Monthly Archives: December 2015

MD Helicopters MD 530G scout attack helicopter

The MD 530G is a next-generation light scout attack helicopter being developed by the US-based company MD Helicopters. MD Helicopters has been at the forefront of more than 50-years of scout attack helicopter innovation. Beginning with the 1963 introduction of the OH-6A Cayuse through to the 1985 certification of the MD 530F, the world’s most reliable scout for “hot and high” performance.

MD 530F Cayuse Warrior: Details

MD 530F

The MD 530G is the next evolution of purpose-built armed scout attack helicopters. Designed to be the lowest cost Gunship in the marketplace, the MD 530G maximizes mission versatility and capability for MD customers. The MD 530G platform enables military customers to meet mission requirements in austere environments more efficiently and effectively than ever before.

The helicopter was officially unveiled at the Helicopter International Association conference and exhibition (Heli-Expo) held in Anaheim, US, in February 2014. It successfully fired .50 calibre and 7.62mm ammunition, and unguided and four Raytheon TALON laser-guided rockets during live fire qualification exercise at Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona, in August 2014.


The MD 530G is based on the MD530F airframe. The helicopter is 7.76m long and 3m wide and has an overall height of 2.88m. It has five main rotor blades and two tail rotor blades. The main rotor diameter is 8.38m, while the tail rotor diameter is 1.55m. The helicopter has an empty weight of 885kg, maximum internal gross weight of 1,520kg and maximum take-off gross weight of 1,701kg. It can carry an increased useful load of 816kg to operate with additional range and endurance.


Elbit’s HDTS can be employed in both day and night operations, providing pilots with a hybrid head-tracking capability, which will enhance coordination and improve targeting/cueing. The WMS will give the MD 530G Block II a comprehensive number of suppressive firepower options, including guided and unguided munitions such as the Hellfire air-to-surface missile. Per customer demand, the Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System (APKWS) can also be integrated onto the helicopter. The WMS also supports M260 rocket pods, RMP digital gun/rocket pods, HMP 400 digital gun pods, and M134D-H miniguns. Elbit’s WMS will add critical weapons management functions to the MD 530G Block II, with weapon activation and HDTS operation being integrated into both pilots’ cyclic grip.

The main addition that will be included in this agreement is the MMS – a digital mapping application which is managed by a touch screen graphical user interface, boosting situational awareness by noting aircraft positions, friendly forces/locations and known threats. The MMS will integrate with the MD 530G Block II’s Electro-Optical/Infrared (EO/IR) system, which will compliment the detection and storing of intelligence, enabling crews to further engage threats. Source


The MD 530G scout attack helicopter is powered by Rolls-Royce 250-C30 engine, which generates a power output of 485kW. The 250-C30 turboshaft engine is two-shaft modular design featuring a two-stage LP turbine, two-stage HP turbine, and a gearbox with 6,000rpm output. Compressed air is routed to the aft end of the engine for combustion, with exhaust gases exiting from the middle of the engine. The 250-C30 features four to six-stage axial and single-stage centrifugal compressor with a hydromechanical fuel control system. C-30 version turboshaft also features a FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) system.

Rolls-Royce 250-C30 engine

Rolls-Royce 250-C30 engine

The M250 turboshaft engines are of two-shaft modular design featuring a two-stage LP turbine, two-stage HP turbine, and a gearbox with 6,000rpm output. Compressed air is routed to the aft end of the engine for combustion, with exhaust gases exit from the middle.

The Series II features four to six-stage axial and single-stage centrifugal compressors with a hydromechanical fuel control system. The larger Series IV family is identical in layout, but has a single-stage centrifugal rather than an axial/centrifugal compressor.


The helicopter can fly at a maximum cruise speed of 240km/h at sea level under international standard atmospheric conditions. It has a maximum permitted speed of 282km/h at sea level and can fly to a range of 426km. The MD 530G can endure for two and half hours with an auxiliary fuel tank.


The MD 530G helicopter features T-shaped instrument panel installed with two glass multi-function displays (MFDs). On the left is the EO/IR video display, which includes weapon status and targeting overlays. The right side of the panel is the pilot’s Garmin G500H MFD, and below is back up flight/engine instrumentation.

That Smelly Skunk from Palmdale

Garmin G500H MFD


Improve Mission Efficiency and Reliability

  • Dual 6.5” flight displays that are easy to read
  • See clearly in dark VFR night, DVE or inadvertent IMC with HSVT™
  • Helicopter Terrain Awareness Warning System (HTAWS) support
  • Weather, traffic, and charting all in your primary field of view
  • Video input for FLIR or other camera display

Engineered for safety and reliability, the G500H dual-screen electronic flight display provides an affordable flight solution that meets the needs of the most demanding helicopter missions. G500H has received FAA STCs for installation in the Robinson R44, Bell 206 series and Bell 407, as well as the Eurocopter AS350B2, AS350B3 and EC130B4.

Better Situational Awareness

Dual 6.5″ LCD screens, mounted side-by-side in a single bezel, put Primary Flight Display (PFD) and Multi-Function Display (MFD) capabilities right in front of you for easy scanning and interpretation. The PFD screen shows attitude, airspeed, altitude, climb rate and course/heading information, while the left side MFD provides detailed moving-map graphics with the helicopter’s current position in relation to ground features, chart data, navaids and flight plan routings. Both screens are Class B night-vision goggle friendly for use with an array of optics.

Specially adapted to the needs of helicopter operators, our HSVT brings a powerful graphical perspective. Available as an option, HSVT can make a world of difference when visibility is less than ideal.

HSVT gives you a clear depiction of ground and water features, airports, obstacles, traffic and more — all shown in 3-D perspective on the primary flight display. It uses sophisticated computer modeling to recreate a virtual topographic landscape from the system’s terrain alerting database. The HSVT graphics look so real, it’s almost like having a clear-day “out-the-window” view of your flight situation — even in the darkest nighttime VFR or other low-visibility conditions.

Proven AHRS attitude/heading reference delivers high-precision spatial sensing for G500H digital instrumentation, replacing old-style gyros.

G500H can be purchased with the PFD on either the right or left side of the bezel for easy viewing depending on your pilot seat position.

Maintain Maximum Separation

With a GNS 430W or 530W series HTAWS navigator interfaced to G500H, certified “forward looking” terrain avoidance (FLTA) predicts in advance where potential hazards exist. An HTAWS warning received from the GNS 430W- or 530W-series navigator displays as an annunciation to the left and aligned with the top of the Altitude Tape on the G500H PFD.

To monitor location on unfamiliar airports, G500H is preloaded with geo-referenced SafeTaxi® diagrams for either U.S. or Europe airports, as well as a trial version of FliteCharts®. FBO, ground transportation, lodging and other facility information for most U.S. airports are also available through preloaded AOPA Airport Directory Data. When flying internationally, opt for global AC-U-KWIK airport directory data instead. Source:

Cockpit For Malaysian Army

MD 530G Attack Helicopter for Malaysian Army Aviation As one of six (6) MD 530G helicopters ordered by Malaysia’s Ministry of Defence for delivery to Malaysian Army Aviation, the MD 530G-glass cockpit features: Two (2) Genesys Aerosystems IDU-680 6” x 9” LCD primary displays Tek Fusion Global’s PATHFINDER™ Mission Management System (MMS) and “ARES” Weapons Management System (WMS) on Dual Side-Mounted Mission Displays. Source

Steve Trimble

IDU-680 Genesys Aerosystems

The Genesys Aerosystems Integrated IDU-680 EFIS/EICAS/MFD system aboard the MD 902 Explorer features:

– Three IDU-680, 6” x 9” High-Resolution LCD displays
– Automatic or Manual Revisionary Modes
– 3D Synthetic Vision
– Highway-In-The-Sky (HITS) Navigation
– Geo-Referenced Hover Vector
– Helicopter Terrain Awareness and Warning System (H-TAWS)
– Night Vision A&B Capabilities
– Weather Radar Integration
– Integrated ADS-B Traffic Display
– Engine Instrument Crew Advisory System (EICAS)
– Data Acquisition Units for Custom Engine Monitoring- Flight Data RecordingGraphicalFMS/VHF FEATURESNavigation- Moving Map




PATHFINDER™ is a customizable Mission Management System (MMS) that has been meticulously designed by a team of former special operations aviators based on real-world experience. Already fielded on NorthStar Aviation’s highly successful Bell 407GX platform, PATHFINDER™ is proven to maximize utility and ease of use with seamless integration of onboard systems. The architects behind PATHFINDER™ understand the critical needs and challenges of the operator, and are dedicated to delivering the best end-user experience possible.


PATHFINDER™ uses an easy to navigate interface to simplify and consolidate mission execution tasks. This provides painless command and control of onboard navigation, communication, and peripheral electronic equipment. Optimizing user tasks directly enhances task efficiency and accuracy, and reduces operator workload. With the defense industry’s most common operationally critical features already implemented, PATHFINDER™ can be rapidly integrated to any existing airframe, ground vehicle, or easily customized to support your unique project. Our modular design approach assures the perfect fit, even for budget-conscious implementations. Source



ARES is a weapons management system (WMS) designed from the ground upwith a cutting
edge object-based graphical user interface (GUI) developed by former special operations
aviators based on real-world experience. ARES is a software-based configurable system with
a hardware ARM-SAFE infrastructure. ARES is designed to readily support both legacy and
emerging weapons systems in a tactically optimized manner, while reducing size, weight,
and power.


› Modular
› Lightweight
› Scalable
› Compact
› Rugged
› Adaptable
› NVIS Compatible
› Ease of Use
› Touch & Bezel Interfaces
› Impedence controlled
› Single Source Solution


ARES is designed to use the aircraft’s EO/IR monitor as the WMS interface using a
touchscreen GUI. The system is fully integrated with FLIR and L-3 WESCAM Gen II sensors.
Critical EO/IR functions can be controlled through the user interface. The system provides
aircraft steering commands and targeting overlays to guide the pilot into the proper launch
constraints. This reduces pilot workload, and improves the probability of hitting the target. Source

The MD 530G helicopter is also equipped with Rhode & Schwarz M3AR tactical radio communications solution with a frequency range from 30MHz to 400MHz.With the integration of on-board systems that include a Stores Management System, forward looking infrared sensor, and an advanced communications suite, MD Helicopters has evolved a proven platform to provide comprehensive battlefield command and control coordination for the successful execution of Attack, Reconnaissance and Security missions.

Rhode & Schwarz M3AR tactical radio communications solution

R&S®M3AR Software Defined Radios

VHF/UHF Transceiver Family for Airborne Communications

Key Facts

  • Frequency range from 30 MHz to 400 MHz
  • Compact and lightweight with high transmit power (up to 20 W in AM mode and up to 30 W in FM mode)
  • Approved for jet and propeller aircraft as well as helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles
  • Embedded NATO or R&S®SECOS encryption
  • Suitable for communications with military and civil air traffic control (e.g. 8.33 kHz channel spacing or offset carrier receive operation)

Brief Description

The software defined, multiband-capable airborne transceivers of the R&S®M3AR family feature a modular design and state-of-the-art technology. This leads to high MTBF values and a long life. The compact and lightweight transceivers offer high performance, making them suitable for operation in all types of aircraft, including unmanned aerial vehicles. Different waveforms are available, which can be installed at any time to provide interoperability in a variety of operational scenarios.

The R&S®M3AR family is the product of decades of experience, especially in the design and development of airborne radio equipment and software defined radio technology. The R&S®M3AR multiband, multimode, multirole radio is the solution of choice for the reliable transmission of mission-critical information, whether it’s for jet or propeller aircraft, helicopters or unmanned aerial vehicles.

Rohde & Schwarz satisfies the most demanding requirements of a multitude of airborne platforms. The R&S®M3AR transceivers are in operation around the world and feature high reliability even under extreme environmental conditions. The outstanding MTBF values ensure low maintenance effort and high availability.

A variety of optional EPM (ECCM) methods are available. For instance, the R&S®SECOS frequency hopping method with integrated encryption can be installed in parallel with HAVE QUICK I/II.

The R&S®M3AR family consists of the R&S®MR6000A in an ARINC 600 housing and the R&S®MR6000R/ R&S®MR6000L, both of which are ARC-164 form & fit compatible. The R&S®MR6000L is equipped with a local control panel while the R&S®MR6000R is remote-controlled. All R&S®M3AR radios can be remote-controlled via the MIL‑STD-1553B data bus, as well as by the R&S®GB6500 control unit. The R&S®MR6000R or R&S®MR6000L can serve as a form, fit and function (F3) replacement for legacy AN/ARC-164 radios.


The MD 530G is fitted with the Moog Third Generation Weapon Stores Management System (SMS), which provides the aviator with best-in-class weapons management on the MD 530G Armed Scout/Attack platform.

Moog Third Generation Weapon Stores Management System (SMS)

This scalable SMS includes one Stores Management Computer (SMC), weighing 4 pounds, located in the cargo compartment, one Multi-Function Display (MFD), weighing 6 pounds, mounted in the cockpit instrument panel, one Stores Control Panel (SCP), weighing 1.2 pounds, mounted in the cockpit slant panel, two Stores Interface Unit (SIU), weighing 3.5 pounds/7 pounds total, located in the cargo compartment, and two Rocket Interface Unit (RIU), weighing 3 pounds/6 pounds total, located in the cargo compartment.

Moog Third Generation Weapon Stores Management System (SMS)

The total weight of the SMS is only 24.2 lbs. The Stores Management Computer interfaces with the Multi-function Display and the MX-10D EO/IR sensor and laser designation system via RS-422, MIL-STD-1553, ARINC-429, or Ethernet, depending on customer need. For the MD 530G application, the SMS supports up to 4 weapons stations; including integration of machine guns, unguided and guided munitions.


Infused with modern technology and MDHI innovation, the agility and firepower of the MD 530G will provide significant expansion in airborne combat capabilities, enabling military customers to meet mission requirements in austere environments more effectively and efficiently than ever before. With cruise speeds in excess of 110kts, the MD 530G is designed for agile deployment with any rotary wing unit. The aircraft features increased capacity landing gear supporting the 3,750 MGTOW (max gross takeoff weight). This allows the operator to utilize the increased useful load for additional range, endurance and weapons.

Mace Aviation Extended Range Weapons Wing (ER2W)


The MD 530G is equipped with Mace Aviation’s weapons mounting structure. The Mace Aviation Extended Range Weapons Wing (ER2W) is a lightweight, four-station weapons platform constructed of aerospace grade composite materials. The ER2W was specifically designed for MD Helicopters product line and enhances the MD 530G aircraft performance by the wing’s integral 35 gallon auxiliary fuel system.

The Mace ER2W provides four distinct advantages to the MD 530G aircraft that are not provided by other legacy weapons mount structures. The ER2W is lightweight, weighing less than 100 pounds empty and can carry over 1,300 pounds of weapons and ammo to include 235 pounds of fuel. Integral to the ER2W is a crashworthy, self-sealing 35 gallon fuel system, manufactured by Robertson Fuel Systems, increases the MD 530G’s effective range and endurance by approximately one hour. The system is designed for rapid reconfiguration.

A three point attachment scheme and quick disconnects for the wiring harness and fuel line allows the MD 530G to be quickly reconfigured between attack, assault, and/or utility operations in less than 10 minutes by two personnel. The ER2W airfoil design provides increased maneuverability with decreased drag. The ER2W is equipped with four weapons stations that include provisions for the M134D-H for both inboard stations. The two outboard stations are equipped with ALKAN suspension racks with standard 14 inch NATO interfaces and provisions for in-flight store jettison for additional pod guns, rockets or missiles. The ER2W is designed to grow with the capability and operator needs.

Dillon Aero M134D-H Gatling Gun

Dillon Aero M134D-H Gatling Gun  & .50cal FN M3P pod on Malaysian MD 530G –

M134D-H for both inboard stations the Dillon Aero M134D-H Gatling Gun. The M134D-H (Hybrid) is the latest Gatling Gun design from Dillon Aero. This Hybrid Gatling Gun combines the light-weight attributes of the M134D-T (Titanium) weapon with the long-life durability of the M134D (Steel) variant. The Hybrid Gun is ideal for aircraft applications, weighing a mere two pounds more than the Titanium variant. Service life is extended three-fold, increasing weapon-system longevity from 300,000 to 1,000,000 rounds. The MD 530G offers the M134D-H in multiple arrangement options, including single and dual-weapon configurations, effectively complementing other weapon system capabilities. The M134D-H will come standard with a 3,000 round ammo magazine that will be easily stowed on top of the Mace Extended Range Weapons Wing in the cargo compartment of the MD 530G. The total system weight, including the weapon, feed chute, harness, and ammunition magazine is a mere 93 pounds, excluding ammunition.

Steve Trimble

Raytheon TALON 2.75-inch (70 mm) Laser-Guided Rocket


Raytheon TALON 2.75-inch (70 mm) Laser-Guided Rocket, co-developed with the United Arab Emirates, leverages Raytheon’s extensive experience in laser seeker technology and builds on its proven track record of precision munitions development and production. TALON is a low cost solution that fills the gap between existing unguided rockets and heavy, expensive anti-tank missiles that are currently deployed on attack helicopters. It is effective against soft and lightly armored point targets while providing precision engagement capability that reduces the potential of collateral damage. TALON’s architecture and ease of employment make it a low-cost, highly precise weapon for missions in urban environments, counter insurgency and swarming boat defense missions.

The TALON LGR consists of a light weight laser guidance kit that attaches to existing 2.75-inch (70 mm) unguided rockets that are used extensively throughout the world. The guidance kit incorporates Raytheon’s digital semi-active laser seeker, guidance electronics, a three-axis control actuation system, and the TALON roll-optimizing tail-fin assembly. The kit is fully compatible with existing airborne and ground laser designators and requires no modifications to the existing 70 mm rocket launchers.

Rocket pod

m260l_01.jpg612b13ce-2e13-4155-878f-51269fb22006Larger.jpgRocket and Rocket pod

.50cal FN M3P pod


.50cal FN M3P pod & Dillon Aero M134D-H Gatling Gun on Malaysian MD 530G –

.50cal FN M3P pod For the heavy machine gun solution, the MD 530G incorporates the FN Herstal Heavy Machine Gun Pod (HMP). This system is an independent unit housing a 12.7 mm (.50 caliber) FN M3P machine gun. Fitted with standard lugs, the pod can be carried by the MD 530G helicopter’s 14-inch NATO standard bomb rack. The weapon is air cooled and operates by short barrel recoil. The gun is accurate up to 1,850 meters and remains effective up to 3,000 meters. Its high rate of fire – up to 1,100 rounds per minute – provides lethal fire concentration. A self-contained ammunition box has a capacity of up to 400 cartridges. Cartridges are fed to the gun by an internal ammunition chute. High ammunition capacity enables a number of attacks to be made without rearming. Belt advance is smooth and without risk of jamming or fouling due to aircraft attitudes and accelerations.

The L-3 Wescam MX-10 series sensor and LASER designator will round out the MD 530G mission and weapons equipment package. The MX-10 and MX-10D deliver MX-series high performance stabilization, high resolution HD Color, Lowlight and Infra-Red imagery, high accuracy Geopoint/Geolocate and precision targeting lasers to the small turret class. The MX-10 and MX-10D are combat proven and serving on U.S Military, International and Special Forces Platforms around the world today.

L-3 Wescam

Shephard Media

The MX-10/10D are a single LRU system saving both weight, space and cabling on the MD 530G with a total system weight below 43lbs. The MX10 is self-aligning and bore-sighting requiring input from the aircraft, and permits Geo-point and geo tracking capability. L3’s MX10 features 4-axis stabilization vibration isolation of the payload provide the ability to conduct laser designation beyond 10km, a low Pilot work load as the turret maintains target position without input while maneuvering the aircraft, and a high reliability and low cost of operation with mean time between failure exceeding 1000HRS. The MX-10D is compatible with industry-standard mounting interfaces and also supports platform unique requirements.

The overall diameter of 10.24 inch x 10.6 inch (260 x 270 mm) matches existing small EO/IR systems, making the MX-10D suitable for belly mounting in low ground clearance airframes. The electrical connectors are side mounted to facilitate installations where cable penetration immediately above the turret is not practical. The MX-10 series provide three high definition SMPTE 292M digital video outputs and four analog video outputs, for direct connection to displays, recorders and data links. All internal video paths are digital, excluding the final digital-to-analog conversion step for the analog videos. Each output of the digital video switch matrix can be independently selected to be IR, EO, Fused or Video-In-Control. Symbology on each output from the switch matrix can be individually enabled, disabled and de-cluttered.

MX-10D EO/IR sensor and laser designation system

Ideal for: Low-altitude Tactical Surveillance & Target Acquisition and Designation missions requiring low-weight installation flexibility
Installations: Fixed-wing, Rotary-wing, UAV, Aerostat

Features & Benefits

Compact Solution

  • 43 lb./19.5 kg turret
  • 15 in. turret height for better ground clearance

Multi-Sensor Imaging/Lasing Payload Options:

  • Currently supports up to six sensors simultaneously
  • Superior HD imaging resolution from Electro-Optical (EO) camera
  • Laser rangefinder, illuminator, designator

Latest Enhancement – 2015

  • Picutre-in-Picutre (PiP)

Enhanced Local Area Processing (ELAP):

  • Real-time image enhancement for EO day, EO night & Infrared

High-Performance IMU & MX-GEO Software Suite:

  • IMU & MX-GEO work to create accurate target location
  • MX-GEO automatically aligns to the aircraft
  • Robust automatic image focus

Uncompromised Stabilization:

  • Four-axis gimbal with internal IMU
  • All payloads are fully stabilized

MX-Series Commonality:

  • Common operator interfaces and Hand Controller Units (HCUs)
  • Simplified interchangeability
  • Efficiencies in product support and technology enhancements


light scout attack helicopter
Country user
– (in development)
Country Producer
United States
2 + 2
Rolls-Royce 250-C30 Engine
282 km/h (max cruise speed: 240 km/h)
426 km
885 kg (max payload: 816 kg)
Garmin G500H dual-screen flight display, night-vision-goggle (NVG) devices, dual LH command flight controls, Moog Third Generation Weapon Stores Management System
Length: 7.76 m; Width: 3 m; Heigth: 2.88 m

MD 530G MD530G scout attack helicopter technical data sheet specifications intelligence description information identification pictures photos images video MD Scout attack helicopters MD Scout attack helicopters Aircraft United States American US USN USMC US Air Force US Navy aviation aerospace defence industry military technology

Main material source

Updated Apr 19, 2018

Next Gen cockpit

Radio-Optical Phased Arrays (ROFAR) Futuristic Photonic Radar

KRET creates a laboratory for research in Photonics

The group has been developing radar and EW systems based on new technologies

In recent years, electronic systems all often replaced on the photon. Linked it in the first turn with a different physical nature of the photon. That same is a photon and what unique capabilities of military technology will provide a new direction – believe that radio Photonics?

Fast electrons

Photonics is essentially analogous to electronics, but it uses in place of electrons the electromagnetic field of photons. Photons are more common in terms of the number of particles in the universe and, unlike electrons, have no mass or charge. For this reason, photonic systems are not subject to external electromagnetic fields and have a much larger signal transmission range and bandwidth.

As an area of science, the study of photonics began in 1960 with the invention of the first important technical device using photons, the laser. The very same term “photonics” was used widely in the 1980s in connection with the beginning of widespread use of fiber-optic transmissions. Notably, in Russia the first development of such a fiber-optic cable was completed by Special Design Office of the Cable Industry, which is now part of KRET.

These developments revolutionized the telecommunications sector at the end of the last century and became the basis for the development of the internet. Generally, until 2001, the field of photonics was primarily focused on telecommunications.

Today, telecommunications photonics is helping to create a new trend – radio photonics arising from the merger of radio-wave optics, microwave, optoelectronics, and other branches of science and industry.

In other words, radio photonics deals with problems of transmission, reception, and transformation of information using electromagnetic waves of microwave and photonic devices and systems. These photons facilitate the creation of radio frequency parameters unattainable with conventional electronics.

A breakthrough in radio photons

As is well known, Russia is behind Western countries in terms of microelectronics. But now certain radio photonic technologies have started to beat the competition. Today, Russian scientists in the field of defense technology believe it is possible to give up on electrons and draw attention to the photons that have no mass and fly faster.

According to experts, the servers operating with photonics are a hundred times smaller compared to current models, and the speed of data transmission is tenfold greater.

Or, for example, take ground-based radar. Today, this radar is the size of a multi-story home, but using microwave photonics, the station can be installed on a standard KAMAZ truck. The effectiveness and range of the radar would be exactly the same, namely thousands of kilometers. Several of these mobile and small radar systems can be networked, which will only increase their characteristics.

Photonic technology has greatly expanded the capabilities of airborne radars too. New developments in this area have reduced the weight of existing antennas and radars by more than two times and have increased their resolution by ten times. Also radio photon antennas have a unique immunity to electromagnetic impulses that arise, such as nearby lightning strikes or during solar magnetic storms.

All of this will enable the creation of broadband radars that can facilitate a level of resolution and speed that can be called radar vision. Such systems will be used in the civilian sphere, for example, with high-speed trains that will instantly detect obstacles on the tracks.

Photonics can also be effectively used in housing, for example, in urban and township heating systems. Instead of hot water, photons will be distributed in photonic crystal fibers with the thickness of a human hair. Its energy is converted into heat with nearly 100% efficiency.

Laboratory of the future

In Russia, KRET is developing radio photonic technology. Today, the concern and the Foundation for Advanced Studies are working on a promising project called “Development of an active phased array based on radio photons.” The project includes the creation of a special laboratory at concern enterprises, as well as the development of universal technology that will serve as the foundation for next-generation radar and electronic warfare systems.

According to the KRET CEO Nikolai Kolesov, the latest technology will make it possible to create effective and advanced next-generation receiver-transmitters, radar systems, electronic intelligence and electronic countermeasures by 2020.

One of the main areas of work will be the creation of a next-generation active phased array antenna, whose basic elements will be created using the principles of radio photonics. This will reduce the weight of the apparatus 1.5-3 times, increase its reliability and efficiency up to 2-3 times, and raise the scanning speed and resolution dozens of times. source:

Some VERY important data points in the article:

1.) Electronics based on photonics will have decreased the need for ‘servers’ down to 1/100th the current level, and will increase the data transfer rate by 10 fold!

2.) When fully mature photonics will allow truck based radars to have the same power, resolution, and capability as massive OTH radars!

3.) KRET’s early work in radiophotonics (photonics based radars) are incredibly promising. Developments in the field while it’s in it’s infancy allows airborne radars (AEW while based on photonics) weight to be cut down 1/2 the current weight, and increased the resolution by 10 fold!

4.) Photonic based radars will have it’s ECM resistance grow by several orders of magnitude! Will be heavily resistant to electro-magnetic storms…

5.) By the 2020’s photonic based AESA radars will grow by leaps and bounds in capability. The weight of AESA radar will be cut down by 1.5 to 3 times, increase the reliability and efficiency by 2 to 3 times, and increase the scanning speed and resolution by several dozen times that of contemporary AESA radars!

6.) Photonics can also be effectively applied in housing, for example, in urban and rural heating systems. Instead of hot water energy photons will be used. They will be distributed in photonic crystal fibers with a thickness of human hair, the energy of which is converted into heat with almost 100% efficiency! Source: magnumcromagnon/


Buk-M3 air defense systems

MOSCOW, December 26. /TASS/. A new cutting-edge missile has been created for the Buk-M3 medium-range air defense missile system, Lieutenant General Alexander Leonov, the commander of Russia’s air defense troops, told the Russian News Service on Saturday.

“The self-propelled system’s transport and firing boxes are designed to hold six missiles. Missiles are more compact but are more precise and capable of flying longer distances. So, it can be called a new unique missile capable of efficiently hitting air targets,” he said.

He said the capacity of the new missile system had been boosted by 1.5 times as it is capable of holding six missiles instead of four.

Earlier, a source in Russia’s defense ministry told TASS the Buk-M3 missile systems would be included into the Russia army’ inventory before the end of 2016 and would arrive to the army starting from 2016.

The Buk-M3 system is superior to the S-300 air defense missile system by a number of characteristics, including the kill probability.

The Buk-M3 system has a range of 70 kilometers (43.5 miles), which is 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) more compared to previous versions of the Buk antiaircraft missile system.

The Buk-M3 has a maximum firing altitude of 35 kilometers (21.7 miles). Source

Buk-M3 system

The Buk-M3 system has a range of 70 kilometers (43.5 miles), which is 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) more compared to previous versions of the Buk antiaircraft missile system. The Buk-M3 has a maximum firing altitude of 35 kilometers (21.7 miles). The Buk-M3 system is superior to the S-300 air defense missile system by a number of characteristics, including the kill probability.


S-300VM Antey-2500 SA-23 Gladiator Giant air defense missile system: Details

The Buk-M3 medium-range surface-to-air missile system, a modernized version of the Buk-M2 system, features advanced electronic components and a deadly new missile and could be regarded as a completely new system.

New 9R31M missile

The new type of missile used by the launcher, advanced 9R31M, is more compact than the ordnance used by its predecessors, allowing Buk-M3 to carry a payload of six instead of four missiles. At the same time, the new missile outclasses previous models in terms of its technical characteristics: it can destroy any type of airborne target in existence: can be used against naval and ground targets, including tactical and strategic aircraft, helicopters, short-range ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, air-launched missiles, anti-radiation missiles, guided bombs and other aerodynamic vehicles, according to the Strategic Culture Foundation website.

And is extremely resistant to electronic countermeasures, such as heavy jamming.

The new 9R31M missile radar-guided all-weather surface-to-air missile (SAM) is fitted with high-explosive fragmentation warhead able to destroy any types of air targets with a speed of 3,000 m/s at an altitude from 15 m to 35 km. To compare, the speed of a missile fired by a US-made MGM-140 ATACMS surface-to-air missile launcher doesn’t exceed 1.5 kilometers per hour.

The specifications include a maximum target speed of 3,000 m/s (11,000 km/h; 6,700 mph), altitude range of 0.015–35 km (49–114,829 ft) and distance of 2.5–70 km (1.6–43.5 mi). The new radar employed by the Buk-M3 allows it to detect airborne targets flying at extremely low altitudes (5 meters and higher). Its target-destruction probability has reached 0.9999. The operational range is from 2.5 to 70 km.

The missile can be fired from the 12 cylindrical containers 20 seconds after the system is set up. Probability of hitting a target with one missile: aircraft – 0.95; tactical ballistic missile – 0.7; cruise missile – 0.8. Reaction time is 10 seconds. The interval between shots is one second in any direction. Source

The Buk-M3 system boasts a new digital computer, high-speed data exchange system and a telethermal imaging target designator instead of the teleoptical trackers used in previous models. It allows to detect airborne targets flying at extremely low altitudes (5 meters and higher).

The Buk-3M’s target-destruction probability has reached 0.9999 and its maximum destruction range has been increased by 25 kilometers and now stands at 70 kilometers. The weapon system can also intercept and destroy airborne targets flying at a speed of 3 kilometers per second (for example, the speed of a missile fired by a US-made MGM-140 ATACMS surface-to-air missile launcher doesn’t exceed 1.5 kilometers per hour).

A battery of Buk-M3 missiles can track and engage up to 36 targets simultaneously. The missile can be fired from the 12 cylindrical containers 20 seconds after the system is set up. Source

D4by 3d_molier International

A standard Buk battalion consists of a command vehicle, target acquisition radar (TAR) vehicle, six transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) vehicles and three transporter erector launcher (TEL) vehicles. A Buk missile battery consists of two TELAR and one TEL vehicle. A maximum speed on the road is 70 Km/h with a maximum road range of 500 km.

The TELAR is based on the GM-569 tracked armoured chassis, carries six ready to fire missiles mounted on a turntable that can traverse a full 360°. The turret of the Buk-M3 TELAR includes fire control radar at the front and a launcher with six ready-to-fire missiles on top.

The TEL uses the same tracked chassis as the TELAR Buk-M3 but the turret is fitted with two blocks of six missiles. The vehicle is protected against small arms and shell splinters. The crew of 4 is located at the front. The crew members enter and leave the vehicle via two large hatches located at the front of the armoured chassis.

The system can also support up to two additional 9A316M launchers vehicles loaded with 12 9M317M surface-to-air missiles. It also includes a 9T243M transport and loading vehicle. Source


Tor-M2U Air Defence Missile System (ADMS), Russia

The Russian Army Tor-M2U is a derivative of the Tor-M2 short-range air defense missile system optimized for protection of military and civil facilities from aircraft, missile and bomb attacks. The system is an evolution of the Tor-M2 battlefield missile system with better algorithms to recognize, classify and priorize threats while engaging four of them simultaneously. The Russian Army’s Tor-M2U utilizes the proven 9M331 surface-to-air missile (SAM) which is optimized against small-sized maneuvering targets. The Russian Army took delivery of the first Tor-M2U missile systems at the end of 2014 with the system expected to achieve initial operational capability by late 2015 after completing the state’s testing phase. Source





9K330 Tor

The project was given strict design specifications to meet; Tor had to provide extended detection and tracking of fast, low radar cross section targets and be capable of quickly and efficiently dealing with massed air raids, whilst providing a high degree of automation and integration with other air defence assets. In order to meet these demanding specifications, the designers used a variety of new technologies, including advanced Passive electronically scanned array radar for improved detection and tracking performance, enhanced digital information processing, and vertically launched missiles to improve reaction time and increase the number of readily available munitions. After a period of testing and evaluation between December 1983 and December 1984, the land based system was accepted into service on March 19, 1986.

9K331 Tor M1

“Tor-M1”, introduced in 1991 with the 9M331 missile, with greatly improved missile accuracy and the ability to engage two targets simultaneously, minimum range 1.5 km (0.93 mi), minimum height 0,01 km.

Even while the Tor was being introduced into service, work started on improving the system, resulting in an enhanced version, the Tor-M1. Many improvements over the original system were made; these included the addition of a second fire control channel, allowing two targets to be engaged at once; as well as upgrades to the optical tracking system and computer equipment. ECM protection and warhead design were also modified, as was the ammunition handling system State tests, conducted between March and December 1989, showed that the result was a system which could engage more targets in a shorter time frame with reaction times reduced by over a second and an increased probability of target destruction. The M1 was introduced into service in 1991. Further modifications occurred partly as a response of insight gained from the 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina resulting in the Tor-M1-1, or Tor-M1V, which offered improved network connectivity and ECM functions. Significantly increased the probability of hitting any target.

In 1993 Tor, in the interference conditions, was able to shoot down small-sized rocket (similar to the complexes Iron Dome 1 target) at a 100% rate. In comparison, Tor-M2E achieved a 100% rate in 2009, Tor-M2 a 100% rate at 2013 (10 km),  and Tor-M2 km a 100% rate at 2014  (Heavy ECM environments. Small-sized and high-speed targets. Simultaneously four).

  • Tor-M1V has a protection against spoofing

9K332 Tor-M2E


Upgrades have continued over the lifetime of the system, with developer Almaz Antey unveiling the newest incarnation of the Tor missile system, the Tor-M2E, at the MAKS Airshow in 2007.

The latest variant features:

  • Improved fire control radar coverage, and
  • Four (4) guidance channels, allowing up to four targets to be engaged simultaneously.
  • It has protection against spoofing.
  • The reaction time is around 7 seconds
  • System is fully automated.

Ammunition of the Tor-M2 includes 8 missiles 9M331 or 16 missiles 9M338 with increased altitude and range. Tor-M2 missiles have a range of 16 km, maximum altitude of 10 km and maximum speed of 1000 m/s. The system is capable of short-stop firing, which takes 2–3 seconds for the system to go from motion to stationary and firing of the missile.

The Tor-M2E is offered in either wheeled or tracked chassis and is equipped with a new digital computer system and all weather optical tracking system.  It is currently produced at OJSC Izhevsk Electromechanical plant «Kupol».

  • “Tor-M2E (9К332МE)” – with a 9А331МE tracked chassis mounting two 9M334 missile modules with four 9М9331 missiles. Crew of 2. The system is fully automated.
  • “Tor-M2K (9К332МК)” – with a wheeled 9А331МК chassis developed by the Belarusian company «MZKT» mounting two 9M334 missile modules, each with four 9М9331 missiles.
  • “Tor-М2КМ (9К331МКМ)” – modular design (towed variant weight reduced to 15 tons), to accommodate various types of chassis. 9А331МК-1 TELAR mounting two 9M334 missile modules with four 9M9331 missiles. At MAKS-2013 this was shown on an Indian Tata chassis. The affected area expanded to height – 10 km, distance – 15. Crew of 2. Chance to destroy any target 98% as a minimum. Significantly improving penetrating power of fragments of warhead.  The system is fully automated. Modules weighing 15 tons are installed on ships of the Russian Navy.


“Tor-M1-2U” entered service at the end of 2012. This system is designed to destroy aircraft, helicopters, UAVs, missiles, and other precision guided weapons, flying at medium, low and very low altitudes in all weather. The system is able to engage four targets simultaneously at a height of up to 10 kilometers. Its crew consists of three people. Deliveries are underway. It can hit targets on the move, 25 km/h (all the necessary functions for of independent fight).

3K95 Kinzhal (Naval Variant)

The 3K95 “Kinzhal” (Russian: Кинжал – dagger) is the naval version of the Tor missile system developed by Altair and has the NATO reporting name SA-N-9 Gauntlet. Using the same 9M330 missile as the land based version, the system can be mounted on vessels displacing over 800 tonnes and is known to be installed on Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carriers, Kirov class multimission cruisers, Udaloy class anti-submarine destroyers and Neustrashimy class frigates. The naval version of the later Tor-M1 is known as the “Yozh”(Russian: Ёж – hedgehog), while the export version of the Kinzhal is known as “Klinok” (Russian: Клинок – blade).

Despite starting testing earlier than its terrestrial counterpart, the naval variant, Kinzhal, had a more protracted development. After an extended testing period using a Project 1124 Grisha class corvette (including the engagement and destruction of four P-5 Pyatyorka (SSC-1a Shaddock) anti-ship missiles in 1986) Kinzhal finally entered service in 1989.

Stored within rotary VLS modules, the missiles are clustered into launchers comprising three to six modules (32 (Neustrashimy), 64 (Udaloy) or 192 (KuznetsovKirov) missiles) and mounted flush to the deck. Each module has up to eight missiles stored ready to fire; during firing the missile is cold launched using a gas catapult before the launcher brings the next round to a firing position.

Fire control (FC) is handled by the 3R95 multi-channel FC system, (NATO reporting name Cross Swords), composed of two different radar sets, a G-band target acquisition radar (maximum detection range 45 km/28 mi,) and a K band target engagement radar, (maximum tracking range 15 km/9 mi[citation needed]) that handles the actual prosecution of a target.

Using two top mounted, mechanically scanned, parabolic target acquisition radars, the fire control system provides a 360 degree field of view, as well as IFF. The target engagement radar is a Passive electronically scanned array antenna of the reflection type mounted on the front of the fire control system with a 60 degree field of view. Much like its land based sibling, the target engagement radar can track and guide eight missiles on up to four targets at once and is effective to a range of 1.5–12 km and an altitude of 10–6000 m. The system has a reaction time of 8–24 seconds depending on the mode of operation, and is managed by a crew of 13. Additional missile guidance antennae can be seen around the fire control system and the 3K95, like the upgraded Tor launchers, is equipped with a secondary infrared guidance system. The 3R95 can also provide fire control information for the vessels AK-630 close in weapons systems (CIWS) providing a second line of defence should anything penetrate the missile layer


The Tor-M2 km is a self-contained fighting module version of the system that can be mounted in various locations. In October 2016, it was loaded onto the helipad of an Admiral Grigorovich-class frigate by means of an ordinary wharf crane and fixed in position with steel chains to fire at simulated cruise missiles while the ship was underway. This could give advanced SAM capabilities to vessels without the capacity to install the larger and heavier Kinzhal system; it can also be mounted on a truck, building roof, or any horizontal surface at least 2.5 m wide and 7.1 m long. The module weighs 15 tons and contains all equipment needed to operate without any external support. It can go from standby to full alert in 3 minutes and acquire 144 air targets while simultaneously tracking the 20 most dangerous ones marked for priority by the two-man crew. The Tor-M2 km missiles have a range of 15 km

HQ-17 (China Variant)

The HQ-17 (Hongqi-17) is the reported China‘s copy version of the Tor-M1 system.

In 1996, China ordered 14 Tor-M1 missile systems from Russia which were delivered under contract in 1997. In 1999, another contract for 13 Tor-M1 systems was signed between Russia and China. Delivery of the systems took place in 2000.

The HQ-17 is a china development of the Tor-M1 system with multiple improvements. Unlike the Tor system, the HQ-17 incorporates an IFF array on top of an electronically scanned array radar, modernized electronics, a new all-terrain launcher, and the ability to datalink with other china systems.


“Tor M2KM” anti-aircraft missile system tested on “Admiral Grigorovich”: Here


It is interesting photos and videos module test autonomous combat anti-aircraft missile complex short-range 9K331MKM “Thor M2KM” placed on the helicopter deck of the frigate head “Admiral Grigorovich” Project 11356 held in the Black Sea in October 2016. Start anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M331M of autonomous combat unit of antiaircraft missile complex short-range 9K331MKM “Thor M2KM” placed on the helicopter deck of the frigate head “Admiral Grigorovich” Project 11356 October 2016 (c) JSC “Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant” Kupol “/ frame video of the TV channel “Russia 24” (via

Russia unveils 9K331MDT Tor-M2DT Arctic air defence system: Here


Russia has displayed versions of the KBP Instrument Design Bureau Pantsyr-S1 and Almaz-Antey Tor-M2 air defence systems integrated onto Vityaz DT-30-series all-terrain tracked carriers (ATTCs) optimised for Arctic operations.

The systems were first seen in footage of a rehearsal for Russia’s 9 May Victory Day parade shown by Russian television on 5 April and then in a photograph released by the Russian Ministry of Defence on 8 April.

TOR-M2DT Arctic air defense missile system: Here

Tor-M2U short-range air defence missile system (ADMS) is a modernisation of the Tor-M2 missile system developed by JSC Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant Kupol, a part of Almaz-Antey. The ADMS is in service with three military districts of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and is set to replace Wasp air defence systems, as well as Osa short-range tactical surface-to-air missile systems.

The Tor-M2U missile system is designed to protect military and government installations from airstrikes. It can destroy a variety of aerial targets such as cruise missiles, guided missiles, helicopters, aircraft, guided bombs, unmanned aerial systems, and high-precision weapons flying at low and medium-altitudes.

Features of Tor-M2U ADMS

The Tor-M2U air defence missile system is armed with 12 9M331 surface-to-air guided missiles, which are launched from aluminium containers. The missile’s high-explosive fragmentation warhead and an active proximity fuse allow it to destroy targets moving at speeds of 700m/s and altitudes of 6,000m, within a range of 12km. It can fire targets with a short stop of three to five seconds.

9M331 surface-to-air guided missiles

9M331 surface-to-air guided missiles – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe9M331 surface-to-air guided missiles – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe

9K330/9K331/9K332 Technical Data

9K330 Тор 9K331 Тор-М1 9K332 Тор-М2
9М330 9М331 9М332
Зона поражения, км
Engagement zone [km]
– по дальности
– in range
1,5..12 1,5..12 1,5…
– по высоте
– in altitude
0,01..6 0,01..6
– по параметру 6 6
Верояность поражения истребителя одной ЗУР
Single Shot Pk for fighter type target
0,26..0,75 0,45..0,8
Макс. скорость поражаемых целей, м/с
Max Velocity of defeat target [m/s]
700 700
Время реакции, с
Reaction time [sec]
– с позиции
– static
8,7 7,4
– с короткой остановки
– short stop while moving
10,7 9,7
Скорость полета ЗУР, м/с
Missile velocity [m/s]
700..800 700..800
Масса ракеты, кг
Missile mass [kg]
165 165
Масса БЧ, кг
Warhead mass [kg]
14,5 14,5
Время развертывания (свертывания), мин.
Stow/deploy time [min]
3 3 3
Число целевых каналов
Number of concurrent engagements
1 2
Число ЗУР на боевой машине
Number of missiles on launcher
8 8 8
Год принятия на вооружение
Year of introduction
1986 1991 2009


Aluminium containers

Aluminium containers

It is capable of detecting and tracking approximately 48 high-maneuvering air targets and simultaneously attack up to four targets.

Телеканал Звезда YouTbeТелеканал Звезда YouTbe

SA-15/Tor-M2 battery


The Tor-M2U missile complex consists of upgraded electronics and guidance system, 9T244 transporter / loader vehicle, 9F116 rigging equipment set, 9T245 transporter, 9V887 maintenance vehicle, and 9F399 truck. The on-board command and control system ensures full automation of combat operations.

Tor-M2U combat vehicle


The anti-aircraft missile system is based on a 9A331 (GM-5955) tracked combat vehicle, which can travel at a road speed of approximately 65km/h for a range of 500km. It is operated by a crew of four members including a driver, a commander and two operators.

The crew cabin is located at the front section and the turret is mounted at the centre of the vehicle. A surveillance radar antenna, fitted at the rear of the vehicle, provides 90° scan coverage. The vehicle is also equipped with a K-band, phased-array, pulse-Doppler, electronically-steered radar that has a range of 25km.

Scrum Half / PESA / 9K331M/M1 Tor M/M1/M2E / SA-15 Gauntlet

The Tor M2/M2E is a ‘deep modernisation’ of the baseline Tor M1 weapon system, available on the legacy tracked chassis, or the entirely new low profile wheeled MZKT-6922 6 x 6 chassis as the 9A331MK, the latter specifically developed by the ByeloRussian manufacturer for this application. The Tor M2E has an improved weapon system. The new planar array surveillance radar can track up to 48 targets concurrently, retaining the range performance of the legacy system. The revised phased array engagement radar uses new phase shifters, and is capable of tracking targets within a claimed 30° solid angle around the antenna boresight, quadrupling the angular coverage of the original radar. Paired command link antennas are mounted on both sides of the array, used to acquire the missiles post launch, while they are out of the field of view of the engagement radar array. Missiles can be launched 2 seconds apart.  Source

PESA engagement radar – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe
General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 7620 m
Range Max: 22.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 1980s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Weapon FCR (No CW Illumination)
Sensors / EW:
Scrum Half [Tor] – (SA-15, Track, Tor, Tor M1, M2) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air, Short-Range
Max Range: 22.2 km


Tor M2 search radar in deployed configuration. The low sidelobe planar array design replaces the cumbersome paraboloid section reflector design used with the Tor M1 series – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe
General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 10668 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.6 km Generation: Late 1970s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Pulse-only Radar
Sensors / EW:
Dog Ear [9S80] – (SA-13/15/19 Surveillance) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 2D Surface-to-Air
Max Range: 74.1 km


Apertures for the Tor M2 Electro-Optical tracking system, used to supplement the engagement radar  – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe
General data:
Type: Visual Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 148.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Visual, 2nd Generation TV Camera (1980s/1990s, AXX-1 TCS)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Sensors / EW:
Generic TV Camera – (2nd Gen, Target Tracking And Identification) Visual
Role: Visual, Target Tracking and Identification TV Camera
Max Range: 148.2 km

SourceТелеканал Звезда YouTbe

The primary means of engaging targets is by radar guidance. Each Tor system is fitted with a 25 km 360 degree search radar and 15 km 60 degree tracking radar. The Tor has a good ECM resistance but can also engage targets by TV tracking. The TV tracking system has a maximum range of 20 km and is fitted with a laser range finder. The naval version uses a similar two radar setup but has a more powerful search radar. Source

a. HPW killin zone
Army and tactical aviation, fire-support helicopters killing zone
Detection zone
Detection zone in a “aquad” mode


8 or 16 surface-to-air missiles
Country users
Number of targets
Simultaneously detected: 48
Simultaneously tracked: 10
Target speed
0 – 700 m/s
Engagement altitude
10 to 1,000 m
Engagement range
12,000 m maximum
15 kg HE fragmentation
Top mounted target acquisition radar, and frontal tracking radar
Dimensions on road
Length, 7,5 m; Width, 3,3 m; Height, 5,1 m


Updated May 23, 2018

New BMP-3M-100 Dragun fitted with RCWS turret

The Dragun project is currently showcased mounted on a new BMP-3 IFV vehicle variant, dubbed BMP-3M-100 Dragun.

This new variant of the BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicle fitted with the Dragun unmanned fighting module and powerpack located in the front has several advantages compared to series-production BMP-3 vehicles.

New BMP-3M-100 Dragun infantry fighting vehicle (right) and New BMP-3 IFV fitted with a gun mount system AU-220m armed with a 57mm automatic cannon (Background)

The location of the engine, an UTD-32 four-stroke, direct fuel injection with gas-turbine supercharging engine developing 816 hp, in the vehicle front increases appreciably the squad protection against conventional weapons. Location of the 8 troopers at the rear and the new hydraulic ramp improve landing forces dismounting and embarkation conditions with the vehicle on the move at a speed of up to 10km/h. The location of fuel tanks in the vehicle rear increases fire safety.

The BMP3M Dragun variant is fitted with the “Vityaz” modern fire control system, increasing fire power compared to older BMP-3 IFVs. It decreases the preparation time for shooting, the principle “quicker detect-quicker shoot” is fulfilled; and increases fighting vehicle survivability at the expense of function backup at the commander and gunner’s stations. It also allows provision for indirect fire and firing at low-flying air attack means.

The “Vityaz” fire control system is fully automated, digital, with unified information environment, all-day round, jam-free, and is capable of automatic tracking of ground and air targets and indirect fire, with registration of the system operation parameters and crew actions.

The “Vityaz” fire control system

In comparaison with older manned fighting modules, the Dragun RCWS ensures free movements of the squad. Location of the module at the rear of the vehicle allows to create more vacant space for installation of additionnal equipment. Main armament of the Dragun RCWS turret consists of a 2A70 100mm cannon and a 2A72 30 mm automatic cannon. The ammunition storage of the turret is of 22 rounds for the 2A70 gun and 500 rounds for the 2A72 automatic gun, consisting in 305 fragmentation tracer and explosive rounds and 195 armor-piercing rouds with tracer. The 2A70 gun can fires at maximum distance of 7,000 m with the 3UOF19 round.

2a70 and 2a722A70 100mm cannon and a 2A72 30 mm automatic cannon2A70 100mm cannon and a 2A72 30 mm automatic cannon turret 

The Dragun RCWS can also fires up to 8 ATGM missiles. The ATGM control channel “Rassvet” is an electronic digital generation of control field with independent dual-axis stabilization of sighting and automatic compensation of drifts. Each 902B system fitted on the Dragun turret is feeded with 6 3D6M smoke grenades.

Dragun RCWS turret closeup

Close-protection of the vehicle is ensured by a PKTM 7.62mm machine gun, provided with 2,000 rounds.

Gunner and commander sights “Kretchet” are unified, panomaric, day-night, with independent dual axis stabilization and automatic compensation of drifts, with TV, thermal imaging and ranging channels. Dragun RWS is also equipped with an outside-mounted panel for weapons remote control systems “VPDU”, which is fully digital, and fitted with video information output, sight and weapos control in real time with capability of fire control, protected jam-free radio channel or optic fibre.

Material source: armyrecognition

Russia to supply President-S onboard defense systems to Egypt — manufacturer

December 25, 14:33

The deliveries will start in soon

© Alexandr Demyanchuk/TASS

MOSCOW, December 25. /TASS/. Russia will supply President-S onboard defense systems to Egypt to protect aviation from antiaircraft missile systems and air-launched missiles, the first deputy head of Radioelectronic Technologies Group (KRET), part of state hi-tech corporation Rostec, said on Friday. “There is a contract and we’re working within this contract. The deliveries will start in the imminent future,” Igor Nasenkov said.

Original article:


President-S Onboard defense system (ODS)

The President-S Onboard defense system (ODS) provides counter measures against ground to air rockets, and also rockets from mobile air defense systems. The system automatically detects rocket launching and activates the use of passive and active interference in the infra-red and radio frequencies, which disrupts the rocket’s targeting system and forces it to retarget erroneous targets.

The President-S system is constructed in the form of modules (stations) which can be located inside the fuselage and as external units on the military and civil helicopters and fixed wing aircraft.(


Pandur APC of the Czech Armed Forces

In March 2009, the country’s government approved the purchase of 107 Pandur II vehicles for 14.4 billion crowns (US $609 million). The APCs were designed to replace the Czech military’s outdated OT-64 armored vehicles, which were jointly developed by then-communist Poland and Czechoslovakia in the 1960s.

Based in Madrid, General Dynamics European Land Systems is a subsidiary of US company General Dynamics, and operates units in Spain, Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

The Pandur II is powered by a Cummins ISLe HPCR series diesel engine developing 298 kW for the 6×6 version and 335 kW for the 8×8 version.

The engine is coupled to a ZF 6HP 602C fully automatic 6-gear transmission. Together with the 2 stage transfer gear (shiftable on the move) this gives the Pandur II a total of 12 gears. The maximum road speed is reached at 105 km/h. The hull floor of the Pandur covers and thus protects most of the power train components and steering linkages. This protects the mentioned components from being damaged from various obstacles that may occur when the vehicle operates in heavy terrain. For decreasing the turning diameter of the 8×8 version a steering brake has been installed which retards all curve-inner wheels when the steered wheels are fully turned in and vehicle velocity is sufficiently low.


The Pandur II is powered by a Cummins ISLe HPCR series diesel engine developing 298 kW for the 6×6 version and 335 kW for the 8×8 version.


The engine is coupled to a ZF 6HP 602C fully automatic 6-gear transmission. Together with the 2 stage transfer gear (shiftable on the move) this gives the Pandur II a total of 12 gears. The maximum road speed is reached at 105 km/h. The hull floor of the Pandur covers and thus protects most of the power train components and steering linkages. This protects the mentioned components from being damaged from various obstacles that may occur when the vehicle operates in heavy terrain. For decreasing the turning diameter of the 8×8 version a steering brake has been installed which retards all curve-inner wheels when the steered wheels are fully turned in and vehicle velocity is sufficiently low.


  • Modular ballistic protection system capable of being upgraded for future ballistic protection systems (add-on armor)
  • Mine protection (special hull design and components, double floor, mine protection crew seats)
  • NBC protection (passive, overpressure or ventilated face masks)
  • Spall liners reducing secondary effects of penetrating projectiles
  • Fire detection and suppression system for the engine compartment
  • Explosion detection and suppression system for the crew compartment


RAFAEL’s remotely-operated RCWS-30, with advanced optics and imaging controlling a stabilized 30mm auto-cannon, coaxial 7.62mm General-Purpose Machine Gun, smoke grenades and other defensive systems, and a launcher pod for a launcher pod for two Rafael SPIKE LR or other anti-armor missiles.

The Czechs had tested the RCWS-30 with an ATK Mk 44 dual-feed 30mm auto-cannon. RCWS-30 is also known as Samson and includes the Mk-44 30mm gun, 7.62mm coaxial machine gun and two Spike LR anti-tank missiles (optional).

RAFAEL’s remotely-operated RCWS-30

RAFAEL’s remotely-operated RCWS-30

The Remote Controlled Weapon Station (RCWS) is a modular weapon system supporting small and medium caliber guns (40mm automatic grenade launcher), machine guns (12.7mm and 7.62mm), anti-tank missile launchers, automatic guns (30mm) and observation pods. These stations can be mounted on a wide range of ground platforms ranging from lightweight all-terrain vehicles to heavy armor tanks.

Its remote control system enables armored vehicles crew to operate the RCWS completely under armor minimizing the probability of a crew member casualty. This feature makes the RCWS exceptionally suitable for urban warfare such as the military operations conducted by US forces in Iraq (2003-2005) and Israeli forces in the Palestinian territories. The RCWS armed with a 7.62mm machine gun is known as Enforcer while the 12.7mm gun equipped variant is known as the RCWS-12.7.

The weapon station’s main gun is stabilized to allow fire on-the-move. RCWS-30 is also known as Samson and includes the Mk-44 30mm gun, 7.62mm coaxial machine gun and two Spike LR anti-tank missiles (optional). This weapon station can be fitted with optional equipment to meet customer needs.

In February 2006 General Dynamics European Land Systems (Steyr) selected the RCWS-12.7 and RCWS-30 weapon stations to equip Czech Republic’s Pandur II armored vehicles under a $120 million contract awarded to Rafael. Samson/RCWS-30 station was provided with a 7.62mm coaxial machine gun and two Spike LR anti-tank missiles in addition to the Mk-44 30mm gun. The contract also included Rafael add-on armor kits. Source



ATK Mk44 30mm automatic cannon





Spike LR anti-tank missile

e3aa7de9a5b209758b322cb570bb66d0 Spike LR anti-tank missiles

The SPIKE-LR is a lightweight, Fire and Forget and Fire, Observe and Update, multi-purpose missile system with a range of up to 4,000 meters. State-of-the-art seeker and fiber-optic data communication link provide SPIKE-LR with the unique ability to:

  • Update or switch targets after launch
  • Achieve real-time intelligence and identify friend or foe
  • Perform battle damage assessment
  • Achieve extended range and pinpoint accuracy
  • Minimize collateral damage


The Pandurs belong to the military’s 4th Rapid Reaction Brigade.

One ATK MT44 30 mm gun, 1 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun, 2 anti-tank missile Spike launcher
Country users
Czech Republic
Designer country
Firing control system, night vision, central tire inflation, fire detection system.
3 + 8 soldiers
Mine Blast and Ballistic protection. full protection against 7.62 mm armor piercing (AP) attack through a full 360º.
21,000 kg
105 km/h on road and 10 km/h on water
550 km
Length, 8,24 m; Width, 3,44 m; Height, 3,79 m



Updated Dec 18, 2017

Russia delivers S-300 missile system to Kazakhstan free of charge

By Ryan Maass   |   Dec. 23, 2015 at 2:01 PM

The S-300 surface-to-air missile systems were first developed by the Soviet Union to defend against enemy aircraft and incoming threats. Photo by

WASHINGTON, Dec. 23 (UPI) — The Russian government has completed the free delivery of its S-300 air defense system to the government of Kazakhstan, according to Russian media reports.

The delivery supports the initiative between Moscow and Astana to construct and operate a common aerospace defense system. Russian defense officials say they delivered the missile system free of charge because it is the country’s main contribution to the integrated air defense system.

“We have completed the project on free of charge S-300 air defense system deliveries to Kazakhstan,” Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu said during a meeting according to Sputnik International.

Russian state-owned media outlet Tass reports the Commonwealth of Independent States, a loose alliance of former Soviet states including Kazakhstan, has plans to further develop its joint air defense system.

“We have approved for 2016 a plan of work of the Defense Ministers’ Council of the CIS countries and a plan of common steps on the joint air defense system,” Shoigu added.

The S-300 missile defense system was developed by the Soviet Union and now used by the Russian government and other armed forces around the world as a surface-to-air defense system against airborne threats.

Moscow has also agreed to deliver S-300 missiles to Iran by the end of 2016.

Copyright © 2015 United Press International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.



S-300VM Antey-2500 SA-23 Gladiator: Details

Builder of US Navy’s new class aircraft carrier looks towards lead ship’s upcoming trials


Sea Platforms

Builder of US Navy’s new class aircraft carrier looks towards lead ship’s upcoming trials

22 December 2015

Sea trials for the US Navy’s (USN’s) lead Ford-class nuclear-powered aircraft carrier are expected to commence in the second quarter of 2016, Huntington Ingalls Industries (HII) officials told IHS Jane’s .

Gerald R Ford (CVN 78) is 96% complete at HII’s Newport News Shipbuilding division in Virginia where the new carrier is being finished ahead of the trials. More than 2,300 compartments out of 2,607 have been turned over to the USN, said Rolf Bartschi, vice-president of CVN 78 construction.

A test programme on critical shipboard systems is in progress, including the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS), Advanced Arresting Gear (AAG), and dual band radar (DBR), Bartschi said.

Copyright © 2015 IHS. All rights reserved.

Original post



Beriev A-50/A-100 Airborne Early Warning and Control Aircraft (AEW&C), Russia

The A-50 airborne early warning and control aircraft (AEW&C) was developed and manufactured by the Beriev Aircraft Research and Engineering Complex Joint Stock Company based at Taganrog in the Rostov Region of Russia. The A-50 aircraft was developed from the llyushin IL-76MD military transport aircraft manufactured by the Ilyushin Aviation Complex Joint Stock Company based in Moscow.

Ilyushin IL-76MD-90A (IL-476): Details

Ilyushin IL-76MD-90A (IL-476)

The aircraft is known in the West by the Nato codename Mainstay. Beriev aircraft normally carry the Russian designation Be- followed by the number, however, the A-50 aircraft retained the well-known A-designation which Beriev allocated to the original prototype.

The A-50 aircraft detects and identifies airborne objects, determines their coordinates and flight path data and transfers the information to command posts. The A-50 also acts as a control centre, guiding fighter-interceptors and tactical air force aircraft to combat areas in order to attack ground targets at low altitudes. The role of the A-50 is comparable to that of the US’s E-3 AEW system developed by Boeing.


- A-50 Mainstay A  : Basic version studied since the 1970s, put into service in 1984 and officially accepted for service in 1989.

- A-50M  : modernization program started in 1984 and which would have been abandoned in 1990, before the realization of a prototype, for lack of funds.

- A-50U Mainstay B  : Modernized version revealed in 1995 and whose development would have started in the late 1980s. The exact scope of this program is unknown in terms of added or modernized systems. At least 7 A-50 Russian have been upgraded to this standard.

- A new A-50U modernization programwas launched in 2006. This program is sometimes referred to as A-50U too, leaving confusion with the more limited program mentioned above. The new A-50U is lighter thanks to a new avionics. This makes it possible, at mass equal to the take-off, to increase the fuel consumption and therefore the radius of action and / or the patrol time on the zone. The new avionics incorporates a satellite navigation system while operators have new consoles and new screens (LCD instead of old cathodic). Radar and mission system performance “Shmel” is also enhanced to track up to 150 targets 600 km away, detecting low-radar aircraft or ships. The comfort of the crew was not forgotten with a new rest room and toilets. The life of the device would have been extended by 20 years. The tests of this new version began in September 2008 and would have been completed on November 26, 2009 according to the manufacturer Beriev. The first modernized A50U was returned to 2457th Ivanovo-Severnyi Air Base on October 31, 2011 for state testing before entering service in January 2012. A second modernized A-50U was delivered in late 2012. Beriev hopes to obtain a new contract to upgrade other devices in the following years (1 per year?).

- A-100  : Beriev was entrusted in 2010 with the development of a new radar aircraft that is more efficient than the Russian A-50s and the Indian A-50EhIs: the A-100 will have a new phase antenna radar active designed by Vega. It would be based on the future Il-476 transport aircraft (modernized version of the Il-76MD) but the prototype would currently be realized by converting an A-50 while waiting for the arrival of the Il-476. The first flight of the prototype is expected in 2013 at best. The A-100 series could come into service in 2015. The possibility of installing this system on an An-148 would also have been studied. Source

A-50 Mainstay programme and development

The A-50 entered service with the Russian Air Force in 1984. Currently, 16 aircraft are operational in the Russian Air Force. The upgraded version, the A-50U was first announced in 1995 but did not enter testing until 2008. It then entered service in 2011. The upgraded A-50Us have extended the aircraft’s the service life to 2020.

A-50U airborne radar warning and guidance system

96da72f613a4d9cd2d0cc9a47c87bb19A-50U airborne radar warning and guidance system

The modernised A-50 aircraft can now take more fuel on board with the same take-off weight, while increasing the range and mission time performance. A satellite navigation system integrated into flight and navigation complex offers a dramatic increase in the navigational accuracy.

Mainstay AEW&C radar system

russian-a-50-mainstay-airborne-warning-and-control-system-awacs-export-china-india-aesa-pesa-7 A-50U airborne radar warning and guidance system

The A-50U airborne radar warning and guidance system is the Schnel-M produced by Vega. It comprises:

  • radar station
  • data reduction system
  • interrogator-responder and signal transmission system
  • digital computer complex
  • identification friend or foe (IFF) equipment
  • command radio link to guide fighters
  • encoding communication system
  • radio communication equipment
  • telemetry / code equipment
  • registering equipment.

The radar and guidance systems have the capacity to track 50 to 60 targets simultaneously and to guide ten to 12 fighter aircraft simultaneouslyТелеканал ЗвездаТелеканал ЗвездаТелеканал ЗвездаТелеканал Звезда

Development work on the A-50U began some years ago and State Tests started on September 10, 2008, using Russian Air Force A-50 ’37 Red’ as a prototype. The main element of the modernisation involves replacing the outdated analogue equipment with a new, digital avionics suite supplied by Russia’s Vega Radio Engineering Corporation JSC. Notable improvements include faster data processing, enhanced signal tracking, and improved target detection. Crew rest, toilet and galley facilities are also included in the upgrade.


Russian Air Force A-50 ’37 Red’ prototype

These upgrades form the basis of the concept for Beriev A-100 AEW&C. Configuration will be similar to the A-50U, but with a new VegaPremier active electronically scanned array radar.

Beriev A-100

DATF8XYXsAA2BIHA-100 Premier flying lab(LL) 52 red –

The Beriev A-100 is a Russian-built airborne early warning and control (AWACS) aircraft based on the Il-76MD-90A (Il-476) transport aircraft. This aircraft is developed to replace the Beriev A-50 “Mainstay” in Russian Air Force service. Avionics and configuration will be similar to the A-50U, but with a new Vega Premier Active Phased Array Radar.

Design and development

The A-100 is designated as the izdeliye PM, a project meant to develop a replacement for the A-50 AWACS aircraft. The aircraft is based on the improved Il-476, which has new PS-90A-76 turbofans that are 15% more powerful than the D-30KP used by the Il-76. The external shape of the A-100 will be similar to the A-50, with the main radar array housed in a rotating dome mounted on two struts above the fuselage. The new Vega Premier AESA radar in the dome will have electronic steering in elevation while azimuth is control by the rotation of the dome. The array will rotate once every 5 seconds, thus improving the radar’s ability to track fast moving targets.

Vega Premier AESA radar

Vega Premier AESA radar

Scale model of Russia’s future A-100 AWACS aircraft spotted at Army 2016 exhibition


Pictures of what could be the future A-100 “Premier” AWACS aircraft have been released on the specialized russian website A scale-model of the aircraft has been unveiled by the Russian aircraft manufacturer Beriev during Army 2016 exhibition, being held this week in the Moscow region.  Source

%ce%b1_100aewacWe are expecting to receive the A-100 AWACS on the Ilyushin Il-476 platform powered by the PS-90 engine for extended flight range – Image: redstar.grImage:
OKB Illyshin / OKB Beriev
Four bypass engine, PS-90 A
Thrust, kg
4 x 16.000
Length, m
Height, m
Wing span, m
Wing area, m2
Diametr antenna, m
Maximum take-off, kg
Normal take-off, kg
Maximum speed, km/h
Cruising speed, km/h
Service ceiling, m
Range, km

Beriev A-100 specification

Russian AEW aircraft A-100 made its first flight: Here

A-100 AWACs – Image: UAC


“18 November 2017 the first flight of a multifunctional aviation complex radar surveillance and targeting A-100”, – said in concern.

As explained in the “VEGA” during the first flight “was proven aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft, the performance of the avionics and parts of the target instrument RTK [radio system]”.

Video of A-100LL takeoff from Taganrog Beriev Aircraft Scientific and Technical Complex (TANTK) runway

Video of A-100LL takeoff from Taganrog Beriev Aircraft Scientific and Technical Complex (TANTK) runway. ©TV Zvezda

Russian AWACS A-100 Premier flying lab (LL) 52 red w rotodome missing 2017

Russian AWACS A-100 Premier flying lab (LL) 52 red w rotodome missing 2017©Maxo Davion. Source:

Serial deliveries of the “flying radar” A-100 will begin in 2020: Here


The serial deliveries of the multifunctional aviation complex of the radar surveillance and guidance A-100 will begin in 2020. This was announced on Wednesday by Russian Defense Minister General of the Army Sergei Shoigu at the conference call.

RA-76453-undergoing overhaul & modernisation

2nd Ilyushin-976 RA-76452 – range control & missile tracking aircraft that is undergoing overhaul & modernisation

Ilyushin-976(RA-76455) range control & missile tracking aircraft at Gromov FR Institute,Zhukovsky on 12.09.17. Modernised but not repainted

Modernized Ilyushin-976(RA-76455) prior to take off at Zhukovsky on 12.09.17 – Video


The A-50 is fitted with a self-defence system when flying en-route and over patrol zones. The self-defence system ensures protection from guided and unguided weapons of the enemy’s fighters attacking the aircraft from its front and rear hemispheres. The self-defence system includes an electronic countermeasures system.

The aircraft can also be protected from the enemy’s fighter aircraft via guidance of friendly fighters.

The aircraft radio and electronics systems are robust against hostile jamming and provide good combat performance in dense electronic countermeasures environments.

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 1970s
Sensors / EW:
Generic ESM [Average] – ESM
Max Range: 926 km


Flight control and navigation

The aircraft is fitted with the NPK-T flight control and navigation system used to ensure air navigation during all flight stages in all-weather day and night and all-year operations performed at all geographical latitudes. The system also provides flight control and navigation data intended for mission specific systems and equipment.

A-100 cockpit



The A-50 carries out patrol missions at an altitude of 5,000m to 10,000m. The patrol service ceiling is 10km. The maximum flight range of the aircraft is 5,000km and the flight endurance is seven hours 40 minutes. At a range of 2,000km, the A-50 can remain on patrol for up to one hour 25 minutes.

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 648.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
Shmel-2 – Radar
Role: Radar, Air & Surface Search, 3D Long-Range
Max Range: 648.2 km


Russia Claims New Beriev A-100 AWACS can Detect US F-22 and F-35 Stealth Fighters: Here


The Russian Air Force (VVS) will rely heavily on its new Beriev A-100 “Premier” airborne early warning and control (AWACS) aircraft to detect stealthy enemy aircraft such as the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor and F-35 Lightning II.

First flown in October 2016, the Beriev 100 carries the new Vega Premier AESA radar in a rotating radome. The array rotates once every five seconds, improving the radar’s ability to track fast moving targets such as enemy jets.

The Beriev 100, which is based on the Il-76MD-90A (Il-476) transport aircraft, remains under development, however. The A-100  was first tested in flight on a flying laboratory last month.

The aircraft is manned by five flight crew and ten mission crew. The maximum take-off weight of the aircraft is 170,000kg. It can travel at a maximum speed of 800km/h.


  • A-50M – Modernized Russian Version fitted with mid-air refueling capability.
  • A-50U – updated Russian variant
  • Izdeliye-676 – One-off stop-gap telemetry and tracking aircraft.
  • Izdeliye-776 – One-off stop-gap telemetry and tracking aircraft.
  • Izdeliye-976 (SKIP) – (СКИП – Самолетный Контрольно-Измерительный Пункт, Airborne Check-Measure-and-Control Center) – Il-76 based Range Control and Missile tracking platform. Initially built to support Raduga Kh-55 cruise missile tests. Has fixed radar cover filled with other equipment and glassed navigator cockpit, (One prototype and five production conversions).

Izdeliye-976 (SKIP)

il976001-8Izdeliye-976 (SKIP) –
  • Izdeliye-1076 – One-off special mission aircraft with unknown duties.
  • A-50I – variant with an Israeli radar, designed for China but project cancelled under pressure of United States
  • A-50E/I – With Aviadvigatel PS-90 A-76 engines, with Israeli EL/W-2090 radar made for the Indian Air Force

A-50E/I Indian Air Force

kw-3552-indian-air-force-beriev-a50-ei_PlanespottersNet_103147A-50E/I Indian Air Force


The ELW-2090 is lAI-ELTA’s third generation of Airborne Early Warning & Control (AEW&C) systems, installed on an IL-76 heavy military transport aircraft.
The ELW-2090 excels in wide area persistent air and ground surveillance.
The ELW-2090 employs a powerful command, control & communication system to integrate the data of the onboard sensors; radar, IFF, ESM/ELINT, CSM/COMINT with multiple broadband datalinks.
The ELW-2090 features an airborne command & control and network centric warfare operations post.


  • IL-76 Aircraft
    Long range, large cabin, 4-engine turbojet air-lifter. Extensive cabin space for the operator crew and a comfortable crew rest area for long endurance missions.
    Air-refueled for extending mission endurance.
  • Radar
    Active Electronic Steering Array (AESA), L-Band radar with 360° coverage. Accurate 3-D tracks, low false alarm rate, flexible revisit time, ECCM and programmable search and track regimes.
  • IFF
    Active Electronic Steering Array (AESA) embedded in the radar array, 360° coverage, long range, high accuracy.
    Sophisticated signal intelligence capabilities, high probability of signal interception and high bearing accuracy.
  • Self-Protection Suite
    360° coverage of passive radar warning receiver and active missile approach warning system. Programmable chaff & flares countermeasures.
  • Operator stations
    11 flexible, interchangeable multipurpose, 24″ Windows-based workstations, efficient control of all sensors, comprehensive Command & Control capabilities.
  • Communication Suite
    Interoperability with Air Force, Navy and Ground Forces. HF and V/UHF Radios, SATCOM, VOIP, Secure Voice, Integrated Intercom and Secure LOS datalink.


Phalcon AEWR

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 648.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Track While Scan (TWS), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
Phalcon AEWR – Radar
Role: Radar, Air & Surface Search, 3D Long-Range
Max Range: 648.2 km


Aviadvigatel PS-90 A-76 engine

A-50E/I with Aviadvigatel PS-90 A-76 engines Indian Air Force – T24

The PS-90A-76 aero engine (PS – Pavel Soloviev) is a modification of the PS-90A turbofan. It extends service life of the large fleet of the IL-76 transport airplanes and raises their efficiency by installation of the PS-90A-76 engine instead of the D-30KP.

It is a high-bypass-ratio, two-shaft turbofan, with mixed flow and a thrust reverser in a fan duct and noise absorbing system.

The aero engine is intended to power IL-76 cargo aircraft and its modifications.

The engine was certified in 2003.

In 2004 Perm Engine Company launched the serial production of the engine.

PS-90A-76 engines are currently in service at  three (3) Airlines.


Thrust, kg:
-take-off: TH< +30°C , PH > 730 mm Hg, H=0
-cruise: Н=11 km, М=0.8
Specific fuel consumption (with real nozzle), kg/kgf hour 0.595
Flight altitude, m Up to 13100
Air temperature at sea level (for start and operation), ° С -47…+45
Airfield height (versus sea level), m Up to 3500
Engine length, mm 4964
Fan tip diameter, mm 1900
Dry weight, kg 2950
 Weight as delivered, kg  4 160

Advantages of the PS-90A-76 turbofan engine compared to D-30KP

  • Conformity of ecological parameters on emission and noise to ICAO  regulations
  • Increase of reliability and life
  • Improvement of efficiency
  • Availability of thrust augmentation up to 16000 kg





TA12-60 is a single-shaft auxiliary gas-turbine engine with the equivalent power of 360 kWt. This engine is designed for aircraft and helicopter APUs. It is used for air turbine start of the helicopter and aircraft mid-flight engines, AC electric power of 115/200 V, power up to 60 kWA and providing air conditioning for cockpit and cabins.

High overall efficiency of the engine is based on the use of a 4-stage axial compressor. An annular reverse-flow combustion chamber of evaporative type provides 0,99 burning and low content of hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases. The engine contains a 3-stage axial turbine. Driving units, including alternator, are installed on the engine’s gearbox.

The noise level of the TA12-60 engine, when installed on the craft, does not exceed 90 dB.

The engine complies with the Norms of Aircraft Airworthiness (NLGS-3); this is confirmed by a type certificate No 101-VD issued by the Aviation Register of the IAC.

Since 2005 the TA 12-60 APU has been operated under the second strategy. The TA 12-60 APU is operated subject to the technical condition till the specified life time of the principle components is terminated (4,000 hr/starts).

The TA12-60 engine has been in serial production since 1996.

APPLICATION: Tu-204, Tu-214, Tu-334, Be-200, An-70, Yak-42.

Technical features:

Absorbed electric power of AC, kVA 60
Bleed air consumption, kgf 1,6
Bleed air pressure, kgf/sm2 4,9
Bleed air temperature, °С 250
Start and operation altitude, m 7000/9000
Environmental temperature, °С ± 60
Weight (without generator), kg 297
Specified number of operating hours/starts 2000/4000
Overall dimensions, mm 1588х682х718


Operators: Here

Specifications (A-50)


General characteristics

  • Crew: 15
  • Length: 49.59m (152 ft 8 in)
  • Wingspan: 50.50 m (165 ft 6 in)
  • Height: 14.76 m (48 ft 5 in)
  • Wing area: 300 m² (3,228 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 75,000 kg (165,347 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 170,000 kg (374,786 lb)
  • Powerplant: 4 × Soloviev D-30 KP turbofan, 117,68 kN (26,500 lbf) each

Soloviev D-30 KP turbofan

4 × Soloviev D-30 KP turbofan, 117,68 kN (26,500 lbf) each


Engine D-30КU-154 D-30КU-2 D-30КP-2
Thrust at APR*, kgf  –
Take-off thrust, kgf 10 500 11 000 12 000
Specific fuel consumption at take-off, kg/(kgf∙hr) 0.498 0.498 0.510
Specific fuel consumption at cruise, kg/(kgf∙hr)** 0.715 0.685 0.705
Bypass ratio  2.50 2.31 2.24
Dimensions (L x D), m  5.698 x 1.560 5.698 x 1.560 5.448 x 1.560

* – automatic power reserve
** – (H=11 000 m, M=0.8)



  • Maximum speed: 900 km/h (559 mph)
  • Range: 6,400 km (3,977 mi)
  • Service ceiling: 12,000 m (39,371 ft)

Source: the net

Updated Nov 20, 2017