano-db.com

4 x Mk 36 SRBOC decoy RL


Decoy employment is used primarily to defend against anti-ship missiles which have avoided detection and penetrated to the terminal-defense area that represents an imminent threat to ownship. The MK 36 Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Countermeasures (SRBOC) Chaff and Decoy Launching System is an evolutionary development of the RBOC family with enhanced capability. The MK 36 is a deck-mounted, mortar-type countermeasure system that may be used to launch an array of chaff cartridges against a variety of threats. The purpose of the system is to confuse hostile missile guidance and fire control systems by creating false signals. The launching system is controlled from the Combat Information Center and is dependent on information provided by the detection and threat analysis equipment on the ship.

The DLS MK 36 Mod 12 is a morter-tube launched decoy countermeasures system that projects decoys aloft at specific heights and ranges. Each DLS launcher includes six fixed-angle (elevation) tubes: four tubes set at 45 degrees and two tubes set at 60 degrees. Decoy selection and firing is controlled from either the EW console of the bridge launcher control. The DLS launches the following types of decoys: SRBOC – which uses chaff to deceive RF-emitting missiles/radars, NATO Sea Gnat – which is similar to SRBOC but with extended range and a larget payload of chaff, and TORCH – which uses heat to deceive infrarad-seeking missiles. Source fas.org

AN/SLQ-25 Nixie

The Torpedo Countermeasures Transmitting Set AN/SLQ-25A, commonly referred to as Nixie, is a passive, electro-acoustic decoy system used to provide deceptive countermeasures against acoustic homing torpedoes. The AN/SLQ-25A employs an underwater acoustic projector housed in a streamlined body which is towed astern on a combination tow/signal-transfer coaxial cable. An onboard generated signal is used by the towed body to produce an acoustic signal to decoy the hostile torpedo away from the ship. The AN/SLQ-25A includes improved deceptive countermeasures capabilities. The AN/SLQ-25B includes improved deceptive countermeasures capabilities, a fiber optic display LAN, a torpedo alertment capability and a towed array sensor.

Modern acoustic towed decoys, such as the AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE and the older T-MK6 FANFAIR, employ electronic or electromechanical means to produce the required signals. The system provides an alternate target diversion for an enemy acoustic homing torpedo by stringing on cable a “noise maker”, aft of the ship, which has the capability of producing a greater noise than the ship; thereby diverting the incoming torpedo from the ship to the “fish”. The towed device receives the torpedoes ping frequency, amplifies it 2 to 3 times and sends it back to lure the torpedo away from the ship. They may be used in pairs or singularly. Source fas.org

Type: Decoy (Towed) Weight: 21 kg
Length: 0.94 m Span: 0.187 m
Diameter: 0.152 Generation: Late 1970s
Targets: Surface Vessel
AN/SLQ-25 Nixie – Decoy (Towed)
Surface Max: 1.9 km.

Source cmano-db.com


Kongō Class destroyers are equipped with a combined gas and gas (COGAG) propulsion system. Four Ishikawajima Harima / General Electric LM2500 gas turbines driving two shafts develop a power output of 75MW. The propulsion system provides a maximum speed of 30kt.

4 x Ishikawajima Harima / General Electric LM2500 gas turbines



LM2500PJ performance

System type Simple cycle Combined heat and power (cogeneration)
Fuel City gas/Natural gas City gas/Natural gas
Frequency 50Hz 60Hz 50Hz 60Hz
Power output 21,170kW 22,100kW 20,530kW 21,460kW
Fuel consumption rate 10.37MJ/kWh 10.01MJ/kWh 10.32MJ/kWh 10.20MJ/kWh
Thermal efficiency at the generator terminal 34.7% 36.0% 34.9% 35.3%
Total thermal efficiency 85.9% 86.8%
NOx(O2=16%) 21ppm 21ppm

Inlet air temperature: 15℃
Atmospheric pressure: 101.3 kPa
Boiler supply water temperature: 60℃
*The above performance values list average performance in New & Clean mode.
*Note that the above performance values may be subject to change without prior notice.

Source hi.co.jp

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT



Displacement standard, t 7250
Displacement full, t 9500
Length, m 150.5 pp 161.0 oa
Breadth, m 21.0
Draught, m 6.20 hull
No of shafts 2
Machinery COGAG: 4 General Electric LM-2500 gas turbines
Power, h. p. 100000
Max speed, kts 30
Fuel, t gas turbine oil 1000
Endurance, nm (kts) 4500(20)
Armament 2 x 4 Harpoon SSM (8 RGM-84), (1 x 61 + 1 x 29) Standard SM-2MR SAM / ASROC VLA ASuR Mk 41 VLS (74 RIM-66, 16 RUM-139), 1 x 1 – 127/54 OTO-Melara Compact, 2 x 6 – 20/76 Mk 15 Phalanx, 2 x 1 – 12.7/90, 2 x 3 – 324 HOS-302 TT, helicopter deck
Sensors SPY-1D, OPS-28D, 3x SPG-62, FCS-2-23, OPS-20, 2x Mk 90 radars, OQS-102, OQR-2 sonars, NOLQ-2, OLT-3, OPN-7B ECM suites, 4x Mk 36 SRBOC decoy RL, SLQ-25 Nixie torpedo decoy, OYQ-6 CCS
Complement 310

Source navypedia.org

Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated