The Russian Army Tor-M2U is a derivative of the Tor-M2 short-range air defense missile system optimized for protection of military and civil facilities from aircraft, missile and bomb attacks. The system is an evolution of the Tor-M2 battlefield missile system with better algorithms to recognize, classify and priorize threats while engaging four of them simultaneously. The Russian Army’s Tor-M2U utilizes the proven 9M331 surface-to-air missile (SAM) which is optimized against small-sized maneuvering targets. The Russian Army took delivery of the first Tor-M2U missile systems at the end of 2014 with the system expected to achieve initial operational capability by late 2015 after completing the state’s testing phase. Source deagel.com
The project was given strict design specifications to meet; Tor had to provide extended detection and tracking of fast, low radar cross section targets and be capable of quickly and efficiently dealing with massed air raids, whilst providing a high degree of automation and integration with other air defence assets. In order to meet these demanding specifications, the designers used a variety of new technologies, including advanced Passive electronically scanned array radar for improved detection and tracking performance, enhanced digital information processing, and vertically launched missiles to improve reaction time and increase the number of readily available munitions. After a period of testing and evaluation between December 1983 and December 1984, the land based system was accepted into service on March 19, 1986.
9K331 Tor M1
“Tor-M1”, introduced in 1991 with the 9M331 missile, with greatly improved missile accuracy and the ability to engage two targets simultaneously, minimum range 1.5 km (0.93 mi), minimum height 0,01 km.
Even while the Tor was being introduced into service, work started on improving the system, resulting in an enhanced version, the Tor-M1. Many improvements over the original system were made; these included the addition of a second fire control channel, allowing two targets to be engaged at once; as well as upgrades to the optical tracking system and computer equipment. ECM protection and warhead design were also modified, as was the ammunition handling system State tests, conducted between March and December 1989, showed that the result was a system which could engage more targets in a shorter time frame with reaction times reduced by over a second and an increased probability of target destruction. The M1 was introduced into service in 1991. Further modifications occurred partly as a response of insight gained from the 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina resulting in the Tor-M1-1, or Tor-M1V, which offered improved network connectivity and ECM functions. Significantly increased the probability of hitting any target.
In 1993 Tor, in the interference conditions, was able to shoot down small-sized rocket (similar to the complexes Iron Dome 1 target) at a 100% rate. In comparison, Tor-M2E achieved a 100% rate in 2009, Tor-M2 a 100% rate at 2013 (10 km), and Tor-M2 km a 100% rate at 2014 (Heavy ECM environments. Small-sized and high-speed targets. Simultaneously four).
- Tor-M1V has a protection against spoofing
Upgrades have continued over the lifetime of the system, with developer Almaz Antey unveiling the newest incarnation of the Tor missile system, the Tor-M2E, at the MAKS Airshow in 2007.
The latest variant features:
- Improved fire control radar coverage, and
- Four (4) guidance channels, allowing up to four targets to be engaged simultaneously.
- It has protection against spoofing.
- The reaction time is around 7 seconds
- System is fully automated.
Ammunition of the Tor-M2 includes 8 missiles 9M331 or 16 missiles 9M338 with increased altitude and range. Tor-M2 missiles have a range of 16 km, maximum altitude of 10 km and maximum speed of 1000 m/s. The system is capable of short-stop firing, which takes 2–3 seconds for the system to go from motion to stationary and firing of the missile.
The Tor-M2E is offered in either wheeled or tracked chassis and is equipped with a new digital computer system and all weather optical tracking system. It is currently produced at OJSC Izhevsk Electromechanical plant «Kupol».
- “Tor-M2E (9К332МE)” – with a 9А331МE tracked chassis mounting two 9M334 missile modules with four 9М9331 missiles. Crew of 2. The system is fully automated.
- “Tor-M2K (9К332МК)” – with a wheeled 9А331МК chassis developed by the Belarusian company «MZKT» mounting two 9M334 missile modules, each with four 9М9331 missiles.
- “Tor-М2КМ (9К331МКМ)” – modular design (towed variant weight reduced to 15 tons), to accommodate various types of chassis. 9А331МК-1 TELAR mounting two 9M334 missile modules with four 9M9331 missiles. At MAKS-2013 this was shown on an Indian Tata chassis. The affected area expanded to height – 10 km, distance – 15. Crew of 2. Chance to destroy any target 98% as a minimum. Significantly improving penetrating power of fragments of warhead. The system is fully automated. Modules weighing 15 tons are installed on ships of the Russian Navy.
“Tor-M1-2U” entered service at the end of 2012. This system is designed to destroy aircraft, helicopters, UAVs, missiles, and other precision guided weapons, flying at medium, low and very low altitudes in all weather. The system is able to engage four targets simultaneously at a height of up to 10 kilometers. Its crew consists of three people. Deliveries are underway. It can hit targets on the move, 25 km/h (all the necessary functions for of independent fight).
3K95 Kinzhal (Naval Variant)
The 3K95 “Kinzhal” (Russian: Кинжал – dagger) is the naval version of the Tor missile system developed by Altair and has the NATO reporting name SA-N-9 Gauntlet. Using the same 9M330 missile as the land based version, the system can be mounted on vessels displacing over 800 tonnes and is known to be installed on Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carriers, Kirov class multimission cruisers, Udaloy class anti-submarine destroyers and Neustrashimy class frigates. The naval version of the later Tor-M1 is known as the “Yozh”(Russian: Ёж – hedgehog), while the export version of the Kinzhal is known as “Klinok” (Russian: Клинок – blade).
Despite starting testing earlier than its terrestrial counterpart, the naval variant, Kinzhal, had a more protracted development. After an extended testing period using a Project 1124 Grisha class corvette (including the engagement and destruction of four P-5 Pyatyorka (SSC-1a Shaddock) anti-ship missiles in 1986) Kinzhal finally entered service in 1989.
Stored within rotary VLS modules, the missiles are clustered into launchers comprising three to six modules (32 (Neustrashimy), 64 (Udaloy) or 192 (Kuznetsov, Kirov) missiles) and mounted flush to the deck. Each module has up to eight missiles stored ready to fire; during firing the missile is cold launched using a gas catapult before the launcher brings the next round to a firing position.
Fire control (FC) is handled by the 3R95 multi-channel FC system, (NATO reporting name Cross Swords), composed of two different radar sets, a G-band target acquisition radar (maximum detection range 45 km/28 mi,) and a K band target engagement radar, (maximum tracking range 15 km/9 mi) that handles the actual prosecution of a target.
Using two top mounted, mechanically scanned, parabolic target acquisition radars, the fire control system provides a 360 degree field of view, as well as IFF. The target engagement radar is a Passive electronically scanned array antenna of the reflection type mounted on the front of the fire control system with a 60 degree field of view. Much like its land based sibling, the target engagement radar can track and guide eight missiles on up to four targets at once and is effective to a range of 1.5–12 km and an altitude of 10–6000 m. The system has a reaction time of 8–24 seconds depending on the mode of operation, and is managed by a crew of 13. Additional missile guidance antennae can be seen around the fire control system and the 3K95, like the upgraded Tor launchers, is equipped with a secondary infrared guidance system. The 3R95 can also provide fire control information for the vessels AK-630 close in weapons systems (CIWS) providing a second line of defence should anything penetrate the missile layer
The Tor-M2 km is a self-contained fighting module version of the system that can be mounted in various locations. In October 2016, it was loaded onto the helipad of an Admiral Grigorovich-class frigate by means of an ordinary wharf crane and fixed in position with steel chains to fire at simulated cruise missiles while the ship was underway. This could give advanced SAM capabilities to vessels without the capacity to install the larger and heavier Kinzhal system; it can also be mounted on a truck, building roof, or any horizontal surface at least 2.5 m wide and 7.1 m long. The module weighs 15 tons and contains all equipment needed to operate without any external support. It can go from standby to full alert in 3 minutes and acquire 144 air targets while simultaneously tracking the 20 most dangerous ones marked for priority by the two-man crew. The Tor-M2 km missiles have a range of 15 km
HQ-17 (China Variant)
The HQ-17 (Hongqi-17) is the reported China‘s copy version of the Tor-M1 system.
In 1996, China ordered 14 Tor-M1 missile systems from Russia which were delivered under contract in 1997. In 1999, another contract for 13 Tor-M1 systems was signed between Russia and China. Delivery of the systems took place in 2000.
The HQ-17 is a china development of the Tor-M1 system with multiple improvements. Unlike the Tor system, the HQ-17 incorporates an IFF array on top of an electronically scanned array radar, modernized electronics, a new all-terrain launcher, and the ability to datalink with other china systems.
“Tor M2KM” anti-aircraft missile system tested on “Admiral Grigorovich”: Here
It is interesting photos and videos module test autonomous combat anti-aircraft missile complex short-range 9K331MKM “Thor M2KM” placed on the helicopter deck of the frigate head “Admiral Grigorovich” Project 11356 held in the Black Sea in October 2016. Start anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M331M of autonomous combat unit of antiaircraft missile complex short-range 9K331MKM “Thor M2KM” placed on the helicopter deck of the frigate head “Admiral Grigorovich” Project 11356 October 2016 (c) JSC “Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant” Kupol “/ frame video of the TV channel “Russia 24” (via altyn73.livejournal.com)
Russia unveils 9K331MDT Tor-M2DT Arctic air defence system: Here
Russia has displayed versions of the KBP Instrument Design Bureau Pantsyr-S1 and Almaz-Antey Tor-M2 air defence systems integrated onto Vityaz DT-30-series all-terrain tracked carriers (ATTCs) optimised for Arctic operations.
The systems were first seen in footage of a rehearsal for Russia’s 9 May Victory Day parade shown by Russian television on 5 April and then in a photograph released by the Russian Ministry of Defence on 8 April.
TOR-M2DT Arctic air defense missile system: Here
Tor-M2U short-range air defence missile system (ADMS) is a modernisation of the Tor-M2 missile system developed by JSC Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant Kupol, a part of Almaz-Antey. The ADMS is in service with three military districts of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and is set to replace Wasp air defence systems, as well as Osa short-range tactical surface-to-air missile systems.
The Tor-M2U missile system is designed to protect military and government installations from airstrikes. It can destroy a variety of aerial targets such as cruise missiles, guided missiles, helicopters, aircraft, guided bombs, unmanned aerial systems, and high-precision weapons flying at low and medium-altitudes.
Features of Tor-M2U ADMS
The Tor-M2U air defence missile system is armed with 12 9M331 surface-to-air guided missiles, which are launched from aluminium containers. The missile’s high-explosive fragmentation warhead and an active proximity fuse allow it to destroy targets moving at speeds of 700m/s and altitudes of 6,000m, within a range of 12km. It can fire targets with a short stop of three to five seconds.
9M331 surface-to-air guided missiles
9M331 surface-to-air guided missiles – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe9M331 surface-to-air guided missiles – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe
9K330/9K331/9K332 Technical Data
|9K330 Тор||9K331 Тор-М1||9K332 Тор-М2|
|Зона поражения, км
Engagement zone [km]
|– по дальности
– in range
|– по высоте
– in altitude
|– по параметру||6||6||–|
|Верояность поражения истребителя одной ЗУР
Single Shot Pk for fighter type target
|Макс. скорость поражаемых целей, м/с
Max Velocity of defeat target [m/s]
|Время реакции, с
Reaction time [sec]
|– с позиции
|– с короткой остановки
– short stop while moving
|Скорость полета ЗУР, м/с
Missile velocity [m/s]
|Масса ракеты, кг
Missile mass [kg]
|Масса БЧ, кг
Warhead mass [kg]
|Время развертывания (свертывания), мин.
Stow/deploy time [min]
|Число целевых каналов
Number of concurrent engagements
|Число ЗУР на боевой машине
Number of missiles on launcher
|Год принятия на вооружение
Year of introduction
It is capable of detecting and tracking approximately 48 high-maneuvering air targets and simultaneously attack up to four targets.
The Tor-M2U missile complex consists of upgraded electronics and guidance system, 9T244 transporter / loader vehicle, 9F116 rigging equipment set, 9T245 transporter, 9V887 maintenance vehicle, and 9F399 truck. The on-board command and control system ensures full automation of combat operations.
Tor-M2U combat vehicle
The anti-aircraft missile system is based on a 9A331 (GM-5955) tracked combat vehicle, which can travel at a road speed of approximately 65km/h for a range of 500km. It is operated by a crew of four members including a driver, a commander and two operators.
The crew cabin is located at the front section and the turret is mounted at the centre of the vehicle. A surveillance radar antenna, fitted at the rear of the vehicle, provides 90° scan coverage. The vehicle is also equipped with a K-band, phased-array, pulse-Doppler, electronically-steered radar that has a range of 25km.
Scrum Half / PESA / 9K331M/M1 Tor M/M1/M2E / SA-15 Gauntlet
The Tor M2/M2E is a ‘deep modernisation’ of the baseline Tor M1 weapon system, available on the legacy tracked chassis, or the entirely new low profile wheeled MZKT-6922 6 x 6 chassis as the 9A331MK, the latter specifically developed by the ByeloRussian manufacturer for this application. The Tor M2E has an improved weapon system. The new planar array surveillance radar can track up to 48 targets concurrently, retaining the range performance of the legacy system. The revised phased array engagement radar uses new phase shifters, and is capable of tracking targets within a claimed 30° solid angle around the antenna boresight, quadrupling the angular coverage of the original radar. Paired command link antennas are mounted on both sides of the array, used to acquire the missiles post launch, while they are out of the field of view of the engagement radar array. Missiles can be launched 2 seconds apart. Source ausairpower.net
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 7620 m|
|Range Max: 22.2 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.2 km||Generation: Late 1980s|
|Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Weapon FCR (No CW Illumination)|
|Sensors / EW:|
|Scrum Half [Tor] – (SA-15, Track, Tor, Tor M1, M2) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air, Short-Range
Max Range: 22.2 km
Tor M2 search radar in deployed configuration. The low sidelobe planar array design replaces the cumbersome paraboloid section reflector design used with the Tor M1 series – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 10668 m|
|Range Max: 74.1 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.6 km||Generation: Late 1970s|
|Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Pulse-only Radar|
|Sensors / EW:|
|Dog Ear [9S80] – (SA-13/15/19 Surveillance) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 2D Surface-to-Air
Max Range: 74.1 km
Apertures for the Tor M2 Electro-Optical tracking system, used to supplement the engagement radar – Телеканал Звезда YouTbe
|Type: Visual||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 148.2 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Visual, 2nd Generation TV Camera (1980s/1990s, AXX-1 TCS)|
|Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]|
|Sensors / EW:|
|Generic TV Camera – (2nd Gen, Target Tracking And Identification) Visual
Role: Visual, Target Tracking and Identification TV Camera
Max Range: 148.2 km
Телеканал Звезда YouTbe
The primary means of engaging targets is by radar guidance. Each Tor system is fitted with a 25 km 360 degree search radar and 15 km 60 degree tracking radar. The Tor has a good ECM resistance but can also engage targets by TV tracking. The TV tracking system has a maximum range of 20 km and is fitted with a laser range finder. The naval version uses a similar two radar setup but has a more powerful search radar. Source weaponsystems.net
a. HPW killin zone
b. Army and tactical aviation, fire-support helicopters killing zone
c. Detection zone
d. Detection zone in a “aquad” mode
|8 or 16 surface-to-air missiles|
|Number of targets|
|Simultaneously detected: 48
Simultaneously tracked: 10
|0 – 700 m/s|
|10 to 1,000 m|
|12,000 m maximum|
|15 kg HE fragmentation|
|Top mounted target acquisition radar, and frontal tracking radar|
|Dimensions on road|
|Length, 7,5 m; Width, 3,3 m; Height, 5,1 m|
Updated May 23, 2018