Daily Archives: December 2, 2015

Russian-Built Kilo Submarine ‘Kills’ American Nuclear Sub

Calls for Kra Isthmus shortcut grow in Thailand


December 2, 2015 5:00 pm JST
ASEAN infrastructure

Calls for Kra Isthmus shortcut grow in Thailand

YASUMASA SHIMIZU, Nikkei staff writer

A local points to a swath of land where the now-defunct Second Thai-Burma Railway cut through the southern Thai province of Ranong

BANGKOK — The Kra Isthmus, the narrowest part of the Malay Peninsula in southern Thailand, is drawing attention as a potentially important gateway for transporting goods across Southeast Asia ahead of the planned year-end launch of the ASEAN Economic Community.

The creation of the AEC is certain to expand trade in the region, and building a transport shortcut linking the Andaman Sea with the Gulf of Thailand would help goods move more efficiently. Calls are growing for reviving a long-defunct railway built across the isthmus by the Japanese military during World War II.

      “I’ve long dreamed of seeing another railway built here,” said an 86-year-old man living in the southern province of Ranong. He said he helped the Japanese military survey the land for the Kra Isthmus Railway, also known as the Second Thai-Burma Railway.

The narrowest part of the Malay Peninsula — between the ports of Chumphon on the Gulf of Thailand and Ranong along the Andaman Sea — is just 50km across. From the Port of Ranong, boats can travel up the Kraburi River to Kawthaung, a town on the southernmost tip of Myanmar.

In addition to the original Thai-Burma Railway, which ran through central Thailand, the Japanese military built the Kra Isthmus Railway to transport ammunition and other military supplies from Japan to Burma — now called Myanmar — and other destinations during the war. Some 30,000 workers were mobilized for the project, which took just six months to complete.

Decades later, the area is once again in the spotlight, as the impending economic integration of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations is expected to increase the movement of goods in the region.

The Port of Ranong is ideally situated for exporting foodstuffs and other goods to a rapidly developing Myanmar, Ranong Gov. Suriyan Kanjanasilp said.

Road, rail or canal

At present, most goods shipped by boat to Myanmar originate in Laem Chabang Port, near Bangkok, and arrive via Singapore. That trip can take one to two weeks. A transport artery across the Malay Peninsula would greatly shorten that time by lopping over 1,000km off the total shipping distance.

One approach already being taken is to build larger, better roads there. The provincial government has begun a project to construct a four-lane road across the isthmus by 2017. But the governor says that alone is not enough.

The idea of building a railroad has popular public support. One reason for that is because the pre-existing path carved out by the old railway means costs would be held down. One estimate puts the figure at 7 billion baht ($198 million). The provincial government has submitted a railway plan for approval by the central government.

Another idea is to carve out a canal so that goods could be shipped directly across the peninsula without having to be unloaded. It would also mean tankers could sail from the Middle East to Japan and other destinations without having to make the more time-conuming journey through the Strait of Malacca.

The concept of building a canal there has been kicked around since the 17th century. More recently, the idea has failed to gain traction due to opposition from neighboring countries — especially Singapore, which does not want to lose shipping business.

Despite tapering to a svelte 50km at its narrowest point, the Kra Isthmus is bumpy terrain and would make for tough, costly digging. Building a canal there would produce a bill estimated at $24 billion to $32 billion, a sum the Thai government would probably balk at.

More economically realistic would be to build a railway along with the four-lane roadway. But with Thailand’s military-led government cutting back on infrastructure spending, that may be a tall order. The Ministry of Transport has already expressed skepticism, with an official there questioning whether the project’s returns would justify its cost.

After being completed in December 1943, the Second Thai-Burma Railway operated for less than 18 months before being destroyed by Allied air raids. Although seven decades have since passed, proponents of reviving the line will probably have to keep waiting.

Most likely route as it is shortest

Horizon Class anti-air warfare (AAW) frigate

Italy and France each ordered two Horizon Class anti-air warfare (AAW) frigates in October 2000. The frigates are being built by Horizon SAS, a joint venture between Armaris (Thales and DCN) of France and Orrizonte Sistemi Navali (Fincantieri and Finmeccanica) of Italy.

In April 2007, DCN became DCNS. This followed an agreement in which Thales became a 25% shareholder in the new company and DCN acquired the naval business of Thales France (excluding naval equipment). DCNS is now the sole owner of Armaris.

Les quatre frégates franco-italiennes du type Horizon (© MARINE NATIONALE)  – Source: meretmarine.com

The first French vessel, Forbin, began construction in April 2002 and was launched in March 2005. It was delivered in 2006 and commissioned in June 2008. The second, Chevalier Paul, started construction in December 2003, was launched in July 2006. It was commissioned in June 2009 and entered service in December 2009.

The first Italian vessel, Andrea Doria, began construction in July 2002, was launched in October 2005 and delivered in December 2007 for commissioning in 2009. The second, Caio Duilio, began building in September 2003, was launched in October 2007 and commissioned in April 2009.


The French frigates replace the Suffren and Duquesnes frigates, while the Italian vessels replace the Audace and Ardito.

The original Horizon project was a three-nation initiative, involving Italy, France and the UK, to build a new design of air defence ship. The UK government withdrew from the programme in 1999. France and Italy signed a new memorandum of understanding in September 2000 confirming the joint development of the Horizon.

The main requirement for the frigates is to escort and protect task forces or merchant shipping. The main missions of the Horizon frigate are to provide local area or extended cover against saturation missile attacks and to escort and protect carrier groups. The ship also has powerful anti-submarine and anti-air self defence.


 The ship is configured for rapid deployment and extended range and endurance and can carry sufficient fuel, water and stores for an endurance of 45 days at sea between replenishments. The ship can attain a speed of 29kt and, at a cruising speed of 18kt, has a range of over 7,000nm.

Italian Navy

Name Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
Andrea Doria (D553) 2002 2005 2007

active, in service

Caio Duilio (D554) 2003 2007 2009

active, in service

Modified photo (2nd version) of  Orrizonte class destroyer of the Italian Navy. High resolution image here. Source: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

French Navy

Name Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
Forbin 2002 2005


active, in service

Chevalier Paul 2003 2006 2009

active, in service

Modified photo (2nd version) of  Horizon class destroyer of the French Navy. High resolution image here. Source: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

Ship in class Source militarytoday.com

Command and control

Le Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Source: meretmarine.com

The command and control system has been developed by Eurosysnav, a joint venture company set up by Armaris and Finmeccanica, and is based on the Senit 8 combat data system. Alenia Marconi Systems, now Selex Sistemi Integrati, supplies the data transfer system (DTS).

20121013124459_dsc_0177La passerelle du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Source: meretmarine.com38752Sur la passerelle d’une Horizon au large de la Libye (© EMA) – Source: meretmarine.com

NICCO Communications SAS, a joint venture between Thales Communications and Marconi Mobile SpA, developed the fully integrated communications system.

20121013122018_aaLe CO du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Source: meretmarine.com36814Le CO durant l’opération Harmattan (© EMA) – Source: meretmarine.com

The communications suite includes two link 11 and one link 16 high-capacity digital information distribution systems. Selex and Sagem supplied the integrated navigation system.

The Selex NA 25 provides fire control for the 76mm guns. The ships are also equipped with the SAGEM Vampire MB infrared search and track system (IRST), which operates in both 3-5 and 8-12-micron wavebands.

Selex NA-25X fire control system

Selex NA-25X fire control system – Consuite de tir (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

NA-25X which is a modern fire control system based on the ORION RTN-25X tracking naval radar, a J-band fully coherent equipment which is characterised by anti-nodding, extensive ECCM and anti-clutter features together with high tracking accuracy. A set of two EO sensors (TV camera, IR camera) can be mounted on the radar director, to enable firing assessment and to provide an alternative line-of-sight on the same target. A third sensor (Laser Range Finder) can be mounted to provide a complete EO tracker facility. NA-25X can be provided with a dedicated multifunctional console or controlled by any console of the Combat Management System (CMS). The FCS can be easily integrated in every CMS and completely remote accessible. A couple of Targets Designation Sight (TDS) enhance the FCS configuration. Through an internal additional function, NA-25X system can be integrated inside an Artillery System (including at least two FCSs), to optimize the use of all onboard guns against multiple concurrent targets (missiles, air and surface targets). The system perfomrs the following tasks: radar and optronic autonomous search with automatic/manual self-designation, surveillance and self designation on ship’s search radar video, automatic engagement of evaluated priority target up to firing action, automatic air/missile/shore and surface targets tracking, automatic detection of launched missile, control of up to three guns with different calibres in the anti-air/anti-surface warfare and CIWS roles, line-of-sight/line-of-fire stabilization and Track While Scan (TWS) on external naval data. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

SAGEM Vampir NG infrared search and track system (IRST)

Vampir NG is a very long-range infrared search/track system. It provides naval ships with passive panoramic surveillance functions including automatic detection, tracking and reporting of symmetric or asymmetric threats, from sea-skimming anti-ship missiles to Fast Incoming Attack Craft.

Vampir NG offers two operational modes: “ocean” mode allows very large range search at high sea while “littoral” mode allows long-range and large elevation search along the coast. The false alarm rate is very low, even in the littoral environment.
It is the most sensitive system on the market as well as the first one using the ultra-rapid “step-and-stare” principle enabling 360° coverage with a single high-performance IR camera.

With unsurpassed performance and reliability, VAMPIR NG is the best selling naval IRST worldwide. The ship if fitted with Vampir MB version.

Source safran-electronics-defense.com 

EOMS-NG – Infrared

General data:
Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 185.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Sensors / EW:
EOMS-NG [IR] – Infrared
Role: Infrared, Weapon Director Camera
Max Range: 185.2 km

EOMS-NG – Laser Rangefinder

General data:
Type: Laser Rangefinder Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 7.4 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Not Applicable (N/A)
Sensors / EW:
EOMS-NG [Laser Rangefinder] – Laser Rangefinder
Role: Laser Rangefinder for Weapon Director
Max Range: 7.4 km

Source cmano-db.com

image032Caio Duilio (D554)  – Image: seaforces.org

Frigate missiles

Les silos des missiles Aster (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

Horizon frigates are armed with the PAAMS principal anti-air missile system. PAAMS is a tri-national programme involving France, Italy and the UK. The contract for series production was placed in November 2003. The prime contractor is Europaams SAS, a joint venture company two-thirds owned by Eurosam (MBDA and Thales) and one-third by the UKAMS subsidiary of MBDA. The system is also being fitted on UK Royal Navy Type 45 frigates.

DCNS Sylver A50 vertical launch system


The DCNS Sylver A50 vertical launch system within PAAMS, installed immediately forward of the two guns towards the bow deck, has 48 cells for both the Aster 15 and Aster 30 missiles. The Sylver launcher ensures that each round is aligned to within 1mrad. The maximum rate of fire is up to six rounds a second.

Aster air defence missile system

ASTER 15 and ASTER 30

ASTER 15/30 – Image: mbda-systems.com

The two-stage ASTER missiles are provided with two different solid propellant boosters resulting in the ASTER 15 and the ASTER 30 models. The ‘Pif-Paf’ control system enables the ASTER missile to counter high maneuverable missiles achieving a direct impact (hit-to-kill). The ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion combines conventional aerodynamic control with control by gas jets acting through the centre of gravity of the missile. Until mid-course the guidance of an ASTER missile is based on the Inertial Navigation System (INS) updated through an uplink, in the terminal phase the guidance is provided by an active Radiofrequency seeker. The final stage of the ASTER missile is a ‘dart’ equipped with the seeker, a sustainer motor, a proximity fuze and a blast fragmentation warhead.

The ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion – Image: wikiwand.com

The ASTER 15 is a short range missile intended for self-defense (point defense) purposes against highly maneuverable threats. The ASTER 15 is integrated on the SAAM and beginning in 2006 in the PAAMS system. The SAAM is installed on French-built frigates and the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier. The PAAMS will be provided to the Horizon frigates (France and Italy) and the Type 45 destroyers (United Kingdom).

The basic structure of -ASTER 15/30 – Image: et97.com

ASTER 15 version


Diameter: 180 millimeter

Length: 4.20 meter


Max Range: 30,000 meter

Min Range: 1,700 meter

Target’s Max Altitude: 13,000 meter (42,651 foot)


Top Speed: 1,000 mps (3,601 kph)


Weight: 310 kilogram

ASTER 15 data Source deagel.com

Tir d’Aster 30 le 4 avril (© : DGA) – Image: meretmarine.com

ASTER 30 version

La cible Coyotte (© : ORBITAL)  – Image: meretmarine.com

In line with the Aster 15, MBDA has developed the Aster 30 version. With a range of 100 km, this missile, able to reach the speed of Mach 4.5, is the spearhead of the new British air defense buildings , French and Italian.With great agility, the Aster can destroy, on impact, Very fast attacking missiles, maneuvering, flying and very steep. It is still the only one to offer a parry against supersonic anti-ship missiles. In addition, its self-guard allows it to track its target autonomously, providing the carrier with the ability to simultaneously shoot several ammunition and thus counteract the saturating attacks. The Aster family is also positioned against ballistic missiles (DAMB). Translated by google – Source meretmarine.com

Tir d’Aster sur une frégate Horizon (© DGA)  – Image: meretmarine.com

The Aster missile carries an inertial computer with datalink and an active J-band Doppler radar seeker. Aster 30 has a range of 100km, Aster 15 a range of 30km. The missile has manoeuvrability of up to 62g, achieved through the use of the PIF/PAF guidance system.

The Italian frigates are fitted with two quadruple launchers for the MBDA Teseo (Otomat) mk3 surface-to-surface missile, which has a range of up to 55km. The quadruple launchers are installed aiming one to port and one to starboard on the missile deck between the ship’s two masts. The missile uses command updated inertial guidance and reaches high subsonic speed, Mach 0.9. *Note Otomat mk3 was canceled according to revolvy.com it is likely to be same model as on the Carlo Bergamini class ships which is the Otomat Mk2 Block IV

MBDA Teseo Otomat Mk2 Block IV surface-to-surface missile (Italian Ship)

otomat-teseo-ssm-003Image: seaforces.org

The Otomat Mk2 Block IV is an all-weather, subsonic, long range, sea-skimming anti-ship missile with extended capabilities for littoral warfare and coastal attack missions. The Otomat Block IV missiles can be retargeted and carry out coordinated attacks. It can be installed on different fighting ships from small fast patrol boats to large destroyers and cruisers.

The Otomat missiles can be launch irrespective of ship’s bearing, the target data is provided by the sensors of the ship. Once launched, the missile is guided through he INS supported by the GPS and a radar altimeter. Target information can be updated from ship’s sensors or another platform via a protected built-in radio-link. The terminal phase of the attack is performed through the active radar seeker.

Otomat missile launcher

The Otomat Block IV missile can perform maneuvers, simultaneous arrival at the target area and different attack directions in order to escape ship’s defenses and increase the kill probability. The Otomat is also well protected against the effects of countermeasures. It is provided with an impressive 210 kg semi-piercing warhead detonated by proximity, contact and grazing.

MBDA Otomat/Teseo Mk2Ablock IV guided anti-ship missile in four single launchers amidships


Diameter: 400 millimeter

Length: 4.46 meter (14.6 foot)


Max Range: 150 kilometer (81 nautical mile)

Min Range: 4,000 meter


Warhead: 210 kilogram (463 pound)

Otomat Block IV source deagel.com

MBDA MM-40 Exocet Block III guided anti-ship missiles (French ships)

Rampes Exocet sur le Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

The ships carry also eight (8) anti-shipping missiles between the ship’s two masts. The French ships carry the MBDA MM-40 Exocet Block III guided anti-ship missiles with a range  of more than 180km carrying a warhead of 164kg. The missile accepts also GPS guidance system waypoint commands which allow it to attack naval targets under different angles and to strike land targets as well. The missile guidance is inertial in mid-flight until turns on active radar late in its flight (active guidance) to the corresponding trigger point for the detection and locking of its target. In order to minimize the recognition from rival radar and infrared seekers and the subsequent attack of the projectile from the air defense around the target, the system maintains a very low altitude during ingress, staying 1–2 m above the sea surface (sea-skimming) striking the target near the waterline. Due to the effect of the radar horizon and to the high speed of the missile (Mach 0.9), the target may not detect an incoming attack until the missile is only 6,000m from impact and thus it leaves little time for reaction of the target’s CIWS. The missile has low signature and it has enhanced target discrimination and ECCM making it very difficult to be intercepted. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

Rampes Exocet sur le Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.comFrench Navy's Horizon-class AAW Destroyer Forbin (classified as "Frigate" in the French Navy) succesfully test-fired an MM40 Blk II anti-ship missile, the French Navy (Marine Nationale) announced. The test took place on May 9th in the Mediterranean Sea.An MBDA-made MM40 Block II Exocet anti-ship missile is launched from the Horizon-class Destroyer Forbin. Picture: French Navy

The MM40 Block 3 is a MM40 Block 2 with a turbofan engine, an engine type which is also found on other anti-ship missiles in the Exocet class such as the US Harpoon and Chinese YJ-82. The new engine results in a range which is twice that of the original MM40. The Block 3 can be identified by the four air intakes behind the wings. Unlike the other Exocet missiles the Block 3 features a large booster engine to provide initial velocity. The Block 3 missile is slightly shorter but with booster attached it is just as long as the Block 2.

Type Anti-ship missile
Diameter 0.35 m body, 1.13 m wingspan
Length 5.8 m incl booster
Weight 740 kg
Guidance Active radar homing out to 24 km, GPS and inertial navigation
Warhead 155 kg HE-frag, radar and proximity fuze
Propulsion Single-stage solid propellant rocket motor
Speed Mach 0.9
Range 4 to 180 km
Engagement envelope

Source weaponsystems.net

a2c18a6466fbb8b060b1336fdb80c10fForbin (620) MBDA MM-40 Exocet Block III guided anti-ship missiles

Video: French Navy Horizon Class Destroyer Forbin Launches an MM40 Exocet Anti-ship Missile: Here

Horizon Class guns

The 76mm guns of Forbin.  Photo: Emmanuel L. – Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

The three Oto Melara 76mm / 62 Super Rapid guns are installed as a pair on the foredeck immediately forward of the bridge and a single gun installed on the hangar overlooking the helicopter deck at the aft of the ship. Two Oto Melara Mod 503 25mm / 80 guns are installed one to port and one to starboard.

Oto Melara 76/62 Stealth Shield, Multi feeding system

Tir des tourelles de 76mm (© MARINE NATIONALE)  – Image: meretmarine.com

Technical data:

Caliber: 3 inches / 76,2 mm
Barrel lenght: 186 inches / 4,72 meters (= 62 caliber)
Weight: 7900kg, empty (Super Rapid)
Shell: 76 x 900 mm / 12,34 kilograms
Elevation: – 15° to + 85°
Traverse: 360°
Rate of fire: Compact: 85 rpm / Super Rapid: selectable from single shot up to 120 rpm
Muzzle Velocity: 925 m/s (1100 m/s – DART)
Magazine: Compact: 80 rounds / SR: 85 rounds
16 kilometers with standard ammunition
20 km with extended range ammunition
up to 40 km with VULCANO ammunition

20121013122133_dsc_0026Barillet d’une tourelle de 76mm  (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

HE (high explosive) – 6,296kg / Range 16km / effective range 8km (4km vs. air targets at elev. 85°)
MOM (multi-role OTO munition)
PFF (pre-formed fragmentation) – anti-missile ammunition
SAPOM (semi-armored piercing OTO munition) – 6,35kg / Range 16km
SAPOMER (semi-armored piercing OTO munition, extended range) – Range 20km
DART (driven ammunition reduced time of flight) – sub-calibre guided ammunition against multiple targets
(missiles and maneuvering targets at sea) 4,2kg in barrel / 3,5kg in flight / 660mm lenght / effective range >8km
VULCANO (76mm unguided and guided extended range ammunition) – under development

*Italian ships have 3 guns

Source seaforces.org

image044Caio Duilio (D554) third gun installed on the helicopter hangar – Image: seaforces.org

The ships are equipped with two fully automatic OTO Melara Super Rapido guns of 76mm/62cal guns installed as a pair on the foredeck forward of the bridge. This gun is capable to intercept air and surface targets at a distance of 16 km unleashing 120 rounds per minute weighting greater than 6kg each. The gun has excellent performance in any kind of role, such as air defence, anti surface, anti-missile and shore bombardment role. The Italian vessels have an additional third gun installed on the helicopter hangar at the aft of the ship. Instead, the French vessels were initially to be equipped with one or two Mistral 2 Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAM) automatic launchers (remotely controlled) either Sadral with 6 missiles or Tetral with 4 missiles, on the starboard roof of the helicopter hangar. Until today French vessels have not been equipped with the launcher but they retain the provision for one such launcher in the future. Mistral 2 is a lightweight, fully digital and autonomous (fire-and-forget), heat-seeking missile, with a passive IR homing guidance by a highly sensitive cooled multicell seeker (seeker activation time: two seconds). The speed is Mach 2.5, the warhead is 2.95kg while the accuracy of the missile  is outstanding (96% kill efficiency rate demonstrated during user firings). The system is optimized to counter any air target at short notice. However until today the French ships have bot been installed with the launcher. Instead, the French vessels were initially to be equipped with one or two Mistral 2 Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAM) automatic launchers (remotely controlled) either Sadral with 6 missiles or Tetral with 4 missiles, on the starboard roof of the helicopter hangar. Until today French vessels have not been equipped with the launcher but they retain the provision for one such launcher in the future. Mistral 2 is a lightweight, fully digital and autonomous (fire-and-forget), heat-seeking missile, with a passive IR homing guidance by a highly sensitive cooled multicell seeker (seeker activation time: two seconds). The speed is Mach 2.5, the warhead is 2.95kg while the accuracy of the missile  is outstanding (96% kill efficiency rate demonstrated during user firings). The system is optimized to counter any air target at short notice. However until today the French ships have bot been installed with the launcher. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

Mistral 2 Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAM)

Not yet installed – Image navalanalyses.blogspot.com

2 x Oto Melara Mod 503 25mm / 80 guns (Italian Ship)

Two OTO Melara Oerlikon KBA 25mm/80cal  guns which are installed one to port and one to starboard – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

The Italian ships have two OTO Melara Oerlikon KBA 25mm/80cal  guns which are also installed one to port and one to starboard. The guns are stabilized, electric servo-drive assisted, while a weapon control is featured in order to allow the gunner to remain steady at any barrel elevation, laying the gun with the maximum accuracy even against targets at maximum elevation. A conventional aiming system is fitted to the mount, but also an IR sight with integrated ballistic reticule is available. The rate of fire is about 650 rounds per minute and the effective range for aerial targets is about 2,000m. The gun has two 126-round boxes on each side of it. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

2 x 20F2 gun 20mm gun/90 cal modele F2 gun (French Ship)

The 20 mm F2 is a mounted monotube gun, with two 150-cartridge boxes on each side of the piece. An electrical control system allows for a choice of three modes of fire: single shot, eight-shot burst, or free fire. There is an electrical trigger in the right hand of the gunner. A manual selector allows the gunner to change the box feeding the weapon during the firing, making mixed firing available. After each shot, the empty cartridge is ejected from beneath the weapon.

The gun is manoeuvred by the body of the gunner, who is attached to the weapon. Firing is guided through the same optical visor as used with the Bofors 40 mm gun and the Oerlikon 20 mm cannon.

WEIGHT 332 kg (732 lb) (without ammunition)
CALIBER 20×139mm
ACTION Gas unlocked, delayed blowback
ELEVATION −15° to + 65°
RATE OF FIRE 720 round/min
MUZZLE VELOCITY 1,050 m/s (3,400 ft/s)
EFFECTIVE FIRING RANGE 1,500 m (4,900 ft) against aerial targets

Source wikiwand.com

f6b2e0c461de0c230ce26470e3a9c756Forbin (620) 20F2 gun 20mm gun/90 cal modele F2 gun & NGDS decoy launcher

Frigate torpedoes

The ship has two twin torpedo launchers for Eurotorp Mu 90 lightweight torpedoes. Eurotorp is a consortium formed by Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei (WASS), DCN and Thales.

Mu 90 has a directed energy warhead and a range of 12,000m at maximum speed and 25,000m at minimum speed.

Eurotorp MU 90 Impact torpedo


The MU90/IMPACT Advanced Lightweight Torpedo is the leader of the 3rd generation of LWTs. Designed and built with the most advanced technology, the weapon is of fire-and-forget type conceived to cope with any-task any-environment capability requirements and meet the ASW operational needs of the 21st century.

The weapon has been designed to counter any type of nuclear or conventional submarine, acoustically coated, deep and fast-evasive, deploying active or passive anti-torpedo effectors


Main Dynamic Features
Linearly Variable speed …………………… 29 to >> 50 kts**
Range …………………… >10,000 m at max. speed**
> 23,000m at min. speed**
Minimum depth for launching …………………… < 25 m
Max. operating depth …………………… >> 1000 m**
Agility and manoeuvrability ……………………. Extreme
Diameter (NATO Standard) …………………… 323,7 mm
Length …………………… 2850 mm
Weight …………………… 304 kg
Main Acoustic Features
Operational bandwidth …………………… >>10KHz
Acoustic coverage …………………… 120°H x 70°V
Simultaneous targets …………………… Up to 10
Main Counter-Counter Measures
Stationary target detection capability
Decoy classification
Anti-Jammer tactics
(**) = real value classified

Source eurotorp.com

Local torpilles (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com


The electronic warfare suite is developed by the Sigen Consortium (Thales Systèmes Aéroportés SA of France and Elettronica SpA of Italy) and characterised by the latest generation of radar ESM (electronic support measures) and ECM (electronic countermeasures) architectures and implementation of new digital and microwave technologies.

Mât du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

The radar ESM component features very high sensitivity, very high accuracy direction finding and broadband digital receivers. The radar ECM component is based on phased array solid-state technology and features high specific transmitted power, fast reaction, multi-threats engagement capability and complete programmability of coherent and not coherent jamming techniques, due to the implementation of multiple broadband digital radio frequency memory (DRFM).

Nettuno 4100 by ELT Elettronica

The NETTUNO-4100 ECM System can provide naval platforms with an Active Electronic Defence using selected ECM tactics, exploited through DRFM generated signals. These tactics can be equally effective against both terminal missile attacks and long range designation radar systems, surface search and tracking radars in support of anti-surface engagements.

NETTUNO-4100 ECM System – Brouilleur (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

Nettuno 4100 is a state-of-the-art radar ECM having a scalable architecture which can be configured for different needs by:

  • assessing the needed Effective Radiated Power (ERP) in relation to the ship Radar Cross Section (RCS) and role
  • dimensioning the antenna array and the transmitted power to the ERP required for the defence purposes.

In any case , the Nettuno 4100 systems can cooperate with other onboard EW sensors.

System Highlights

  • Full azimuth coverage, 50° Elevation
  • Electronic beam steering (electronically stabilized against ship movements)
  • Wide frequency coverage (H to J bands)
  • Full solid-state design ensuring high ERP and graceful degradation in case of failure
  • Detection, measurement and jamming of emitter side-lobe
  • Multi-threat jamming capability through time-sharing resource management
  • High level of readiness (no warm-up)
  • High reliability and maintainability
  • BITE down to module/card level
  • Easy on-board integration and installation (no wave guides).

Source elettronica-elt-roma.com

The French frigates are equipped with Sagem Défense Sécurité (formerly EADS Defence & Electronics) new-generation Dagaie system (NGDS). Each system consists of a pair of two-axis launchers with 12 infrared, radar or acoustic decoys. Italian vessels have Oto Melara / Selex SCLAR-H decoy launchers for chaff and infrared flares.

Dagaie system (NGDS) decoy system (French Ship)

NGDS, ici sur le Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

The NGDS (New-Generation Dagaie System) is a NATO-compliant, flexible, self-defense electronic warfare unit based on decoy launchers and intended to counter multiple threats such as anti-ship missiles and torpedoes. With several mobile mountings that can be elevated and traversed, the NGDS is integrated in the ship’s combat system’s detection and warning system. The system has been designed for integration onboard frigates but a lighter version is available for smaller ships (displacement below 1000t).

A single NGDS system consists of two double-axis launchers each equipped with 12 decoys and a computer that selects the best-suited countermeasure against a given threat. Against missiles the NGDS can employ both infrared and radar decoys and acoustic decoys or jammer against incoming torpedoes. The lighter version aimed at ships under 1,000t only features a decoy launcher. So far, the NGDS have been selected for integration onboard the French Navy’s La Fayette, Horizon and FREMM frigates. Source deagel.com

The NGDS self-protection electronic warfare unit based on decoy launchers uses various anti-missile tactics:

  • centroid seduction
  • active seduction
  • dump seduction (with a jammer)
  • dilution, confusion or distraction

The system adapts to all types of short, medium and long-range munitions:

  • IR or electromagnetic decoys
  • Active Offboard Decoys (AOD)
  • Anti-Torpedo Decoys (ATD)
  • laser jammer

Source safran-electronics-defense.com 

SCLAR-H decoy launchers (GP & ASW) (Italian Ship)

sclar_h_chaftOTO Melara SCLAR-H system – Image: mdc.idv.tw

Dimensions: 1.88 mx 1.794 mx 2.06 m

Weight: empty: 1,150 kg, with 20 rockets of 105 mm: 1,750 kg

Arco rotazione: -150 ° / + 150 °

Alzo: -5 ° / + 60 °

Capacity: can hold 20 rockets ready to launch

Rate of fire: 1 rocket per second

OTO Melara SCLAR-H system – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

Impiego:   The SCLAR is a multiple rocket launcher system produced by Breda Meccanica Bresciana, typically used by ships for the launch of false targets such as flares and chaff. It has a caliber of 105 mm, lifting and swiveling, and can also fire rockets explosives in a radius of 10 km. The launcher is designed for accurate deployment of false targets thereby providing the passive defense against missiles for the ship radar and IR search; the typical mode of operation (at various intervals) include: Confusion (dilution); dissimulation; Distraction; dump;

Image: digilander.libero.it

Its main features are:

  • possibility of loading simultaneously different types of rockets (Chaff, IR, flares);
  • Automatic selection of the rockets to be launched;
  • Possibility of repeated engagements, because of the availability of a large number of rockets, loaded into individual sealed containers;
  • Automatic control by the ship’s electronic warfare suite;
  • Full coordination with the active defense systems of the ship; – Ability to function in all weather conditions and in a position NBC (automatic)

Translated by google – Source digilander.libero.it

Horizon is equipped with a SLAT torpedo defence system which is also installed on the French and Italian aircraft carriers, the Charles de Gaulle and the Garibaldi. SLAT has been developed by EUROSLAT, a consortium consisting of WASS (Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subaqua), DCNS and Thales Underwater Systems.

SLAT launchers with Canto-V anti-torpedo countermeasure system (ASW)

Image: meretmarine.com

The CANTO-V is the next-generation anti-torpedo countermeasure system for existing and future surface ships developed by DCNS as part of the CONTRALTO-V product line. The CANTO-V countermeasure system consists of a pneumatic launcher and decoys designed to counter advanced torpedoes. CONTRALTO-V has been designed to operate with multiple launchers with the decoys being deployed following a ballistic trajectory. DCNS successfully conducted a series of test in May and June 2011. Source deagel.com


chevalier-paulChevalier Paul (621)

2 x Zodiac Hurricane H630 semi-rigid boats

20121013124854_dsc_0977Image: meretmarine.com

The Chevalier Paul, like any first-class frigate, is in fact a multi-purpose vessel capable of filling a very wide range of missions, ranging from combat operations to state action at sea. Missions of sovereignty, maritime surveillance, counter-terrorism, the fight against drug trafficking or piracy. For the more “warrior” side, air defense obviously remains its great specialty but, as we have seen, the building also has anti-ship capabilities and can also carry out actions against land, including commando operations, since It can accommodate about forty passengers (25 without the aero detachment) and implement a helicopter and fast boats.

Zodiac dans sa niche (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

In this regard, the drome currently includes two Zodiac Hurricane H630 6.7 meters up to 38 knots thanks to a 250 hp engine. While these semi-rigid boats are placed in the niches located on each side, a third, smaller craft is installed under the helicopter platform.

A third, smaller craft is installed under the helicopter platform Zodiac plage arrière (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

It is launched by the opening of a panel at the stern and the deployment of a rail equipped with winches. The drome can be used for personnel transfer, the use of divers or the transport of a visiting team on a suspicious boat, the two H630s being rigged with a machine gun. Translated by google – Source meretmarine.com

Ships interior

On board the Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.comInfirmerie du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.comInfirmerie du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com


Appontage d’un NH90 (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

The helicopter deck at the bow of the ship has a single landing spot for a 10t helicopter, for example the NH90 or EH101 Merlin helicopter. The stabilisation system allows the ship’s helicopter to be deployed and the combat systems operated in high sea states.

Hangar du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.comHangar du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

NHIndustries NH90: Details

AugustaWestland AW101


The AugustaWestland AW101 is a modern naval utility helicopter. Originally this chopper was known as Eurocopter Industries EH101. It was jointly developed and produced by Augusta of Italy and Westland Helicopters from United Kingdom.

The EH 101 had its roots in a UK project to replace the Sea King. The design was later revised to meet Italian navy as well as Royal Navy requirements. Westland and Agusta established European Helicopter Industries Ltd, which received formal go-ahead in 1984 for nine prototypes and subsequent development of what became the EH 101. The first prototype made its maiden flight in 1987.

In 2000 Augusta and Westland Helicopters merged and formed AugustaWestland. Since 2007 this helicopter is marketed as AugustaWestland AW101. There are utility and anti-submarine warfare versions of this helicopter.

The EH101/AW101 is in service with Italy and United Kingdom. It has been exported to Algeria, Canada (CH-149 Cormorant), Denmark, Nigeria, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, and Turkmenistan. It is license-produced in Japan (Kawasaki MCH-101) and the United States. It is worth noting that Britain, Denmark and Portugal use the name Merlin for this helicopter.

Entered service 1998
Crew 1-2 men
Dimensions and weight
Length 22.81 m
Main rotor diameter 18.59 m
Height 6.65 m
Weight (empty) 10.5 t
Weight (maximum take off) 14.6 t
Engines and performance
Engines 3 x Rolls-Royce / Turbomeca RTM 322-01 turboshaft engines
Engine power 3 x 2 312 shp
Cruising speed 278 km/h
Service ceiling 4.5 km
Range 1 056 km
Endurance 5 hours
Missiles 2 x Sea Eagle, Marte 2, AM.39 Exocet or AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles
Torpedoes 4 x Marconi Stingray torpedoes

Source military-today.com

Horizon Class sensors

Le Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

The large round radome of the Selex EMPAR multi-function phased array radar (primary sensor for PAAMS), operating at G-band (4GHz to 6GHz), is mounted at the top of the forward mast. The Thales / Selex S1850M air and surface search radar, operating at D-band (1GHz to 2GHz) is mounted at the top of the aft mast.

Selex EMPAR multi-function phased array radar

Selex EMPAR multi-function phased array radar (primary sensor for PAAMS)

At the top of the forward mast in a large round radome it is mounted the multi-function phased array radar, EMPAR (European Multi-function Phased Array Radar) which provides simultaneous surveillance, tracking and weapons control. EMPAR is the primary sensor in the FSAF/SAAM-IT and PAAMS missile systems. It operates at C-band, performing concurrently 3D detection, multiple target tracking and missile guidance. It counters different threats such as high diving and sea skimming missiles, aircraft and helicopters and any kind of vessels. The maximum range of the radar is about 150km. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 148.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
MM/SPY-790 EMPAR MFR – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 148.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

Thales / Selex S1850M air and surface search radar

Radar S 1850 M (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

The S1850M is a long range passive electronically scanned array radarfor wide area search. The S1850M is produced by BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies (formerly AMS UK) and Thales. It is a modified version of the Thales Nederland SMART-L radar. The S1850M is advertised as being capable of fully automatic detection, track initiation and tracking of up to 1,000 targets at a range of 400 kilometres (250 mi). It is also claimed to be highly capable of detecting stealth targets, and is able to detect and track outer atmosphere objects at short range, making it capable of forming part of a Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence system. Source wikiwand.com

Le Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

SMART-L provides a very long-range coverage (400 km radius, 65km for stealth missiles) as well as 70° of elevation.  The detection range is 2 km against RHIB and 7 km against FPB. SMART-L’s high sensitivity allows for the early detection and tracking of very small aircraft and missiles. Full Doppler processing for instantaneous radial velocity measurement and clutter suppression, combined with refined signal processing, guarantees excellent performance, especially against stealth targets in a littoral environment. The Smart-L / S1850M is the de facto standard of the major European navies for their long-range 3D radar requirements and foreseen as one of the pillars in the NATO TBMD. Recent tests with SMART-L equipped with the recently developed Extended Long Range module were highly successful. Thanks to the ELR module, SMART-L’s already impressive range can be substantially increased. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 481.5 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
SMART-L ELR – (2006, VSR) Radar
Role: Radar, Air & Surface Search, 3D Long-Range
Max Range: 481.5 km

Source cmano-db.com

The Selex RASS surface search radar, covering E and F bands (2GHz to 3GHz, and 3GHz to 4GHz), is mounted on the forward face of the mast. The Selex SPN 753(V)4 navigation radar operates at I-band from 8GHz to 10GHz. Selex also provides the SIR-R/S interrogation friend or foe (IFF) system. *Selex SPN 753(V)4 navigation radar – cannot find data other sources state Selex RAN-30X (SPS-791).

RAN-30X/I (SPS-791) 


For years, Selex has become one of the leading manufacturers of technologies for defence systems, producing panoply of products developed to fulfil security needs of many armed forces. The stages of designing, developing as well as production of defence equipments were done with information superiority in mind. Two of Selex’s most successful surveillance radar systems are the RAN-30X/I along with the KRONOS 3D radar system.

Designed to compete in the “surveillance radar” category, the RAN-30X/I has climbed the vertical ladder to place itself among the most accomplished radar system available in the market. Selex has designed the radar with new a structural configuration, allowing for higher operational flexibility and adaptability to different platforms thus requiring minimal set-up time as well as operational cost.

The RAN-30X/I operates on four main roles. It was designed to perform multiple roles as a measure taken in fulfilling naval forces demand for multi-purpose radar. The roles are, Surface and Air Surveillance (mode 1) for small air and surface target detection, Anti-sea-skimmer detection (mode 2), Over the Horizon (OTH) detection (mode 3), and lastly the Helicopter control and navigation (mode 4).

Depending on the different operational mode, the radar, according to Selex has different instrumental range. In mode one at 15rpm, the radar has an efficiency range of 100km, followed by mode two at 30rpm with 40km efficient range. The third mode, with a gradual rotation of 3rpm, the radar scans for threats within a dazzling 200km range and lastly in mode 4, with 30rpm the radar has a range of 25km.

Currently operational onboard the Italian Navy’s “Cigala Fulgosi” OPV Class vessel, the radar is also currently operating on board Thailand’s Pattani class OPV which had successfully conducted an anti-piracy operation in the Gulf of Eden. This achievement, at one stage has marked the radar capability in supporting high-risk and high-stake highsea operations. Source asiapacificdefence.blogspot.com

Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 111.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
RAN-30X/I – (SPS-791 RASS, OTH) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 3D Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface
Max Range: 111.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

GEM Elettronica navigation radar AN/SPN753(V)4

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 1990s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
MM/SPN-749 – Radar
Role: Radar, Surface Search & Navigation
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

Thales Underwater Systems and WASS was awarded the contract to supply the hull-mounted TMS 4110CL sonar which operates at medium frequency in active search and attack mode. TMS 4110CL uses a cylindrical array and advanced processing.

Thales UMS 4110 CL hull sonar

Image for illustration only

A high performance sonar that provides effective anti-submarine capability together with self-protection against torpedo threats and underwater obstacles in brown and blue waters.

  • Large area coverage
    Very long range detection in any environmental condition, complementary asset to CAPTAS Variable Depth Sonar.
    Detects up to Convergence Zone in the Mediterranean and uses Bottom Bounce propagation.
  • Self-protection against multiple threats
    Permanent self-protection against incoming torpedoes.
    Complementary underwater obstacle/mine-like avoidance capability.
  • Cooperative asset
    Excellent target positioning allowing to prosecute and engage distant submarines with organic weapons or airborne assets.
    Capable of multi-static operation with most current low frequency active sonar in operation world-wide.
  • Reduced operator workload
    Manned by a single operator. Same Human Computer Interface look & feel as CAPTAS VDS for high interoperability.
  • State-of-the-art sonar
    Enhanced performance, robustness and reliability thanks to spiral technological update and new transducers.
  • Mammals safe
    Adjustable source level & noise monitoring for mammal protection.
image058Andrea Doria (D553)

System features:

  • Designed for medium to large size surface combatant
  • Very high source level at relatively low frequency
  • Provides ASW all-round surveillance
  • Several transmit configurations, allowing operation with two ships in the same area
  • Integrated On-Board-Training capability
  • Performance prediction function for sonar optimisation
  • Comprehensive built-in test capability


Array (Weight/Height/Diameter): (10t / 2.2m / 2.0m)
Active frequency range: 4600 to 6100 Hz
Pulse types: Hyperbolic FM, CW and COMBO
Pulse length: 60 ms to 4 s
Range scale: Up to 72 kYds
Active modes:
– ASW: 360°, Omni-directional
– Obstacle Avoidance: ± 90° off the ship’s bow
Wide HFM bandwidth: 2000 Hz, against reverberation effect
Passive frequency range: 4200 to 6100 Hz. (when no active transmission allowed)
Passive functions: All around broadband surveillance, LOFAR, DEMON & audio channels

Source thalesgroup.com

Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
UMS 4410CL – (FREMM) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com



The ship’s propulsion system is configured in a combined diesel or gas (CODOG) arrangement with two GE LM2500 / Avio gas turbines rated at 53MW and two SEMT Pielstick diesel engines rated at 8MW. The engines drive two shafts with constant-pitch propellers.

Combined diesel or gas (CODOG) arrangement (example)

2 x GE LM2500 / Avio gas turbines


The General Electric LM2500 is an industrial and marine gas turbine produced by GE Aviation. The LM2500 is a derivative of the General Electric CF6 aircraft engine.

The LM2500 is available in 3 different versions:

  • The LM2500 delivers 33,600 shaft horsepower (shp) (25,060 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 37 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 24 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 36 percent at ISO conditions.
  • The improved, 3rd generation, LM2500+ version of the turbine delivers 40,500 shp (30,200 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 29 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 38 percent at ISO conditions.
  • The latest, 4th generation, LM2500+G4 version was introduced in November 2005 and delivers 47,370 shp (35,320 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39.3 percent at ISO conditions.
Image: defenceindustrydaily.com

LM2500 installations place the engine inside a metal container for sound and heat isolation from the rest of the machinery spaces. This container is very near the size of a standard 40-foot (12 m) intermodal shipping container – but not the same, the engine size very slightly exceeds those dimensions. The air intake ducting may be designed and shaped appropriately for easy removal of the LM2500 from their ships. Source wikiwand.com

Exceptional propulsion and maneuverability capabilities

To propel the 7,000 tons of the Chevalier Paul at a maximum speed of nearly 30 knots, it is obviously a sacred power under the hull: the propulsive device develops some 46 MW, or 62,560 hp. Equipped with two rows of trees, the building has two Pielstick (Man Diesel) propulsion diesel engines of 4.32 MW (5875 hp) each; As well as two GE / Avio gas turbines of type LM2500 with a unit capacity of 20.6 MW (28,000 hp). The electric power required to power the equipment on board is provided by four Isotta-Fraschini diesel generators.

Evacuation d’une turbine à gaz (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

2 x SEMT Pielstick diesel engines

Compartiment machine (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.comPC Propulsion (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

Up to 18 knots, the frigate uses only its diesels and, beyond that, engages its gas turbines, which, according to the sailors, offer much more flexibility than the diesel engines available to the Cassard and Jean Bart. According to the mechanics, the Chevalier Paul can go from 0 to nearly 30 knots in less than 5 minutes. By pushing the machine to the maximum of its possibilities, the delay would be only 2 minutes, which is extremely short for a building of such a tonnage. While the Chevalier Paul can carry 1000 m3 of fuel in his bunkers, the consumption is obviously impressive when the gas turbines, traditionally greedy equipment, are in action. At 29 knots, the “baby” biberon thus 11m3 of fuel per hour, or 264 m3 per day! On the other hand, The frigate uses only 3% of its fuel reserves daily, giving it a one-month autonomy. Equipped like any other combat vessel with a refueling device, the Chevalier Paul can tap up to 600 m3 of fuel per hour in the bunkers of a logistics building, via fuel hoses connecting the two ships. “To give an idea, this flow would make it possible to fill up a car in 0.2 seconds! Reducing refueling time is important because this type of operation is a period of vulnerability, which must be as short as possible, “says Captain Slaars. The Chevalier Paul can tap into the bunkers of a logistics building, via fuel hoses connecting the two ships, up to 600 m3 of fuel per hour. “To give an idea, this flow would make it possible to fill up a car in 0.2 seconds! Reducing refueling time is important because this type of operation is a period of vulnerability, which must be as short as possible, “says Captain Slaars. The Chevalier Paul can tap into the bunkers of a logistics building, via fuel hoses connecting the two ships, up to 600 m3 of fuel per hour. “To give an idea, this flow would make it possible to fill up a car in 0.2 seconds! Reducing refueling time is important because this type of operation is a period of vulnerability, which must be as short as possible, “says Captain Slaars. Translated by google meretmarine.com

Le Chevalier Paul au large de la Libye (© EMA) – Image: meretmarine.com


Type: Guided Missile Destroyer
  • – 7,050 t (6,940 long tons; 7,770 short tons), full load [2]
  • – 5.290 t (5.206 long tons; 5.831 short tons), light displacement
  • – 152.87 m (501 ft 7 in) LOA
  • – 141.7 m (465 ft) LPP
Beam: 20.3 m (67 ft)
  • – 5.4 m (18 ft)
  • – depth 11.8 m (39 ft)
Speed: In excess of 29 kn (54 km/h; 33 mph)[3]
  • 6,100 nautical miles(11,000 km) at 18 kn (33 km/h)
  • 3,500 nmi (6,480 km) at 25 knots (46 km/h)
Complement: Italia: 255 in 1, 2 or 4 beds for cabin
Crew: Italia: 236, of which: 195 based-crew + 13 flight staff + 18 others
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
  • – Elettronica Spa 4100 Nettuno
  • – SIGEN EW
  • – 2 x OTO Melara ODLS-H decoy launching system
  • – 2× SLAT anti torpedo system
Aircraft carried: 1 x helicopter type AW-101 or SH90A
Aviation facilities:
  • – Flight deck, 24.8 m (81 ft) X 16.00 m (52.49 ft)
  • – Hangar for one helicopter AW-101 or SH90A

Specification wikiwand.com

Main material source naval-technology.com

Revised Dec 12, 2017

Updated Jan 22, 2018


Shenyang J-31 Stealth Fighter

The Shenyang J-31 (F-60) is a fifth-generation, multi-role, twin-engine stealth fighter aircraft being manufactured for the People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation, an affiliate of Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC). It is the second stealth fighter that China has indigenously developed after the J-20.

The J-31 fighter jet is intended to provide advanced defence capabilities in close-air support, aerial bombing and air interdiction operations. It can also perform suppression of enemy air defences and can be used as a carrier-based fighter on aircraft carriers. Initial operational capability of the aircraft is expected in 2020.

J-31 prototype (31001)

The J-31 prototype (31001) performed its maiden flight on 31 October 2012. A model of the aircraft was exhibited at the China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition (Airshow China) held in Zhuhai in November 2012. The J-31 prototype made a test flight during the Zhuhai Air Show in November 2014.

J-31 prototype (31001)

Known as the FC-31 fourth-generation multi-purpose medium fighter, the export variant of the J-31 fighter was also displayed at the Zhuhai Air Show 2014. The FC-31’s airframe and control surfaces are similar to those of J-31 but will be outfitted with angled vertical stabilisers, two large internal payload bays and an estimated payload capacity of 2,268kg. It can also be attached with electro-optical and sensor system (EOSS) pod and infrared search-and-track sensors below the nose.

J-31 aircraft design and features

The medium-sized Shenyang J-31 stealth fighter aircraft features diverterless supersonic inlet (DSI) design with bumps and forward-swept inlet cowls. The airframe incorporates a pair of low-aspect ratio trapezoidal planform wings with titanium spars. Each wing has a sweep of 35° and the stealthy design offers reduced radar cross-section (RCS).

Diverterless supersonic inlet (DSI) design

The chined fuselage of the J-31 incorporates a pair of tailplanes. The rear edge of the fuselage is hinged with two vertical stabilisers. A rudder is installed on each stabiliser to control the aircraft’s movement. The aircraft is fitted with a tricycle landing gear. The nose landing gear consists of double wheels, while the main landing gear has a ‘dogleg’ structure.

The fighter jet has a length of 16.9m, height of about 4.8m, and a wing span of 11.5m. The empty weight is about 17t and the maximum take-off weight is 25t. The aircraft can carry out missions at medium and low-altitudes.

New Shenyang FC-31 fifth-generation export fighter

Airshow in China held in Zhuhai from 1-6 November 2016

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Source errymath.blogspot.com

New vs Old J-31


New FC-31 spotted flight testing: Here


Chinese defence websites have published footage of what is apparently the second AVIC FC-31 Gyrfalcon fighter aircraft.

Still imagery shows the aircraft taking off. One major difference is the configuration of the aircraft’s twin canted tail. Produced by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation, the FC-31 features a cropped tail, whereas the first prototype designated J-31, had a nearly triangular tails with a horizontal top.

FC-31 2.0 prototype landing – Short clip

Naval variant J-31 

fc-31-v2-2Image: errymath.blogspot.com

Shenyang FC-31 may have carrier version: Here

Image: gta5-mods.com


Following the first flight of a second Shenyang FC-31 prototype, on December 23 last year, there are now discussions within the Chinese media that the improved aircraft might be slated for operations on the new Chinese carrier fleet. The aircraft has been named the “Gryfalcon.”

Cockpit and avionics

The aircraft is operated by a single pilot. The cockpit is enclosed by a transparent, two-piece canopy to provide increased visibility for the pilot.


TbMLLMock-up cockpit of the J-31 as it was shown in public 371827-20160319194742_1Image: gta5-mods.com

FC-31’s Large-Area Display

The aircraft can be equipped with state-of-the-art avionics, including multifunctional displays, helmet-mounted sight, an electro-optical targeting system (EOTS), an attitude director indicator (ADI), and advanced sensors and communication systems.

Helmet-mounted sight


Image: gta5-mods.com

Type 1475 AESA radar

Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 222.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA)
J-31 AESA – (Type 1475/KLJ5?) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Air-to-Air & Air-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 222.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

A-Star’s EOTS-86 Electro-optical and sensor system

IMG_7173-j31-noseElectro-optical and sensor system (EOSS) pod and infrared search-and-track sensors below the nose shown on mockupImage: Vitaly V.Kuzmin

A privately-owned Chinese sensor company has unveiled a suite of air-to-air and air-to-ground sensors in development for the latest Chinese and Russian fighters.

Wang Yanyong, technical director for Beijing A-Star Science and Technology, confirms that two systems – the EOTS-89 electro-optical targeting system (EOTS) and the EORD-31 infrared search and track (IRST) – are in development for China’s J-20 and J-31 fighters.

Marketing brochures on A-Star’s booth suggest that the J-20 could use the passive sensors to detect and aim missiles against the Northrop Grumman B-2 bomber and Lockheed Martin F-22 fighter, even while its radar is being being jammed by a Boeing EA-18G Growler. It lists detection ranges for the B-2 at 150km and for the F-22 at up to 110km.

Both systems have completed ground testing in a laboratory, and are now ready to enter flight testing, he says. Chinese combat aircraft manufacturer AVIC is considering integrating the sensors on a testbed aircraft, then could decide to test them on the J-20 and J-31, he says. Operational status is at least a year away for both sensors and possibly longer, Yanyong adds.

A-Star exhibited the systems at MAKS in hopes of attracting buyers from Russian and Commonwealth of Independent States countries, he says. Source flightglobal.com

A-Star’s EOTS-86 appears to be similar to the Electro-Optical Targeting System (EOTS) that equips the Lockheed Martin F-35. Source: Via Top81 web page

A-Star’s EORD-31 IRST

A-Star's EORD-31 IRST uses a unique faceted sensor dome. (Via Top81 web page)A-Star’s EORD-31 IRST uses a unique faceted sensor dome – Source (Via Top81 web page)
Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 185.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Generic IRST – (3rd Gen Imaging) Infrared
Role: IRST, Imaging Infrared Seach and Track
Max Range: 185.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

A-Star's EORD-31 appears to be a conventional infrared search and tracking (IRST) system but with a faceted sensor dome; and the claimed ability to detect a F-22. (Via Top81 web page)A-Star’s EORD-31 appears to be a conventional infrared search and tracking (IRST) system but with a faceted sensor dome; and the claimed ability to detect a F-22 – Source: (Via Top81 web page)

China BM/KJ-8602 [SPS-1000] (RW 1045) Radar Warning Receiver

Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) is designed to provide the pilot with real time and unambiguous threat warning over 360 degrees thus reducing vulnerability of the combat aircraft to radar associated weapons. Currently two different models of RWR are available i.e. BM/KJ-8602 RWR and BM/KJ-8602A RWR.

China BM/KJ 8602C – (RW 1045) ESM
Role: RWR, Radar Warning Receiver
Max Range: 222.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

MAWS Missile Approach Warning System

Generic MAWS – Infrared
Role: MAWS, Missile Approach Warning System
Max Range: 9.3 km

Source cmano-db.com

Laser Designator (Surface Only)

Generic Laser Designator – (Surface Only) Laser Designator
Role: Laser Target Designator & Ranger (LTD/R)
Max Range: 18.5 km

Source cmano-db.com

Armament of Shenyang J-31

3a3f1c0d-4898-4254-8f3e-6d4f886849a6Image: errymath.blogspot.com14057fc6-dbf7-48a6-b4e3-e03c4db98845Image: errymath.blogspot.com

The Shenyang J-31 stealth fighter can be fitted with one internal cannon, two internal weapons bays in the fuselage and three payload hard-points on each of the two wings. Each internal weapons bay can accommodate up to two missiles.

Rough measurement of FC-31 weapon bay width & radar size



China PL-10E AAM with anti-stealth capability: Here


Key Points

  • The PL-10E will be sold as a potential weapons upgrade for existing 4th-generation fighter fleets, or as part of a package with the Chengdu J-10B or Shenyang FC-31 fighter aircraft
  • PL-10/PL-10E has a maximum range of 20 km

During the 11th China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition, or Zhuhai Air Show 2016, China unveiled the PL-10E, an export variant of the PL-10 5th-generation short-range imaging infrared (IIR) homing air-to-air missile (AAM), which itself intended to equip the People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) 5th-generation stealth fighter aircraft.

The PL-10 SRAAM is produced by the Luoyang-based China Air-to-Air Guided Missile Research Institute (formerly the Luoyang Electro-Optics Technology Development Centre), a subsidiary of the Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) consortium, and the designer and manufacturer of all infrared (IR) homing variants in China’s PL (Pi Li/Thunderbolt) series AAMs.

Picture1.png3Internal weapons bay can accommodate up to two missiles each bay – mil.huanqiu.com

FC-31 features a single internal weapon bay inside its belly housing up to 6 AAMs including PL-10, PL-12 and PL-21. The aircraft is also thought to have a secondary surface attack capability where it can carry 50kg class SDBs internally such as LS-6/FT-7 satellite guided bomb and GB50 LGB, or the larger YJ-83K AshM and YJ-91 ARM externally under 6 hardpoints. An internal gun is thought to be installed as well but its exact location is still unknown. Source fullafterburner.weebly.com

PL-12/SD-10 active radar-homing MRAAM

The PL-12 is claimed to have an operational ceiling of at least 21 km, with a maximum effective range of 100 km and a minimum engagement range of 1,000 m. The missile has a 38+ g manoeuvering limit and, according to CATIC, it has been tested for a 100-hour captive ‘live flight’ life. According to Chinese claims, PL-12 is more capable than the American AIM-120 A/B, but slightly inferior than the AIM-120C. Source airforceworld.com

PL-12 (K/AKK-12?) was under development at LETRI/607 Institute since early 90s. The missile was expected to be in the same class as AIM-120A/B and its active seeker may have evolved from the earlier AMR-1 design (R-129? based on Russian 9B-1348 seeker & datalink for R-77). Its tailfins appear to have fin tips as well as the leading edges of the fin root cropped. These specially designed tailfins are believed to possess lower drag for greater speed and higher torque for better maneuverability. Two datalink antennas can be seen next to the nozzle for mid-course correction. Several dielectric strips are seen along the middle warhead section which house the radio proximity fuse. PL-12 completed its development test in December 2004 and was certified in 2005. Its export version is called SD-10 (SD-10A as the improved version) and was first revealed to the public during the 2002 Zhuhai Airshow. Currently it is in the service with J-8F, J-10, J-11B, J-15 and Su-30MK2. In addition SD-10A is being carried by JF-17 currently in service with PAF. Some specifications of SD-10: length 3,850mm, diameter 203mm, wing span 674mm, weight 180kg, max g-load 38g, max speed 4M, range 60-70km. Recently produced PL-12 is expected to feature an improved seeker with new digital processor and SINS. The improved PL-12 (PL-12A?) is thought to be comparable to American AIM-120C4. It was reported in November 2010 that PL-12 may feature an active/passive dual mode seeker in order to achieve greater ECCM capability and kill probability. Source chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com

PL-21 long-range active radar homing AAM


A new long-range active radar homing AAM has been under development which appears similar to British Meteor. It features an active radar seeker and an integrated ramjet/solid rocket motor with a single or twin belly air inlets. PL-21 also features 4 small stabilizing fins behind the active radar seeker, a characteristics of Russian R-27/AA-10. Two-way datalink antennas may be installed in the tail section for mid-course correction. The effective range of PL-21 is expected to be >150km. The missile could be carried by J-11D for long-range interception. It wasrumored that the first ground launch test took place in March 2010. PL-21 is expected to be carried by the new generation of stealth fighters including J-20 and FC-31. The latest rumor (March 2016) suggested that a PL-21 was test fired from a J-16. Source chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com

PL-15 air-to-air missile


According to Chinese media mil.huanqiu.com’s report, the website of U.S. media Popular Science monthly said in its report that the PL-15 beyond visual range air-to-air missile has a range of 150 to 200 km further than any U.S. air-to-air missiles in service.

In addition, it has a longer active radar monitoring and anti-jamming data chain. Gen. Carlisle said that with an additional ramjet engine, the missile had a longer range to threaten not only US F-22 and F-35 stealth fighter jets but also U.S. bombers and aerial refueling aircrafts.

The report continued that General Herbert Carlisle, the head of the U.S. Air Force’s Air Combat Command, asked the rhetorical question in a speech at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C., “How do we counter that and what are we going to do to continue to meet that threat?”

The report says that US media claims that the new missile has the US Air Force spooked. Source chinadailymail.com

General data:
Type: Guided Weapon Weight: 199 kg
Length: 3.93 m Span: 0.75 m
Diameter: 0.2 Generation: None
Properties: Home On Jam (HOJ), Anti-Air All-Aspect, Capable vs Seaskimmer, Level Cruise Flight
Targets: Aircraft, Missile
Sensors / EW:
Active Radar Seeker – (AAM MR, PL-15) Radar
Weapon Seeker, Active Radar
Max Range: 11.1 km
PL-15 – (2018+) Guided Weapon
Air Max: 174.1 km.

Source cmano-db.com

YJ-83K  AShM


YJ-83KH – modification missiles YJ-83K with passive IR guidance system in the terminal phase of flight. This model can also be used under conditions of strong electronic interference. In contrast, the guidance system can confuse the help of IR decoy targets and smoke screens. Export versions of missiles YJ-83KH bears CM-802AKG and reportedly has a weight of 285 kg and a range of 230 km.

Users :   Only PRC

Carrier :   H-6G (Badger) – 4 pieces and JH-7 / 7A (Flounder) – 4 pieces

Guidance system :   inertial system (autopilot) (guidance in the initial and middle stages of flight) + active radar homing head (guidance on the reflection of electromagnetic radiation homing head of goals) unknown type (guidance in the terminal phase of flight); A detachment of weapons from the carrier occurs at altitudes from 500 to 1 200 m. While in mid-flight missiles YJ-83K moves at a height of 20-30 meters, altitude of weapons in the terminal phase of flight is only 5-7 meters above the surface sea.

Drive :   one turbofan engine type unknown

Warhead :   aggressively-explosive weighing 165 kg


Length:                        about 5 m

Body Diameter:           360 mm

Fin span:                     1.22 m

Starting weight:           715 kg

Max. speed:                1026 km / h

Range:                        250 km

Source ruslet.webnode.cz

Kh-31/YJ-91 anti-radiation missile


Two Kh-31P ARMs were on display at a PLAAF airbase as part of the Su-30MKK’s weapon package. Up to 6 Kh-31Ps can be carried by an Su-30MKK as a Wild Weasel aircraft. It can also be carried by the naval Su-30MK2. This supersonic missile is distinguished by 4 ramjet engines attached to its body which give the missile a range of 70km and a speed of Mach 3. It features an L112E passive seeker (with three interchangeable modules to cover different frequency bands) and its weight is 600kg with a 87kg warhead. The domestic version of Kh-31P has been produced locally under a license as YJ-91 (KR-1/H/AKJ91?), which can be carried by JH-7A, J-8G even the new FC-31 and is compatible with the Chinese fire-control system. In addition, the anti-ship version (Kh-31A) was also acquired and is being carried by the naval Su-30MK2 while its domestic counterpart (YJ-91A?) could be carried by the naval JH-7A, J-10B as well as the J-15 onboard aircraft carrier Liaoning. The introduction of Kh-31/YJ-91 ARM has enabled PLAAF to fly SEAD missions against enemy long-range SAM defences. The anti-ship YJ-91A is expected to be surpassed by the bigger and heavier YJ-12. Source chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com


The Kh-31P high-speed medium-range “air-to-surface” guided missile with changeable passive radar homing heads is designed to engage radars operating within long- and medium-range air defence missile systems, as well as other ground- and sea-based radars of different purpose, in the corresponding frequency band.

The Kh-31P missile can be efficiently launched either independently or in salvo, in fair and adverse weather conditions, to engage radar targets of opportunity or previously disclosed ones.

The missile can be equipped with changeable homing heads operating in coresponding frequency bands used by modern continuous-wave and pulsed radars of surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery systems.

The missile’s radar homing head ensures:

– target search and lock-on in the autonomous mode, or by receiving target designation data from carrier’s sensors with the missile on the aircraft suspension station;

– target tracking and missile guidance command generation.

It has a high explosive/fragmentation type of warhead.


 Launch range envelope, km  15-110
 Launch altitude envelope, m  100-15,000
 Launch speed envelope, km/h (Mach number)  600-1,250
 Max missile cruising speed, m/s  1,000
 Warhead weight, kg  87
 Missile launch weight, kg  about 600
 Missile dimensions, m:
 length  4,7
 body diameter  0,36
 wing span  0,914

Source ktrv.ru

*Note techincal data is of Kh-31P

LT-2 Laser Guided Bomb

Image result for LT-2 LGB


Launch weight: 564kg

Length: 3530mm

Diameter: 377mm

Wingspan: 950mm

Warhead: N/A

Range: >10km

Guidance: Laser

Accuracy: 6.5m CEP

发射重量: 564 公斤

长度: 3530 毫米

直径: 377 毫米

翼展: 950 毫米

弹头: N/A

射程: >10 公里

制导: 激光

精度: 6.5 米 圆概率误差(CEP)

Source globalmil.com

J-31 fighter engines and performance

Image:  redstar.gr

The aircraft is powered by two RD-93 afterburning turbofan engines developed by Russian company JSC Klimov. Each engine generates an afterburning thrust of 84kN. The propulsion system also features fixed stealthy nozzles. (Other sources state it is now powered by WS-13)

The aircraft can fly at a speed of approximately 2,200km/h and will offer a maximum range of over 2,000km when fitted with external fuel tanks. The service ceiling of the aircraft is approximately 20,000m.

WS-13 Taishan

Developer: Guizhou Aircraft Corporation (China)

It is intended for replacement in at JF-17 fighter aircraft Russian RD-93 engine production inChina and J-31.


  • WS-13 – 86 kN of thrust with afterburner
  • WS-13A – Turbofan
  • WS-13E – 90 kN of thrust with afterburner


  • Length – 4.14 m
  • Diameter – 1.02 m
  • The dry weight – 1135 kg
  • Combustors – ring
  • Maximum thrust – 51.2 kN dry; 86.37 kN with afterburner
  • Bypass ratio – 0.57 / 1
  • Thrust-to-weight ratio – 7.8

Engine data vpk.name

Multipurpose fighter
Two bypass engine, WS-13 (RD-33/93)
Thrust, kg
2 x 8.300 (9.500)
Length, m
Height, m
Wing span, m
Wing area m2 50,00
Normal take-off, kg
Maximum take-off, kg
Empty aircraft, kg
Internal fuel, kg 7.500
Maximum speed, km/h
Max speed in low height, km/h
Range, km
Service ceiling, m
Rate of climb, m/s 330
Maximum overload, g

Technical data redstar.gr

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Revised Jun 03, 2017

Updated Dec 21, 2017