Monthly Archives: December 2015

MD Helicopters MD 530G scout attack helicopter

The MD 530G is a next-generation light scout attack helicopter being developed by the US-based company MD Helicopters. MD Helicopters has been at the forefront of more than 50-years of scout attack helicopter innovation. Beginning with the 1963 introduction of the OH-6A Cayuse through to the 1985 certification of the MD 530F, the world’s most reliable scout for “hot and high” performance.

MD 530F Cayuse Warrior: Details

MD 530F

The MD 530G is the next evolution of purpose-built armed scout attack helicopters. Designed to be the lowest cost Gunship in the marketplace, the MD 530G maximizes mission versatility and capability for MD customers. The MD 530G platform enables military customers to meet mission requirements in austere environments more efficiently and effectively than ever before.

The helicopter was officially unveiled at the Helicopter International Association conference and exhibition (Heli-Expo) held in Anaheim, US, in February 2014. It successfully fired .50 calibre and 7.62mm ammunition, and unguided and four Raytheon TALON laser-guided rockets during live fire qualification exercise at Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona, in August 2014.

Design

The MD 530G is based on the MD530F airframe. The helicopter is 7.76m long and 3m wide and has an overall height of 2.88m. It has five main rotor blades and two tail rotor blades. The main rotor diameter is 8.38m, while the tail rotor diameter is 1.55m. The helicopter has an empty weight of 885kg, maximum internal gross weight of 1,520kg and maximum take-off gross weight of 1,701kg. It can carry an increased useful load of 816kg to operate with additional range and endurance.

Malaysia is to be the first recipient of MD Helicopter’s new MD530 G-model: Here

Propulsion

The MD 530G scout attack helicopter is powered by Rolls-Royce 250-C30 engine, which generates a power output of 485kW. The 250-C30 turboshaft engine is two-shaft modular design featuring a two-stage LP turbine, two-stage HP turbine, and a gearbox with 6,000rpm output. Compressed air is routed to the aft end of the engine for combustion, with exhaust gases exiting from the middle of the engine. The 250-C30 features four to six-stage axial and single-stage centrifugal compressor with a hydromechanical fuel control system. C-30 version turboshaft also features a FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) system.

Rolls-Royce 250-C30 engine

Rolls-Royce 250-C30 engine

The M250 turboshaft engines are of two-shaft modular design featuring a two-stage LP turbine, two-stage HP turbine, and a gearbox with 6,000rpm output. Compressed air is routed to the aft end of the engine for combustion, with exhaust gases exit from the middle.

The Series II features four to six-stage axial and single-stage centrifugal compressors with a hydromechanical fuel control system. The larger Series IV family is identical in layout, but has a single-stage centrifugal rather than an axial/centrifugal compressor.

Source: rolls-royce.com

The helicopter can fly at a maximum cruise speed of 240km/h at sea level under international standard atmospheric conditions. It has a maximum permitted speed of 282km/h at sea level and can fly to a range of 426km. The MD 530G can endure for two and half hours with an auxiliary fuel tank.

Avionics

The MD 530G helicopter features T-shaped instrument panel installed with two glass multi-function displays (MFDs). On the left is the EO/IR video display, which includes weapon status and targeting overlays. The right side of the panel is the pilot’s Garmin G500H MFD, and below is back up flight/engine instrumentation.

Garmin G500H MFD

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Improve Mission Efficiency and Reliability

  • Dual 6.5” flight displays that are easy to read
  • See clearly in dark VFR night, DVE or inadvertent IMC with HSVT™
  • Helicopter Terrain Awareness Warning System (HTAWS) support
  • Weather, traffic, and charting all in your primary field of view
  • Video input for FLIR or other camera display

Engineered for safety and reliability, the G500H dual-screen electronic flight display provides an affordable flight solution that meets the needs of the most demanding helicopter missions. G500H has received FAA STCs for installation in the Robinson R44, Bell 206 series and Bell 407, as well as the Eurocopter AS350B2, AS350B3 and EC130B4.

Better Situational Awareness

Dual 6.5″ LCD screens, mounted side-by-side in a single bezel, put Primary Flight Display (PFD) and Multi-Function Display (MFD) capabilities right in front of you for easy scanning and interpretation. The PFD screen shows attitude, airspeed, altitude, climb rate and course/heading information, while the left side MFD provides detailed moving-map graphics with the helicopter’s current position in relation to ground features, chart data, navaids and flight plan routings. Both screens are Class B night-vision goggle friendly for use with an array of optics.

Specially adapted to the needs of helicopter operators, our HSVT brings a powerful graphical perspective. Available as an option, HSVT can make a world of difference when visibility is less than ideal.

screenshot-wordpress.com-2018.08.30-23-19-29

HSVT gives you a clear depiction of ground and water features, airports, obstacles, traffic and more — all shown in 3-D perspective on the primary flight display. It uses sophisticated computer modeling to recreate a virtual topographic landscape from the system’s terrain alerting database. The HSVT graphics look so real, it’s almost like having a clear-day “out-the-window” view of your flight situation — even in the darkest nighttime VFR or other low-visibility conditions.

Proven AHRS attitude/heading reference delivers high-precision spatial sensing for G500H digital instrumentation, replacing old-style gyros.

G500H can be purchased with the PFD on either the right or left side of the bezel for easy viewing depending on your pilot seat position.

Maintain Maximum Separation

With a GNS 430W or 530W series HTAWS navigator interfaced to G500H, certified “forward looking” terrain avoidance (FLTA) predicts in advance where potential hazards exist. An HTAWS warning received from the GNS 430W- or 530W-series navigator displays as an annunciation to the left and aligned with the top of the Altitude Tape on the G500H PFD.

To monitor location on unfamiliar airports, G500H is preloaded with geo-referenced SafeTaxi® diagrams for either U.S. or Europe airports, as well as a trial version of FliteCharts®. FBO, ground transportation, lodging and other facility information for most U.S. airports are also available through preloaded AOPA Airport Directory Data. When flying internationally, opt for global AC-U-KWIK airport directory data instead. Source: garmin.com

Cockpit For Malaysian Army

pilotlightmedia.com

MD 530G Attack Helicopter for Malaysian Army Aviation As one of six (6) MD 530G helicopters ordered by Malaysia’s Ministry of Defence for delivery to Malaysian Army Aviation, the MD 530G-glass cockpit features: Two (2) Genesys Aerosystems IDU-680 6” x 9” LCD primary displays Tek Fusion Global’s PATHFINDER™ Mission Management System (MMS) and “ARES” Weapons Management System (WMS) on Dual Side-Mounted Mission Displays. Source airsoc.com

IDU-680 Genesys Aerosystems

Genesys_IDU-680_FixedWing_PFD+MFD

The Genesys Aerosystems Integrated IDU-680 EFIS/EICAS/MFD system aboard the MD 902 Explorer features:

– Three IDU-680, 6” x 9” High-Resolution LCD displays
– Automatic or Manual Revisionary Modes
– 3D Synthetic Vision
– Highway-In-The-Sky (HITS) Navigation
– Geo-Referenced Hover Vector
– Helicopter Terrain Awareness and Warning System (H-TAWS)
– Night Vision A&B Capabilities
– Weather Radar Integration
– Integrated ADS-B Traffic Display
– Engine Instrument Crew Advisory System (EICAS)
– Data Acquisition Units for Custom Engine Monitoring- Flight Data RecordingGraphicalFMS/VHF FEATURESNavigation- Moving Map

Source helis.com

PATHFINDER™ SYSTEM

INRODUCTION

PATHFINDER™ is a customizable Mission Management System (MMS) that has been meticulously designed by a team of former special operations aviators based on real-world experience. Already fielded on NorthStar Aviation’s highly successful Bell 407GX platform, PATHFINDER™ is proven to maximize utility and ease of use with seamless integration of onboard systems. The architects behind PATHFINDER™ understand the critical needs and challenges of the operator, and are dedicated to delivering the best end-user experience possible.

DESIGN PRINCIPLE

PATHFINDER™ uses an easy to navigate interface to simplify and consolidate mission execution tasks. This provides painless command and control of onboard navigation, communication, and peripheral electronic equipment. Optimizing user tasks directly enhances task efficiency and accuracy, and reduces operator workload. With the defense industry’s most common operationally critical features already implemented, PATHFINDER™ can be rapidly integrated to any existing airframe, ground vehicle, or easily customized to support your unique project. Our modular design approach assures the perfect fit, even for budget-conscious implementations. Source tekfusioninc.com

ARES™ SYSTEM

INRODUCTION

ARES is a weapons management system (WMS) designed from the ground upwith a cutting
edge object-based graphical user interface (GUI) developed by former special operations
aviators based on real-world experience. ARES is a software-based configurable system with
a hardware ARM-SAFE infrastructure. ARES is designed to readily support both legacy and
emerging weapons systems in a tactically optimized manner, while reducing size, weight,
and power.

FEATURES

› Modular
› Lightweight
› Scalable
› Compact
› Rugged
› Adaptable
› NVIS Compatible
› Ease of Use
› Touch & Bezel Interfaces
› Impedence controlled
connections
› Single Source Solution

DESCRIPTION

ARES is designed to use the aircraft’s EO/IR monitor as the WMS interface using a
touchscreen GUI. The system is fully integrated with FLIR and L-3 WESCAM Gen II sensors.
Critical EO/IR functions can be controlled through the user interface. The system provides
aircraft steering commands and targeting overlays to guide the pilot into the proper launch
constraints. This reduces pilot workload, and improves the probability of hitting the target. Source tekfusioninc.com

The MD 530G helicopter is also equipped with Rhode & Schwarz M3AR tactical radio communications solution with a frequency range from 30MHz to 400MHz.With the integration of on-board systems that include a Stores Management System, forward looking infrared sensor, and an advanced communications suite, MD Helicopters has evolved a proven platform to provide comprehensive battlefield command and control coordination for the successful execution of Attack, Reconnaissance and Security missions.

Rhode & Schwarz M3AR tactical radio communications solution

R&S®M3AR Software Defined Radios

VHF/UHF Transceiver Family for Airborne Communications

Key Facts

  • Frequency range from 30 MHz to 400 MHz
  • Compact and lightweight with high transmit power (up to 20 W in AM mode and up to 30 W in FM mode)
  • EPM (ECCM): HAVE QUICK I/II, SATURN, R&S®SECOS
  • Approved for jet and propeller aircraft as well as helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles
  • Embedded NATO or R&S®SECOS encryption
  • Suitable for communications with military and civil air traffic control (e.g. 8.33 kHz channel spacing or offset carrier receive operation)

Brief Description

The software defined, multiband-capable airborne transceivers of the R&S®M3AR family feature a modular design and state-of-the-art technology. This leads to high MTBF values and a long life. The compact and lightweight transceivers offer high performance, making them suitable for operation in all types of aircraft, including unmanned aerial vehicles. Different waveforms are available, which can be installed at any time to provide interoperability in a variety of operational scenarios.

The R&S®M3AR family is the product of decades of experience, especially in the design and development of airborne radio equipment and software defined radio technology. The R&S®M3AR multiband, multimode, multirole radio is the solution of choice for the reliable transmission of mission-critical information, whether it’s for jet or propeller aircraft, helicopters or unmanned aerial vehicles.

Rohde & Schwarz satisfies the most demanding requirements of a multitude of airborne platforms. The R&S®M3AR transceivers are in operation around the world and feature high reliability even under extreme environmental conditions. The outstanding MTBF values ensure low maintenance effort and high availability.

A variety of optional EPM (ECCM) methods are available. For instance, the R&S®SECOS frequency hopping method with integrated encryption can be installed in parallel with HAVE QUICK I/II.

The R&S®M3AR family consists of the R&S®MR6000A in an ARINC 600 housing and the R&S®MR6000R/ R&S®MR6000L, both of which are ARC-164 form & fit compatible. The R&S®MR6000L is equipped with a local control panel while the R&S®MR6000R is remote-controlled. All R&S®M3AR radios can be remote-controlled via the MIL‑STD-1553B data bus, as well as by the R&S®GB6500 control unit. The R&S®MR6000R or R&S®MR6000L can serve as a form, fit and function (F3) replacement for legacy AN/ARC-164 radios.

Source: rohde-schwarz.com

The MD 530G is fitted with the Moog Third Generation Weapon Stores Management System (SMS), which provides the aviator with best-in-class weapons management on the MD 530G Armed Scout/Attack platform.

Moog Third Generation Weapon Stores Management System (SMS)

This scalable SMS includes one Stores Management Computer (SMC), weighing 4 pounds, located in the cargo compartment, one Multi-Function Display (MFD), weighing 6 pounds, mounted in the cockpit instrument panel, one Stores Control Panel (SCP), weighing 1.2 pounds, mounted in the cockpit slant panel, two Stores Interface Unit (SIU), weighing 3.5 pounds/7 pounds total, located in the cargo compartment, and two Rocket Interface Unit (RIU), weighing 3 pounds/6 pounds total, located in the cargo compartment.

Moog Third Generation Weapon Stores Management System (SMS)

The total weight of the SMS is only 24.2 lbs. The Stores Management Computer interfaces with the Multi-function Display and the MX-10D EO/IR sensor and laser designation system via RS-422, MIL-STD-1553, ARINC-429, or Ethernet, depending on customer need. For the MD 530G application, the SMS supports up to 4 weapons stations; including integration of machine guns, unguided and guided munitions.

Accessories

Infused with modern technology and MDHI innovation, the agility and firepower of the MD 530G will provide significant expansion in airborne combat capabilities, enabling military customers to meet mission requirements in austere environments more effectively and efficiently than ever before. With cruise speeds in excess of 110kts, the MD 530G is designed for agile deployment with any rotary wing unit. The aircraft features increased capacity landing gear supporting the 3,750 MGTOW (max gross takeoff weight). This allows the operator to utilize the increased useful load for additional range, endurance and weapons.

Mace Aviation Extended Range Weapons Wing (ER2W)

rack

The MD 530G is equipped with Mace Aviation’s weapons mounting structure. The Mace Aviation Extended Range Weapons Wing (ER2W) is a lightweight, four-station weapons platform constructed of aerospace grade composite materials. The ER2W was specifically designed for MD Helicopters product line and enhances the MD 530G aircraft performance by the wing’s integral 35 gallon auxiliary fuel system.

The Mace ER2W provides four distinct advantages to the MD 530G aircraft that are not provided by other legacy weapons mount structures. The ER2W is lightweight, weighing less than 100 pounds empty and can carry over 1,300 pounds of weapons and ammo to include 235 pounds of fuel. Integral to the ER2W is a crashworthy, self-sealing 35 gallon fuel system, manufactured by Robertson Fuel Systems, increases the MD 530G’s effective range and endurance by approximately one hour. The system is designed for rapid reconfiguration.

A three point attachment scheme and quick disconnects for the wiring harness and fuel line allows the MD 530G to be quickly reconfigured between attack, assault, and/or utility operations in less than 10 minutes by two personnel. The ER2W airfoil design provides increased maneuverability with decreased drag. The ER2W is equipped with four weapons stations that include provisions for the M134D-H for both inboard stations. The two outboard stations are equipped with ALKAN suspension racks with standard 14 inch NATO interfaces and provisions for in-flight store jettison for additional pod guns, rockets or missiles. The ER2W is designed to grow with the capability and operator needs.

Dillon Aero M134D-H Gatling Gun

Dillon Aero M134D-H Gatling Gun  & .50cal FN M3P pod on Malaysian MD 530G – pilotlightmedia.com

M134D-H for both inboard stations the Dillon Aero M134D-H Gatling Gun. The M134D-H (Hybrid) is the latest Gatling Gun design from Dillon Aero. This Hybrid Gatling Gun combines the light-weight attributes of the M134D-T (Titanium) weapon with the long-life durability of the M134D (Steel) variant. The Hybrid Gun is ideal for aircraft applications, weighing a mere two pounds more than the Titanium variant. Service life is extended three-fold, increasing weapon-system longevity from 300,000 to 1,000,000 rounds. The MD 530G offers the M134D-H in multiple arrangement options, including single and dual-weapon configurations, effectively complementing other weapon system capabilities. The M134D-H will come standard with a 3,000 round ammo magazine that will be easily stowed on top of the Mace Extended Range Weapons Wing in the cargo compartment of the MD 530G. The total system weight, including the weapon, feed chute, harness, and ammunition magazine is a mere 93 pounds, excluding ammunition.

Raytheon TALON 2.75-inch (70 mm) Laser-Guided Rocket

rtn_205208

Raytheon TALON 2.75-inch (70 mm) Laser-Guided Rocket, co-developed with the United Arab Emirates, leverages Raytheon’s extensive experience in laser seeker technology and builds on its proven track record of precision munitions development and production. TALON is a low cost solution that fills the gap between existing unguided rockets and heavy, expensive anti-tank missiles that are currently deployed on attack helicopters. It is effective against soft and lightly armored point targets while providing precision engagement capability that reduces the potential of collateral damage. TALON’s architecture and ease of employment make it a low-cost, highly precise weapon for missions in urban environments, counter insurgency and swarming boat defense missions.

screenshot-optronique.net-2018.04.19-14-09-28

The TALON LGR consists of a light weight laser guidance kit that attaches to existing 2.75-inch (70 mm) unguided rockets that are used extensively throughout the world. The guidance kit incorporates Raytheon’s digital semi-active laser seeker, guidance electronics, a three-axis control actuation system, and the TALON roll-optimizing tail-fin assembly. The kit is fully compatible with existing airborne and ground laser designators and requires no modifications to the existing 70 mm rocket launchers.

Rocket pod

m260l_01.jpg612b13ce-2e13-4155-878f-51269fb22006Larger.jpgRocket and Rocket pod

.50cal FN M3P pod

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.50cal FN M3P pod & Dillon Aero M134D-H Gatling Gun on Malaysian MD 530G – airsoc.com

.50cal FN M3P pod For the heavy machine gun solution, the MD 530G incorporates the FN Herstal Heavy Machine Gun Pod (HMP). This system is an independent unit housing a 12.7 mm (.50 caliber) FN M3P machine gun. Fitted with standard lugs, the pod can be carried by the MD 530G helicopter’s 14-inch NATO standard bomb rack. The weapon is air cooled and operates by short barrel recoil. The gun is accurate up to 1,850 meters and remains effective up to 3,000 meters. Its high rate of fire – up to 1,100 rounds per minute – provides lethal fire concentration. A self-contained ammunition box has a capacity of up to 400 cartridges. Cartridges are fed to the gun by an internal ammunition chute. High ammunition capacity enables a number of attacks to be made without rearming. Belt advance is smooth and without risk of jamming or fouling due to aircraft attitudes and accelerations.

The L-3 Wescam MX-10 series sensor and LASER designator will round out the MD 530G mission and weapons equipment package. The MX-10 and MX-10D deliver MX-series high performance stabilization, high resolution HD Color, Lowlight and Infra-Red imagery, high accuracy Geopoint/Geolocate and precision targeting lasers to the small turret class. The MX-10 and MX-10D are combat proven and serving on U.S Military, International and Special Forces Platforms around the world today.

L-3 Wescam

The MX-10/10D are a single LRU system saving both weight, space and cabling on the MD 530G with a total system weight below 43lbs. The MX10 is self-aligning and bore-sighting requiring input from the aircraft, and permits Geo-point and geo tracking capability. L3’s MX10 features 4-axis stabilization vibration isolation of the payload provide the ability to conduct laser designation beyond 10km, a low Pilot work load as the turret maintains target position without input while maneuvering the aircraft, and a high reliability and low cost of operation with mean time between failure exceeding 1000HRS. The MX-10D is compatible with industry-standard mounting interfaces and also supports platform unique requirements.

The overall diameter of 10.24 inch x 10.6 inch (260 x 270 mm) matches existing small EO/IR systems, making the MX-10D suitable for belly mounting in low ground clearance airframes. The electrical connectors are side mounted to facilitate installations where cable penetration immediately above the turret is not practical. The MX-10 series provide three high definition SMPTE 292M digital video outputs and four analog video outputs, for direct connection to displays, recorders and data links. All internal video paths are digital, excluding the final digital-to-analog conversion step for the analog videos. Each output of the digital video switch matrix can be independently selected to be IR, EO, Fused or Video-In-Control. Symbology on each output from the switch matrix can be individually enabled, disabled and de-cluttered.

MX-10D EO/IR sensor and laser designation system

Ideal for: Low-altitude Tactical Surveillance & Target Acquisition and Designation missions requiring low-weight installation flexibility
Installations: Fixed-wing, Rotary-wing, UAV, Aerostat

Features & Benefits

Compact Solution

  • 43 lb./19.5 kg turret
  • 15 in. turret height for better ground clearance

Multi-Sensor Imaging/Lasing Payload Options:

  • Currently supports up to six sensors simultaneously
  • Superior HD imaging resolution from Electro-Optical (EO) camera
  • Laser rangefinder, illuminator, designator

Latest Enhancement – 2015

  • Picutre-in-Picutre (PiP)

Enhanced Local Area Processing (ELAP):

  • Real-time image enhancement for EO day, EO night & Infrared

High-Performance IMU & MX-GEO Software Suite:

  • IMU & MX-GEO work to create accurate target location
  • MX-GEO automatically aligns to the aircraft
  • Robust automatic image focus

Uncompromised Stabilization:

  • Four-axis gimbal with internal IMU
  • All payloads are fully stabilized

MX-Series Commonality:

  • Common operator interfaces and Hand Controller Units (HCUs)
  • Simplified interchangeability
  • Efficiencies in product support and technology enhancements

Source wescam.com

Type
light scout attack helicopter
Country user
– (in development)
Country Producer
United States
Crew
2 + 2
Engine
Rolls-Royce 250-C30 Engine
Speed
282 km/h (max cruise speed: 240 km/h)
Range
426 km
Weight
885 kg (max payload: 816 kg)
Avionics
Garmin G500H dual-screen flight display, night-vision-goggle (NVG) devices, dual LH command flight controls, Moog Third Generation Weapon Stores Management System
Dimensions
Length: 7.76 m; Width: 3 m; Heigth: 2.88 m

MD 530G MD530G scout attack helicopter technical data sheet specifications intelligence description information identification pictures photos images video MD Scout attack helicopters MD Scout attack helicopters Aircraft United States American US USN USMC US Air Force US Navy aviation aerospace defence industry military technology

Main material source airrecognition.com

Updated Apr 19, 2018

Next Gen cockpit

Russian PAK FA to be Equipped With Futuristic Photonic Radar

14:41 30.12.2015 (updated 16:30 30.12.2015)

 

Russia’s fifth-generation fighter PAK FA (T-50) may be equipped with an advanced radar which is currently being developed by a Russian corporation.

The radar will be based on Radio-Optical Phased Arrays (ROFAR), explained the adviser of the first deputy general director of concern Radio-Electronic Technology (KRET) Vladimir Mikheev.

KRET is a part of Russia’s Rostec corporation, it developed the electronic systems for the aircraft.

The future radar will be based on the photonic technology that greatly expands the possibilities of communication and radar as their weight will be decreased by more than half and the resolution will increase tenfold.

The ultra-wideband ROFAR signal allows one to virtually get a TV picture on a radar range. Radio photonic technology, in particular, will enhance the capabilities of the latest generation of Russian airplanes and helicopters.

“After our work on ROFAR, a list of aircrafts both manned and unmanned will be presented with an offer to be equipped with the radar based on radio-optical phased arrays. I think that the PAK FA will also be on this list and there will be specific proposals given to it,” Mikheyev told reporters, adding that the final decision will be taken by the Department of Defense.

The developer of ROFAR, KRET has established a laboratory on radio photonics. The concern has already started to perform laboratory tests to create ROFAR. Designed to be finished in 4.5 years, the project remains on schedule, which was agreed on with the Foundation for Advanced Studies.

As was earlier reported by the Deputy CEO of KRET, Igor Nasenkov, the company intends to establish a full-scale sample of the future radar by 2018.

“The PAK FA is a fifth-generation aircraft, with a number of brand-new technologies used in its development. It is a 100 percent digital aircraft. It can provide full information support to the pilot. The aircraft is equipped with versatile antenna systems built in its covering,” Nasenkov said during the Dubai Airshow 2015.

 

Read original article: Russian PAK FA to be Equipped With Futuristic Photonic 

****-END-****

KRET creates a laboratory for research in Photonics

The group has been developing radar and EW systems based on new technologies

In recent years, electronic systems all often replaced on the photon. Linked it in the first turn with a different physical nature of the photon. That same is a photon and what unique capabilities of military technology will provide a new direction – believe that radio Photonics?

Fast electrons

Photonics is essentially analogous to electronics, but it uses in place of electrons the electromagnetic field of photons. Photons are more common in terms of the number of particles in the universe and, unlike electrons, have no mass or charge. For this reason, photonic systems are not subject to external electromagnetic fields and have a much larger signal transmission range and bandwidth.

As an area of science, the study of photonics began in 1960 with the invention of the first important technical device using photons, the laser. The very same term “photonics” was used widely in the 1980s in connection with the beginning of widespread use of fiber-optic transmissions. Notably, in Russia the first development of such a fiber-optic cable was completed by Special Design Office of the Cable Industry, which is now part of KRET.

These developments revolutionized the telecommunications sector at the end of the last century and became the basis for the development of the internet. Generally, until 2001, the field of photonics was primarily focused on telecommunications.

Today, telecommunications photonics is helping to create a new trend – radio photonics arising from the merger of radio-wave optics, microwave, optoelectronics, and other branches of science and industry.

In other words, radio photonics deals with problems of transmission, reception, and transformation of information using electromagnetic waves of microwave and photonic devices and systems. These photons facilitate the creation of radio frequency parameters unattainable with conventional electronics.

A breakthrough in radio photons

As is well known, Russia is behind Western countries in terms of microelectronics. But now certain radio photonic technologies have started to beat the competition. Today, Russian scientists in the field of defense technology believe it is possible to give up on electrons and draw attention to the photons that have no mass and fly faster.

According to experts, the servers operating with photonics are a hundred times smaller compared to current models, and the speed of data transmission is tenfold greater.

Or, for example, take ground-based radar. Today, this radar is the size of a multi-story home, but using microwave photonics, the station can be installed on a standard KAMAZ truck. The effectiveness and range of the radar would be exactly the same, namely thousands of kilometers. Several of these mobile and small radar systems can be networked, which will only increase their characteristics.

Photonic technology has greatly expanded the capabilities of airborne radars too. New developments in this area have reduced the weight of existing antennas and radars by more than two times and have increased their resolution by ten times. Also radio photon antennas have a unique immunity to electromagnetic impulses that arise, such as nearby lightning strikes or during solar magnetic storms.

All of this will enable the creation of broadband radars that can facilitate a level of resolution and speed that can be called radar vision. Such systems will be used in the civilian sphere, for example, with high-speed trains that will instantly detect obstacles on the tracks.

Photonics can also be effectively used in housing, for example, in urban and township heating systems. Instead of hot water, photons will be distributed in photonic crystal fibers with the thickness of a human hair. Its energy is converted into heat with nearly 100% efficiency.

Laboratory of the future

In Russia, KRET is developing radio photonic technology. Today, the concern and the Foundation for Advanced Studies are working on a promising project called “Development of an active phased array based on radio photons.” The project includes the creation of a special laboratory at concern enterprises, as well as the development of universal technology that will serve as the foundation for next-generation radar and electronic warfare systems.

According to the KRET CEO Nikolai Kolesov, the latest technology will make it possible to create effective and advanced next-generation receiver-transmitters, radar systems, electronic intelligence and electronic countermeasures by 2020.

One of the main areas of work will be the creation of a next-generation active phased array antenna, whose basic elements will be created using the principles of radio photonics. This will reduce the weight of the apparatus 1.5-3 times, increase its reliability and efficiency up to 2-3 times, and raise the scanning speed and resolution dozens of times. source: kret.com

Some VERY important data points in the article:

1.) Electronics based on photonics will have decreased the need for ‘servers’ down to 1/100th the current level, and will increase the data transfer rate by 10 fold!

2.) When fully mature photonics will allow truck based radars to have the same power, resolution, and capability as massive OTH radars!

3.) KRET’s early work in radiophotonics (photonics based radars) are incredibly promising. Developments in the field while it’s in it’s infancy allows airborne radars (AEW while based on photonics) weight to be cut down 1/2 the current weight, and increased the resolution by 10 fold!

4.) Photonic based radars will have it’s ECM resistance grow by several orders of magnitude! Will be heavily resistant to electro-magnetic storms…

5.) By the 2020’s photonic based AESA radars will grow by leaps and bounds in capability. The weight of AESA radar will be cut down by 1.5 to 3 times, increase the reliability and efficiency by 2 to 3 times, and increase the scanning speed and resolution by several dozen times that of contemporary AESA radars!

6.) Photonics can also be effectively applied in housing, for example, in urban and rural heating systems. Instead of hot water energy photons will be used. They will be distributed in photonic crystal fibers with a thickness of human hair, the energy of which is converted into heat with almost 100% efficiency! Source: magnumcromagnon/russiadefence.net

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Mi-8AMTSh/Mi-17 Assault transport helicopter

The Mi-8AMTSh is a dedicated armored assault version of the Mi-8AMT helicopter. Sometimes it is nicknamed the Terminator. Its armament is derived from Mi-24 gunship and carries some armor. It made its first flight in 1996. It was first publicly demonstrated in 1999. First helicopters were delivered to Russian Air Force in 2009. Estimated Russian military requirement is for about 200 new assault transport helicopters.

   Main role of this helicopter is to carry cargo and troops and support them with its firepower. It can also perform evacuation and combat search and rescue. It can soften-up enemy defenses before landing. This helicopter can engage enemy infantry, armored vehicles and even main battle tanks. Also it has secondary air-to-air capability against low-flying aircraft, helicopters, and UAVs.

   This helicopter can carry 4 000 kg of payload in its cargo compartment. Alternatively it can carry loads up to 4 000 kg externally.

The Mi-8AMTSh can carry 36 troops. There are two trainable 7.62-mm machine guns hidden behind doors and operated by the passengers. Cargo area can be easily transformed for medical evacuation role. In this role helicopter can carry 12 stretchers and one medical attendant.

7.62-mm machine gun door guns

   Two stub-wings have a total of 12 hardpoints for various types of weapons. It can carry various types of guided missiles, unguided rockets podded cannons and machine guns. This helicopter can carry Shturm-V (AT-6) or Ataka-V (AT-9) anti-tank missiles. Also it can carry Igla-V (SA-18) air-to-air missiles.

Gondala Universalnaya Vertolotnaya 8700 (GUV-8700)

The Gondala Universalnaya Vertolotnaya 8700 (GUV-8700) and ‘a gun-pod developed in the seventies by  Spetztekhnika Vympel NPO for use aboard Hind helicopters (Mi-24/35), Hip (Mi-8/17) and Hormone (Ka-25).The GUV-8700 looks like a big cigar-box, about three meters long, the all-metal construction and the ends’ rounded.  (Translated by Google)

Yak-B 12.7 – 9A624K and Gryazev -Shipunov GShG four rods 7.62

There are 3 machine guns the middle is the Yak-B 12.7 – 9A624K and 9A624 aviation heavy machine guns 4000 and 5000 rounds per minute and the 2 on each side are the Gryazev -Shipunov GShG four rods 7.62 5000 and 6000 rounds per minute.   (Translated by Google)

GShG four rods 7.62 

GShG four rods 7.62 Both are rotating barrels Gatling type Soviet that, working either gas, require no external power supply. The firing rate overall (theoretical) of three machine guns may ‘vary, therefore, from 14 to 17,000 c / min, but in practice is limited to 12,000 for issues related to the consumption of ammunition.  (Translated by Google)

Rocket pod

8115748306_5cbe2e4d49Rocket pod

S-5 (first designated ARS-57)

The S-5 (first designated ARS-57) is a rocket weapon developed by the Soviet Air Force and used by military aircraft against ground area targets. It is in service with the Russian Air Force and various export customers. It is produced in a variety of subtypes with different warheads, including HEAT anti-armour (S-5K), high-explosive fragmentation (S-5M/MO), smoke, and incendiary rounds. Each rocket is about 1.4 meters (4 ft 6 in) long and weighs about 5 kg (11 lb), depending on warhead and fuze. Range is 3 to 4 kilometres (1.9 to 2.6 miles).

9K114 Shturm

9K114 Shturm (Russian: 9К114 «Штурм»- “shturm” means storm (assault) in English) is a SACLOS radio guided anti-tank missile system of the Soviet Union. Its GRAU designation is 9K114. Its NATO reporting name is AT-6 Spiral. The missile itself is known as the (Cocoon). The missile is transported and launched from a glass-reinforced plastic tube. The missile uses a Soyuz NPO solid-rocket sustainer, with a small booster stage to launch the missile from its tube. The missile is SACLOS with a radio command link. The use of a radio link allows the missile to travel much faster and further than if it were wire guided. The radio link is a VHF system with five frequency bands and two codes to minimize the risk of jamming. The system comprises a KPS-53AV 8x daylight-only direct vision sight with an integrated laser rangefinder. After the missile is launched, the gunner has to keep the sight’s crosshairs on the target until impact. Appropriate steering commands are transmitted to the missile via the radio link.

 9M120 Ataka 

The 9M120 Ataka (Russian: Атака; Attack) is an anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) originating from the Soviet Union. TheNATO reporting name of the 9M120 missile is the AT-9 Spiral-2. It is the next major generation in the 9K114 Shturm (AT-6 Spiral) family. The missile has radio command guidance and is also a Beam riding SACLOS. This missile’s primary variant was designed to defeat tanks with composite armour and explosive reactive armor. The 9M120 Ataka system is often confused with the 9K121 Vikhr system, despite being different weapons systems developed by different companies. The AT-9 is more resistant to electronic countermeasures, and has a greater hit accuracy and longer reach. The newly developed warhead allows for increased penetration power and effectiveness against explosive reactive armor. The Ataka missile is stored in a glass reinforced plastic tube, which also acts as its launcher. The missile is reported to be considerably faster than the AT-6 Spiral, with longer range than the original version. It still uses radio command guidance, but the system has been improved when compared to the earlier 9K114 Shturm.

9K38 Igla 

The 9K38 Igla (Russian: Игла́, “needle”) is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM). “9K38” is the Russian GRAU designation of the system. Its US DoD designation is SA-18 and its NATO reporting name isGrouse; a simplified, earlier version is known as the 9K310 Igla-1, or SA-16 Gimlet. The latest variant is the 9K338 Igla-SNATO reporting name SA-24 Grinch. It has been fielded by the Russian Army since 2004. The seeker has two detectors – a cooled MWIR InSb detector for detection of the target and uncooled PbS SWIR detector for detection of IR decoys (flares). The built-in logic determines whether the detected object is a target or a decoy. The latest version (Igla-S) is reported to have additional detectors around the main seeker to provide further resistance against pulsed IRCM devices commonly used on helicopters.

   This helicopter has a crew of three. One of them is a gunner and aims various weapons. A sighting system is located under the nose.

2 xTV3-117VM turboshafts

2 xTV3-117VM turboshafts

This assault transport helicopter is fitted with updated and more powerful engines. It also has new structurally improved rotor blades.

IMG_3773s[1](1)

   Comparing with the earlier Mi-8 series helicopters the Mi-8AMTSh has improved avionics and modernized electronic core. It can operate at night and in all weather conditions. It is equipped with GPS and Russian GLONASS satellite navigation systems. It is also fitted with weather radar.

Variants

   Mi-8AMTSh-1 assault transport helicopter with VIP interior. It retains its weapons;

   Mi-171Sh Terminator is an export model. It is in service with Bangladesh, Ghana and Nigerian. This helicopter has been ordered by Croatia, Czech Republic, Kenya, Peru and possibly some other countries. It is worth noting that the Mi-8 series helicopters are popular due to their good value for money. Countries with limited military funding use such machines instead of dedicated attack helicopters. Also the Mi-8/Mi-17 helicopters are easy to maintain.

Main characteristics

Max takeoff weight, kg 13000
Normal takeoff weight, kg 11100
Max payload weight, kg 4000
Max speed, km/h 250*
Cruising speed, km/h 220-230*
Range, km:

with main fuel tanks

with two internal additional fuel tanks

675*

1180*

Service ceiling, m 6000*
Engines:

TV3-117VM or TV3-117VM Ser. 02:

number × takeoff power, hp

OGE hover ceiling, m

2 × 2200

3980*

VK-2500-03:

number × takeoff power, hp

OGE hover ceiling, m

2 × 2400

4300*

Crew 3
Paratroopers carried in cargo cabin 36

Technical data roe.ru

Source: military-today.com/wiki/from the net

Updated May 03, 2017

Russia is to commence delivery of the S-300PMU-2 air defense system to Iran from January 2016

Department of Defense & Industry Daily News

Dec 28, 2015 00:20 UTC by Defense Industry Daily staff

Russia is to commence delivery of the S-300PMU-2 air defense system to Iran from January 2016. The first regiment of the system is expected to be completed by February, with a second expected to come in either August or September 2016. The sale follows an April 2015 decree by Russian President Vladamir Putin which lifted an export ban to Iran following progressive international negotiations over Iran’s nuclear energy program. An $800 million defense system contract signed in 2007 was suspended by Moscow in 2010 over the international sanctions imposed on Tehran, causing them to sue Russia for $4 billion. The delivery of the system will now see the case dropped.

© 2004-2015 Defense Industry Daily, LLC

****-END-****

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See the S-300 change the game for IRAN

Graphic 1 shows Iran with a pre-S-300 baseline.  Missile systems are grouped and layered to protect high-value areas.  The anti-air missile system with the longest intercept range – the former-Soviet SA-5 system – is permanently installed, in a characteristic site configuration, and is thus relatively easy to find and attack preemptively.  The shorter-range systems on the graphic are also installed at permanent sites.  Iran has modern, mobile anti-air missile systems, but their range is extremely short; they are deployed, at need, to high-value locations, and neutralizing them is part of routine planning for a strike package by a force like the IAF or the U.S. military.

Pre-S300 air defense baseline in Iran.  (Google map; author annotation)Pre-S300 air defense baseline in Iran. (Google map; author annotation)

Graphic 2 shows how the mobile S-300 could dramatically complicate the air space picture for strike planners, with its initial deployment.  Where once attacking aircraft might have used the Zagros Mountains on the western edge of Iran to mask their approach to targets in central Iran, S-300s deployed to the western slopes of the mountain range could limit that option enough to make it effectively impossible, at least for massed waves of strike aircraft.

Notional initial deployment of S-300 for western approaches coverage. (Google map; author annotation)Notional initial deployment of S-300 for western approaches coverage. (Google map; author annotation)

The Iranian air defense force could maintain the threat rings depicted in Graphic 2 while moving the missile launchers around to evade reconnaissance.  It could also lose a launcher and quickly deploy another one to “fill the gap.”

Graphic 2 shows, for notional purposes, a deployment of eight rough launcher positions, not taking into account where the early warning/target acquisition radars would have to be positioned for coverage.  (The system field-deploys typically with 6-8 launchers per battery.  An actual deployment will not look exactly like Graphic 2 or 3.)

With a deployment of 16 launcher positions, shown in Graphic 3, Iran could blanket her entire perimeter with S-300 coverage.  Iran would receive the batteries she needs for a version of the Graphic 2 concept in the first delivery from Russia.  The Iranians could also choose to layer the western and southern sectors of the country more heavily, with less emphasis on the east and northeast.

With enough launchers, Iran could rotate ready positions within a coverage area and “fill in” holes where launchers were lost to attack.  She has nothing approaching this capability today.  The S-300’s range and mobility alone will make an attacking force work much harder, and probably take more losses, to fight through to its targets.

Notional saturation deployment of S-300 with 16 launcher positions. (Google map; author annotation)Notional saturation deployment of S-300 with 16 launcher positions. (Google map; author annotation)

A nightmare scenario would be Iran getting both the PMU-series system and the army VM system.  Here’s what the Air Power Australia site has to say about the S-300VM:

Rapidly deployable, high survivable, and highly lethal, these weapons are especially difficult to counter and require significant capabilities to robustly defeat. The US Air Force currently envisages the F-22A Raptor as the primary weapon used to defeat these capable systems.

It is important to note that no F/A-18 variant, nor the Joint Strike Fighter, were designed to penetrate the coverage of the S-300V/VM systems. The survivability of these aircraft will not be significantly better than that of legacy combat aircraft [e.g., F-15 or F-16 – J.E.].

Part of script from the article “Bad, or worse? Depends on what the meaning of ‘S-300’ is” by By J.E. Dyer on April 17, 2015

Buk-M3 air defense systems

MOSCOW, December 26. /TASS/. A new cutting-edge missile has been created for the Buk-M3 medium-range air defense missile system, Lieutenant General Alexander Leonov, the commander of Russia’s air defense troops, told the Russian News Service on Saturday.

“The self-propelled system’s transport and firing boxes are designed to hold six missiles. Missiles are more compact but are more precise and capable of flying longer distances. So, it can be called a new unique missile capable of efficiently hitting air targets,” he said.

He said the capacity of the new missile system had been boosted by 1.5 times as it is capable of holding six missiles instead of four.

Earlier, a source in Russia’s defense ministry told TASS the Buk-M3 missile systems would be included into the Russia army’ inventory before the end of 2016 and would arrive to the army starting from 2016.

The Buk-M3 system is superior to the S-300 air defense missile system by a number of characteristics, including the kill probability.

The Buk-M3 system has a range of 70 kilometers (43.5 miles), which is 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) more compared to previous versions of the Buk antiaircraft missile system.

The Buk-M3 has a maximum firing altitude of 35 kilometers (21.7 miles). Source tass.ru

Buk-M3 system

The Buk-M3 system has a range of 70 kilometers (43.5 miles), which is 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) more compared to previous versions of the Buk antiaircraft missile system. The Buk-M3 has a maximum firing altitude of 35 kilometers (21.7 miles). The Buk-M3 system is superior to the S-300 air defense missile system by a number of characteristics, including the kill probability.

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S-300VM Antey-2500 SA-23 Gladiator Giant air defense missile system: Details

The Buk-M3 medium-range surface-to-air missile system, a modernized version of the Buk-M2 system, features advanced electronic components and a deadly new missile and could be regarded as a completely new system.

New 9R31M missile

The new type of missile used by the launcher, advanced 9R31M, is more compact than the ordnance used by its predecessors, allowing Buk-M3 to carry a payload of six instead of four missiles. At the same time, the new missile outclasses previous models in terms of its technical characteristics: it can destroy any type of airborne target in existence: can be used against naval and ground targets, including tactical and strategic aircraft, helicopters, short-range ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, air-launched missiles, anti-radiation missiles, guided bombs and other aerodynamic vehicles, according to the Strategic Culture Foundation website.

And is extremely resistant to electronic countermeasures, such as heavy jamming.

The new 9R31M missile radar-guided all-weather surface-to-air missile (SAM) is fitted with high-explosive fragmentation warhead able to destroy any types of air targets with a speed of 3,000 m/s at an altitude from 15 m to 35 km. To compare, the speed of a missile fired by a US-made MGM-140 ATACMS surface-to-air missile launcher doesn’t exceed 1.5 kilometers per hour.

The specifications include a maximum target speed of 3,000 m/s (11,000 km/h; 6,700 mph), altitude range of 0.015–35 km (49–114,829 ft) and distance of 2.5–70 km (1.6–43.5 mi). The new radar employed by the Buk-M3 allows it to detect airborne targets flying at extremely low altitudes (5 meters and higher). Its target-destruction probability has reached 0.9999. The operational range is from 2.5 to 70 km.

The missile can be fired from the 12 cylindrical containers 20 seconds after the system is set up. Probability of hitting a target with one missile: aircraft – 0.95; tactical ballistic missile – 0.7; cruise missile – 0.8. Reaction time is 10 seconds. The interval between shots is one second in any direction. Source strategic-culture.org

The Buk-M3 system boasts a new digital computer, high-speed data exchange system and a telethermal imaging target designator instead of the teleoptical trackers used in previous models. It allows to detect airborne targets flying at extremely low altitudes (5 meters and higher).

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The Buk-3M’s target-destruction probability has reached 0.9999 and its maximum destruction range has been increased by 25 kilometers and now stands at 70 kilometers. The weapon system can also intercept and destroy airborne targets flying at a speed of 3 kilometers per second (for example, the speed of a missile fired by a US-made MGM-140 ATACMS surface-to-air missile launcher doesn’t exceed 1.5 kilometers per hour).

A battery of Buk-M3 missiles can track and engage up to 36 targets simultaneously. The missile can be fired from the 12 cylindrical containers 20 seconds after the system is set up. Source sputniknews.com

D4by 3d_molier International

A standard Buk battalion consists of a command vehicle, target acquisition radar (TAR) vehicle, six transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) vehicles and three transporter erector launcher (TEL) vehicles. A Buk missile battery consists of two TELAR and one TEL vehicle. A maximum speed on the road is 70 Km/h with a maximum road range of 500 km.

The TELAR is based on the GM-569 tracked armoured chassis, carries six ready to fire missiles mounted on a turntable that can traverse a full 360°. The turret of the Buk-M3 TELAR includes fire control radar at the front and a launcher with six ready-to-fire missiles on top.

The TEL uses the same tracked chassis as the TELAR Buk-M3 but the turret is fitted with two blocks of six missiles. The vehicle is protected against small arms and shell splinters. The crew of 4 is located at the front. The crew members enter and leave the vehicle via two large hatches located at the front of the armoured chassis.

The system can also support up to two additional 9A316M launchers vehicles loaded with 12 9M317M surface-to-air missiles. It also includes a 9T243M transport and loading vehicle. Source strategic-culture.org

Source military-today.com

Tor-M2U Air Defence Missile System (ADMS), Russia

The Russian Army Tor-M2U is a derivative of the Tor-M2 short-range air defense missile system optimized for protection of military and civil facilities from aircraft, missile and bomb attacks. The system is an evolution of the Tor-M2 battlefield missile system with better algorithms to recognize, classify and priorize threats while engaging four of them simultaneously. The Russian Army’s Tor-M2U utilizes the proven 9M331 surface-to-air missile (SAM) which is optimized against small-sized maneuvering targets. The Russian Army took delivery of the first Tor-M2U missile systems at the end of 2014 with the system expected to achieve initial operational capability by late 2015 after completing the state’s testing phase. Source deagel.com

maxresdefaultTOR-M2U

TOR-M1

TOR-M1

Variants

9K330 Tor

The project was given strict design specifications to meet; Tor had to provide extended detection and tracking of fast, low radar cross section targets and be capable of quickly and efficiently dealing with massed air raids, whilst providing a high degree of automation and integration with other air defence assets. In order to meet these demanding specifications, the designers used a variety of new technologies, including advanced Passive electronically scanned array radar for improved detection and tracking performance, enhanced digital information processing, and vertically launched missiles to improve reaction time and increase the number of readily available munitions. After a period of testing and evaluation between December 1983 and December 1984, the land based system was accepted into service on March 19, 1986.

9K331 Tor M1

“Tor-M1”, introduced in 1991 with the 9M331 missile, with greatly improved missile accuracy and the ability to engage two targets simultaneously, minimum range 1.5 km (0.93 mi), minimum height 0,01 km.

Even while the Tor was being introduced into service, work started on improving the system, resulting in an enhanced version, the Tor-M1. Many improvements over the original system were made; these included the addition of a second fire control channel, allowing two targets to be engaged at once; as well as upgrades to the optical tracking system and computer equipment. ECM protection and warhead design were also modified, as was the ammunition handling system State tests, conducted between March and December 1989, showed that the result was a system which could engage more targets in a shorter time frame with reaction times reduced by over a second and an increased probability of target destruction. The M1 was introduced into service in 1991. Further modifications occurred partly as a response of insight gained from the 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina resulting in the Tor-M1-1, or Tor-M1V, which offered improved network connectivity and ECM functions. Significantly increased the probability of hitting any target.

In 1993 Tor, in the interference conditions, was able to shoot down small-sized rocket (similar to the complexes Iron Dome 1 target) at a 100% rate. In comparison, Tor-M2E achieved a 100% rate in 2009, Tor-M2 a 100% rate at 2013 (10 km),  and Tor-M2 km a 100% rate at 2014  (Heavy ECM environments. Small-sized and high-speed targets. Simultaneously four).

  • Tor-M1V has a protection against spoofing

9K332 Tor-M2E

Tor-M2E

Upgrades have continued over the lifetime of the system, with developer Almaz Antey unveiling the newest incarnation of the Tor missile system, the Tor-M2E, at the MAKS Airshow in 2007.

The latest variant features:

  • Improved fire control radar coverage, and
  • Four (4) guidance channels, allowing up to four targets to be engaged simultaneously.
  • It has protection against spoofing.
  • The reaction time is around 7 seconds
  • System is fully automated.

Ammunition of the Tor-M2 includes 8 missiles 9M331 or 16 missiles 9M338 with increased altitude and range. Tor-M2 missiles have a range of 16 km, maximum altitude of 10 km and maximum speed of 1000 m/s. The system is capable of short-stop firing, which takes 2–3 seconds for the system to go from motion to stationary and firing of the missile.

The Tor-M2E is offered in either wheeled or tracked chassis and is equipped with a new digital computer system and all weather optical tracking system.  It is currently produced at OJSC Izhevsk Electromechanical plant «Kupol».

  • “Tor-M2E (9К332МE)” – with a 9А331МE tracked chassis mounting two 9M334 missile modules with four 9М9331 missiles. Crew of 2. The system is fully automated.
  • “Tor-M2K (9К332МК)” – with a wheeled 9А331МК chassis developed by the Belarusian company «MZKT» mounting two 9M334 missile modules, each with four 9М9331 missiles.
  • “Tor-М2КМ (9К331МКМ)” – modular design (towed variant weight reduced to 15 tons), to accommodate various types of chassis. 9А331МК-1 TELAR mounting two 9M334 missile modules with four 9M9331 missiles. At MAKS-2013 this was shown on an Indian Tata chassis. The affected area expanded to height – 10 km, distance – 15. Crew of 2. Chance to destroy any target 98% as a minimum. Significantly improving penetrating power of fragments of warhead.  The system is fully automated. Modules weighing 15 tons are installed on ships of the Russian Navy.

Tor-M1-2U

“Tor-M1-2U” entered service at the end of 2012. This system is designed to destroy aircraft, helicopters, UAVs, missiles, and other precision guided weapons, flying at medium, low and very low altitudes in all weather. The system is able to engage four targets simultaneously at a height of up to 10 kilometers. Its crew consists of three people. Deliveries are underway. It can hit targets on the move, 25 km/h (all the necessary functions for of independent fight).

3K95 Kinzhal (Naval Variant)

The 3K95 “Kinzhal” (Russian: Кинжал – dagger) is the naval version of the Tor missile system developed by Altair and has the NATO reporting name SA-N-9 Gauntlet. Using the same 9M330 missile as the land based version, the system can be mounted on vessels displacing over 800 tonnes and is known to be installed on Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carriers, Kirov class multimission cruisers, Udaloy class anti-submarine destroyers and Neustrashimy class frigates. The naval version of the later Tor-M1 is known as the “Yozh”(Russian: Ёж – hedgehog), while the export version of the Kinzhal is known as “Klinok” (Russian: Клинок – blade).

Despite starting testing earlier than its terrestrial counterpart, the naval variant, Kinzhal, had a more protracted development. After an extended testing period using a Project 1124 Grisha class corvette (including the engagement and destruction of four P-5 Pyatyorka (SSC-1a Shaddock) anti-ship missiles in 1986) Kinzhal finally entered service in 1989.

Stored within rotary VLS modules, the missiles are clustered into launchers comprising three to six modules (32 (Neustrashimy), 64 (Udaloy) or 192 (KuznetsovKirov) missiles) and mounted flush to the deck. Each module has up to eight missiles stored ready to fire; during firing the missile is cold launched using a gas catapult before the launcher brings the next round to a firing position.

Fire control (FC) is handled by the 3R95 multi-channel FC system, (NATO reporting name Cross Swords), composed of two different radar sets, a G-band target acquisition radar (maximum detection range 45 km/28 mi,) and a K band target engagement radar, (maximum tracking range 15 km/9 mi[citation needed]) that handles the actual prosecution of a target.

Using two top mounted, mechanically scanned, parabolic target acquisition radars, the fire control system provides a 360 degree field of view, as well as IFF. The target engagement radar is a Passive electronically scanned array antenna of the reflection type mounted on the front of the fire control system with a 60 degree field of view. Much like its land based sibling, the target engagement radar can track and guide eight missiles on up to four targets at once and is effective to a range of 1.5–12 km and an altitude of 10–6000 m. The system has a reaction time of 8–24 seconds depending on the mode of operation, and is managed by a crew of 13. Additional missile guidance antennae can be seen around the fire control system and the 3K95, like the upgraded Tor launchers, is equipped with a secondary infrared guidance system. The 3R95 can also provide fire control information for the vessels AK-630 close in weapons systems (CIWS) providing a second line of defence should anything penetrate the missile layer

Tor-M2KM

The Tor-M2 km is a self-contained fighting module version of the system that can be mounted in various locations. In October 2016, it was loaded onto the helipad of an Admiral Grigorovich-class frigate by means of an ordinary wharf crane and fixed in position with steel chains to fire at simulated cruise missiles while the ship was underway. This could give advanced SAM capabilities to vessels without the capacity to install the larger and heavier Kinzhal system; it can also be mounted on a truck, building roof, or any horizontal surface at least 2.5 m wide and 7.1 m long. The module weighs 15 tons and contains all equipment needed to operate without any external support. It can go from standby to full alert in 3 minutes and acquire 144 air targets while simultaneously tracking the 20 most dangerous ones marked for priority by the two-man crew. The Tor-M2 km missiles have a range of 15 km

HQ-17 (China Variant)

The HQ-17 (Hongqi-17) is the reported China‘s copy version of the Tor-M1 system.

In 1996, China ordered 14 Tor-M1 missile systems from Russia which were delivered under contract in 1997. In 1999, another contract for 13 Tor-M1 systems was signed between Russia and China. Delivery of the systems took place in 2000.

The HQ-17 is a china development of the Tor-M1 system with multiple improvements. Unlike the Tor system, the HQ-17 incorporates an IFF array on top of an electronically scanned array radar, modernized electronics, a new all-terrain launcher, and the ability to datalink with other china systems.

Source wikiwand.com

“Tor M2KM” anti-aircraft missile system tested on “Admiral Grigorovich”: Here

Excerpt

It is interesting photos and videos module test autonomous combat anti-aircraft missile complex short-range 9K331MKM “Thor M2KM” placed on the helicopter deck of the frigate head “Admiral Grigorovich” Project 11356 held in the Black Sea in October 2016. Start anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M331M of autonomous combat unit of antiaircraft missile complex short-range 9K331MKM “Thor M2KM” placed on the helicopter deck of the frigate head “Admiral Grigorovich” Project 11356 October 2016 (c) JSC “Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant” Kupol “/ frame video of the TV channel “Russia 24” (via altyn73.livejournal.com)

Russia unveils 9K331MDT Tor-M2DT Arctic air defence system: Here

Excerpt

Russia has displayed versions of the KBP Instrument Design Bureau Pantsyr-S1 and Almaz-Antey Tor-M2 air defence systems integrated onto Vityaz DT-30-series all-terrain tracked carriers (ATTCs) optimised for Arctic operations.

The systems were first seen in footage of a rehearsal for Russia’s 9 May Victory Day parade shown by Russian television on 5 April and then in a photograph released by the Russian Ministry of Defence on 8 April.

TOR-M2DT Arctic air defense missile system: Here

Excerpt

Russia has displayed versions of the KBP Instrument Design Bureau Pantsyr-S1 and Almaz-Antey Tor-M2 air defence systems integrated onto Vityaz DT-30-series all-terrain tracked carriers (ATTCs) optimised for Arctic operations.

The systems were first seen in footage of a rehearsal for Russia’s 9 May Victory Day parade shown by Russian television on 5 April and then in a photograph released by the Russian Ministry of Defence on 8 April.

Tor-M2U short-range air defence missile system (ADMS) is a modernisation of the Tor-M2 missile system developed by JSC Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant Kupol, a part of Almaz-Antey. The ADMS is in service with three military districts of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and is set to replace Wasp air defence systems, as well as Osa short-range tactical surface-to-air missile systems.

The Tor-M2U missile system is designed to protect military and government installations from airstrikes. It can destroy a variety of aerial targets such as cruise missiles, guided missiles, helicopters, aircraft, guided bombs, unmanned aerial systems, and high-precision weapons flying at low and medium-altitudes.

Features of Tor-M2U ADMS

The Tor-M2U air defence missile system is armed with 12 9M331 surface-to-air guided missiles, which are launched from aluminium containers. The missile’s high-explosive fragmentation warhead and an active proximity fuse allow it to destroy targets moving at speeds of 700m/s and altitudes of 6,000m, within a range of 12km. It can fire targets with a short stop of three to five seconds.

9M331 surface-to-air guided missiles

9M331 surface-to-air guided missiles – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe9M331 surface-to-air guided missiles – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe

9K330/9K331/9K332 Technical Data

Комплекс
System
9K330 Тор 9K331 Тор-М1 9K332 Тор-М2
Ракета
Missile
9М330 9М331 9М332
Зона поражения, км
Engagement zone [km]
– по дальности
– in range
1,5..12 1,5..12 1,5…
– по высоте
– in altitude
0,01..6 0,01..6
– по параметру 6 6
Верояность поражения истребителя одной ЗУР
Single Shot Pk for fighter type target
0,26..0,75 0,45..0,8
Макс. скорость поражаемых целей, м/с
Max Velocity of defeat target [m/s]
700 700
Время реакции, с
Reaction time [sec]
– с позиции
– static
8,7 7,4
– с короткой остановки
– short stop while moving
10,7 9,7
Скорость полета ЗУР, м/с
Missile velocity [m/s]
700..800 700..800
Масса ракеты, кг
Missile mass [kg]
165 165
Масса БЧ, кг
Warhead mass [kg]
14,5 14,5
Время развертывания (свертывания), мин.
Stow/deploy time [min]
3 3 3
Число целевых каналов
Number of concurrent engagements
1 2
Число ЗУР на боевой машине
Number of missiles on launcher
8 8 8
Год принятия на вооружение
Year of introduction
1986 1991 2009

Source ausairpower.net

Aluminium containers

Aluminium containers

It is capable of detecting and tracking approximately 48 high-maneuvering air targets and simultaneously attack up to four targets.

Телеканал Звезда YouTbeТелеканал Звезда YouTbe

SA-15/Tor-M2 battery

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The Tor-M2U missile complex consists of upgraded electronics and guidance system, 9T244 transporter / loader vehicle, 9F116 rigging equipment set, 9T245 transporter, 9V887 maintenance vehicle, and 9F399 truck. The on-board command and control system ensures full automation of combat operations.

Tor-M2U combat vehicle

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The anti-aircraft missile system is based on a 9A331 (GM-5955) tracked combat vehicle, which can travel at a road speed of approximately 65km/h for a range of 500km. It is operated by a crew of four members including a driver, a commander and two operators.

The crew cabin is located at the front section and the turret is mounted at the centre of the vehicle. A surveillance radar antenna, fitted at the rear of the vehicle, provides 90° scan coverage. The vehicle is also equipped with a K-band, phased-array, pulse-Doppler, electronically-steered radar that has a range of 25km.

Scrum Half / PESA / 9K331M/M1 Tor M/M1/M2E / SA-15 Gauntlet

The Tor M2/M2E is a ‘deep modernisation’ of the baseline Tor M1 weapon system, available on the legacy tracked chassis, or the entirely new low profile wheeled MZKT-6922 6 x 6 chassis as the 9A331MK, the latter specifically developed by the ByeloRussian manufacturer for this application. The Tor M2E has an improved weapon system. The new planar array surveillance radar can track up to 48 targets concurrently, retaining the range performance of the legacy system. The revised phased array engagement radar uses new phase shifters, and is capable of tracking targets within a claimed 30° solid angle around the antenna boresight, quadrupling the angular coverage of the original radar. Paired command link antennas are mounted on both sides of the array, used to acquire the missiles post launch, while they are out of the field of view of the engagement radar array. Missiles can be launched 2 seconds apart.  Source ausairpower.net

PESA engagement radar – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe
General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 7620 m
Range Max: 22.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 1980s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Weapon FCR (No CW Illumination)
Sensors / EW:
Scrum Half [Tor] – (SA-15, Track, Tor, Tor M1, M2) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air, Short-Range
Max Range: 22.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

Tor M2 search radar in deployed configuration. The low sidelobe planar array design replaces the cumbersome paraboloid section reflector design used with the Tor M1 series – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe
General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 10668 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.6 km Generation: Late 1970s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Pulse-only Radar
Sensors / EW:
Dog Ear [9S80] – (SA-13/15/19 Surveillance) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 2D Surface-to-Air
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

Apertures for the Tor M2 Electro-Optical tracking system, used to supplement the engagement radar  – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe
General data:
Type: Visual Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 148.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Visual, 2nd Generation TV Camera (1980s/1990s, AXX-1 TCS)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Sensors / EW:
Generic TV Camera – (2nd Gen, Target Tracking And Identification) Visual
Role: Visual, Target Tracking and Identification TV Camera
Max Range: 148.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.05.23-21-10-54Телеканал Звезда YouTbe

The primary means of engaging targets is by radar guidance. Each Tor system is fitted with a 25 km 360 degree search radar and 15 km 60 degree tracking radar. The Tor has a good ECM resistance but can also engage targets by TV tracking. The TV tracking system has a maximum range of 20 km and is fitted with a laser range finder. The naval version uses a similar two radar setup but has a more powerful search radar. Source weaponsystems.net

a. HPW killin zone
b. 
Army and tactical aviation, fire-support helicopters killing zone
c. 
Detection zone
d. 
Detection zone in a “aquad” mode

Specifications

Armament
8 or 16 surface-to-air missiles
Country users
Russia
Number of targets
Simultaneously detected: 48
Simultaneously tracked: 10
Target speed
0 – 700 m/s
Crew
4
Engagement altitude
10 to 1,000 m
Engagement range
12,000 m maximum
Warhead
15 kg HE fragmentation
Radars
Top mounted target acquisition radar, and frontal tracking radar
Dimensions on road
Length, 7,5 m; Width, 3,3 m; Height, 5,1 m

Source: army-technology.com

Updated May 23, 2018

New BMP-3M-100 Dragun fitted with RCWS turret

The Dragun project is currently showcased mounted on a new BMP-3 IFV vehicle variant, dubbed BMP-3M-100 Dragun.

This new variant of the BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicle fitted with the Dragun unmanned fighting module and powerpack located in the front has several advantages compared to series-production BMP-3 vehicles.

New BMP-3M-100 Dragun infantry fighting vehicle (right) and New BMP-3 IFV fitted with a gun mount system AU-220m armed with a 57mm automatic cannon (Background)

The location of the engine, an UTD-32 four-stroke, direct fuel injection with gas-turbine supercharging engine developing 816 hp, in the vehicle front increases appreciably the squad protection against conventional weapons. Location of the 8 troopers at the rear and the new hydraulic ramp improve landing forces dismounting and embarkation conditions with the vehicle on the move at a speed of up to 10km/h. The location of fuel tanks in the vehicle rear increases fire safety.

The BMP3M Dragun variant is fitted with the “Vityaz” modern fire control system, increasing fire power compared to older BMP-3 IFVs. It decreases the preparation time for shooting, the principle “quicker detect-quicker shoot” is fulfilled; and increases fighting vehicle survivability at the expense of function backup at the commander and gunner’s stations. It also allows provision for indirect fire and firing at low-flying air attack means.

The “Vityaz” fire control system is fully automated, digital, with unified information environment, all-day round, jam-free, and is capable of automatic tracking of ground and air targets and indirect fire, with registration of the system operation parameters and crew actions.

The “Vityaz” fire control system

In comparaison with older manned fighting modules, the Dragun RCWS ensures free movements of the squad. Location of the module at the rear of the vehicle allows to create more vacant space for installation of additionnal equipment. Main armament of the Dragun RCWS turret consists of a 2A70 100mm cannon and a 2A72 30 mm automatic cannon. The ammunition storage of the turret is of 22 rounds for the 2A70 gun and 500 rounds for the 2A72 automatic gun, consisting in 305 fragmentation tracer and explosive rounds and 195 armor-piercing rouds with tracer. The 2A70 gun can fires at maximum distance of 7,000 m with the 3UOF19 round.

2a70 and 2a722A70 100mm cannon and a 2A72 30 mm automatic cannon2A70 100mm cannon and a 2A72 30 mm automatic cannon turret 

The Dragun RCWS can also fires up to 8 ATGM missiles. The ATGM control channel “Rassvet” is an electronic digital generation of control field with independent dual-axis stabilization of sighting and automatic compensation of drifts. Each 902B system fitted on the Dragun turret is feeded with 6 3D6M smoke grenades.

Dragun RCWS turret closeup

Close-protection of the vehicle is ensured by a PKTM 7.62mm machine gun, provided with 2,000 rounds.

Gunner and commander sights “Kretchet” are unified, panomaric, day-night, with independent dual axis stabilization and automatic compensation of drifts, with TV, thermal imaging and ranging channels. Dragun RWS is also equipped with an outside-mounted panel for weapons remote control systems “VPDU”, which is fully digital, and fitted with video information output, sight and weapos control in real time with capability of fire control, protected jam-free radio channel or optic fibre.

Material source: armyrecognition