Featured post

Lynx KF-31/KF 41 Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV)

The Lynx infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) is a state-of-the-art, highly protected, tracked armoured vehicle developed by Rheinmetall. The IFV was unveiled for the first time at Eurosatory 2016 exhibition held in June 2016.

The Lynx IFV is offered in two configurations, Lynx KettenFahrzeug (KF) 31 and KF 41. The KF 31 weighs up to 38t and accommodates three crew and six troops, whereas the KF 41 is an extended version with a capacity to carry three crew and eight infantrymen.

KF 31

LynxKF 31 – rheinmetall-defence.com

A key feature of the Lynx combat family is its versatility. The Lynx comes in two versions: the KF31 and KF41 (KF stands for “Kettenfahrzeug”, or tracked vehicle in German). Weighing up to 38 tonnes, Lynx KF31 can seat 3+6 soldiers. Lynx KF41 is slightly larger and can carry 3+8 soldiers.

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.08.29-04-10-02KF 31 – rheinmetall-defence.com

The Lynx can be configured for various roles:

  • Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV),
  • Command & control,
  • Armoured reconnaissance,
  • Repair & recovery or
  • Ambulance.
screenshot-www.rheinmetall-defence.com-2018.06.13-21-19-32KF-31 Armoured reconnaissance – rheinmetall-defence.comscreenshot-www.rheinmetall-defence.com-2018.06.13-21-20-39KF-31 Armoured Personnel Carrier – rheinmetall-defence.comscreenshot-www.rheinmetall-defence.com-2018.06.13-21-19-58KF-31 Repair & recovery – rheinmetall-defence.comscreenshot-www.rheinmetall-defence.com-2018.06.13-21-20-19KF-31 Ambulance – rheinmetall-defence.com

A high degree of commonality in parts and components is another prominent feature of the Lynx family of vehicles. This simplifies logistic support and has a positive impact on training. Furthermore, customized service support is available worldwide – ranging from training and logistics to in-theatre repairs and technology transfer. Source rheinmetall-defence.com


screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.09.02-11-16-11KF 31 – Jane’s by IHS Markit

The Lynx IFV is mounted with a Rheinmetall LANCE turret armed with a stabilised and externally-powered 30mm or 35mm automatic cannon. The turret allows the crew to effectively engage targets at a maximum distance of 3,000m.

ClAMP3fXEAAd4yaKF 31 RMG 7.62mm co-axial machine gun – JPW_FIDES twitter

The IFV can also be armed with an anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) launcher and a secondary remotely controlled weapon system mounted with a 7.62mm co-axial machine gun. The secondary weapon station is connected to the main optics. Source army-technology.com

screenshot-dtrmagazine.com-2018.09.04-15-15-11KF-31 – dtrmagazine.com

Both variants can be configured as command and control, armoured reconnaissance, repair and recovery, and ambulance vehicles.

KF41 Lynx Command Variant

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.07.31-19-39-29KF 41 command and control – Jane’s by IHS Markit

Command Variant is armed with a remotely controlled .50 Cal machine gun

Remote Weapon Station 12.7mm MG

screenshot-defense-update.com-2018.09.04-15-39-30Tamir Eshel, Defense-Update

Rheinmetall offers a family of fully digital and stabilized, remotely controlled weapon stations that can be integrated on various vehicle platforms and used for different mission profiles. Various sizes of weapons can be accommodated from small to medium calibres, including 40mm grenade launchers. The weapon station family is designed with a high level of commonality and modularity, and is fully compliant with military standards for human factors engineering. Our weapon stations meet a wide range of specific customer requirements such as:

  • Integration of small and medium calibre weapons
  • Integration of a broad variety of optical modules
  • Operation as a standalone system or as part of a network of systems

Full stabilisation, super elevation, long-range day/night all-weather sights, smoke protection systems, and the capability to integrate NATO and non-NATO weapons are available options on certain models. Rheinmetall’s weapon stations are fielded for instance on vehicles with the Canadian Army, the Nexter VBCI for the French Armed Forces, the MPPV and AIV for the Belgium Army, and are integrated on the Fuchs APC for the Armed Forces of an international customer.

Source rheinmetall-defence.com

Design and features of Lynx IFV

The Lynx IFV is based on a highly modular design concept, allowing for the integration of special mission kits to produce a specific variant. The mission kit comprises a specific roof, mission-specific installations and equipment.

tumblr_pb87ngjHpK1ws46zho1_1280KF 41 – ostrich-san.livejournal.com

The monocoque hull design of Lynx IFV houses power-pack in the front and exhaust system at the rear. Driver’ position is located on the left front side of the hull, whereas the crew is seated in a mission-neutral space.

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.09.05-17-07-27KF 41 – rheinmetall-defence.com

The commander, gunner and driver are provided with hatch covers to enter and exit the vehicle. Crew can also ingress and egress the vehicle through the hydraulically-operated rear ramp. The vehicle also has a roof hatch at the rear of the crew compartment, which acts as an observation point and emergency exit.

screenshot-www.rheinmetall-defence.com-2018.06.13-21-14-47KF 41 – rheinmetall-defence.com

Key features at a glance

Mission dynamics

-Superb force protection
-Extreme mobility
-Premium crew comfort

Superior battlefield awareness

-Exact orientation of the weapon stations and superior field awareness
-Instantaneous detection of specific threats
-Automatic target recognition and tracking
-Real time situational awareness

Armed to the teeth

-Main armament: 35mm Wotan cannon
-Main Sensor Slaved Armament/MSSA with 360° view
-Antitank guided missiles
-Counter strike with ADS and ROSY

Source rheinmetall-defence.com

Lynx IFV armament

KF 41 – Huang Yimin

The Lynx IFV is mounted with a Rheinmetall LANCE turret armed with a stabilised and externally-powered 30mm or 35mm automatic cannon. The turret allows the crew to effectively engage targets at a maximum distance of 3,000m.

30 mm x 173 / 35 mm x 228 WOTAN30 / WOTAN35

The WOTAN30 is an externally driven, medium-calibre automatic cannon with a rate of fire of 200rds/min. Easy to handle and highly reliable, the WOTAN30 can neutralize a wide variety of targets, making it the perfect choice for arming modern IFVs and other combat vehicles. The WOTAN35 is the latest member of the new WOTAN family and, due to its larger calibre, delivers longer range and deeper penetration than 30mm cannons. Source rheinmetall-defence.com

screenshot-www.rheinmetall-defence.com-2018.06.13-21-14-02KF 41 – rheinmetall-defence.com

The IFV can also be armed with an anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) launcher and a secondary remotely controlled weapon system mounted with a 7.62mm co-axial machine gun. The secondary weapon station is connected to the main optics.

Rafael Spike LR2 ATGMs

KF 41 – DTR Magazine

Spike-LR II is smarter, sharper and agiler than its predecessors, but is designed to operate from the same launchers used for Spike MR and LR, in dismounted configurations, on vehicles, weapon stations, marine platforms, and helicopters. It will also fit the new lightweight launcher developed by RAFAEL for aerial platforms, enabling light helicopters to defeat tanks, vehicles or bunkers from ten kilometers away. The new missile will be presented for the first time at the Paris Air Show in June.

6n2A view of the Spike LR II; it is fitted with an uncooled sensor and has an increased range of 5.5 km. (photo P. Valpolini)

Weighing 12.7 kg – 10% less than the legacy LR, Spike LR II provides major enhancements over the current LR variant -in lethality, range, and resolution. First and foremost, the new version enhances the Spike’s capability to defeat targets of all types – from main battle tanks with advanced, reactive and active protection, to fortified and evasive targets and those hidden in bunkers, buildings.

RAFAEL offers the missile with a choice of two warheads – an anti-tank missile optimized with an enhanced tandem warhead that increases armor penetration by 30 percent over the previous generation. Another advantage of the new missile is its ability to strike at higher impact angles – Spike LR II will be able to hit targets at up to 70 degrees, delivering more lethal top attack profile. According to RAFAEL, the SPIKE LR II is the only missiles known to have an inherent Counter-APS (CAPS) capability.

The second type is the multi-purpose version, provided with a different tandem warhead using multiple fusing presets designed to defeat light or fortified targets. The variable fusing enables the operator to set the fuse to penetrate a target or explode on impact. Designed to operate as a penetrating warhead, the missile’s warhead would breach a small hole through reinforced concrete, for the main charge to follow through.

The missile maintains the fiber-optic data link for man-in-the-loop control but the new missile can defeat those targets from an extended range of up to 5,500 meters. Source defense-update.com

KF 41 – Huang Yiminscreenshot--2018.05.22-05-42-45

Source rafael.co.il

RMG 7.62mm co-axial machine gun

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.08.28-22-15-42KF 41 – Shephard Media

The RMG7.62, which is currently under development, is a foreign-powered, largely 7.62 mm x 51 mm, weapon that is largely sealed against environmental influences. All components necessary for remote operation are located in or on the weapon. Benchmarks of the design are high reliability, system security and easy safe handling. Thanks to the integration of all remote control functions and the cradle, the RMG 7.62 can be quickly installed in a variety of platforms. With the RMG7.62 NATO standard ammunition can be fired with the MG3 standard links.


New is the remote-controlled pipe exchange device with three tubes in a bundle: Is a pipe shot hot, electrically the tube bundle is rotated and so the manual manual pipe replacement electrically, realized under protection and brought a cool tube in firing position in less than 5 seconds. Nanocoatings and high-performance materials ensure a long service life. The weapon is completely ITAR free. The cadence of the weapon can be set to up to 800 rounds per minute. Due to the large stock of ammunition on the weapon, the high cadence and the automatic running change, the RMG7.62 is suitable as an effector for weapon stations or as a coaxial MG for combat and armored infantry fighting vehicles. The weapon is created in cooperation with the Bundeswehr.  Source rheinmetall-defence.com

Observation and fire control

KF 41 – Rheinmetall YouTube

The turret houses two electro-optical (EO) sights including a stabilised electro-optical sensor system (SEOSS) panoramic sight with an integrated laser rangefinder and fire control system (FCS), and an SEOSS sector sight aligned with the main armament.

Seoss – Stabilized Electro-optical Sighting System

Seoss enables accurate engagement of targets while on the move, both day and night and under conditions of limited visibility. Perfect for high-end combat vehicles, Seoss stabilized electro-optical sensor system is a compact digital fire control unit. Featuring dual-axis stabilization, the Seoss can be mounted without difficulty to any suitable surface on the vehicle. It is equipped with a Saphir® thermal imaging device, a daytime camera and an eye-safe laser rangefinder. All the data necessary for evaluating the situation appear on a display conveniently located in the interior of the vehicle. Apart from the target, these include the system status, range and type of ammunition.

Main features

  • Primary stabilized
  • 2-axis stabilized sensor head with: Thermal imager 3rd generation, high resolution daylight CCD camera (optional), eyesafe laser range finder, integrated fire control and stabilization electronics
  • Detection, recognition, identification and engagement of moving and stationary targets also on the move
  • Interface to battle management system (optional)
  • Very compact design and low weight
  • Easy integration without extensive turret modification (no turret penetration)
  • High degree of logistic communality between the versions (sector or panoramic)
  • Available as Seoss-sector, Seoss-panoramic and Seoss-MOUT

Product variants

  • Seoss-sector
  • Seoss-panoramic
  • Seoss-MOUT

Source rheinmetall-defence.com

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.09.05-17-05-18KF 41 – Rheinmetall YouTube

Each EO sight can be operated by both the commander and the gunner; one of them ensures all-round visibility irrespective of the turret motion. The turret can be integrated with a situational awareness system (SAS), an additional commander’s sight, a laser warning system (LWS), an independent weapons station, an acoustic shot locator system and C4I systems.

The fully digital fire control system of LANCE ensures a high-precision rate of fire of 200 rounds a minute.

Self-protection of Lynx IFV

The modular design of Lynx IFV integrates ballistic armour, which protects the crew from anti-tank weapons, medium-calibre ammunition, shrapnel and shell splinters, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and bomblets.


The interior of the vehicle also incorporates a spall liner for additional protection against potential threats. The vehicle is also offered with mine and IED protection packages and decoupled seats for add-on protection.

The vehicle is optionally equipped with hard kill active defence system (ADS) for 360° passive protection against a wide range of attacks. The Rheinmetall SolarΣShield mobile camouflage system aboard the vehicle further reduces heat loading, as well as infrared, visual and radar signatures.

KF 41 – rheinmetall-defence.com

Lynx IFV diesel engine

The Lynx IFV is powered by a new generation COTS diesel engine, which develops a power output of 560kW (750hp) for the KF 31 and 800kW (1,050hp) for the KF 41 variant. The engine is coupled to a fully-automatic transmission system.

Liebherr diesel engine D9512 (KF 31)

The Liebherr diesel engine D9512 with 12 cylinders in V-arrangement and a displacement of 24,2 liters has a maximum power of 750kW at 1,900 revolutions. The engine features for regulated and unregulated markets identical performances, the same requirements for the machine‘s cooling system, and the same interfaces when installed. This enables the customer to use the same device design for different emission standards.

Configuration V-engine
Number of cylinders 12
Flywheel housing SAE 0 / SAE 1
Bore 128 mm
Stroke 157 mm
Displacement 24.2 l
Power rating 565 – 750 kW
Rated speed 1,500 – 1,900 rpm
Max. torque 4,675 Nm
Dimensions (L/W/H) 1,856 / 1,236 / 1,314 mm
Dry weight 2,050 kg
Auxiliary outputs (PTO) 2
Emission standards EU Stage V / EPA Tier 4f / IMO III / EPA Tier 0 (Fuel consumption optimised)

Source liebherr.com

The KF 31 engine was mated to an Allison automatic transmission.

screenshot-www.rheinmetall-defence.com-2018.06.13-21-14-26KF 41 – rheinmetall-defence.com

Liebherr diesel engine D9612 (KF 41)

The Liebherr diesel engine D9612 with 12 cylinders in V-arrangement and a displacement of 27 liters has a maximum power of 1,100 kW at 1,800 revolutions. The engine features for regulated and unregulated markets identical performances, the same requirements for the machine‘s cooling system, and the same interfaces when installed. This enables the customer to use the same device design for different emission standards.

Configuration V-engine
Number of cylinders 12
Bore 135 mm
Stroke 157 mm
Displacement 27.0 l
Power rating 650 – 1,100 kW
Rated speed 1,500 – 1,900 rpm
Max. torque 6,230 Nm
Dimensions (L/W/H) 1,839 / 1,262 / 1,338 mm
Dry weight 2,350 kg

Source liebherr.com

Renk HSWL 256 automatic 6-speed transmission (KF 41)

RENK’s transmissions of the HSWL 256 type represent the state of the art, and have been selected for use in the highly sophisticated PUMA infantry fighting vehicle used by the German Bundeswehr and for the British Army’s Ajax family. The HSWL 256 transmission is based on RENK’s extensive expertise as well as knowledge gained thanks to the ongoing consideration of practical experience. The HSWL 256 transmission combines a compact design with weight-optimized individual parts, guaranteeing both a long service life as well as the capability to safely move, steer and brake vehicles over a large weight range. This transmission has an outstanding track record for use in medium-weight vehicles.

Source renk-ag.com

Lynx IFV vehicle mobility

KF 41 – Rheinmetall YouTube

The forward hull integrates final drives, whereas the rear houses the idler sprockets with track tensioners. The running gear constitutes six road wheels per side, on either rubber or light metal tracks. The vehicle has a maximum speed of 70km/h.

The Lynx IFV can negotiate gradients of up to 60° and lateral slopes of 30°. It has the ability to cross ditches up to 2.5m-wide, ford water streams of up to 1.5m-deep and climb 1m-high vertical obstacles.



Source dtrmagazine.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main material source army-technology.com

Featured post

F-21 Kfir/Kfir Block 60 Fighter Jet

The F-21 Kfir fighter jet is a single-seat multitask fighter built by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI). The fighter craft was first built for Israeli Air Force (IAF). The first Kfir was delivered to the IAF in 1975, it entered into service in 1976.

The Kfir was sold to various countries and around 27 have been leased to the US Navy and Marine Corps.

Ecuador Air Force

Kfir jets are in service with air forces of Sri Lanka, Ecuador and Colombia. They are also being used as aggressor aircraft, with no weapons, by the US Navy, for providing dissimilar air combat training.

A civilian firm Airborne Tactical Advantage Company (ATAC) has been using Kfir jets to provide airborne tactical training, threat simulation and R&D to its trainers.

Airborne Tactical Advantage Company (ATAC) – richard-seaman.com

Textron Airborne Solutions to provide combat training for US military forces: Here

F-21 Kfir mission variants

Failure of Mirage V’s power plant, the French Atar 9 engine, led to the development of Kfir jets. IAI built 100 Kfirs including the first series Kfir C1, multirole fighter Kfir C2, single-seat version Kfir C7 and double-seated TC2 Kfir models. These models began operations on 9 November 1977 during attack on Tel Azia, a terrorist training base in Lebanon, and came back with success.

The Kfir TC2 is an advanced version of Kfir C2, specifically designed as a training variant. The Kfir C2 has two tandem pairs under the fuselage and two under each wing. TC2 is a two-seater jet with a longer and lower nose to enhance the pilot’s view. Similarly, Kfir TC7 is the advanced version of Kfir C7, designed as two-seat training variant.

The nose of the Kfir C.2 was also redesigned to allow for the placement of a new set of modern Israeli avionics, including the Elta EL/M 2001 or 2001B Pulse-doppler ranging radar, the Rafael MAHAT or IAI WDNS-141 weapon-delivery systems, twin computer flight control systems, multimode navigation systems, and a HUD.

At the beginning of 1981, IAI presented the Kfir TC.2 two-seat variant, which, while retaining full attack capabilities, served as a conversion trainer and Electronic warfare system. The TC.2 is easily recognized by its extended nose, housing all the avionics displaced by the second seat, and noticeably drooped to improve cockpit visibility. By 1983, when production was shifted to a new version, a total of 185 Kfir C.2s and TC.2s had been built.

In addition, Kfir C10, also known as Kfir CE and Kfir 2000, varies from other fighter aircraft as it contains Elta EL/M-2032 radar, HMD capability and two 127mm×177mm mutifunction displays. The Kfir TC10 designed for the Colombian Air force is an improved version of TC7, while Kfir C12 is also called as C-10 without the Elta EL/M-2032 radar.

IAI manufactured the Kfir F-21 fighter jets specifically to meet the requirements of the US Navy and the US Air Force training programmes.

The single-seat fighter jet Kfir C7 had an updated cockpit, latest avionics, inflight refuelling capabilities and smart bomb integration.



  • Kfir C.1: Basic production variant.
  • F-21A Kfir: 25 upgraded Kfir C.1 aircraft were leased to the USN and USMC for an aggressor role and were designated F-21A. These aircraft had been modified and included canards on the air intakes. These canards greatly improved the aircraft maneuverability and slow speed control, and were adopted on later variants.
  • Kfir C.2: An improved C.1 that featured a lot of aerodynamic improvements. Changes included “dogtoothed” leading edges on the wings, small strakes under the nose and a larger sweep angle of the canards.
  • Kfir TC.2: A two-seat training variant developed from the C.2. It has a longer and lowered nose to improve the pilot’s view.
  • Kfir C.7: Vastly modified variant. Most if not all C.2 aircraft were modified to this variant. It included an improved J79-GEJ1E engine that offered more 1,000 lbs of thrust at full afterburner (and as a result increasing the Maximum Take-off Weight by 3,395 lbs), 2 more hardpoints under the air intakes, better avionics such as the Elta EL/M-2021B radar, HOTAS configured cockpit and inflight refueling capability.
  • Kfir TC.7: A two-seat training variant developed from the C.7.
  • Kfir C.9: Proposal for Argentina powered by Atar 9K50. Cancelled. Later developed as South Africa’s Atlas Cheetah
  • Kfir C.10: A variant developed especially for export. The most important change is the adaptation of the Elta EL/M-2032 radar. Other changes include HMD capability and two 127×177mm MFDs. This variant is also known as Kfir CE ( Ecuadorean version ) and Kfir COA (Colombian version).
  • Kfir TC.10: Upgraded version of the TC.7 for the Colombian Air Force.
  • Kfir C.12: Upgraded version of the C.7 for the Colombian Air Force, a C-10 without the Elta EL/M-2032 radar.
  • Kfir Tzniut: Reconnaissance version of the C.2.
  • Kfir Block 60: Upgraded version of the C.10, The main feature of this variant is the use of AESA radar, proposed to the Bulgarian Air Force and Colombian Air Force. As of January 2014 Argentina is reported to be interested in a US$500m deal for eighteen Block 60 to replace its planned acquisition of second-hand Mirage F1M from Spain.

Source airplanemart.com

Elta EL/M-2032 AESA radar

The ELM-2032 is an advanced Multimode Airborne Fire Control Radar designed for multimission fighters, oriented for both air-to-air and strike missions. Modular hardware design, software control and flexible avionic interfaces ensure that the radar can be installed in fighter aircraft (such as F-16, F-5, Mirage, F-4, Mig 21, etc.) and can be customized to meet specific user requirements.


  • Pulse Doppler, all aspect, look-down shoot-down capabilities
  • TWT coherent transmitter
  • Ultra low sidelobe planar antenna
  • Two axes monopulse, guard channel
  • Programmable signal processor
  • Full software control
  • Most advanced architecture, technology and components
  • Adaptability and growth potential
    • MIL 1553B interface to avionic system
    • Modular hardware configuration
    • Spare memory space and computing power

Data iai.co.il

“The advanced pulse Doppler, multimode FCR can detect and track manoeuvring targets while employing advanced techniques to lock on the target in close combat engagements of up to 150km.

The radar provides very high resolution ground imagery using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology for smart weapons guidance in air-to-ground missions.

While in air-to-sea operation mode, the FCR offers long-range target detection and tracking, including target classification capabilities at a ranges of up to 300km.” Data airforce-technology.com

IAI Looks East To Sell Updated Kfirs

Offering a modernized version of its 1970s-era, delta-wing Kfir Mach 2+ fighter aircraft, IAI is looking toward the Asia-Pacific region for new prospects.

The company can still deliver up to 50 Kfirs, configured to the newest Block 60 standard, using airframes retired from IAF service in the 1990s, according to IAI sources. IAI recently unveiled upgrades, including the introduction of IAI/Elta EL/M 2052 active, electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, extending the fighter jets’ capabilities to conduct maritime strike missions and extended air defense, through the networked integration of on-board and off-board sensors. Source: Aviation Week Dated Feb, 2014

IAI/Elta EL/M 2052 active, electronically scanned array (AESA) radar

NEW.jpgThe modular design weighs 130-180kg (286-397lb) and consumes 4-10kVA, depending on the design configuration, and has built-in growth potential, the company says.


The ELM-2052 is an advanced Fire Control Radar (FCR) designed for air-to-air superiority and strike missions, based on fully solid-state Active Ellectronically Scanning Array (AESA) technology, enabling the radar to achieve long detection ranges, high mission reliability and multi-target tracking capabilities.

The ELM-2052 radar provides simultaneous modes of operation supporting multi-mission capabilities for air-to-air, air-to-ground and air-to-sea operation modes, and weapon deployment.

In the air-to-air mode, the radar delivers very long-range multi target detection and enables several simultaneous weapon deliveries in combat engagements.

In air-to-ground missions, the radar provides very high resolution SAR mapping, surface moving target detection and tracking over RBM and SAR maps in addition to A/G ranging.

In air-to-sea missions the radar provides long-range target detection and tracking, including target classification capabilities (RS, ISAR).

The ELM-2052 radar design reflects ELTA’s vast field-proven radar experience and operational feedback received from Israeli Air Force fighter pilots.


  • Solid-state, active phased array technology
  • Pulse Doppler, all aspect, shoot down capabilities
  • Simultaneous multi-target tracking and engaging
  • Simultaneous multi-mode operation
  • High ECM immunity
  • Ultra-low side-lobe antenna
  • Sigma, two axis monopulse and guard channels
  • Flexible interfaces and growth potential:
    – Modular hardware and software
    – Spare memory and computing power
  • High mission reliability (built with redundancy)

Operational Modes


  • TWS/Multi-target detection and tracking
  • Multi-target ACM
  • High resolution raid assessment


  • High resolution mapping (SAR Mode)
  • AGR – Air-to-Ground Ranging
  • RBM – Real Beam Map
  • DBS – Doppler Beam Sharpening
  • GMTI on RBM, SAR
  • GMTT on RBM, SAR
  • Beacon
  • Weather


  • Sea search and multi-target tracking
  • RS and ISAR classification modes

Source iai.co.il


At 40 Years of age, Kfir Turns into a “Networked Fighter”

The Kfir Block 60 offers a robust and versatile Mach 2+ multi-role jet fighter, carrying 5.5 tons payloads on nine hard-points under the wings and fuselage. The weaponry is enhanced to include Python 5 and Derby. Kfir Block 60 has also completed the integration of RAFAEL Spice autonomous guided weapon, (second platform offering that capability, after the F-16). Conforming to NATO standards, Kfir Block 60 supports Link-16 datalink protocol. The aircraft has combat radius of 1,000 km (540 nm) unrefueled. With refueling the aircraft can fly to a range of 1,100 nm.

Melamed claims Lahav can deliver the first Kfir Block 60 within 12 months after receiving the an order, at roughly a third of the cost of other fighter jets with similar capabilities. This assessment is based on the experience IAI Lahav has gained processing over 2500 aircraft, upgrading earlier Kfir, F-4E, F-16, A-4M, MiG-21, MiG-27, MiG-29 and Su-22. “At times where air forces are seeking cost savings, without degrading operational capabilities, the upgraded Kfir has demonstrated superior performance and reliability in operational use and combat exercises.” Melamed concludes.  Source defense-update.com

Argentina and Israel Resume Kfir Block 60 Talks

After the breaking off of talks between Argentina and Israel over the sale of 14 Kfir Block 60 fighters, both parties are to resume negotiations . The deal had initially been called off in October, just before contracts were to be signed, as a result of elections in Argentina. The fighters had been previously used by the Israeli Air Force, but have been upgraded with the latest systems, including the Elta 2032 active electronically scanned array radar. They will also have an open architecture to allow the Argentinian air force to install other systems.

F-21 orders and production

Mar 11, 2016 00:20 UTC by Defense Industry Daily staff – The Colombian Air Force awarded a multiyear contract worth $150m to IAI in late 2007 to upgrade its old jets and deliver additonal jets.

The contracts included upgrading existing Colombian Air Force Kfir jets with the latest technologies as well as supplying additonal jets. The Kfirs are manufactured at the Lahav division of the Military Aircraft Group in Israel.


Products manufactured by the Lahav division include avionics, combat helicopters and trainers, man-machine interface and cockpit design, aeronautical engineering tasks and assembling of weapon systems in fighter aircraft.

The IAI delivered the first batch of upgraded Kfir fighter jets to the Colombian Air Force on 22 June 2009.

Operators: Here



Dassult Falcon designed the Kfir by replacing Mirage V’s French Atar 9 engine with General Electric’s J79 jet engine. The J79 provides more thrust by consuming less fuel. Dassault also altered the engine configuration and enlarged the fuel intake capacity. Kfir is, thus, said to be the advanced version of Mirage V.

Kfir C2 was also developed from French Mirage V, driven with J79-J1E turbojet engine, which provides a maximum range of around 775km and travels with a maximum speed of Mach 2.3. It carries 6,085kg of disposable cargo on nine hardpoints.


Image credit: The Aviationist’s Tony Lovelock

To improve the efficiency of Mirage III aircraft, the advanced avionics situated behind the cockpit were removed to increase the fuel capacity of the aircraft while reducing maintenance costs.


Kfir engines

IAI initially chose two engine plants, the General Electric J79-GE-17 jet engine and the Rolls-Royce Spey turbofan for manufacturing the Kfir fighter, but later produced Kfirs with just the J79-GE-17 jet engine. The first J79-GE-17 jet engine was manufactured by GE Aviation in New York in 1955. More than 2,500 engines are in service, and are due to continue to be so through to 2020. Kfir’s General Electric J79 engine is protected by a titanium heat shield.

General Electric J79-GE-17 jet engine

IAl Bedek-built General Electric J-79-J1E turbojet
Type: Afterburning turbojet engine
Length: 17.4 ft (5.3 m)
Diameter: 3.2 ft (1.0 m)
Dry weight: 3,850 lb (1,750 kg)
Compressor: 17-stage axial with variable stator vanes
Combustors: Cannular
Turbine: 3-stage axial
Maximum Takeoff Thrust with Afterburner: 17,835 lbf (79.3 kN)
Military Power Rating: 11,905 lbf (52.9 kN)
Overall pressure ratio: 13.5:1
Turbine inlet temperature: 1,210 蚌 (655 蚓)
Specific fuel consumption with afterburner: 1.965 lb/(h損bf) (200 kg/(h搔N))
Specific fuel consumption at military thrust: 0.85 lb/(h損bf) (87 kg/(h搔N))
Thrust-to-weight ratio: 4.6:1 (45.4 N/kg)

Source qsl.net

Weapon systems

Kfir jets use guns, 13,415lb (6,085kg) of mixed ordinances, 30mm cannons, missiles, bombs and rockets. It uses air-to-air missiles such as Python 3, Python 4, Python 5, Alto, Derby, and air-to-surface missiles such as Gabriel and NT-Dandy.

DEFA cannon 30mm cannon

Weight 85 kg (187 lb)
Length 1.66 m (5 ft 5 in)
Shell 30 (1.18 inch) × 113 mm
Calibre 30 mm NATO
Action five-chamber revolver
Rate of fire 1,300 rpm
Muzzle velocity 815 m/s (2,670 ft/s)

Mk 82 500 lbs bombs

MK82.jpg3c58216c-52e1-4dc6-ad6a-d0576b3cab1eOriginalMark 80 series bombs

Cluster bomb munitions

Rafael Python-3

PYTHON-3 is a third-generation short to medium range air-to-air missile adapted to the F-15, F-16, all types of Mirage, F-5, F-4 and Kfir C-2 and C-7 aircraft. The missile upgrades the capability of its carrier and gives it air superiority in modern air combat scenarios, such as:

  • Head-on interceptions
  • Beam interceptions
  • Dogfights involving high-g maneuvers
  • Low-altitude interceptions of helicopters and light aircraft
  • Self-defense air combat during penetration missions.


  • All-aspect capability, including head-on interception
  • Effective against most evasive tactics
  • Capable of intercepting low-signature and low-altitude threats
  • 15 km maximum effective range at high altitude
  • Active proximity fuze, based on lead bias navigation system
  • Highly efficient warhead
  • Versatile target acquisition modes, including slaving to advanced radar system
  • Reliability greater than 95%
  • Full ILS, including combat doctrine manual, training and ground support equipment

Data fas.org

Rafael Python-4


The Python-4 fourth generation A/A missile, in operational use in the Israeli Air Force , features a novel “no escape volume” performance with a unique aerodynamic configuration for superior agility. The state-of-the-art, high performance seeker incorporates an advanced IRCM & background rejection capabilities. The missile includes a highly effective fragmentation warhead. Python 4 is a very nimble “fire and forget” missile with an improved maneuvering capability. It has an advanced homing head with a lateral “squint” capability which allows it to receive signals from the line of vision of the pilot who sees the enemy plane through a special (Elbit-developed) helmet. The missile receives these signals and hits the enemy plane without requiring the pilot to steer his aircraft at the enemy plane. The Python 4 can be launched at a range of over 15 km, its warhead is over 11 kg, and its electromagnetic proximity fuze is one of the best in the world.

Manufacturer Rafael Armament Development Authority
Date Deployed Mid 1980’s
Range 0.5 km to 15 km
Speed Mach 3.5
Propulsion One Rafael Armaments Development Authority double-base solid propellant rocket motor
Guidance IR homing
Warhead 24.25 lb ( 11 kg )
Launch Weight 264.6 lb ( 120 kg )
Length 9 ft, 10.1 in ( 3.00 m )
Diameter 6.3 in ( 160 mm )
Fin Span 2 ft, 9.9 in ( 0.86 m )

Data fas.org

Rafael Python-5

Developed by the Israeli firm RAFAEL, the Python 5 is an air-to-air guided missile which is launched from a fighter aircraft (Kfir, F-15, F-16, Sea Harrier, etc). The Python 5 is powered by a solid propellant rocket engine and is armed with an 11kg, detonation-proximity warhead. Traveling at Mach 4, this precise weapon has an operational range of 22 km. It is equipped with an electro-optical imaging infrared seeker (IIR or ImIR) which scans the target area for hostile aircraft, then locks-on to target in its final phase. The Python 5 is a fifth generation of air-to-air Python missiles. The missile allows the pilot to engage an enemy aircraft with a revolutionary full sphere launch capability. The Python-5 is the most accurate and reliable air-to-air missile in the Israeli Army’s inventory and one of the most advanced guided missile in the world.

Specifications of the Python 5

Type: air-to-air guided missile
Propulsion: solid fuel rocket engine
Range: 22 km
Speed: Mach 4
Warhead: 11 kg
Gudance system: IR + electro-optical imaging seeker, lock on after launch, with infrared counter-counter-measures
Length: 310 cm
Span: 64 cm
Diameter: 16 cm
Weight: 105 kg

Data historywarsweapons.com

Derby BVR Air-to-Air Missile


Derby (Alto) is a beyond visual range (BVR) air-to-air missile (AAM) developed by Israeli defence company Rafael Advanced Defense Systems to meet the combat needs of the armed forces.

The Derby AAM can be integrated onto a variety of fighter aircraft such as F-5, F-16 Fighting Falcon, Gripen E and Mirage and is capable of engaging aerial threats from short ranges and near-beyond visual range.

Derby’s variants include I-Derby and I-Derby ER (Extended Range). The upgraded I-Derby AAR missile is equipped with a software-defined active radar seeker and was unveiled at the Aero India 2015 exhibition held in Bengaluru, India.

The I-Derby ER advanced active radar missile was unveiled at the Paris Air Show 2015. It features a solid-state active radar seeker and a dual pulse rocket motor, which provides an operational range of up to 100km.

The missile can be launched from Sea Harrier jet fighter, F-16 (Block 52) Fighting Falcon, F-5E Tiger II, and IAI Kfir combat aircraft.

The weapon has a length of 362cm, a wing span of 64cm and a diameter of 16cm. It weighs 118kg and is armed with a 23kg warhead. The seeker and guidance system are fitted in the front of the missile, while the rocket motor is placed at the rear.

The missile can operate in lock-on before launch (LOBL) and lock-on after launch (LOAL) modes. In LOAL mode of operation, it receives target information after being deployed from its launch platform, while in LOBL mode, which is enabled in tight dogfights, the seeker is locked onto the target before the missile is launched.

The active radar seeker provides guidance and improved target accuracy at radio frequency (RF). The radar’s look-down / shoot-down capability enables the missile to attack targets below and along the line of the horizon.

Derby’s high-explosive fragmentation (HE-FRAG) warhead defeats non-armoured targets and light material targets.

The weapon features fire-and-forget engagement capability and can be optionally fitted with advanced, programmable electronic counter countermeasures (ECCM) for operation in hostile environments. Data airforce-technology.com


In addition, surface-to-surface and surface-to-air missiles such as Gil ATGM, MapatzATGM, Spike ATGM and Barak, Barak NG, Barak 8, SPYDER are also used.

BLU-107 Matra Durandal

 The Durandal is a penetration bomb of French origin. It was developed in the early 1970’s at the request of the French air force. It is specifically developed for use against runways. The design is based on an earlier French-Israeli development which proved very successful during the 1967 Six Day War. The Durandal is named after a mythical medieval sword.

The Durandal is capable of penetrating 38 cm of concrete before the warhead explodes. The limited size 15 kg warhead does much more damage than a much heavier conventional bomb would achieve. The Durandal results in a crater 2 meters deep and 5 meters wide. Around the crater the tarmac is dislodged resulting in a damage area of 150 to 275 squared meters depending on runway thickness.

The Duranal can be carried by a wide variety of aircraft, most of which are of French origin. The list includes the Jaguar, Mirage 3, Mirage 5, Mirage F1, Mirage 2000, Super Etendard, Hawk, Alpha Jet, A-4 Skyhawk, F-5 Tiger, F-4 Phantom, F-16 Fighting Falcon and F-111 Aardvark. All aircraft can carry multiple Durandals due to its limited weight. On some externals stores mounts two durandals can be fitted behind each other.

Type Penetration bomb
Diameter 0.223 m
Wingspan 0.42 m
Length 2.49 m
Weight 185 kg
Warhead 15 kg HE
Guidance None, free fall
Launch envelope Up to Mach 1.8 at 10 km
Remarks 356 mm lug spacing

Source weaponsystems.net


An integrated electronic warfare self protection, EL/L-8262 enables the figther jets to defend against surface-to-air and air-to-air weapon systems.

ELL-8260/2 – INEW SPS

Main Objectives

  • Provides self-defense against Surface-to-Air and Air-to-Air weapon systems.
  • Enhances the survivability of helicopter during operations in a hostile, multi-spectral weapon systems environment.

Main Advantages

  • Autonomous multi-spectral threat environment analysis and identification by integration and fusion RWR, LWR and MAWS data .
  • Effectively timed Chaff and Flare dispensing.
  • Threats may be quickly and easily updated or added, using PC-based equipment and a user-friendly Human-Machine Interface (HMI).
  • Flight line re-programmable.
  • Full integration with other on-board avionics via 1553 MUXBUS interface.
  • Low maintenance turn-around time through extensive BIT diagnostics and modular architecture.

Source iai.co.il


The aircraft Kfir C7, which has two extra hard points, uses smart weapons, Elta EL/M-2021B pulse-Dopplar radar, a revised cockpit with most state-of-art electronics and HOTAS (hands-on throttle and stick) controls and provision for in-flight refuelling.

F-21 performance

Kfir can fly at an altitude of 30,000m with a maximum speed of 2,285km/h over a range of 1,300km. The advanced aircraft has the capacity to carry 7,290kg air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles, bombs and munitions on two hardpoints.The maximum take off weight is 14,600kg whereas combat radius and service ceiling are 768km and 18,000m.



The IAI F-21 Kfir is a single-engine single-seat fighter and fighter bomber aircraft produced by the Israeli manufacturer Israel Aircraft Industries. The Kfir was/is operated by the Israeli Air Force (Heyl Ha’Avir), the US Navy and US Marine Corps, the Colombian Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Colombiana), the Ecuadorian Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Ecuatoriana) and the Sri Lanka Air Force.

The F-21 Kfir is a development of the IAI Nesher, a variant of the Dassault Mirage 5.

Crew 1
Propulsion Turbofan Engine
Engine Model General Electric J79-J1E
Engine Power
dry/with Afterburner
52,9 / 83,4 kN 11900 / 18750 lbf
Speed 2445 km/h 1320 kts
1519 mph
Service Ceiling 17.678 m 58.000 ft
Range 770 km 416 NM
479 mi.
Empty Weight 7.285 kg 16.061 lbs
max. Takeoff Weight 16.200 kg 35.715 lbs
Wing Span 8,22 m 26 ft 12 in
Wing Area 34,8 m² 375 ft²
Length 15,65 m 51 ft 4 in
Height 4,55 m 14 ft 11 in
First Flight 06/1973
Production Status out of production
Total Production 212
Developed from Dassault Mirage 5 (IAI Nehser)
Data for (Version) IAI Kfir C.2
Variants Kfir C.1, F-21A Kfir, Kfir C.2, Kfir TC.2, Kfir C.7, Kfir TC.7, Kfir C.10, Kfir TC.10, Kfir C.12, Kfir Tzniut

Technical data flugzeuginfo.net

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Revised Dec 15, 2017

PPA Class Multi-purpose Offshore Patrol Vessels

A class of seven multi-role offshore patrol vessels (Pattugliatori Polivalenti d’Altura (PPA)) on order for the Italian Navy will be delivered by 2026. Italian shipbuilding company Fincantieri is the prime contractor for the PPA-class.

Construction on the first patrol vessel began in February 2017. The ships are intended to perform a number of duties in Italy’s territorial waters. Their mission capabilities include patrolling, surface combat, anti-piracy, monitoring, protection and control of maritime zones, and rescue of personnel in distress.



Left to right: Alberto Maestrini, Fincantiari General Manager; Adm Valter Girardelli, Chief of IT Navy; Domenico Rossi, IT Deputy Secretary of Defence; Adm Matteo Bisceglia, IT Naval Armament Director; Marco Tomassetti, OCCAR-EA PPA Programme Manager; Stefano Orlando, Shipyard Director

The First Steel Cutting ceremony for the Multipurpose Patrol Ship (Pattugliatore Polivalente d’Altura – PPA) took place in FINCANTIERI’s shipyard, in La Spezia, on 13 February 2017. The event represents the beginning of production of the first of seven PPA ships, and was honoured by the presence of the Italian Deputy Secretary of Defence, On. Domenico Rossi and the Chief of the Italian Navy, Admiral Valter Girardelli.

The OCCAR PPA Programme includes design, development and construction of 10 ships (7 + 3 optional), together with Temporary Support for ten years. The first ship will be delivered in 2021.

This new class of vessel is designed to operate in multiple scenarios, ranging from traditional military tasks to humanitarian support operations and disaster relief assistance, benefiting from an extensive use of the modularity concept (i.e. modular hospital, electrical power/drinkable water ashore and containers).

The ship presents many innovative features in both platform and combat system areas such as an advanced propulsion system and a piercing bow to enable a speed higher than 31 Kts, great flexibility due to the presence of modular areas and the integration of a cockpit which gathers bridge and Combat Information Center functions by using technologies and ergonomics, typically used in the aeronautical field. Source occar.int



The keel-laying ceremony of the first PPA was held at Fincantieri’s Muggiano shipyard in May 2017.

The first PPA will be delivered in 2021, and deliveries of the remaining vessels are scheduled to take place between 2022 and 2026.

PPA-class procurement details

The procurement of the PPA-class offshore patrol vessels is part of Italian Navy’s fleet renewal plan, which is aimed at replacing the ageing fleet of patrol boats, corvettes and frigates.

In May 2015, the Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation (OCCAR) awarded a €3.5bn ($3.89bn) multi-year contract to a consortium of Fincantieri and Finmeccanica (now Leonardo) for the construction of six PPAs, with an option for additional four units and one logistic support ship (LSS).


The contract also requires Fincantieri to provide integrated and in-service logistics support for the vessels for a period of ten years. A contract option was executed for the seventh vessel in November 2015, increasing the total contract value to approximately €5.4bn ($5.74bn).

The ships are being built at Fincantieri’s integrated naval shipyards at Riva Trigoso and Muggiano, Italy.

Design and features of Italy’s future offshore patrol vessels

Each offshore patrol vessel will be able to carry up to 171 crew members. The overall length is approximately 143m, while the length between perpendiculars is 133m. The depth and beams of the vessel are 10.5m and 16.5m respectively.


by gaston18

An 11m-long rigid hull inflatable boat (RHIB) will be carried in the middle of the ship for patrol and transportation missions. Launch and recovery of the RHIB will be performed either by the lateral cranes located beside the RHIB or through a hauling ramp located at the rear. The vessel’s bridge is placed amidships.

A hangar located at the aft of the vessel will hold up to two NH90 or one EH101 medium-lift utility helicopter. A flight deck, which is placed next to the hangar near the stern of the ship, is intended to support the operations of one NH90 or one EH101 helicopter.

Armament of the PPA-class vessels

The PPA-class offshore patrol vessels will be armed with OTO Melara 127/64 LW high-calibre Vulcano gun system (main armament) and OTO Melara 76/62 medium-calibre gun mounts for defence against surface, airborne, maritime, and asymmetric targets.

127 mm – Vulcano


The 127/64 LW – VULCANO System consists of four key sub-systems:

  • the large caliber 127/64 LW Gun assembly,
  • the Automated Ammunition Handling System,
  • the Naval Fire Control Support and
  • the VULCANO  family  of ammunition.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO is a state of art medium caliber gun suitable for installation on large and medium size ships and intended for surface fire and naval gunfire support as main role and anti-aircraft fire as secondary role. The compactness of the gun feeding system makes possible the installation on narrow section crafts.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO is equipped with a modular feeding magazine, composed by 4 drums with 14 ready to fire ammunition each, reloadable during firing, and highly flexible in terms of selection of ammunition, independently from their position in the drums. Ammunition flow is reversible as rounds can be downloaded automatically.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO can fire all standard 127mm / 5 inches ammunition as well as the new VULCANO  family of ammunition.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO has digital / analogical interface and ballistic calculation capabilities that allow a smooth integration with any Combat Management System.

The Automatic Ammunition Handling System is a modular solution adaptable to any ship ammunition magazine layout; it is able to load the feeding magazine of the gun without man assistance during operation to allow a sustained firing action of the gun. The system is able to handle both standard 127mm /5-inches ammunition and new VULCANO family of ammunition.

The Naval Fire Control Support is a mission planning system that may support the Combat Management System for definition of possible firing solutions, ammunition selection, trajectory definition, best ship course identification.

The 127mm VULCANO ammunition family, is composed by Ballistic Extended Range (BER) and Guided Long Range (GLR) ammunition with different multifunctional fuses, sensor and final guidance that extend the range of the gun up to 100km.

Source leonardocompany.com

Medium Caliber Gun – 76 mm SP – Davide?


Two 25mm remotely controlled small-calibre gun systems will be used for close-range combat operations, anti-smuggling and maritime interdiction. MBDA’s anti-ballistic missile system will be fitted to further increase the vessel’s anti-ship defence capability.


The MARLIN – WS  is an advanced system developed to meet the emerging requirements of modern naval warfare at best level of effectiveness and suitable either as main armament for small size vessels or as secondary armament for larger ship, with no deck penetration and simple installation.

The MARLIN – WS is a highly accurate and reliable multi-role system, particularly effective in the simultaneous engagement of multiple targets such as swarms of Fast Inshore Attack Crafts.

The MARLIN – WS can be fitted with either a 25mm or 30mm cannon and it is modular as to be configured according to an wide range of customers’ requirements.

The modular architecture offers an extensive combination of characteristics. Optical sensor suite with day and night vision and laser range finder can be mounted coaxially to or independent from the line of fire or not installed at all.

The excellent performance provided by the fast and accurate servo systems, are also ensured working either as a stand-alone system with own Remote Control Console or linked to the ship’s Combat Management System. The latest generation of built-in digital architecture provides a straightforward interface for being simply slaved to the ship’s Fire Control System or being fully integrated into the CMS through LAN technology with Fire Control System and video tracking capabilities residing within the weapon.

Source leonardocompany.com

The multi-role vessels will use a heavy-weight torpedo system to detonate under-water targets.

Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) capability 

“The PPA Full version will be able to embark and use the Aster 30 Block 1NT that is the anti-ballistic missile with the support of the radar system of the future LHD in terms of early warning detection” said Captain Esposito.

The long range detection of ballistic missiles will be realized with the L-band AESA radar based on gallium nitride (GaN) technology which allows the radar to have better performance in terms of range. The missile tracking capability will be provided by the C-band element of the new dual-band radar developed especially by Leonardo for the PPA.

An MBDA Italy representative explained that PPA Full will be able to detect and engage ballistic missiles on their own or in cooperation with other early warning sources via Link 16. He added that PPA Light+ variant could potentially have that BMD capability but the first real BMD capable ship for the Italian Navy will be the first PPA Full variant to be delivered in 2024. Source navyrecognition.com

Aster 30 Block 1 NT missile



The Aster 30 Block 1 NT missile evolution consists in a new seeker operating in Ka band, replacing the current Ku band seeker, as well as a new improved weapon controller. This change delivers a significant performance enhancement.

The new missile will be capable of intercepting threats of the entry of the MRBM (Medium Range Ballistic Missiles) domain whereas the current Aster 30 Block 1 deals with SRBM (Short Range Ballistic Missiles) of up to 600 km range and it will also be capable of dealing with missiles with separable warheads. This new version of Aster will extend the antiballistic capability of the missile from a range of 600km up to 1,500km. On December 20, OCCAR (Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation) notified to EUROSAM, a consortium formed by MBDA and Thales, the amendment 1 of the contract for the “B1NT” programme. This amendment embodies the participation of Italy in the programme. It follows the notification of the initial contract under French mandate on December 23, 2015, and the Arrangement of Cooperation, signed in June 2016 by the French and Italian Defence Ministers, laying down the framework of responsibilities and rights of the two countries vis-a-vis the missile to be developed in cooperation, and its multiple applications in land and naval defence systems against air attacks and ballistic missiles. Source navyrecognition.com



Anti-Ship Missile System TESEO



Enhanced version of the all weather OTOMAT MK2 missile system, providing improved performance in terms of OTHT (Over The Horizon Targeting) and operations in complex naval scenarios.

Capable of ranges from 6 to 180 km in all directions, the system relies on powerful mission planning (3D way-points, terminal sea skimming profile, simultaneous attack from different directions).



Target data is derived from the ship’s Command System or taken directly from the ship’s surface search radar. Mission Planning allows the selection of different firing modes (such as Fire and Forget or midcourse guided) and of specific trajectories and evasive manoeuvres.

Cruise and approach phases may be either fully inertial or partially guided from the launch ship through a radio-link. Mid course re-vectoring from a co-operating ship or helicopter is also possible.



The excellent capabilities of the new missile (short reaction time, Fire and Forget, INS/GPS navigation, high target selection, ECCM and anti-CIWS manoeuvres, warhead lethality with no collateral damage) allow the system to operate effectively in littoral warfare environments, as well as in blue waters. The terminal attack phase is based upon an autonomous terminal guidance using an active homing head with improved target selection capabilities in complex scenarios. Source mbda-systems.com


Protection features

Passive protection for the vessel will be provided by OTO Melara Decoy Launching System (ODLS) remote-control launching system, which is effective against infrared seeker-equipped missiles and radars as well as anti-submarine warfare decoys.

Decoy Launching System (ODLS)


The Decoy Launching System (ODLS) is a remote controlled system suitable for launching different types of multipurpose ammunition. Special versions can fire rockets of caliber other than 105-mm – 118-mm which represents the standard size. The ODLS is designed for accurate deployment of decoys, thus providing passive defence for a ship against radar and IR homing missiles and can also be employed in shore bombardment role.

The main characteristics of the ODLS are:

  • Capability  to simultaneously load different types of rockets (Chaff, IR, Illuminating);
  • Automatic  selection  of the type of rocket to be fired;
  • Continuous  engagement  action thanks to rapid reloading of launching units;
  • Complete automatic  control by the ship s EWS;
  • Safe operation  under all operational conditions;
  • No deck penetration.

Source leonardocompany.com

Elettronica’s electronic warfare system will be used to provide self-protection for the ship.

Navigation and communications


The vessel’s navigation and combat system operations will be performed by the crew members from the bridge using a combat management system, which integrates weapons, sensors and other units aboard the ship.


A number of sensors will be installed to ensure safe operation of the boat at sea. They include next-generation identification friend and foe (IFF) sensor with a circular antenna, infrared sensor, diver detection sonar, active towed array sonar system, NA30S MK2 weapon control system based on a multi-sensor fire control radar (X and Ka), LPI SPS732 air and ground surveillance radar, and KRONOS dual-band 3D multi-function active electronically-scanned array (AESA) radar with four C- and X-dual band radars.

NA30S MK2 weapon control system

NA-30S MK2 is a new generation Weapon Control System designed to control modern guns (up to three) against conventional and asymmetric air/surface threats with a reduced reaction time.

NA-30S MK2 is based on a dual-band (X and Ka) naval tracking radar with a stealth antenna design which combines high tracking accuracies with improved range performance. Both X and Ka bands are processed in order to optimise tracking performance according to the targets.

X Band
For search and acquisition purposes, medium-to-long range detection and tracking, and reliable processing in adverse weather conditions.

Ka Band
For close in targets, low flying threats, need for increased accuracies, and DART ammunition guidance.

The Ka band, with its very narrow beam width, is optimally suited for measuring targets at low-elevation, without suffering from multi-path interference.

NA-30S MK2 provides gun control and ammunition guidance. The system can be provided with a dedicated multifunction console or can be controlled by any console within the Combat Management System (CMS).

The Weapon Control System automatically selects the optimum ammunition and firing patterns according to the tracked threats. A set of combined sensors (TVcamera, IR cameras and laser) can be mounted on the radar antenna to enable firing assessment and to provide either an alternative or redundant line-of-sight. Source leonardocompany.com

LPI SPS732 air and ground surveillance radar

SPS-732 is a compact X-band air/surface surveillance naval radar with fully coherent solid state technology and Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) capability. SPS-732 is built upon experience in designing and delivering naval surveillance radars to the most demanding Navies. It performs bi-dimensional surface and air target detection in all weather conditions and features track-while-scan with automatic track initialisation. Short reaction time combined with small target detection allow sea-skimmer threat detection and designation.

The solid state fully coherent 2D X-band air/surface surveillance SPS-732 family combines typical features of naval radars belonging to different class in one radar series.

The SPS-732 radar family offers superior performance for any ship class, including Landing
Craft, Offshore Patrol Vessels, Large Support Ships and Corvettes/Frigates. On board of medium/large-size vessels, the SPS-732 middle and highend version are a valuable, higher performance/price ratio alternative to 3D radars even against high threating targets like sea-skimming missiles in all sea and weather conditions. Source leonardocompany.com

KRONOS dual-band 3D multi-function AESA radar


Leonardo Company

KRONOS® Power Shield is an early warning AESA radar for Anti Tactical Ballistic Missile (ATBM) guidance and Air Breathing Threat (ABT) defence. It is designed for naval application and is able to operate in both a rotating and staring mode.

The AESA fixed panels are coordinated by the system manager to minimize electromagnetic interferences and to allow the most effective coverage of the entire 360° x 90° surveillance volume.


To each task is associated a specific radiated waveform, time of execution and frequency for each direction of the surveillance volume. Scheduling /Prioritization and Task Execution are key blocks of the system architecture:

Scheduling and Prioritization set the sequence of tasks to be executed by each panel. Task Execution manages the physical implementation of all microevents (e.g. transmit/receive modules programming, gate enabling, etc.) which make up the task itself.

All functions operate typically on a time scale of seconds, except Scheduling and Prioritization which operate on a msec time scale and Task Execution
which operates on a nsec base.

Source leonardocompany.com

Multiple non-rotating optical heads will be fitted on the four sides of the ship to provide 360° surveillance. Target detection and tracking will be performed by a static IRST (infrared search and track) system. A bathythermograph unit will be used for measuring the water temperature.


Leonardo Company

Communication for the boat will be provided by integrated communications systems including multi-band satellite systems, software-defined radios and long-range acoustic devices (LRAD).


Leonardo Company

PPA-class OPVs propulsion and performance

The PPA-class will be powered by a combined diesel and gas (CODAG) propulsion system consisting of two MTU 20V 8000 M91L engines, each developing 10,000kW of power, and one GE LM2500+G4 gas turbine with a capacity of 35,320kW.

2 x MTU 20V 8000 M91L engines


1 x GE LM2500+G4 gas turbine

LM2500+G4 is the fourth generation of the industry-leading LM2500. Main features are increased power (17%) compared to the third generation LM2500+, and the same high reliability, availability and the same high efficiency (lower SFC).

The LM2500+G4 system’s modular design provides for easy and timely repair and refurbishment, with its split compressor casing, in-place blade and vane replacement, in-place hot-section maintenance and external fuel nozzles. The LM2500+G4 is ideal for the Italian, French and Moroccan FREMM frigates and other military ships, and is available as a generator set.


Output 47,370 shp (35,320 kW)
SFC .352 lb/shp-hr (214 g/kW-hr)
Heat rate 6,469 Btu/shp-hr
8,675 Btu/kWs-hr
9,150 kJ/kWs-hr
Exhaust gas flow 205 lb/sec (93 kg/sec)
Exhaust gas temperature 1,020°F (549°C)
Power turbine speed 3600 rpm
Average performance, 60 Hertz, 59°F, sea level, 60% relative humidity, no inlet/exhaust losses

Source geaviation.com

The vessel will also feature four MAN 12V175D GenSets, each rated at 1,640kW, and two shafts, driving controllable-pitch propellers.

Driven by GE’s shock-proof MV3000 drives, the small gearbox-mounted electric motors will be installed to drive the ship at low speeds, while generating power for the onboard sensors and weapons.

The offshore patrol vessel can achieve a maximum speed of more than 32kt and a range of 5,000nm. The MTU diesel engines alone allow the vessel to sail at speeds of 24kt.



Contactors involved

Sensors and weapon systems for the PPA multi-role offshore patrol vessels will be supplied by MBDA, OTO Melara, Elettronica, and WASS.

Leonardo’s subsidiary Selex is responsible for providing combat management system for the vessels. The company will develop a bridge system in co-operation with Fincantieri. In addition, Selex will provide assistance for subsystems such as sensors and weapons.

GE’s Marine Solutions was selected to supply seven LM2500+G4 gas turbines in March 2016. The turbines will be developed by Avio Aero in Italy, while GE Power Conversion will produce drives.

Rolls-Royce won a contract in October 2016 to provide 14 MTU 20V 8000 M91L engines for seven PPA vessels, with deliveries scheduled to commence in 2017.



Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

BAE Systems Armoured Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV)

BAE Systems is developing a new armoured multi-purpose vehicle (AMPV) to replace the existing M113 family of vehicles that have been in service with the US Army since 1960.

BAE Systems secured a contract from the US Army for the engineering, manufacturing and development (EMD) and low-rate initial production (LRIP) of the vehicles in December 2014.

Under the LRIP contract, BAE is responsible for the development of 29 AMPVs under the EMD phase and production of 289 vehicles in multiple configurations.

The first prototype in general configuration was presented to the armed forces in December 2016.

The vehicle combines mobility features with advanced technologies to enhance survivability of the occupants in the battlefield. The AMPVs are expected to be deployed by the Armoured Brigade Combat Team (ABCT).

BAE AMPV design and development details


BAE successfully concluded the critical design review (CDR) of the new AMPV in June 2016. The US Army took final delivery of the AMPVs built under the EMD phase in April 2018.

The vehicles will undergo strenuous testing in the next phase of development. The availability, maintainability, logistics and mission reliability of the vehicle will be tested during the phase. The vehicle will then enter the Milestone C review phase, followed by the LRIP phase in 2019.


British defense company BAE Systems on Tuesday said it had won additional funding up to $575 million from the US Army to begin production of its new armored vehicles that would replace the Vietnam War-era M113 fleet of personnel carriers.

The new vehicles, called the Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV), are “more survivable” with all-terrain mobility capabilities, BAE said.

Total funding for the initial production of the new vehicles, including previously awarded funds to support production planning, stands at $873 million, the defense contractor said. Source businessinsider.com

Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle. LRIP: Low Rate Initial Production. BCT: Brigade Combat Team. SOURCE: Army – Via breakingdefense.com

BAE AMPV is based on the design of Bradley infantry fighting vehicle (IFV). It retains the layout of Bradley IFV, but incorporates a one-man open-top turret. The driver’s compartment and engine are located at the forward hull, while the troop’s section is positioned at the rear.

The rear hull of the vehicle features a hydraulic ramp, which allows rapid entry and exit of troops. The general-purpose configuration measures 3.7m-wide and 3.1m-high, and offers a ground clearance of 0.4m. The gross weight of the vehicle is approximately 36,000kg.

BAE AMPV variants


Five variants are being produced as follows:

  • General Purpose. This is an armored personnel carrier designed to move troops and materiel.
  • Mortar Carrier. This vehicle provides fire support to mechanized units. A 120mm mortar will be carried.

Mortar Carrier – Maj. Carson Petry

  • Armored Ambulance. This variant provides armored emergency transport of casualties to rearward medical facilities.

Armored Ambulance – baesystems.com

  • Mobile Medical Clinic. Allows the forward positioning of medical services closer to the combat area.

Mobile Medical Clinic – baesystems.com

  • Mobile Command Vehicle. Providing commanders superior battlefield situational awareness and command and control capability when and where it is needed most.

Mobile Command Vehicle – baesystems.com

Source globalresearch.ca

The BAE AMPV can be customised into multiple configurations based on the mission requirements. It is being developed in five variants, namely general-purpose vehicle, medical evacuation vehicle, mission command vehicle, mortar carrier vehicle, and medical treatment vehicle.

A sixth variant of the vehicle will also be developed to replace the engineer variant of M113 vehicles at Echelons Above Brigade (EAB). The engineer vehicle variant will provide advanced combat capability to the combat engineers at EAB.

The general-purpose vehicle can be used for the transportation of troops, supplying equipment and goods to the forces and carrying casualties from the battlefield. The variant can carry a maximum of six personnel, including a driver, a commander and four infantry troops.


The medical evacuation variant of the AMPV was exhibited at the AUSA 2016. It can carry three crew, six ambulatory patients or four litter patients or three ambulatory and two litter patients during casualty evacuation (CASEVAC) operations.

Engineer version

Military News

Armament and self-protection features of BAE AMPV

The one-man open turret of the AMPV can be installed with a roof-mounted protected weapon station housing 7.62mm or 12.7mm machine guns, or a 40mm automatic grenade launcher.

12.7mm machine guns one-man open turret

12.7mm machine guns – Jane’s by IHS Markit

M230LF 30mm cannon and Javelin

Defense & Aerospace Report

M230LF 30mm cannon


The 30 mm M230LF is a more capable version of the 30 mm cannon featured on the Apache helicopter and is a member of the Chain Gun® family of externally powered, combat-reliable conventional automatic weapons. The gun is effective, lightweight and easy to maintain and has multi-role, multi-target system capability.

The M230LF boasts a DC drive motor with a firing rate of 200 Rounds Per Minute. Other features include an anti-hangfire system, an extended-length barrel for enhanced muzzle velocity and a     de-linking feeder that allows the use of linked ammunition. The M230LF is ideal for use on ground vehicles and patrol boats.

The gun has a reliability of 22,000 mean rounds between failure. It fires M789 HEDP, M788 TP and NATO standard 30 mm ADEN/DEFA ammunition.

The M230LF is a link-fed version of ATK’s 30mm Chain Gun used on the Apache helicopter. The weapon fires M788, M789 and NATO standard 30mm ADEN/DEFA ammunition. The M230LF is ideal for use on ground vehicles and patrol boats in turrets or remote weapon stations.

Physical Data:

  • Length: 85.87 in. (2181mm)
  • Width: 10.915 in. (277.2mm)
  • Height: 11.37 in. (288.8mm)
  • Receiver Weight: 76 lb (34.5 kg)
  • Feeder Weight: 39 lb (17.7 kg)
  • Barrel Weight: 45 lb (20.4 kg)
  • Total Weight: 160 lb (72.6 kg)
  • Recoil Ground Vehicle: 6,300 lb (38,022 N)
  • Recoil Naval: 1,650 lb (7,339 N)
  • Power Required: 1.0 horsepower
  • Clearing Method: Cook off safe, open bolt
  • Safety: Absolute hangfire protection
  • Case Ejection: Side

Performance Data:

  • Rate of Fire: Cyclic, 200 Rounds Per Minute
  • Feed System: Dual feed, integral to weapon
  • Reliability: 22,000 mean rounds between failure

Source defence.nioa.com.au


3d_molier International

The FGM-148 Javelin is a US-made man-portable fire-and-forget anti-tank missile. It was fielded to replace the M47 Dragon.

In the mid 1970s the US Army adopted the M47 Dragon anti-tank guided missile. It was a shoulder-fired weapon with a wire guidance. This anti-tank missile had a reliable design and very good performance. However by the late 1980s the M47 became out-dated. Its effective range was limited to 1 000 m. Also penetration power of the M47 was insufficient to defeat latest main battle tanks with heavy armor. So the US Army awarded a contract to develop a new anti-tank guided missile to replace the M47 Dragon.

Currently the FGM-148 Javelin is one of the most advanced man-portable anti-tank guide missile system in the world. It can destroyed any current main battle tank. It can also target low flying helicopters. Only some existing anti-tank missiles, such as Israeli Spike can compare with the Javelin. However a close copy of the Javelin, called the HJ-12, recently emerged in China. This Chinese missile has similar specifications and capabilities as the Javelin.

The missile locks on the target before launch. During flight it guides automatically. During that time the operator can detach an empty tube and from the CLU and attach another tube with missile. It takes about 15 seconds. Alternatively the crew can leave a firing position.

   There are two modes of attack: top attack and direct attack. The top-attack flight mode is used to engage tanks and other armored vehicles. After the launch the missile climbs upward and then dives towards the target. This method is very suitable to destroy main battle tanks, because most of them have only a minimum level of armor protection in the upper part of the turret. In direct attack mode the missile flies directly to the target. This mode is used to engage buildings, bunkers, weapon crews and concentrations of enemy troops. In the direct attack mode the Javelin can also engage low-flying helicopters.

   The missile is equipped with imaging infrared seeker. The missile has an 8.4 kg tandem shaped charge warhead. A precursor warhead detonates any explosive reactive armor and the primary warhead penetrates the base armor. The Javelin is capable of destroying any existing main battle tank in the world. Source military-today.com

The all-welded aluminium hull integrates enhanced underbody protection for increased survivability. Explosive reactive armour sheets fitted in front and either side of the hull offer protection against grenade launchers and guided ammunition.

Breaking Defense

Applique armour and spall liners on the crew compartment further enhance the protection level offered by the vehicle.


Breaking Defense

Breaking Defense

Breaking Defense

The crew and engine compartments feature an advanced automatic fire suppression system.

Engine and mobility

The BAE AMPV is powered by a Cummins diesel engine, which offers a maximum power output of 600hp. The fuel tanks are stationed at the rear of the vehicle.

The new armored vehicle has the same engine and transmission as the Bradley M2A3. It is powered by Cummins VTA-903T diesel engine, developing 600 hp. Vehicle has good cross-country mobility and can keep up with main battle tanks. Source military-today.com

Cummins VTA-903T diesel engine


The 90° V8-cylinder engine with a displacement of 14.8 litres and with outputs of 265 to 660 hp (198 to 492 kW). Since the engine was introduced evolutionary changes have included a larger camshaft, air-to-air after cooling and increased cylinder pressures allowing horsepowers to rise to the current 447 kW (600 bhp) and 491 kW (660 bhp) and the soon to be introduced twin-turbo 558 kW (750 bhp) rating.

Source army-guide.com

The vehicle is expected to attain a maximum speed of 61km/h and maximum range of 362km. The on-board suspension system ensures smooth mobility of the vehicle while traversing through rough terrains.


Main material source army-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Izumo-Class Helicopter Destroyer

Izumo-class, the largest surface combatant in Japan, was put into service with the Japanese Maritime Self Defence Force (JMSDF) in March 2015. The Izumo Class destroyer ships replace the Hyuga-class destroyers, which were commissioned in March 2008.

The vessels can be used for multiple purposes, including anti-submarine warfare, command-and-control operations, humanitarian aid and disaster relief operations, as well as to protect Japanese territories in the East China Sea.



Japan Marine United Corporation, which was created by the integration of two companies, Universal Shipbuilding and IHI Marine United, custom-built the two Izumo-class ships at the Yokohama shipyard. The construction of Izumo-class destroyer was conceptualised by the Japanese Ministry of Defense (MOD) in November 2009. JMOD received a budget of 118.1 billion yen for the fiscal 2010 for the construction of a helicopter destroyer.

Construction of the first ship in the class, JS Izumo (DDH-183), began in 2011 at Yokohama shipyard. Its keel was laid down in January 2012 and the vessel was launched in August 2013. It was commissioned at Yokosuka port in Japan in March 2015. Investment on the vessel amounted to approximately ¥120bn ($1.01bn).

Keel for the second ship in the class was laid down in October 2013, and its launch will take place in August 2015. Commissioning will take place by March 2017.



Source military-today.com


DDH-184 JS KAGA – BakanekoFilm

“multi-purpose operation destroyer”

Although a Japanese naval vessel may be retrofitted to carry fighter jets, the ruling parties will call the Izumo a “multi-purpose operation destroyer” to avoid criticism that use as an aircraft carrier would violate the pacifist Constitution.

Members of the ruling parties’ working team on revising the National Defense Program Guidelines, which the government expects to approve later this month, reached a consensus on what to call the Izumo-class destroyers during a meeting on Dec. 5.

The Abe administration has been considering retrofitting the Maritime Self-Defense Force’s Izumo into an effective aircraft carrier that can deploy U.S.-made F-35B stealth fighter jets, which can take off and land vertically.

However, an issue on how to maintain compatibility of the use with the war-renouncing Article 9 of the Constitution will likely remain a problem with the Izumo becoming a de facto offensive aircraft carrier, the first in the Japanese fleet.

The 248-meter-long vessel would be reliant on its complement of F-35Bs, resulting in exceeding the defensive nature as specified in the Constitution.

In the meeting, Defense Ministry officials explained the plan of thickening the decks of two Izumo-class destroyers, which carry helicopters, and making other adjustments so that F-35Bs can be launched from there, according to a source who attended the meeting. Source asahi.com


New defense guidelines and midterm buildup program

The following is the gist of the new National Defense Program Guidelines and the fiscal 2019-2023 midterm defense buildup program approved by the Cabinet on Tuesday. Japan:

  • will upgrade Izumo-class helicopter carriers so that they can transport and launch fighter jets.
  • will buy 18 F-35B fighter jets capable of short takeoffs and vertical landings.
  • will beef up defense in new domains of warfare such as cyber and outer space.
  • aims to build “multidimensional” defense capabilities for operations across various domains.
  • expresses “strong concern” over China’s military activities.
  • will install two land-based Aegis missile systems.
  • will spend over ¥27 trillion — a record — in the five-year period.

Source japantimes.co.jp


DDH-184 JS KAGA – BakanekoFilm

The island structure, including the platforms, with five levels, is about around 70m long. Like the Hyuga class, considerable attention has been paid to reducing signatures. The 243m flight deck allows for relatively unimpeded aircraft movement and is able to simultaneously operate five helicopters. Weapons, except for the forward CIWS on the starboard side of the flight deck, are mounted on hull sponsons or the island structure. Another notable difference from the Hyuga class is the aft 14m x 15m deck edge elevator on the starboard deck edge behind the island structure. The forward 20m x13m elevator remains on the centreline as on the Hyuga class. There are three small elevators for weapons and supplies, two forward, one aft. Source rina.org.uk

JS Izumo (DDH-183)


Japan’s cabinet has approved a major additional purchase of 105 F-35s to add to the 42 aircraft already on order. Significantly, the number includes 42 of the F-35B STOVL (short takeoff, vertical landing) version, which will operate from island bases along Japan’s western seaboard and two converted Izumo-class helicopter carriers. Japan also approved work to modify the vessels, Izumo and Kaga, to operate up to 10 F-35Bs each—including deck strengthening. The announcement confirms Japanese press reports that have been circulating since earlier in the year. Source thaimilitaryandasianregion.blogspot.com

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

Japan considers refitting helicopter carrier for stealth fighters: gov’t sources: Here


Japan is considering refitting the Izumo helicopter carrier so that it can land U.S. Marines F-35B stealth fighters, government sources said on Tuesday, as Tokyo faces China’s maritime expansion and North Korea’s missile and nuclear development.

Japan has not had fully fledged aircraft carriers since its World War Two defeat in 1945.

Design features of Izumo-class destroyer



The Izumo-class destroyer has a length of 248m, beam of 38m, draught of 7.5m and depth of 33.5m. Its displacement is 19,500t when empty and 27,000t when fully loaded. It can complement 970 crew and troops, and as many as nine helicopters including seven anti-submarine warfare (ASW) helicopters and two search and rescue (SAR) helicopters.



JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews


JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews


JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

Flight deck

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews


JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews


JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

The destroyer features a spacious flight deck that can accommodate five helicopters to take off and land simultaneously. It also includes roll-on and roll-off ramp, and interior space for up to 50 vehicles.

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

Sensors and processing systems fitted to the vessel include OYQ-12 combat direction system, FCS-3 fire control system, OPS-50 AESA radar, OPS-28 surface-search radar, and OQQ-23 bow sonar.

FCS-3 fire control system


DDH-184 JS KAGA – Kz arashi

FCS-3 is an integrated naval weapons system developed by the Japanese Defense Ministry for the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force.

This system is composed of weapon-direction and fire-control subsystem and multi-function radar subsystem. The multi-function radar subsystem adopted active electronically scanned array (AESA) technology, and there are two sets of antennas: the larger one is a C-band radar for surveillance and tracking, the smaller one is a X-band radar as a fire-control radar.

DDH-184 JS KAGA – Kz arashi

After a prolonged sea trial on board JS Asuka, this system was introduced in 2007 on the JS Hyūga (DDH-181). The enhanced version, FCS-3A, was employed on the Akizuki-class destroyers., and limited-function version, OPS-50, was also delivered for the Izumo-class helicopter destroyers. The fire-control function are omitted in the OPS-50 system, so they have only one set of antennas operating C-band. Source wikipedia.org

OPS-50 AESA radar


DDH-184 JS KAGA – Osaka Japan大阪観光チャンネル

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 222.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination
Sensors / EW:
J/OPS-50 MFR – (Izumo Class) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 222.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

OPS-28 surface-search radar


DDH-184 JS KAGA – wikimedia.org

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 203.7 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.7 km Generation: Early 1980s
Properties: Track While Scan (TWS), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
J/OPS-28D – (1983) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 2D Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface
Max Range: 203.7 km

Source cmano-db.com

OQQ-21 bow sonar (OQQ-23 bow sonar?)

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km
Sensors / EW:
J/OQQ-21 – Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

Weapon systems fitted on Izumo-class destroyer



The Izumo-class destroyer is fitted with two Phalanx close-in weapon system (CIWS) guns, and two SeaRAM CIWS launchers. It is also equipped with electronic warfare and decoy systems, including NOLQ-3D-1 EW suite, Mark 36 SRBOC, anti-torpedo mobile decoy (MOD), and floating acoustic jammer (FAJ).

2 x Phalanx close-in weapon system (CIWS)

DDH-184 JS KAGA – Kz arashi

MK 15 Phalanx CIWS provides ships of the U.S. Navy with an inner layer point defense capability against anti-ship missiles (ASM), aircraft and littoral warfare threats that have penetrated other fleet defenses. Phalanx automatically detects, evaluates, tracks, engages and performs kill assessment against ASM and high speed aircraft threats. The current Phalanx variant (Block 1B) adds the ability to counter asymmetric warfare threats through the addition of an integrated, stabilized, Electro Optic sensor. These improvements give Phalanx the added ability to counter small high speed surface craft, aircraft, helicopters and unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Phalanx is the only deployed close-in weapon system capable of autonomously performing its own search, detect, evaluation, track, engage and kill assessment functions. Phalanx also can be integrated into existing ship combat control systems to provide additional sensor and fire-control support to other installed ship weapon systems.

General Characteristics, MK 15

Primary Function: Fast-reaction, detect-thru-engage, radar guided 20-millimeter gun weapon system.
Contractor: Raytheon Systems Company (preceded by Hughes Missile Systems Company and purchased from General Dynamics Pomona Division in 1992).
Date Deployed: Date Deployed: Block 0: 1980 (aboard USS Coral Sea)
Block 1: 1988 (aboard USS Wisconsin)
Block 1B: 1999 (aboard USS Underwood)
Weight: (Block 1B): 13,600 pounds (6,120 kg).
Type Fire: ASM & Aircraft: 4,500 rounds/min, Asymmetric Threats: 3,000 rounds/min.
Magazine Capacity: 1,550 rounds
Caliber: 20mm.
Ammunition: Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot.
Type: M-61A1 Gatling Gun.

Source navy.mil

2 x SeaRAM CIWS launchers


JMSDF DDH-183 SeaRam – wikimedia.org

The innovative SeaRAM system combines key attributes of the Phalanx® close-in weapon system and the RAM™ guided weapon system. The SeaRAM system combines the superior accuracy, extended range and high maneuverability of the RAM missile with the high resolution search-and-track sensor and reliable, quick-response capability of the Phalanx Block 1B system. An 11-missile RAM system launcher assembly replaces the Phalanx system’s 20 mm gun. Source raytheon.com

RAM Block 2

The RAM Block 2 is an upgraded version of the Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) ship self-defense missile system. The RAM Block 2 missile upgrade aim is to more effectively counter the emerging threat of more maneuverable anti-ship missiles. The US Navy awarded Raytheon Missile Systems a $105 million Block 2 RAM development contract on May 8, 2007, with the missile development expected to complete by December 2010.

The Block 2 upgrade includes a four-axis independent control actuator system and a redesigned rocket motor. These upgrades increase the RAM’s effective range and deliver a significant improvement in maneuverability. The improved missile also incorporates an upgraded passive radio frequency seeker, a digital autopilot and engineering changes in selected infrared seeker components. The US Navy took delivery of the first batch of RAM Block 2 weapons in August 2014 and declared IOC in May 2015.

Diameter: 146 millimeter (5.75 inch)
Length: 2.82 meter (111 inch)
Wingspan: 322 millimeter (12.7 inch)
Max Range: 15,000 meter (8.10 nautical mile)
Min Range: 400 meter (0.22 nautical mile)
Target’s Max Altitude: 8,100 meter (4.37 nautical mile)
Target’s Min Altitude: 1.50 meter
Warhead: 11 kilogram (24.3 pound)
Weight: 88 kilogram (194 pound)

Source deagel.com




The MK 44 guided missile round pack and the MK 49 guided missile launching system, which hold 21 missiles, comprise the MK 31 guided missile weapon system. The system is designed to be easily integrated into many different ships. A variety of existing ship sensors can readily provide the target and pointing information required to engage the anti-ship threat.

The MK 44 missile is also used in the SeaRAM® anti-ship missile defense system, replacing the M601A1 Gatling gun in the Phalanx® close-in weapon system with an 11-round launcher. The Phalanx system’s sensor suite and internal combat management system reduces dependency on the ship’s combat system and enables a fast reaction to stressing anti-ship missiles. The RAM Block 2 missile has been successfully fired from a SeaRAM system. Source raytheon.com

NOLQ-3D-1 EW suite


DDH-184 JS KAGA – Osaka Japan大阪観光チャンネル

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
Sensors / EW:
J/NOLQ-3D-1 [ESM] – (Izumo, Separate ESM Antenna) ESM
Role: ELINT w/ OTH Targeting
Max Range: 926 km

Source cmano-db.com

Mark 36 SRBOC


Decoy employment is used primarily to defend against anti-ship missiles which have avoided detection and penetrated to the terminal-defense area that represents an imminent threat to ownship. The MK 36 Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Countermeasures (SRBOC) Chaff and Decoy Launching System is an evolutionary development of the RBOC family with enhanced capability. The MK 36 is a deck-mounted, mortar-type countermeasure system that may be used to launch an array of chaff cartridges against a variety of threats. The purpose of the system is to confuse hostile missile guidance and fire control systems by creating false signals. The launching system is controlled from the Combat Information Center and is dependent on information provided by the detection and threat analysis equipment on the ship.

The DLS MK 36 Mod 12 is a morter-tube launched decoy countermeasures system that projects decoys aloft at specific heights and ranges. Each DLS launcher includes six fixed-angle (elevation) tubes: four tubes set at 45 degrees and two tubes set at 60 degrees. Decoy selection and firing is controlled from either the EW console of the bridge launcher control. The DLS launches the following types of decoys: SRBOC – which uses chaff to deceive RF-emitting missiles/radars, NATO Sea Gnat – which is similar to SRBOC but with extended range and a larget payload of chaff, and TORCH – which uses heat to deceive infrarad-seeking missiles. Source fas.org

Izumo-class destroyer propulsion and performance

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – reddit.com

The Izumo-class destroyers are propelled by four GE/IHI LM2500IEC gas turbine engines, which generate a power of 112,000hp (84,000kW). They can sail at a top speed of more than 30kn (56km/h).

JS Izumo (DDH-183) – SankeiNews

4 x GE/IHI LM2500IEC gas turbine engines



LM2500PJ performance

SYSTEM TYPE Simple cycle Combined heat and power (cogeneration)
FUEL City gas/Natural gas City gas/Natural gas
FREQUENCY 50Hz 60Hz 50Hz 60Hz
POWER OUTPUT 21,170kW 22,100kW 20,530kW 21,460kW
FUEL CONSUMPTION RATE 10.37MJ/kWh 10.01MJ/kWh 10.32MJ/kWh 10.20MJ/kWh
NOX(O2=16%) 21ppm 21ppm

Inlet air temperature: 15℃
Atmospheric pressure: 101.3 kPa
Boiler supply water temperature: 60℃
*The above performance values list average performance in New & Clean mode.
*Note that the above performance values may be subject to change without prior notice.

Source hi.co.jp


Displacement standard, t 19500
Displacement full, t 24000
Length, m 248.0
Breadth, m 23.5 wl 38.0 fd
Draught, m 7.30
No of shafts 2
Machinery COGAG: 4 General Electric-IHI LM-2500 gas turbines
Power, h. p. 112000
Max speed, kts 30
Fuel, t gas turbine oil
Endurance, nm(kts) 6000(20)
Armament 2 x 21 Sea RAM SAM (42 RIM-116), 2 x 6 – 20/76 Mk 15 Block 1B Phalanx, 5 x 1 – 12.7/90, 14 helicopters (SH-60, MCH-101)
Sensors OPS-50, OPS-28D, FCS-3, OPS-20 radars, OQQ-23 sonar, NOLQ-3D-1 ECM suite, 6x SRBOC Mk 36 decoy RL, OLQ-1 anti-torpedo system, ACDS CCS
Complement 470

Source navypedia.org

Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Kongō Class Guided Missile Destroyers

The Kongō Class guided missile destroyers were built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and IHI Corporation for the Japan Maritime Self-Defence Force (JMSDF). The destroyer is a modified version of the US Navy’s Arleigh Burke Class destroyer. The Escort Flotillas of JMSDF operate four vessels. The Kongō Class is preceded by Hatakaze Class and succeeded by Atago Class destroyers.

The JS Myōkō (right) next to the Flight IIA Arleigh Burke-class USS Mustin (left). – reddit.com

The JMSDF built and commissioned four destroyers between 1990 and 1998. The keel for the lead vessel in class, JDS Kongō (DDG-173), was laid in May 1990. It was launched in September 1991 and commissioned in March 1993. JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) was laid down in April 1992, launched in August 1993 and commissioned in March 1995. JDS Myōkō (DDG-175) was laid down in April 1993, launched in October 1994 and commissioned in March 1996. The last vessel of class, JDS Chōkai (DDG-176), was laid down in May 1995. Chōkai was launched in August 1996 for the commissioning in March 1998.

Sejong the Great-class destroyer: Details

Ships in class


Kongō Class destroyer design


Based on the Arleigh Burke Class destroyer, the design of Kongō Class features a vertical mast and a bridge with sleek sides. The superstructure prevailed by the SPY-1 phased arrays incorporates stealth features to reduce radar cross section. The vessel is larger than traditional destroyers, featuring a longer helicopter deck aft than the Arleigh Burke Class destroyer. The deeper draught of the destroyer limits its capabilities to conduct operations in littoral environments.

The Kongō Class has a length of 161m, beam of 21m and draft of 6.2m. The full load displacement of the ship is 9,500t. The destroyer can accommodate a crew of 300.

Command and control

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The Kongō Class destroyers were the first vessels to be equipped with the Aegis combat system (ACS) after the US Navy warships.

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The system integrates an advanced command and control system, and a weapons control system (WCS). The high-performance phased array radar system combined with powerful computers can search, detect and track over 200 targets simultaneously.

JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) – AegisBMD

In July 2005, Lockheed Martin received a $124m contract under a foreign military sales (FMS) programme to supply the Aegis ballistic missile defence (BMD) system for four Kongō Class destroyers. Three destroyers were successfully modified with the Aegis BMD system. The system integration is expected to be complete by the end of 2010.

Kongō Class weapons layout


Kongō Class missiles

An SM-3 missile is launched from the JMSDF Aegis destroyer JS Kirishima (Kongo class) – reddit.com

The destroyer is armed with the RIM-66 SM-2MR block II surface-to-air missiles and the RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles. The mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS) can carry a total of 90 SM-2MR missiles, of which, 21 missiles are housed in the bow cells and 61 missiles in the aft cells of the VLS.

RIM-66 SM-2MR block II surface-to-air missiles

RIM-66 SM-2MR Standard Missile was launched from the forward Mk-41 VLS aboard USS Mustin (DDG 89) -seaforces.org

Standard Missile 2 (SM-2) is the U.S Navy’s primary surface-to-air air defense weapon. It is an integral part of the AEGIS Weapon System (AWS) aboard Ticonderoga-class cruisers and Arleigh Burke-class destroyers; and is launched from the Mark 41 vertical launcher system (VLS). Its primary missions are fleet area air defense and ship self-defense, but it also has demonstrated an extended area air defense projection capability. The SM-2 uses tail controls and a solid fuel rocket motor for propulsion and maneuverability. All variants are guided by inertial navigation and mid-course commands from AWS using semi-active radar or an infrared (IR) sensor for terminal homing.

SM-2 Blocks III, IIIA, IIIB and IV are in service with the U.S. Navy; these and other variants of Standard Missile are also in service with 15 allied navies.

Extended Range Active Missile (SM-6) provides an air defense force multiplier to the U.S. Navy to greatly expand the AWS battlespace. SM-6 provides an extended range anti-air warfare capability both over sea and over land by combining a modified advanced medium-range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM) active seeker onto the proven Standard Missile airframe. This low-risk approach, relying on non-developmental items, supported an FY 2011 initial operating capability. With integrated fire control support, SM-6 provides the Navy with an increased battlespace against anti-air warfare (AAW) threats over-the-horizon.

The Kirishima fires what appears to be an SM-2 missile from one of her stern VLS cells – reddit.com

General Characteristics, SM-2 Block III/IIIA/IIIB Medium Range

Primary Function: Surface to air missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems.
Date Deployed: 1981 (SM-2 MR).
Propulsion: Dual thrust, solid fuel rocket.
Length: 15 feet, 6 inches (4.72 meters).
Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.3 cm).
Wingspan: 3 feet 6 inches (1.08 meters).
Weight: SM-2: 1,558 pounds (708 kg).
Range: Up to 90 nautical miles (104 statute miles).
Guidance System: Semi-active radar homing (IR in Block IIIB).
Warhead: Radar and contact fuse, blast-fragment warhead.

Source navy.mil

RIM-161 Standard Missile SM-3 ABM

RIM-161 Standard Missile SM-3 was launched from the Japanese Destroyer JS Kongou (DDG 173)

The RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) is a ship-based missile system used by the US Navy to intercept aircraft, ships, ballistic and cruise missiles as a part of Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System. Although primarily designed as an anti-ballistic missile, the SM-3 has also been employed in an anti-satellite capacity against a satellite at the lower end of Low Earth orbit. The SM-3 is primarily used and tested by the United States Navy and also operated by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force and in the future by the Royal Netherlands Navy.


The SM-3 evolved from the proven SM-2 Block IV design. The SM-3 uses the same solid rocket booster and dual thrust rocket motor as the Block IV missile for the first and second stages and the same steering control section and midcourse missile guidance for maneuvering in the atmosphere. To support the extended range of an exo-atmospheric intercept, additional missile thrust is provided in a new third stage for the SM-3 missile, containing a dual pulse rocket motor for the early exo-atmospheric phase of flight.

Initial work was done to adapt SM-3 for land deployment (“Aegis ashore”) to especially accommodate the Israelis, but they then chose to pursue their own system, the NATO code-name Arrow 3. A group in the Obama administration envisioned a European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) and SM-3 was chosen as the main vector of this effort because the competing U.S. THAAD does not have enough range and would have required too many sites in Europe to provide adequate coverage. Compared to the GMD’s Ground-Based Interceptor however, the SM-3 Block I has about 1⁄5 to 1⁄6 of the range. A significant improvement in this respect, the SM-3 Block II variant widens the missile’s diameter from 0.34 m (13.5 in) to .53 m (21 in), making it more suitable against intermediate-range ballistic missiles.

The Block IIA missile is largely new sharing only the first-stage motor with the Block I. The Block IIA was “designed to allow for Japan to protect against a North Korean attack with fewer deployed ships” but it is also the key element of the EPAA phase 3 deployment in Europe. The Block IIA is being jointly developed by Raytheon and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries; the latter manages “the third-stage rocket motor and nose cone”. The U.S. budgeted cost to date is $1.51 billion for the Block IIA.

Lenght: 6.55 meters (21 feet 6 inch)
Diameter: 34.3 cm (13.5 in) for Block I missiles / 53.3 cm (21 in) for Block II
Wingspan: 1.57 meters (62 in)
Operational range: 700 km (378 miles) Block IA/B / 2,500 km (1,350 miles) Block IIA
Flight ceiling: 500 km (311 miles) Block IA/B / 1,500 km (933 miles) Block IIA
Speed: 3 km/s (Mach 10.2) Block IA/B / 4.5 km/s (Mach 15.25) Block IIA
Guidance: GPS/INS/semi-active radar homing/passive LWIR infrared homing seeker (KW)

Source seaforces.org

Mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS)

The Mk 41 is the standard Vertical Launch System employed by the US Navy fighting ships to store and launch a wide spectrum of naval missiles. It is installed below deck on surface ships in 13 different configurations ranging from a single module with 8-cell to 16 modules with 128-cell.

The Mk 41 Strike Length (Mk 41 SL) is the largest Mk 41 version currently deployed aboard US Navy ships. It can accommodate any existing missile in the US Navy Inventory.

The Mk 41 VLS has been adopted by the navies of Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, Republic of Korea (RoK), Norway, Spain, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

Mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS) Kongō Class Miyoko DDG 175 – 来島屋旗振男

As of early 2006, the Mk 41 VLS Baseline VII is the current production model and was introduced in 2004. More than 11,000 Mk 41 missiles cells have been ordered to date for 178 ships in 11 world navies.

Mk41 strike length vertical-launching system (VLS) Kongō Class Miyoko DDG 175 – 来島屋旗振男

The BAE Systems Mk 14 canister is used to launch Tomahawk cruise missiles through the Mk 41 vertical launching system. The US Navy had ordered 1,036 Mk 14 canisters until April 2007.  Source deagel.com

GM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The A/U/RGM-84 Harpoon is an all- weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system that provides the Navy with a common missile for air and ship launches.

The Harpoon’s active radar guidance, warhead design, low-level cruise trajectory, and terminal mode sea-skim or pop-up maneuvers assure high survivability and effectiveness. The missile is capable of being launched from surface ships, submarines, shore batteries, or aircraft (without the booster).

In late 2010, plans for an updated U.S. Navy version of the Harpoon Block II began to formalize. The Harpoon Block II+ provides a rapid-capability enhancement for the Navy that includes a new GPS guidance kit, reliability and survivability of the weapon, a new data link interface that enables in-flight updates, improved target selectivity, an abort option and enhanced resistance to electronic countermeasures. When fielded to the fleet in the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2017, Harpoon Block II+ will join the Joint Standoff Weapon C-1 as the Navy’s only two air-to-ground network-enabled weapons.


General Characteristics

Primary Function: Air, ship, and foreign submarine and land-based coastal defense battery launched anti-ship cruise missile.
Contractor: The Boeing Company.
Date Deployed: 1977.
Unit Cost: $1,200,000 for Harpoon Block II.
Propulsion: Teledyne Turbojet / solid propellant booster for surface and submarine launch. Thrust: greater than 600 pounds (greater than 272.2 kg).
Length: Air launched: 12 feet, 7 inches (3.8 meters); Surface and submarine launched: 15 feet (4.6 meters)
Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.3 cm).
Wingspan: 3 feet (91.4 cm) with booster fins and wings.
Weight: 1,523 pounds (690.8 kg) with booster.
Speed: High subsonic.
Range: Over-the-horizon, in excess of 67 nautical miles (124 km).
Guidance System: Sea-skimming cruise monitored by radar altimeter / active radar terminal homing.
Warhead: Penetration / high-explosive blast (488 pounds/224 kg).
Last Update: 10 March 2017

Source navy.mil


JMSDF DDG-173 JS KONGO – binmei jp

The main gun fitted is a 127mm / 54-calibre Oto-Breda compact gun. The gun can fire 40 rounds a minute within a range of 30,000m. There are two 20mm Phalanx close-in weapon systems (CIWS) mounted on the vessel.

127mm / 54-calibre Oto-Breda compact gun



Manufactured by OTO-Melara, these weapons have a higher rate of fire and a greater maximum elevation than their rough equivalent, the USA 5″/54 (12.7 cm) Mark 45. Both use USN standard semi-fixed ammunition including surface, air, pyrotechnic and chaff rounds. Mounting reaction time is five seconds from target designation. The reloading, feeding and firing sequence is controlled by a central console which is operated by a single crewmember.



The Compact is intended for use on frigate and destroyer type warships. This mounting uses a water-cooled barrel mounted in a water-tight fiberglass gunhouse and has 66 ready-to-fire rounds in three drums located just below the gun house. Each drum can hold a different ammunition type and each can be independently selected. A central elevator hoists the ammunition and delivers it to two oscillating arms which move the rounds into the loading trays. The drums are automatically reloaded via two hoists which are manually loaded in the lower magazine. Reloading can take place while the gun is firing. As an option, this mounting can be fitted with a stabilized line of sight local control system. Source navweaps.com


The Otobreda 127mm/54-caliber Compact (127/54C) gun is a dual purpose naval gun system.
It fires the 127mm (5″) rounds which are also in use in the US Mk-45 5-inch/ 54-caliber gun.

Technical data:
Builder: Oto-Melara (now OtoBreda)
In service: 1972
Caliber: 5 inches / 127 mm
Barrel lenght: 270 inches / 6,858 meters (= 54 caliber)
Weight: 37500 kg (without ammunition)
Elevation: -15° / + 83°
Rate of fire: 40 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocity: 808 meters per second
Range: 23000 meters, max. (47°) / 15000 meters effective / 7000 meters AA (83°)
Ammunition stowage: 66 rounds ready to fire in 3 loader drums / 500-600 in magazine
Ammunition: High Explosive, Illumination

Source seaforces.org

2 x 20mm Phalanx close-in weapon systems

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

MK 15 Phalanx CIWS provides ships of the U.S. Navy with an inner layer point defense capability against anti-ship missiles (ASM), aircraft and littoral warfare threats that have penetrated other fleet defenses. Phalanx automatically detects, evaluates, tracks, engages and performs kill assessment against ASM and high speed aircraft threats. The current Phalanx variant (Block 1B) adds the ability to counter asymmetric warfare threats through the addition of an integrated, stabilized, Electro Optic sensor. These improvements give Phalanx the added ability to counter small high speed surface craft, aircraft, helicopters and unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Phalanx is the only deployed close-in weapon system capable of autonomously performing its own search, detect, evaluation, track, engage and kill assessment functions. Phalanx also can be integrated into existing ship combat control systems to provide additional sensor and fire-control support to other installed ship weapon systems.

General Characteristics, MK 15

Primary Function: Fast-reaction, detect-thru-engage, radar guided 20-millimeter gun weapon system.
Contractor: Raytheon Systems Company (preceded by Hughes Missile Systems Company and purchased from General Dynamics Pomona Division in 1992).
Date Deployed: Date Deployed: Block 0: 1980 (aboard USS Coral Sea)
Block 1: 1988 (aboard USS Wisconsin)
Block 1B: 1999 (aboard USS Underwood)
Weight: (Block 1B): 13,600 pounds (6,120 kg).
Type Fire: ASM & Aircraft: 4,500 rounds/min, Asymmetric Threats: 3,000 rounds/min.
Magazine Capacity: 1,550 rounds
Caliber: 20mm.
Ammunition: Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot.
Type: M-61A1 Gatling Gun.

Source navy.mil

The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force destroyer JDS Kongo (DDG 173) is underway in the Pacific Ocean. George Washington, the Navy’s only permanently forward deployed aircraft carrier, is participating in Annual Exercise, a yearly bilateral exercise with the U.S. Navy and the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. Photo by Seaman Apprentice Anthony R. Martinez

Torpedoes and ASW rockets

Two type 68 triple torpedo tubes are mounted on the destroyers for ASW roles. These tubes can launch six mk46 or Type 73 torpedoes. The ship is also equipped with RUM-139 vertically launched anti-submarine rockets. The RUM-139 rocket is powered by two-stage solid rocket fuel engines.

2 x Type 68 triple torpedo tubes

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

Mk-32 SVTT system was built under license for the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force as Type-68 (Model HOS-301, HOS-302A, HOS-303) torpedo tubes. Source seaforces.org

Mk46 torpedoes

Mk-46 Mod.5A recoverable exercise torpedo (REXTORP) was launched from Mk-32 torpedo tubes – seaforces.org

The Mk-46 torpedo, first introduced in 1965, is a surface ship and aircraft-launched anti-submarine weapon. It is presently identified as the NATO standard and has been acquired by more than 25 countries. Various modifications, including improved acoustics, guidance and control upgrades, and countermeasure-detection capability have been introduced into the weapon.

The resultant Mk-46 Mod 5A(S) torpedo, an active or passive/active, dual-speed torpedo, is the ASW weapon for surface ships and ASW fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft. The Mk-46 Mod 5A (SW) (Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) torpedo was introduced to the fleet in September 1996. The Mk-46 SLEP has improved counter-countermeasure performance, enhanced target acquisition, a bottom-avoidance preset, and improved maintainability and reliability. The Mk-46 Mod 5A (SW) also serves as the payload for the Vertical Launch Anti-Submarine Rocket (ASROC VLA).


General characteristics, Mark 46 Mod 5:
Primary Function: Air and ship-launched lightweight torpedo
Contractor: Alliant Techsystems
Power Plant: Two-speed, reciprocating external combustion; Mono-propellant (Otto fuel II)
Length: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) tube launch configuration (from ship), 14 ft 9 in (4.5 m) with ASROC rocket booster
Weight: 508 lb (231 kg) (warshot configuration)
Diameter: 12.75 in (324 mm)
Range: 12,000 yd (11 km)
Depth: > 1,200 ft (365 m)
Speed: > 40 knots (46 mph, 74 km/h)
Guidance System: Homing mode: Active or passive/active acoustic homing
Launch/search mode: Snake or circle search
Warhead: 96.8 lb (44 kg) of PBXN-103 high explosive (bulk charge)
Date Deployed: 1967 (Mod 0); 1979 (Mod 5)

Source seaforces.org

Type 73 torpedoes

JMSDF Type 73 Light Weight torpedo in JMSDF Kure Museum – Wikimedia Commons

RUM-139 vertically launched anti-submarine rockets

ASROC (Anti-Submarine Rocket) combines a solid propellant rocket with a torpedo payload to achieve a quick reaction, all weather, intermediate range anti-submarine weapon. ASROC was designed to be installed on US Navy’s surface ships inside eight-cell sealed canisters which also performed as launch ramp. Originally the US Navy deployed ASROC carrying torpedoes armed with both conventional and nuclear warheads. After launch the ASROC rocket directs to the submarine area to deliver the torpedo payload. After entry the water the torpedo powers up and searches for the submarine using either active or passive sonar.

The RUM-139 Verical Launch ASROC (VLA) was designed to be fired from vertical launch system (VLS) such as the Mk-41. VLS offers greater weapons availability and quicker response than ramps that need to be directed to the target area before launch. The VLA program was launched in 1980 with Loral as the lead contractor. The RUM-139A weapon system achieved initial operational capability (IOC) in 1993 and RUM-139B in 1996. RUM-139B is an improved variant featuring Mark 46 Mod 5A(SW) in lieu of Mark 46 Mod 5(S). Mark 46 Mod 5A(SW) is more capable than its predecessor in the shallow water environment.

Diameter: 420 millimeter (16.5 inch)
Length: 5.04 meter (198 inch)
Wingspan: 680 millimeter (26.8 inch)
Max Range: 28,000 meter (15.1 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 330 mps (1,188 kph)
Warhead: 45 kilogram (98 pound)
Weight: 639 kilogram (1,409 pound)

Source deagel.com

Helicopter system

JS Myoko (DDG 175) – seaforces.org

Kongō Class destroyers have a large aft flight deck to accommodate two ASW or patrol helicopters, but no helicopter hangar and support equipment is provided on these ships.

Radars and sensors

JMSDF DDG-173 JS KONGO – binmei jp

The sensor suite includes an SPY-1D air search radar, an OPS-28 surface search radar and a missile director radar. The sonar is an OQS-102 bow-mounted low-frequency sonar. There is a NOLQ-2 intercept or jammer fitted on the destroyer.

SPY-1D air search radar

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The AEGIS Weapon System (AWS) is a centralized, automated, command-and-control (C2) and weapons control system that was designed as a total weapon system, from detection to kill. The heart of the system is the AN/SPY-1, an advanced, automatic detect and track, multi-function phased-array radar. This high-powered radar is able to perform search, track, and missile guidance functions simultaneously, with a track capacity of more than 100 targets. The first Engineering Development Model (EDM-1) was installed in the test ship USS Norton Sound (AVM 1) in 1973.  Source navy.mil


General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 60960 m
Range Max: 324.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 1.1 km Generation: Early 1990s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
AN/SPY-1D MFR – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air, Long-Range
Max Range: 324.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) – AegisBMD

AN/SPG-62 Fire Control Radar

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

The US Navy AN/SPG-62 is a fire control radar provided to the AEGIS-equipped warships allowing to guide surface-to-air missiles, primarily Standard Missile SM-2, to their intended targets. The SPG-62 has been ordered by the United States Navy as well as other international navies worldwide operating the AEGIS weapon system.

The radar system operates in the I and J bands and provides continuous illumination of the target operating along the SPY-1D fixed face radar. The SPG-62 radar was deployed in 1983 along the Ticonderoga-class destroyers with four such radars on each ship. The Burke class destroyers are provided with three such radars while other ships are equipped with either two or three radar antennas. The AN/SPG-62 is considered as the weak spot of the AEGIS weapon system because limits the number of missiles than can be guided simultaneously by a single ship.  Source deagel.com

JMSDF DDG-173 JS KONGO – binmei jp

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 305.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Late 1980s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination
Sensors / EW:
AN/SPG-62 [Mk99 FCS] – Radar
Role: Radar Illuminator, Long-Range
Max Range: 305.6 km

Source cmano-db.com

OPS-28 surface search radar

日本語: 海上自衛隊 護衛艦くらま(DDH-144) OPS-28水上レーダー。 13年10月27日 神戸港にて。-wikimedia.org

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 203.7 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.7 km Generation: Early 1980s
Properties: Track While Scan (TWS), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
J/OPS-28C – (1983) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 2D Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface
Max Range: 203.7 km

Source cmano-db.com

OQS-102 bow-mounted low-frequency sonar


For illustration – geospectrum.ca

The Sonar Set AN/SQS-53C is a computer-controlled surface-ship sonar that has both active and passive operating capabilities providing precise information for ASW weapons control and guidance. The AN/SQS-53C is designed to perform direct path ASW search, detection, localization, and tracking from a hull mounted transducer array. The AN/SQS-53C retains the transducer assembly from either the AN/SQS-53A or 53B. The AN/SQS-53C provides greater range and detection capability with only half of the electronics footprint and less weight than earlier versions. The AN/SQS-53C is equipped with high source level, fully stabilized beams, and wide convergence zone annuli coupled with computer-aided detection and automatic contact management. Implemented in standard electronic modules, the AN/SQS-53C is an all digital system with stable performance, on-line reconfiguration in the event of a component failure, and performance monitoring/fault location software to quickly isolate failures. The AN/SQS-53C provides apparent range, bearing, and true bearing of contacts when employing active sonar and provides true bearing of contacts detected by passive means.

The AN/SQS-53 is the most advanced surface ship ASW sonar in the US Navy inventory. It is a high-power, long-range system evolved from the AN/SQS-26CX, used actively and passively to detect and localize submarine contacts. The SQS-53B, located in a large dome at the bow of the ship, will detect, identify, and track multiple underwater targets. With its higher power and improved signal processing equipment, this sonar is the first in the Navy to be linked directly to digital computers, thus ensuring swift, accurate processing of target information. Functions of the system are the detection, tracking, and classification of underwater targets. It can also be used for underwater communications, countermeasures against acoustic underwater weapons, and certain oceanographic recording uses. Source fas.org

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1990s
Sensors / EW:
J/OQS-102 – (AN/SQS-53C Equivalent) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com


The AN/SQR-19 Tactical Towed Array SONAR (TACTAS) provides very long-range passive detection of enemy submarines. TACTAS is a long cable full of microphones that is towed about a mile behind the ship. It is towed so far behind the ship so as to not let noise radiating from the shipitself interfere with the noise picked up from targets. Using that noise can determine exactly what ship or submarine is being tracked. The AN/SQR-19B Tactical Array SONAR (TACTAS) is a passive towed array system which provides the ability to detect, classify, and track a large number of submarine contacts at increased ranges. TACTAS is a component sensor of the AN/SQQ-89(V)6 ASW Combat System, and provides significant improvements in passive detection and localization, searching throughout 360 degrees at tactical ship speeds. Processing of complex TACTAS data is performed by the largest computer program assembly ever developed for surface ship anti-submarine warfare.

Meteorology and Oceanography Center Detachment TACTAS support products describe oceanographic and acoustic conditions (using range dependent models) in the prosecution area for towed array ships tasked by CTF-69 for ASW operations. This message is provided when own ship Sonar In-situ Mode Assessment System (SIMAS) or the Mobile Environmental Team’s Mobile Oceanographic Support System MOSS) are not available. It is tailored to the specific towed array carried onboard. The message is transmitted prior to the start of a prosecution and daily thereafter or as requested. Source fas.org

General data:
Type: TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 129.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 1980s
Sensors / EW:
J/OQR-2 TACTASS [AN/SQR-19A(V)] – TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System
Role: TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System
Max Range: 129.6 km

Source cmano-db.com

NOLQ-2 intercept or jammer

JDS Kirishima (DDG-174) – reddit.com

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1990s
Sensors / EW:
J/NOLQ-2 [ESM] – (Kongo, Separate ESM Antenna) ESM
Role: ELINT w/ OTH Targeting
Max Range: 926 km

Source cmano-db.com

4 x Mk 36 SRBOC decoy RL


Decoy employment is used primarily to defend against anti-ship missiles which have avoided detection and penetrated to the terminal-defense area that represents an imminent threat to ownship. The MK 36 Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Countermeasures (SRBOC) Chaff and Decoy Launching System is an evolutionary development of the RBOC family with enhanced capability. The MK 36 is a deck-mounted, mortar-type countermeasure system that may be used to launch an array of chaff cartridges against a variety of threats. The purpose of the system is to confuse hostile missile guidance and fire control systems by creating false signals. The launching system is controlled from the Combat Information Center and is dependent on information provided by the detection and threat analysis equipment on the ship.

The DLS MK 36 Mod 12 is a morter-tube launched decoy countermeasures system that projects decoys aloft at specific heights and ranges. Each DLS launcher includes six fixed-angle (elevation) tubes: four tubes set at 45 degrees and two tubes set at 60 degrees. Decoy selection and firing is controlled from either the EW console of the bridge launcher control. The DLS launches the following types of decoys: SRBOC – which uses chaff to deceive RF-emitting missiles/radars, NATO Sea Gnat – which is similar to SRBOC but with extended range and a larget payload of chaff, and TORCH – which uses heat to deceive infrarad-seeking missiles. Source fas.org

AN/SLQ-25 Nixie

The Torpedo Countermeasures Transmitting Set AN/SLQ-25A, commonly referred to as Nixie, is a passive, electro-acoustic decoy system used to provide deceptive countermeasures against acoustic homing torpedoes. The AN/SLQ-25A employs an underwater acoustic projector housed in a streamlined body which is towed astern on a combination tow/signal-transfer coaxial cable. An onboard generated signal is used by the towed body to produce an acoustic signal to decoy the hostile torpedo away from the ship. The AN/SLQ-25A includes improved deceptive countermeasures capabilities. The AN/SLQ-25B includes improved deceptive countermeasures capabilities, a fiber optic display LAN, a torpedo alertment capability and a towed array sensor.

Modern acoustic towed decoys, such as the AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE and the older T-MK6 FANFAIR, employ electronic or electromechanical means to produce the required signals. The system provides an alternate target diversion for an enemy acoustic homing torpedo by stringing on cable a “noise maker”, aft of the ship, which has the capability of producing a greater noise than the ship; thereby diverting the incoming torpedo from the ship to the “fish”. The towed device receives the torpedoes ping frequency, amplifies it 2 to 3 times and sends it back to lure the torpedo away from the ship. They may be used in pairs or singularly. Source fas.org

Type: Decoy (Towed) Weight: 21 kg
Length: 0.94 m Span: 0.187 m
Diameter: 0.152 Generation: Late 1970s
Targets: Surface Vessel
AN/SLQ-25 Nixie – Decoy (Towed)
Surface Max: 1.9 km.

Source cmano-db.com


Kongō Class destroyers are equipped with a combined gas and gas (COGAG) propulsion system. Four Ishikawajima Harima / General Electric LM2500 gas turbines driving two shafts develop a power output of 75MW. The propulsion system provides a maximum speed of 30kt.

4 x Ishikawajima Harima / General Electric LM2500 gas turbines



LM2500PJ performance

System type Simple cycle Combined heat and power (cogeneration)
Fuel City gas/Natural gas City gas/Natural gas
Frequency 50Hz 60Hz 50Hz 60Hz
Power output 21,170kW 22,100kW 20,530kW 21,460kW
Fuel consumption rate 10.37MJ/kWh 10.01MJ/kWh 10.32MJ/kWh 10.20MJ/kWh
Thermal efficiency at the generator terminal 34.7% 36.0% 34.9% 35.3%
Total thermal efficiency 85.9% 86.8%
NOx(O2=16%) 21ppm 21ppm

Inlet air temperature: 15℃
Atmospheric pressure: 101.3 kPa
Boiler supply water temperature: 60℃
*The above performance values list average performance in New & Clean mode.
*Note that the above performance values may be subject to change without prior notice.

Source hi.co.jp

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT

DDG-175 Myojo – JP-SWAT



Displacement standard, t 7250
Displacement full, t 9500
Length, m 150.5 pp 161.0 oa
Breadth, m 21.0
Draught, m 6.20 hull
No of shafts 2
Machinery COGAG: 4 General Electric LM-2500 gas turbines
Power, h. p. 100000
Max speed, kts 30
Fuel, t gas turbine oil 1000
Endurance, nm (kts) 4500(20)
Armament 2 x 4 Harpoon SSM (8 RGM-84), (1 x 61 + 1 x 29) Standard SM-2MR SAM / ASROC VLA ASuR Mk 41 VLS (74 RIM-66, 16 RUM-139), 1 x 1 – 127/54 OTO-Melara Compact, 2 x 6 – 20/76 Mk 15 Phalanx, 2 x 1 – 12.7/90, 2 x 3 – 324 HOS-302 TT, helicopter deck
Sensors SPY-1D, OPS-28D, 3x SPG-62, FCS-2-23, OPS-20, 2x Mk 90 radars, OQS-102, OQR-2 sonars, NOLQ-2, OLT-3, OPN-7B ECM suites, 4x Mk 36 SRBOC decoy RL, SLQ-25 Nixie torpedo decoy, OYQ-6 CCS
Complement 310

Source navypedia.org

Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

C-5M Super Galaxy Transport Aircraft

The C-5M Super Galaxy strategic transport aircraft, a modernised version of the legacy C-5,  was designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin to extend the capability of the C-5 fleet to remain in service at least until 2040. The C-5M aircraft is operated by the US Air Force (USAF).

The USAF initiated a two-phase upgrade programme to transform the C-5 aircraft fleet into the C-5M Super Galaxy. Under the programme, Lockheed Martin modernised 52 C-5 aircraft, including 49 C-5Bs, two C-5Cs and one C-5A by 2017. The company delivered 16 C-5M aircraft by December 2013.

The C-5M Super Galaxy transport aircraft achieved initial operational capability (IOC) in February 2014. The aircraft set 89 world aeronautical records to date.

Details of the C-5 Galaxy modernisation programme

The C-5 Galaxy is being modernised in two phases involving the avionics modernisation programme (AMP), and reliability enhancement and re-engining programme (RERP). Lockheed Martin secured a $454m contract for the first phase of the upgrade in January 1999. The AMP is aimed at upgrading the cockpit of the C-5 fleet.

The contract for the second phase was awarded in December 2001. It includes the installation of new engines, pylons, thrust reversers and wing attachment fittings to the C-5 aircraft. The first C-5 aircraft upgraded as part of AMP completed its maiden flight in December 2002 and was delivered to the USAF in October 2004. The second phase began in October 2004 was concluded in May 2006, renaming the modernised aircraft C-5M Super Galaxy.


The first of the three C-5M test aircraft performed a maiden flight in June 2006 and was delivered to the USAF for operational testing and evaluation in December 2008. The second and third aircraft completed their first flights in November 2006 and March 2007 respectively.

The USAF approved the upgrade of 49 additional aircraft, including 47 C-5Bs and two C-5Cs, under the RERP in February 2008.

In February 2009, Lockheed Martin secured a $299m RERP contract for the production of nine C-5Ms. The company was also awarded a $25m Interim Contractor Support (ICS) contract for the familiarisation and operational testing and evaluation of the C-5M.


The low-rate initial production of the first C-5M transport aircraft was commenced in August 2009. The test aircraft piloted by a joint USAF and Lockheed Martin flight crew in September 2009 set 41 world aeronautical records in one flight.

The maiden flight of the first C-5M production aircraft took place in September 2010, and the operational testing and evaluation was completed in October 2010. Joint acceptance flight by the USAF and Lockheed Martin was concluded in October 2012.

The third C-5M production aircraft made its first flight in July 2011 and was delivered to the USAF in August 2011.The USAF took delivery of the 52nd and final C-5M Super Galaxy aircraft in August 2018. All 52 aircraft are operational with the Air Mobility Command and Air Force Reserve Command units.



The C-5M Super Galaxy is a strategic transport aircraft and is the largest aircraft in the Air Force inventory. Its primary mission is to transport cargo and personnel for the Department of Defense. The C-5M is a modernized version of the legacy C-5 designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin. Currently the U.S. Air Force owns and operates 52 C-5B/C/M. They are stationed at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware; Travis AFB, California; Lackland AFB, Texas; and Westover Air Reserve Base, Massachusetts.

Looking to the future, modernization efforts include incorporating advanced weather radar, mission computing, communication systems and air traffic management to meet FAA mandates and survivability in theaterSource af.mil


Lockheed Martin to new mission computers and weather radars 

Military avionics experts at the Lockheed Martin Corp. Aeronautics segment in Marietta, Ga., will upgrade the mission computer and weather radar systems in the giant C-5M Super Galaxy cargo jet under terms of an $84.3 million contract announced late Tuesday.

The avionics upgrade contract calls for Lockheed Martin to begin full-scale development of the C-5 Core Mission Computer/Color Weather Radar, which is part of a long-term program to extend the life of the Air Force C-5 fleet beyond 2040.

The new distributed-architecture core mission computer will have a 100-megabit-per-second Ethernet interface over copper wire, and will have several sources of supply for components such as MIL-STD-1553 interface chips, single board computers, and I/O cards.

The core mission computers for the C-5 also will have commercial standard video interfaces with VGA as a minimum, at least one additional expansion data bus for federated systems or new line-replaceable units (LRUs) covering Ethernet, MIL-STD-1553, and ARINC 429 avionics databuses.

The computer will separate classified and non-classified data for at least one data bus type for proper isolation of classified information, Air Force officials say. It will support the weather radar, flight management system (FMS), and communication navigation surveillance (CNS) and air traffic management (ATM) subsystems, including automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) Out, and identification friend or foe (IFF) Mode 5.

The new computers also will be able to accommodate future capability like the Joint Tactical Radio System into the communication system; memory expansion and processing necessary for the Joint Position Approach and Landing System algorithms; and memory and processing power necessary for new data links on the C-5M such as Link 16 or the conceptual Mobility Air Force Data Link. Source militaryaerospace.com


C-5M Super Galaxy features


The C-5M Super Galaxy transport aircraft offers greater reliability and efficient performance at reduced operating and lifecycle costs. It integrates more than 70 enhancements and requires reduced maintenance per flight hour.


US Air Force

Lockheed Martin

Dewar tank


In May 2009, they put together a Dover Dewar Conference at Dover AFB that included two engineers from Robbins AFB, seven engineers from Lockheed Martin, C-5 community maintainers, and people from Parker Hannifin, the manufacturer.

“For two days we had the best and the brightest in one room talking about the system and what we needed to upgrade it,” Haller said .

The new system is putting liquid nitrogen, which is negative 320 degrees, into the Dewar tank. This not only helps with aircraft fires, but also puts a positive pressure on top of the wings and the fuel systems.

The Dewar and fire suppression system works by opening up the valves and letting the nitrogen flow through the plumbing into the non-manned areas of the aircraft. Oxygen is pushed out allowing the nitrogen to put out the fire. Also by placing nitrogen into the fuel itself there is no oxygen so there is less chance of having a fire inside the fuel tank.

What has been developed and improved through the AFSO21 process are re-designed valves, a universal wiring harness, an upgraded FSS control panel, and better seals and plumbing. Source af.mil

The aircraft has a length of 75.53m, height of 19.84m and wingspan of 67.91m. The operating and maximum take-off weights of the aircraft are 181,437kg and 381,018kg respectively. The aircraft has a fuel capacity of 150,819kg and payload-carrying capacity of 129,274kg.

The aircraft is equipped with five sets of landing gears with a total of 28 wheels.



The maintenance diagnostics system has the ability to record and analyze data from more than 7,000 test points, reducing maintenance and repair time.

The C-5M, with a cargo load of 281,001 pounds (127,460 kilograms), can fly 2,150 nautical miles, offload, and fly to a second base 500 nautical miles away from the original destination — all without aerial refueling. With aerial refueling, the aircraft’s range is limited only by crew endurance. Source af.mil

AiirSource Military

US Defense News

Underlining the capability of the C-5M are 89 FAI-certified records, the most held by any aircraft type. In operational terms, the C-5M is one of a tiny handful of aircraft that can carry main battle tanks, being able to haul two M1A1 Abrams tanks over intercontinental distances. With this capability, the Super Galaxy remains vital to the U.S. Air Force’s mission to rapidly deploy large equipment that would otherwise rely on sea transportation. Source ainonline.com

Cockpit and cargo compartment


Aero-News Network


Aero-News Network

The advanced glass cockpit integrates a multimode communications suite, a mission computer, enhanced navigation radios, digital autopilot, multifunctional display units, flight management system, safety equipment and surveillance components. It is also fitted with built-in controls and diagnostic systems for the identification of maintenance requirements.


Aero-News Network


Aero-News Network

The cockpit also features integrated datalink capabilities and situational awareness displays, and provides predictive flight performance cues. It also provides improved situational awareness to the crew.

New cockpit system features:

  • A digital flight-control system
  • A state-of-the-art communications and navigation suite, with satellite links and a GPS receiver.
  • An enhanced ground proximity warning system.
  • An ARINC-standard data bus.
  • Seven 15 x 20 centimeter (6 x 8 inch) color flat-panel displays, with six for the pilot and copilot, plus and one for the flight engineer.

The new scheme is built around Honeywell Versatile Integrated Avionics (VIA) processors. The Honeywell flight-management system permits electronic upload of preprepared flight plans and can store up to 200 navigation waypoints, compared to 10 in the old system. According to Lockheed Martin, which implemented the AMP program, all the new equipment was based on commercially-available products. Source airvectors.net

TRAVIS AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. –Tech. Sgt. Richard Bline (left), loadmaster, demonstrates operation of the inflatable life jacket, as Master Sgt. Adam Goldsberry, loadmaster, reads the passenger safety brief in the troop compartment of a C-5B Galaxy about to depart Aug. 14, 2014, from Yokota Air Base, Japan. The troop compartment of the upper deck of the cargo aircraft includes accommodations for 73 passengers in rear-facing seats. The two aviators from the 312th Airlift Squadron, Travis Air Force Base, Calif., were flying a channel mission, moving high-priority cargo and passengers among U.S. bases in the Pacific Command area of responsibility. (U.S. Air Force photo/Lt. Col. Robert Couse-Baker)

US Defense News


US Air Force

The C-5M Super Galaxy can carry more air-transportable cargo than the C-5 aircraft, and can be loaded with cargo quickly and efficiently. The dedicated passenger compartment of the aircraft accommodates troops and their supplies.

Engine and performance of C-5M Super Galaxy

The C-5M Super Galaxy transport aircraft is powered by four GE CF6-80C2 turbofan engines developing a thrust of 50,580lb each. The length and diameter of the engine are 4.26m and 2.69m respectively. The dry weight of the engine is 9,860lb. The engines comply with Stage 4 noise and emission and provide the aircraft with 22% more thrust and 58% higher rate of climb.

GE F138 (CF6-80C2L1F)

The main feature of the RERP was the substitution of the original General Electric TF39 engines with the same company’s F138 (CF6-80C2L1F). De-rated to 50,000 lb thrust in the C-5M installation, the F138 provides 22 percent more thrust than the TF39, resulting in improvements in takeoff performance and climb rate, increased payload, and more economical cruise. The engines are also compliant with FAA Stage 4 noise requirements. Source ainonline.com

Source GE

Aero-News Network

The aircraft can fly at a normal cruise speed of 0.77 Mach. It has an un-refuelled range of about 4,800nm with 54,430kg of cargo and about 7,000nm with no load.


Lockheed Martin

General Characteristics 

Primary Function: Outsize cargo transport
Prime Contractor: Lockheed Martin-Georgia Co.
Power Plant: Four F-138-GE100 General Electric engines
Thrust: 51,250 pounds per engine
Wingspan: 222 feet 9 inches (67.89 meters)
Length: 247 feet 10 inches (75.3 meters)
Height: 65 feet 1 inch (19.84 meters)

Cargo Compartment:
Height: 13 feet 6 inches (4.11 meters)
Width: 19 feet (5.79 meters)
Length: 143 feet, 9 inches (43.8 meters)
Pallet Positions: 36
Maximum Cargo: 281,001 pounds (127,460 Kilograms)
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 840,000 pounds (381,024 kilograms)
Speed: 518 mph
Unrefueled Range of C-5M: Approximately 5,524 statute miles (4,800 nautical miles) with 120,000 pounds of cargo; approximately 7,000 nautical miles with no cargo on board.
Crew: Pilot, co-pilot, two flight engineers and three loadmasters

(Current as of February 2018)

Source af.mil

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Diamond DART-450 / TA-20 Trainer

The DART-450 (Diamond Aircraft Reconnaissance Trainer), being developed by Austrian-based Diamond Aircraft Industries, is the world’s first all-carbon fibre, tandem twin-seat civil and military trainer.

The design of DART-450 was unveiled at the Aero Friedrichshafen 2015. The first DART-450 prototype aircraft made its first flight in May 2016. The successful flight test paved the way for the certification process, scheduled for completion by the end of 2016.

Maiden flight of the Diamond Aircraft DART-450

On May 17, 2016 the turbine powered DART-450 took off for its first flight.

The DART-450 (Diamond Aircraft Reconnaissance Trainer) is the world’s first all-carbon fiber tandem, 2-seat aerobati civilian and military trainer with sidestick control and ejection seats.

The +7/-4G aerobatic airplane has a maximum take-off power of 500 hp, is equipped with the Ivchenko-Progress / Motor Sich AI-450S turboprop engine, a 5-blade MT propeller, and a GARMIN avionic system. Maximum endurance of the DART is 8 hours plus reserve.

Within the first 60 minutes of flight time, speeds between 60 – 200 knots IAS have been tested at various altitudes. Expected top speed is 250 knots TAS.

“Company Chief Test Pilot Ingmar Mayerbuch and Flight Test Engineer Thomas Wimmer have been so excited about the first results that certification and serial production is green-lighted”, said Christian Dries, CEO Diamond Aircraft.

Diamond Aircraft Chief Designer Clemens Knappert: “We achieved our target from the first drawings to the first flight in one year. I’m already excited about what comes next.” Source diamond-air.at

The aircraft will be displayed at the Farnborough International Airshow to be held in July 2016 and is expected to enter service in 2017.

The aircraft is primarily intended for pilot training, acrobatics and reconnaissance missions. It is expected to offer low-cost competition to existing trainer aircraft in its class.


Diamond Aircraft’s DART-450 made its public debut this week at the U.K.’s Farnborough International Airshow. The single-engine turboprop first flew in May at Diamond’s facility in Austria, less than a year after initial design work began. Like Diamond’s other aircraft, such as the DA42, the DART (Diamond Aircraft Reconnaissance Trainer) will offer versatility, with potential uses including training and surveillance operations, and efficiency with a fuel burn of about 90 liters (24 gallons) per hour.

The airplane is built from carbon fiber in a low-wing, tandem two-seat configuration. It is fully aerobatic up to +7/-4Gs and has maximum takeoff power of 495 horsepower with a Ukrainian Ivchenko-Progress Motor Sich AI-450S turboprop and a five-blade MT propeller. It’s also equipped with ejection seats, Garmin avionics and a fuselage that is ready-to-mount for a retractable surveillance camera and other equipment. Diamond first announced the new model at the 2014 show, saying it planned to fly a prototype at this year’s event. Source avweb.com

Diamond Aircraft is at Dubai with its Dart-450


The Dart 450 single-engined turboprops on display in the company’s static exhibit are the first of two examples built so far, with chief executive Christian Dries expecting a third to make its debut flight before the end of the year. The lead pair are powered by the Ivchenko-Progress/Motor Sich AI-450S engine while the latest aircraft will use a GE Aviation engine with a 550hp (410kW) output.

The Austrian airframer will deliver its first Dart 450 to an undisclosed buyer shortly in a non-certificated kit version, and plans to hand over the first fully certificated aircraft in 2018.

The tandem-seat aircraft is developed as a civilian and military trainer, and with an endurance of up to 8.5h, Dries also sees a role for the Dart 450 in the surveillance and reconnaissance markets. “We have had so much interest in this product,” he says. “We expect it to be Diamond’s most successful model ever.”

Production of about 50 aircraft a year is planned at the airframer’s Weiner Neustadt facility. Source flightglobal.com

Diamond Aircraft chief executive officer Christian Dries told AIN earlier this year that the Dart-450 will be priced well below $3 million and have an operating cost of less than $500 per hour. He said that the company had already gained one firm order for the aircraft. Source ainonline.com

Chinese Company Buys Rest Of Diamond: Here


Austrian-based Diamond Aircraft Group has been acquired by the Chinese company that purchased Diamond’s North American operations last year. Almost a year to the day that Wanfeng Aviation Industry Co. Ltd. bought Diamond’s London, Ontario, plant, the Chinese firm bought the Austrian holdings of sole shareholder Christian Dries, who founded Diamond 25 years ago. Wanfeng said in a joint announcement it intends to increase production and sales, expand distribution and support networks and keep designing new aircraft.

Diamond DART-450/TA-20 single-engined turboprop trainer

Chinese internet image

China has flown the Diamond DART-450/TA-20 single-engined turboprop trainer aircraft: Here

Die TA-20 fliegt seit November 2018 (Foto: Hermes-sys)


China has flown a new military trainer aircraft derived from the Diamond DART-450 single-engined turboprop, state media disclosed in late 2018.

The flight of the tandem two-seat trainer developed by China Electronics Technology Corporation (CETC) Wuhu Diamond Aircraft Manufacturing Company, was reported to have taken place at the company’s facility in Jiangsu Province on 6 November.

Smart-210 Integrated Avionics System for TA-20

The image of the SMART-210 integrated avionics system simulator provided by Hermès official website shows that it uses a single large touch-screen display similar to the F-35. The rear seat of the instructor is equipped with a head-up display that monitors the student’s status. – hkpic.crntt.com

Smart-210 Integrated Avionics System adopts redundancy framework and has extremely high security; it is strictly developed and manufactured according to military standards to ensure reliability in harsh environments. The standard package includes functional modules, such as DU, HUD, DIU, COMM, NAV (VOR, ADF, ILS), XPDR, VMS, INS/GNSS, ADS-B, HOTAS, FDR, etc. It can be freely combined according to user needs and budget.  Under government permission, it can provide: fire control system, photoelectric pod, DataLink, autopilot, radar pod, weapons rack and other military modules. It also has night vision compatibility. The avionics system can be widely used in the development of new aircraft models and the transformation of active aircraft, including various types of agitation, jet trainers, and light military and civilian aircraft.


(1) Display control function: PFD function with synthetic vision function, customizable mobile map, HUD and backup instrument functions;

(2) Communication navigation function: provision of navigation information, e.g. VHF voice communication, GPS navigation, air data navigation, attitude, ILS, VOR, DME, RA, etc.;

(3) Sensor surveillance alarm: XPNDR function, TAWS function, RWR function, RADAR function, EVS function, FLIR function, IFF function;

(4) Data conversion: data format conversion of A429, RS422, RS232 and Ethernet data to realize the data interaction between different data interface devices;

(5) Automatic flight servo control: autopilot control function;

(6) Control panel : frequency tuning, mode control and status indication functions of communication navigation, etc.;

(7) Audio panel : control of audio information and volume adjustment of communication system and navigation system, etc.

(8) Weapon system: reserved interface, scalability of fire control system and load management functions.

DU-XV-210 Integrated Display Control Unit (DU)


DU-XV-210 Integrated Display Control Unit (DU)
Main functions Primary Flight Display Unit (PFD)

1) Attitude Director Indicator (ADI)

2) Barometric Altitude Indicator (ALT)

3) Air Speed Indicator (ASP)

4) Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)

5) Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)

6) Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)

7) Heading & Glide Slope Indicator (LOV&GS)

8) Synthetic Vision System (SVS)

9) 3D Terrain Awareness Warning System (3D-TAWS)

Multi-function display unit (MFD)

1) Electronic checklist

2) Engine parameter display

3) Flight plan management

4) Flight map (departure/approach, airspace, aeronautical chart, etc.)

5) Unit alarm

6) One-key toggle display (Six-Pack)

Tuning control panel (TCP)

1) Display of current frequency and status

2) Radio frequency tuning

3) Standby frequency activation

4) Mode control

Standard Minimum Performance Standard for Airborne Multipurpose Electronic Displays (SEA AS8034)

General Requirements for Ergonomic Design of Military Visual Displays (GJB 1062A-2008)

General Specification for Military Rugged Liquid Crystal Display (SJ 20987-2008)

HUD-XV-210 Head-Up Display Unit (HUD)


HUD-XV-210 Head-Up Display Unit (HUD)
Main functions Speed indicator (indicated airspeed, true airspeed, Mach number, ground speed, target speed, vertical speed);

Altitude indicator (barometric altitude, radar altitude, target altitude);

Attitude indicator (course angle, angle of pitch, roll range, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, track, FPV speed vector);

Warning information (resistance to scratch tail, recovery from abnormal attitude, avoidance of conflict);

Approach gliding indicator (glide path deviation indicator, orientation deviation indicator);

Mode control and switching;

Front camera function;

Video output function for record.

Standard Minimum Performance Standard for Airborne Head Up Display (HUD) (SAE AS 8055-1999)

Airborne Equipment- Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures (RTCA/DO-160G)

DIU-XV-210 Data Interface Unit (DIU)


DIU-XV-210 Data Interface Unit (DIU)
Main functions 20-channel ARINC429 signal processing capacity;

10-channel Ethernet signal processing capacity;

20-channel RS422/RS232 signal processing capacity;

20-channel I/O signal processing capacity;

10-channel analog signal processing capacity;

5-channel CAN signal processing capacity;

Standard Airborne Equipment- Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures (RTCA/DO-160G)

CNS-DF-210 Integrated Radio System (CNS)


CNS-DF-210 Integrated Radio System (CNS)
Main functions VHF two-way voice communication function;

VHF emergency communication function;

ILS navigation function (LOC, GS, MB);

VOR navigation function;

ADF navigation function;

DME navigation function;

RA altitude measurement function;

ATC response function (mode S);

Support ADS-B OUT broadcasting function;

ACP audio processing and control function;

Alarm audio presentation function.

Standard Minimum Performance Standard for VOR Radio Receiving Equipment with Working Range of 108~117.95MHz (DO-196);

Minimum Performance Standard for ILS Course Beacon Receiving Equipment with Working Range of 108~112MHz (DO-195);

Minimum Performance Standard for ILS Gliding Receiving Equipment with Working Range of 328.6~335.4MHz (DO-192);

Minimum Performance Standard for Airborne Automatic Orientation Equipment (DO-179);

Minimum Performance Standard for VHF Radio Communication Transmitting Equipment with Working Range of 117.975~137.00MHz (DO-186B);

Minimum Performance Standard for Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System/Mode Selection (ATCRBS/Mode S) Airborne Equipment (DO-181D);

Minimum Performance Standard for Audio Selection Panel and Amplifier (DO-170);

Minimum Performance Standard for Beacon Receiving Equipment (DO-143);

Minimum Working Performance Standard for Radio Altitude Measurement Equipment (DO-103);

Minimum Working Performance Standard for Radio Distance Measurement Equipment (DO-189);

Airborne Equipment- Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures (RTCA/DO-160G)

INS-DF-210 Integrated Navigation System (INS/GNSS)


INS-DF-210 Integrated Navigation System (INS/GNSS)
Main functions Attitude heading measurement: angle of pitch, roll angle, heading, angular rate, acceleration, speed, position;

Satellite positioning measurement: UTC, position, speed;

Dual redundancy architecture.

Standard Minimum Performance Standard for Tilt Pitch Instrument (SAE AS8001)

Minimum Performance Standard for Gyro Stability Magnetic Heading Device (SAE AS8031A)

Minimum Performance Standard for Turn & Sideslip Indicator (SAE AS8004)

Airborne Equipment- Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures (RTCA/DO-160G)

ADS-DF-210 Air Data System (ADS)


ADS-DF-210 Air Data System (ADS)
Main functions Dual redundancy architecture;

Air data measurement: indicated airspeed, true airspeed, total pressure/static pressure, total temperature/static temperature, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, Mach number, barometric altitude, vertical speed;

Airspeed head of air data system with pilot’s manual heating function.

Standard Airborne Equipment- Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures (RTCA/DO-160G)

FDR-DF-210 Flight Data Records & Cockpit Video Monitor System (FDR&VMS)


FDR-DF-210 Flight Data Records & Cockpit Video Monitor System (FDR&VMS)
Main Functions Toggle switch is provided to realize the toggle display of head-up display system images and front cockpit pilot’s operation images;

Operation interface of display brightness control is provided to realize the display brightness control, and support manual and automatic brightness control;

The avionics system data received are recorded and stored;

Mass memory can realize the quick plug for the convenience of quickly accessing recorded data.

Standard Minimum Performance Standard for Air Data Computer (SAE AS8002a)

Airborne Equipment- Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures (RTCA/DO-160G)

Source hermes-sys.com

DA62 MPP Special Mission Aircraft: Details

DART-450 low-wing monoplane design

The DART-450 trainer incorporates a low-wing monoplane design. The under fuselage is fitted with retractable tricycle landing gear.


Le train principal robuste, avec une distance d’atterrissage de l’ordre de 400 mètres, Diamond à imaginé le DART-450 pour être opérable depuis n’importe quelle piste même non préparée © Fabrice Morlon / Aerobuzz.fr

The aircraft has a provision to carry an electro-optical / infrared (EO / IR) sensor gimbal that can retract into the underbody. It has a wingspan of 10m, maximum take-off weight of 1,700kg and empty weight of 1,050kg.


En mode « reconnaissance » le DaRT-450 emporte une caméra de 15 pouces qui est opérée depuis la place arrière © Fabrice Morlon / Aerobuzz.fr

Cockpit and avionics

The DART-450 trainer accommodates two crew members in tandem configuration. The bubble glass canopy on the cockpit offers improved visibility and access for crew.

The cockpit is also installed with Garmin avionics suite, which includes high-resolution, primary flight displays (PFDs) and multi-functional displays (MFDs).


L’avion, configurable en deux versions (voltige ou reconnaissance) peut être équipé également de trois avioniques différentes, de pods et caméras, en fonction de la mission attribuée © Fabrice Morlon / Aerobuzz.fr

The cockpit is equipped with side-stick control and ejection seats. The side-stick will initially be mated to conventionally boosted flight controls, before being integrated into a fly-by-wire system when designed.

Buyers will be offered a Garmin G3000-equipped cockpit as standard, or can select a system from other suppliers, including Esterline, Dries says. The Dart features a sidestick controller, while customers have the option to select Martin-Baker Mk16 ejection seats or a pneumatic escape system from Zvezda. Source flightglobal.com

Garmin G3000-equipped cockpit as standard

Garmin 3000 cockpit on Dart 550 – Diamond Aircraft

Martin-Baker Mk16 ejection seats


Avec une cabine spacieuse à la fois en largeur et en hauteur, le poste de pilotage est confortable et ergonomique © Fabrice Morlon / Aerobuzz.fr



  • Operating Ceiling: 50 000ft (15,250m)
  • Minimum height/Speed: Zero/zero in near level attitude
  • Crew boarding mass range: 62.3 to 123.0 kg
  • Crew size range: JPATS multi-variate body size cases 1 to 7
  • Maximum Speed for ejection: 370 KIAS (aircraft limit 316 KIAS)
  • Parachute type: GQ Type 5000
  • Parachute deployment: Cartridge initiated
  • Drogue parachute: 5 ft
  • Drogue deployment: Cartridge initiated and deployed
  • Harness type: Torso
  • Ejection seat operation type: Ejection guns and underseat rocket motor
  • Ejection gun: Twin
  • Ejection initiation: Handle on seat bucket initiates gas operated seat firing system
  • Automatic back-up unit: No, manual override
  • Electronic sequencer: No
  • Barostatic time-release unit: Yes + g-restrictor, cartridge initiated
  • Timers: Time delays in sequencing system
  • Seat adjustment: Up/down actuator operated 28 Vdc
  • Arm restraints: No
  • Leg restraints: Yes, two garters
  • Oxygen supply: Bottled emergency oxygen
  • Personal survival pack (PSP): Yes + automatic deployment
  • Aircrew services: Connection to emergency oxygen supply
  • Command ejection: Yes, via Interseat Sequencing System (ISS)
  • Canopy jettison: No
  • Canopy fracturing system: Yes
  • Interseat Sequencing System (ISS): Yes

Source martin-baker.com

DART-450 turboprop engine

Diamond Aircraft

The aircraft is equipped with a single AI-450SD turboprop engine produced by Ivchenko Progress / Motor Sich. The engine drives a five-bladed MT propeller and offers a maximum take-off power of 400hp to 495hp. The emergency power rating of the engine is 495hp.

The AI-450S is a variant of the AI-450 engine and measures 1,108mm-long, 575mm-wide and 702mm-high. The engine has a dry weight of 130kg and is intended to offer 20% lower fuel burn than similar type of engines in its class.

The engine features a two-rotor design including rotors’ core and free turbine with output shaft, and is equipped with a full authority digital engine control (FADEC) system. The aircraft has a fuel tank capacity of 450l and is expected to offer a fuel consumption of 90l/h. The operating cost of the aircraft is expected to be $500 an hour.

Ivchenko-Progress Motor Sich AI-450S turboprop

The family of turboprop engines AI-450С/СD/СР is designed for the use on multipurpose general aviation aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Installed on the DA50-JP7, DART-450 (Austria)

Emergency rating (S/L static; ISA +5°С)
Рower, hp 495
Takeoff (SLS, ISA +15 °C)
Power, hp 400…495
Specific fuel consumption, kg/hp/h 0.28
Maximum cruise (H=3,000m, V=250 km/h)
Power, hp 280
Specific fuel consumption, kg/hp/h 0.28
Dimensions, mm 1,108 х 575 х 702
Weight, dry kg 130

Engine data ivchenko-progress.com

GE H-75? (Third aircraft)

The GE H-Series is a family of turboprop engines o ering a customized range of ratings and performance for commuters, personal and agricultural aircrafts and aerobatic trainers.

The engine is a two-shaft, reverse ow design featuring an axial-centrifugal compressor, an annular combustor with slinger ring fuel distributor and a single high pressure turbine stage. The slinger ring combustor architecture simpli es maintenance and eliminates the need for recurrent fuel nozzle inspections. The propulsion section is powered by a single-stage turbine driving a two-stage planetary gearbox.

GE H-Series is available with either hydromechanical control or rst-in-class Electronic Engine and Propeller Control (EEPC). The EEPC system reduces pilot workload by simplifying engine operation with a single lever power control.

GE H-Series aerobatic engine is equipped with EEPC, multi attitude lubrication system and strengthened structure for high g-force aerobatic maneuvers.

Source GE

DART-450 performance

Diamond Aircraft

The DART-450 aircraft has a stall speed of 111km/h (60kt), while the projected maximum true air speed (TAS) is 463km/h (250kt). It can reach a maximum distance of 2,296km (1,240nmi).

The maximum rate of climb of the aircraft exceeds 15m/s, while the maximum endurance is eight hours plus reserve capacity.

The aircraft has a maximum operational altitude of 7,000m and requires a take-off distance of 600m and landing roll of 400m. Its aerobatic design allows for manoeuvring between the g-limits of 7g and -5g.

Diamond Aircraft


Manufacturer Diamond Aircraft
Registration number OE-VDA
Length 9.75 m / 34 ft
Wingspan 11.79 m / 28 ft 8 in
Height 3.43 m / 11 ft 3 in
Max. takeoff weight 2,300 kg / 5,071 lbs
Empty weight 1,430 kg / 3,156 lbs
Max. payload 870 kg / 1,918 lbs
Service ceiling 7,010 m / 23,000 ft
Max. speed 426 km/h / 230 KTAS
Powerplant Ivchenko Progress / Motor Sich AI-450 S
Power 495 hp
Crew 2
Display Flying

Source airpower.gv.at

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Boeing-Sikorsky SB-1 DEFIANT

SB>1 DEFIANT is a modern, fully-integrated vertical lift aircraft being developed by Boeing and Sikorsky for the US Army’s joint multi-role (JMR) technology demonstration of the Future Vertical Lift (FVL) programme.

The aircraft will meet the attack and assault needs of the US Army, along with the long-range transportation, infiltration and resupply needs of the US Marine Corps.

The Sikorsky X2-coaxial Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) was originally proven on the S-69/XH-59, own between 1973 and 1981. It demonstrated 263 kt (487 km/hr) in a shallow dive. (US Army photo)

SB>1 DEFIANT will be capable of performing tight assault formations, close proximity landing, unique hovering, high-speed and low-speed flights due to its large angular rates and precision attitude control capabilities.


Sikorsky S-100 registration confirmed as SB-1 Defiant

The news of the registration — for N-number N100FV, serial number 0001 — was first reported by Helihub. A spokesperson for Sikorsky parent company Lockheed Martin confirmed to Vertical that the registration is for the compound helicopter that Sikorsky and Boeing are developing for the U.S. Army’s Joint Multi-Role Technology Demonstrator (JMR TD) program, a precursor to the Future Vertical Lift (FVL) program that aims to modernize the Army’s rotorcraft fleet.

“Yes, the registry application for S-100 is referring to the Sikorsky-Boeing SB>1 Defiant,” the spokesperson said. “Our team is following the FAA’s process for how they formally designate experimental aircraft; however, we will continue to use SB>1 Defiant when describing our aircraft asset.” Source verticalmag.com

Sikorsky Defiant

Source helis.com

V-280 Valor Helicopter: Details

S-97 Raider: Details


SB>1 DEFIANT design and features

The next-generation aircraft will meet the future demands of the military, offering an optimal combination of speed, lift and range, with better agility and greater manoeuvrability. It will be built with 85% commonality between attack and assault aircraft.

The fuselage of Defiant will be made of composite materials for achieving superior strength and weight reductions. It will integrate a retractable type landing gear for less drag during flight.

SB>1 DEFIANT will be equipped with X2 rigid co-axial rotor system technology, which was tested aboard the X2 and S-97 Raider aircraft. Each rotor of the twin co-axial rotor system will revolve in opposite direction and will reduce the net torque of the other rotor in real-time.

Twin rigid co-axial counter-rotating main rotors


Its rotor blades will be made from composite material, which will reduce vibrations and minimise wear of the components, while providing greater life and reduced maintenance costs. The aircraft will also be equipped with the active vibrator control technology to dampen the vibrations from the rotors and deliver smooth lift and manoeuvrability.

The rear fuselage will integrate a pusher propulsor with the clutch, enabling the aircraft to attain approximately twice the speed of a conventional rotorcraft. The pusher configuration will also allow the aircraft to cover longer distances during the long-range missions, while advanced drive system will ensure minimal transmission losses.

The manually foldable blades will reduce the space requirements during parking, picketing, and transport. The aircraft will fit in the footprint of a folded AH-1 when folded for shipboard stowage.


SB>1 DEFIANT will feature a rotorcraft equipped with a fly-by-wire system, which can control the rotors, pusher propulsor, rudders, and elevators. Each rotor blade actuator will be connected to the fly-by-wire technology to avoid any potential mechanical losses.

The active rudder and elevator controls can change the flight path of the aircraft with greater agility and ease. The aircraft will also have options to employ weapons during all modes of flight.

Cabin details of SB>1 DEFIANT

SB>1 DEFIANT can accommodate 12 fully combat-equipped troops and four crew members. It will also offer sufficient space for medical evacuation (MEDIVAC) operations.

SB>1 DEFIANT performance

The aircraft will be capable of flying at a maximum speed of 250ktas (463km/h) and hover out of ground effect (HOGE) at an altitude of 6,000ft.

It will have greater expeditionary range and endurance and will have the capability to carry heavier payloads compared to the present generation rotorcraft.

The forward thrust offered by the pusher propulsor will enable the aircraft to rapidly displace itself from the flight path in high-threat environments.

The SB-1 will initially be powered by a pair of Honeywell T-55 engines but will later be upgraded to the winner of the Future Affordable Turbine Engine (FATE) competition. The aircraft is expected to have a cruising speed of 250 knots.  Source ainonline.com

The Transmission System Test Bed will run in 2016 at West Palm Beach. (Sikorsky graphic)

Sikorsky Defiant chief engineer Steve Weiner observed, “The basic features of X2 technology continue to be the same — fly-by-wire, active vibration control, integrated propeller, high lift-to-drag rotor, increased operational envelope, low pilot workload. All those features have been incorporated into De ant, just like previous X2 designs. To date, the De ant has all the performance with a lower weight empty fraction than previous X2 designs.”

Weiner expected the Defiant weight fraction would approach that of the Black Hawk and added, “We’re coming in where we expected to be when we first proposed these demonstrator aircraft. ”The SB>1 benefits from composite lessons learned in the CH- 53K and other structures programs. “The De ant airframe combines a primarily composite structure with metallic components in an engineered structure that minimizes weight. This general construction is similar to the Raider, but the different requirements for De ant result in a different structure. There are also payload differences.”

Defiant leverages work done on the X2 and Raider rotor systems. “Overall rotor performance, from both figure-of-merit and lift-to-drag ratio is as good or better than Raider,” summarized Shidler. “The Defiant blades are similar to those on Raider as far as general planform and airfoil choice. However, the De ant rotor diameter is larger due to greater payload requirements, and some of the performance goals of De ant are different than Raider, requiring other minor differences. De ant also includes manual blade fold, which is not a feature of the current Raider design. The incorporation of the fold feature, in combination with a different hub to blade interface has resulted in a different airfoil distribution than Raider.”

Sikorsky Defiant

Deviant blades approximate those of the UH-60M in size and those of the Raider in design. Weiner summarized, “As the basic requirements change, things like chord and diameter will change. They’re certainly not identical, but they’re not very far o either.”

The XH-59A exercised differential pitch on its coaxial rotors to make snap turns, and coaxial rotors lowered disk loading to reduce turn radius dynamically. The X2, Raider and Deviant all share an auxiliary tail thruster integrated with the main rotors via fly-by-wire flight controls to provide forward and reverse thrust as needed. Source vtol.org

2 x Honeywell T-55 engines

The T55-714A features a seven-stage axial compressor, a two-stage free power turbine, a two-stage gas producer turbine, centrifugal compressor, and a reverse-flow atomizing combustor. All models can be configured with a Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) system.

Upgrade kits are currently available from Honeywell for the T55 Family of engines. These will update the engine with latest technology standards. Compared to older T55 engines, the T55-714A upgrade provides a 22% power increase, a 7% improvement in fuel efficiency and a significant enhancement of reliability and maintainability. Altogether, the upgrade results in a 25% reduction in operation and support costs. Also, the time between engine overhauls will increase to 3,000 hours. The goal is to go to on-condition maintenance in the future.

Honeywell‘s next generation T55-L-71X engines will offer the flexibility of even more power with improved SFC.

Manufacturer: Honeywell International, Inc.
(originally produced by Lycoming Engines – Textron)
Power: Continous: 4,168 shp; Max: 4,867 shp
Overall Pressure Ratio at Maximum Power: 9.32
Compressor: Axial flow/centrifugal
Compressor Stages: 7-stage axial/1-stage centrifugal
Turbine: 2 HP + 2 PT
Engine Control: FADEC
Length: 47.1 in (1.2 m)
Diameter: 24.3 in (61.6 cm)
Dry Weight: 830 lbs (376 kg)
Platforms: CH-47 Chinook; MH-47 Special Forces Chinook
Price/Unit Cost: $1.06 million (in 2016)
Introduced: 1950s (first T55 model)
First Run: 1950s (first T55 model)
First Flight: September 21, 1961

Source fi-powerweb.com

Main material source army-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated