Type 055 destroyer – China

The Type 055 destroyer (NATO code name Renhai)is a class of guided missile destroyers that is in development for the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy Surface Force.

Development

In April 2014, images showed a full-scale mock-up of the superstructure of a warship being erected at the Chinese naval electronic testing range in Wuhan. The mock-up featured an enclosed integrated mast for radar and other electronics. Observers have concluded the shore-based facility was for a new class of Chinese warship, displacing approximately 10,000 tons referred to as the Type 055. In 2015, the U.S. believed that construction could begin as early as 2016, and has tentatively classified it as a cruiser due to its size. Chinese sources claimed the first Type 055 was ordered from the Jiangnan Shipyard in August 2014, with construction starting in December 2014; the second would be ordered from the Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company.

In 2015, military analyst Li Li claimed the Type 055 would have two 64-cell VLS grids (one fore and one aft) carrying YJ-100 long-range anti-ship cruise missiles, anti-submarine missiles, and anti-aircraft missiles.  The United States believes the ship would carry YJ-18 anti-ship cruise missiles. In 2013, Richard Fisher speculated that, if Chinese development was extrapolated, the Type 055 might be the first Chinese warship to mount laser weapons.Potentially owing to Chinese deficiencies in anti-submarine warfare (ASW), the ship is expected to carry various undersea warfare systems such as towed array sonar, variable depth sonar, towed torpedo decoys, and active torpedo defenses.

In an interview in 2015, Rear Admiral Yin Zhuo countered Western media claims that the Type 055 represented a ‘game changer in naval warfare’. He regarded the Type 055 as equivalent to the U.S Arleigh Burke-class destroyer and the emphasis of its estimated 10,000-ton displacement was exaggerated; the existing Japanese Atago-class destroyer is over 9,000 tons, the American Zumwalt-class destroyer is over 12,000 tons, and the Russian Udaloy-class destroyer is over 8,000 tons. Further stated that if the Type 055 were to mount laser weapons or electromagneticrailguns, the ship would require integrated electric propulsion to meet their power requirements.

Construction of China’s Type 055 destroyers forges ahead: Here

Airbus Defence and Space imagery captured on 11 April 2017 showing two Type 055 DDG hulls under assembly within a dry dock at Dalian shipyard in China. Source: CNES 2017, Distribution Airbus DS/2017 IHS Markit – Source: Janes

Excerpt

Commercial satellite imagery taken on 11 April shows that significant progress has been made in the construction of the first four Type 055 destroyers for China’s People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN).

At the Jiangnan Changxingdao shipyard near Shanghai, where construction of the lead ship of the class commenced in late 2014, Hull 1 appears to have all the modules in place and most of the modules for Hull 2 are in position.

1st Type 055 destroyer launch ceremony

VIDEO: China launches new destroyer

scmp.com

Zumwalt-class destroyer: Details

zumwalt (16)_bndc

Design and Features

China plans to arm the second generation of its new Type 055 destroyers with electromagnetic railguns capable of shooting down U.S. missiles and bombarding land targets.

The first ship of the Type 055-class began building this year and should be completed in a year or two. It will be a conventional destroyer China claims will be the equal of the U.S. Navy’s Arleigh Burke-class destroyers that are the backbone of the Navy’s surface fleet. Source chinatopix.com

According to Li Jie, Type 055 destroyer has a full load displacement of 13,000 tons and will be China’s largest destroyer if commissioned.

Second, it has outstanding stealth performance thanks to various stealth designs and comprehensive stealth means. Its body also adopts stealth design, and the radar has a very small cross section with low infrared radiation, small electromagnetic radiation and low noise.

Third, it is equipped with a number of weapons. Being able to carry more than 100 vertical launching missiles of various types at the same time, including anti-ship missile, air-defense missile, anti-submarine missile and even long-range ground-attack cruising missile, Type 055 destroyer can attack targets 1,000-2,000km away, indicating a massive enhancement of ground attack capability.

Meanwhile, the 130mm single-barrel shipboard main-gun is strong at short-range ground attack and at attacking other targets as well. Type 055 also has anti-missile capability.

Fourth, it adopts double-band radar and has S-band active phased array radar (APAR) system and X-band small phased array radar system, which result in a strong capability of detecting medium-range and short-range targets.

At last, Type 055 is very good at capturing and processing information and can integrate various information receiving from the space, air, water surface and underwater. Source chinamil.com.cn

Comparison of the Type 55 and Type 52D

Type 052D destroyer: Details

type-052d-destroyer-using-qd280-engines

Sejong the Great-class destroyer: Details

1331630651

Mission

The PLA Navy has decided that aircraft carrier battle group will be the main direction of surface vessel development, so new vessels will all be developed based on the needs of the battle group, including the design and construction of Type 055 destroyer.

“Type 055 guided-missile destroyer carries medium-long-range and medium-short range air-defense missiles, which can significantly improve its overall air defense capability. It also has a strong anti-submarine capability, so it is much more able to protect aircraft carrier battle group than the Type-052D destroyer currently in service”, Li Jie said. 

“In addition to escorting aircraft carrier battle group, Type 055 destroyer is also able to head up an independent multi-purpose marine combat taskforce and carry out air-defense, anti-submarine and anti-ship missions,” he added.

The reporter noticed that this wasn’t the first time that western media call China’s Type 055 guided-missile destroyer a cruiser.

Regarding this, Li Jie replied that in terms of tonnage alone, Type 055 is larger than many serving cruisers. America’s Ticonderoga-class cruiser, for instance, has a full load displacement of less than 10,000 tons. As a matter of fact, destroyer and cruiser aren’t that different today, and most countries don’t even develop cruiser anymore.

Going forward, destroyers will have ever larger tonnage and stronger functions with particular strength in a specific aspect, whereas cruiser has limited functions and is not as flexible as destroyer when carrying out missions.

“The fact that western countries call China’s Type 055 destroyer a cruiser indicates that they are looking at China’s military development with colored glasses and magnifying the function and role of China’s equipment. It’s a manifestation of the China Threat theory,” Li Jie added. Source chinamil.com.cn

Weapons

Type H/PJ38 130 mm naval gun

XNpeNMY

The H/PJ38 is a new single barrel 130 mm gun of the Chinese Navy introduced on the Type 052D destroyer. Designed by the Zhengzhou Mechanical-Electrical Engineering Research Institute (郑州机电工程研究所, also known as the 713th Research Institute of the 7th Academy) and manufactured by Inner Mongolia 2nd Machinery Manufacturing Factory (内蒙第二机械制造厂), the H/PJ-38 130 mm naval gun was developed from reverse engineering of Soviet AK-130 twin 130 mm naval gun, which was carried out by the same two establishments.

The general designer of the H/PJ-38, Chen Dingfeng (陈汀峰), was also the general designer of all models of Type 79 100 mm naval gun, all models of Type 210 100 mm naval gun, and the H/PJ26 76 mm naval gun. Chen was recalled from retirement to complete the H/PJ38 single barrel 130 mm naval gun. When the Soviet AK-130 was first successfully copied by Chinese developers, the Chinese navy was unsatisfied and decided not to let the AK-130 into production, despite all performance parameters being met. Because the AK-130 was judged out-of-date by the Chinese Navy, the H/PJ38 program was created in 2005. The H/PJ38 130 mm single barrel naval gun is considered more powerful and more reliable than other smaller caliber naval guns currently in Chinese service, and as with naval guns on most warships, it is installed in front of the VLS.

Research led to the development of a single barreled 70 caliber, 130 mm system which took more than four years to complete, and the H/PJ38 went to series production soon after completion. The primary improvement of the H/PJ38 over the AK-130 is its adaptability: H/PJ38 can fire both separate loading rounds and semi-fixed rounds, which is crucial in firing gun-launched missiles and PGMs. The H/PJ38 can also fire a variety of sub-caliber rounds, but more importantly, a variety of PGMs were developed for H/PJ38 to increase its effectiveness. Source wikipedia.org

Computer Generated graphics for PLA Navy type 055 destroyer 2

General data:  
Type: Gun Weight: 0 kg
Length: 0.0 m Span: 0.0 m
Diameter: 0.0 Generation: None
Targets: Aircraft, Helicopter, Missile, Surface Vessel, Land Structure – Soft, Land Structure – Hardened, Mobile Target – Soft, Mobile Target – Hardened
Weapons:
130mm China H/PJ-38 HE – Gun
Air Max: 3.3 km. Surface Max: 22.2 km. Land Max: 22.2 km.

Source cmano-db.com

General data:  
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 37 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 1990s
Properties: Continous Tracking Capability [Target Tracking Radar], Pulse-only Radar
Sensors / EW:
China Type 349A – (GFCR, 130mm) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Weapon Director
Max Range: 37 km

2 x 30mm China H/PJ-14 (also called Type 1130)

H/PJ-14 (also called Type 1130)

The new H/PJ-14 (also called Type 1130) appears to be an evolution of Type 730. It is equipped with a new 11-barrelled gun with an increased rate of fire (local media have reported a 10,000 rounds per minute firing rate). Probably because of this very high rate of fire, H/PJ-14 is fitted with two ammunition drums, one on each side (as opposed to a single ammunition drum on Type 730).  Source navyrecognition.com

Properties: Capable vs Seaskimmer
Targets: Aircraft, Helicopter, Missile, Surface Vessel
WEAPONS:
30mm China H/PJ-14 [Type 1130, 500 rnds] – (China, 11 Barrels, Upgr Goalkeeper Copy) Gun
Air Max: 1.9 km. Surface Max: 2.8 km.

Source cmano-db.com

H/PJ-17 30mm dual mode remote controlled weapon system

1haijun360.com

Abbreviation: H / PJ17 single 30 mm gun, the Department finalized in 2010, 2011, appeared last single tube 30mm guns. Use the gun Norinco 206 LLP12A developed new fire control systems, radar and optical telecommunications channels, equipped with automatic boot photoelectric stations. The first four of this type of gun installed in 2011 in China Qinghai Lake No. 885 Navy offshore supply ship. Also can be used as the main gun mounted on small ships, Fitness, good, new naval weapon against small targets at sea. Source haijun360.com

Properties: Capable vs Seaskimmer
Targets: Aircraft, Helicopter, Missile, Surface Vessel
Weapons:
30mm China H/PJ-17 [20 rnds] – Gun
Air Max: 1.9 km. Surface Max: 2.8 km.

Source cmano-db.com

128 VLS

YJ-100 long-range anti-ship cruise missiles (J-10A Mod)

R95-300

r95-300

R95-300 a single-engine, turbofan. The motor has an automatic electronic control system, electric generator with an output of 4 kW and autnomní oil system. Starting a pyrotechnic. From the engine R95-300 is possible to remove air for UAV systems. Source leteckemotory.cz

General data:  
Type: Guided Weapon Weight: 1250 kg
Length: 6.0 m Span: 3.0 m
Diameter: 0.6 Generation: None
Properties: Home On Jam (HOJ), Terrain Following, Search Pattern, Bearing-Only Launch (BOL), Weapon – INS Navigation, Terminal Maneuver – Zig-zag, Level Cruise Flight
Targets: Surface Vessel
Sensors / EW:
Active Radar Seeker – (ASM MR, YJ-100) Radar
Weapon Seeker, Active Radar
Max Range: 9.3 km
Passive Radar Seeker – (AS-21, SS-N-26) ESM
Weapon Seeker, Anti-Radiation
Max Range: 18.5 km
IR Seeker – (YJ-100) Infrared
Weapon Seeker, Single Spectral IR
Max Range: 18.5 km
Weapons:
YJ-100 [CJ-10A Mod] ASCM – (2015, SSM, KD-20) Guided Weapon
Surface Max: 796.4 km.

Source cmano-db.com

YJ-18 (YingJi-18) Low-Flying Subsonic-to-Supersonic Anti-Ship Cruise Missile (ASCM)

YJ-18_Test

The YJ-18 ASCM first cruises at approximately 600 mph right above the surface of the water, and then accelerates to up to Mach 3 (3X the speed of sound) at about 20 nautical miles out from the target ship, making it “harder to hit with on-board guns”, and a “faster target for radars”, according to one Larry Wortzel of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. Even worse, the new missile has an operational/engagement range of roughly 290 nautical miles, or roughly 14 times that of its predecessor, the YJ-82. The commission therefore concluded that the YJ-18 missile “could have serious implications for the ability of U.S. Navy surface ships to operate freely in the Western Pacific” in the event of a naval confrontation. In other words, there’s serious concern right now that the YJ-18 can significantly upset the current balance of naval power, i.e., the US Navy’s firepower advantage in the region, and work as an anti-access/area-denial weapon, presumably alongside the DF-21D ASBM ship killer, to keep US ships off the Chinese coast and outside the First Island Chain–in other words, everything the United States controlled during and after World War II (WWII).  Source defensereview.com

General data:  
Type: Guided Weapon Weight: 2300 kg
Length: 8.22 m Span: 3.1 m
Diameter: 0.53 Generation: None
Properties: Home On Jam (HOJ), Terrain Following, Search Pattern, Bearing-Only Launch (BOL), Weapon – INS Navigation, Level Cruise Flight
Targets: Surface Vessel
Weapons:
YJ-18 [3M54E Klub Copy] – (2015, SS-N-27 Sizzler Copy) Guided Weapon
Surface Max: 222.2 km.

Source cmano-db.com

CY-3 ASROC (Yu-7)

General data:  
Type: Guided Weapon Weight: 610 kg
Length: 4.5 m Span: 1.2 m
Diameter: 0.4 Generation: None
Properties: Bearing-Only Launch (BOL), Weapon – INS Navigation, Level Cruise Flight
Targets: Submarine
Weapons:
CY-3 ASROC [Yu-7] – (2010? Test only? Might be replaced by CJ-1) Guided Weapon
Subsurface Max: 55.6 km.

Source cmano-db.com

HQ-9B SAM

HHQ-9-DDG-Launch-2AS.jpgausairpower.net

The basic airframe configuration and internal layout of the HQ-9/HHQ-9/FD-2000 round appear identical to the Russian Almaz-Antey/Fakel 5V55/48N6 family of SAMs. The only notable difference is the redesign of the TVC vanes, which are situated aft of the nozzle in the Chinese missile.

No details have been disclosed on the seeker employed. Given the design heritage of the missile, the baseline seeker is likely to be a direct derivative of earlier variants of the 48N6E/E1 seeker, employing TVM (SAGG) guidance, and midcourse datalink corrected inertial guidance.

Claims have also emerged of an active radar seeker, but these should be treated with caution as Chinese industry has little experience with such, licencing the Russian Agat 9B-1103M design for the PL-12 AAM. However, in the long term it is likely that an active seeker will find its way into the missile, as this is a strong trend in contemporary long range SAM design.

There are also claims of an alternate HQ-9B configuration, employing a dual mode semi-active radar homing and scanning infrared seeker, claimed by Janes to be an imaging IR seeker1. The latter would not present unusual difficulties as China has designed a range of scanning IR seekers for air to air missiles.

FT-2000-ARM-Cutaway-1S

Cutaway of the FT-2000 round from brochure material. Note the additional cruciform strake absent in the 5V55/48N6 family of missile airframes, and the baseline HQ-9 (via R.D. Fisher). Source ausairpower.net

Type: Guided Weapon Weight: 1800 kg
Length: 6.8 m Span: 1.0 m
Diameter: 0.52 Generation: None
Properties: Illuminate at Launch, Anti-Air All-Aspect, Capable vs Seaskimmer, Level Cruise Flight
Targets: Aircraft, Missile, Surface Vessel
Sensors / EW:
SARH Seeker – (HQ-9B) Semi-Active
Weapon Seeker, Semi-Active Radar Homing (SARH)
Max Range: 148.2 km
IR Seeker – (HQ-9B) Infrared
Weapon Seeker, Infrared, Dual Spectral IR
Max Range: 18.5 km
Weapons:
HQ-9B – (China, Naval) Guided Weapon
Air Max: 148.2 km. Surface Max: 46.3 km.

Source cmano-db.com

China Type 346A PAR [HQ-9] – (Kvant/APAR) Radar 

Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air, Long-Range

Max Range: 324.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

HHQ-10 (FL-3000N) short-range Air Defense System

hongqi102FLN 3000 missile – scmp.com

FL-3000N missile utilizes a combined guidance system that incorporates both passive radio frequency (RF) guidance and imaging infrared (ImIR) guidance. There are a pair of horn like protrusions mounted on the ImIR seeker at the tip of the missile, and these two protrusions are the passive RF seeker. An optional ImIR only guidance is also available and the missile is a fire and forget weapon.

10

General data:  
Type: Guided Weapon Weight: 70 kg
Length: 2.0 m Span: 0.4 m
Diameter: 0.12 Generation: None
Properties: Anti-Air All-Aspect, Capable vs Seaskimmer
Targets: Aircraft, Helicopter, Missile
Sensors / EW:
IR Seeker – (FL-3000N) Infrared
Weapon Seeker, Infrared, Dual Spectral IR
Max Range: 18.5 km
Weapons:
HQ-10 [FL-3000N] – (2012) Guided Weapon
Air Max: 7.4 km.

Source cmano-db.com

The fire control system (FCS) of FL-3000N can simultaneously control two launchers, and can be integrated into other FCS on board ships. Alternatively, FL-3000N is also capable being directly controlled by other FCS on board ships. The system is usually fully automatic without human intervention, but manual operation can be inserted when needed.

Specifications:

  • Length: 2 meters
  • Diameter: 0.12 meter
  • Minimum range: < 500 meters
  • Maximum range: > 9 km for subsonic targets, > 6 km for supersonic targets
  • Guidance: passive RF + ImIR or ImIR only.

Sensors

Computer Generated graphics for PLA Navy type 055 destroyer 3

Analysis: Sensor and Electronic Warfare Suites Aboard China’s Type 055 Destroyer

While official Chinese media have been quite reactive and open with the launched of the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN or Chinese Navy) first Type 055 Destroyer (they did publish official images of the ceremony just two hours after it took place), details on the specifications of the ship, especially its sensor suite, are still scarce. But with plenty of imagery of Type 055 sensors now available, Navy Recognition contacted two retired French Navy officers (a former frigate commander and a former electronic warfare specialist) in order to try and learn more about the PLAN’s latest surface combatant’s sensors.

Type 055 sensors 1Upmast of Type 055 during its launch (left) and upmast of the shore integration facility at Wuhan’s 701 institute (right)

This analysis based on open source intelligence (and mainly images) is limited because of the limited sources of images. All information here are hypotheses or “guesses” to the best of our sources’ knowledge.

Our experts first underline that the sensor fit aboard the vessel is not complete yet. In the image above, you may notice that what is likely a TACAN (tactical air navigation system ) antenna fitted on top of the mast at the shore integration facility (right) is not present on the destroyer’s actual mast (left). Some elements above the pilot house / bridge appear to be reinforced and are likely future placements for various sensors including an electro-optic s fire control system for the main gun. Navigation radar appear to be missing too. Note also that the 055 mast appear to be fitted with some kind of RCS reduction shields compared to the bare mast on the right.

Type 055 sensors 2Type 055 right before its launch

Here is the detailed analysis by the experts we contacted:
1: UHF/VHF transmitters or R-ESM interceptor antenna 
2: UHF/VHF receiver or R-ESM radio direction finding antenna 
3: UHF antenna or possible Tactical Data Link 
4: X-Band fire control radar for the missiles. For this role, the location is ideal (i.e nothing in its way, low risk of interference with other sensors).
5: This could be an IFF, however these antennas located above the bridge have different sizes. The large ones are likely linked to IFF roles but the smaller ones may well be LPI radars, surface (or combined) search radars or even the aforementioned “missing” navigation radars. 
6: Same thing: Likely an LPI surface search or navigation radar antenna…
7: While many people on Chinese forums claim that these are L-Band radar arrays, but our experts really doubt those claims. “They may look like long range radar arrays, but they are most probably not radar array, even less so L-band ones. Such a low position, close to the waterline, would render such arrays very much ineffective”. While still unusual, these arrays are probably jammers. Their locations are perfect to cover the entire flanks of the vessel. Plus they would work perfectly in conjunction with the two CIWS (HP/J-11 gun forward and HQ-10 missiles on top of the helicopter hangar). 
8: Type 346B AESA Radar

Type 055 sensors 3Close up view of the integrated mast

Taking a closer look at the integrated mast: If the UHF/VHF antennas are located up-mast (as indicated in the side by side mast pictures), the R-ESM sensors may be fitted right above the X-Band radar (4). These two locations, so close to an X-band fire control radar may be prone to electromagnetic interference however. The small cylinder shape right above them is a jammer (the same type is already present aboard Type 052D destroyers at pretty much the same location). Finally the “Round Box” may house an antenna, an IFF system or simply the various connectors for all the systems fitted up the mast.

Type 055 sensors 4Type 055 right before its launch

Last but not least, some more information on the Type 055’s Type 346B AESA radar emerged. According tothis source, the Type 055 is equipped with advanced active phased array radar with a larger diameter than the Type 346A radar fitted aboard the Type 052C class. One Type 346B radar array is larger than the 4.3×4.3 meter of the Type 346A arrays. The transmitter and receiver unit (is also using the latest Chinese gallium nitride (GaN) technology. Finally this new radar system is reportedly capable of fire control as well.  Source navyrecognition.com (*Note Type 346A radar is fitted on the Type 052D not 052C)

Type 346A S band APAR, X band APAR, long wave (possibly L band) APAR

Type 346 phased-array radar developed by Ukraine for Type 052C Luyang-class Guided-Missile Destroyer-1

Type 346 S-band multi-function active phased-array radar with four antenna arrays, each of which has a maximum range of 150km, a maximum resolution of 0.5 metres, and can  scan a 0-120-degree arc in azimuth and 0-90 degrees in elevation, with a peak power output of 1mWe. Source trishul-trident.blogspot.com

General data:  
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 27.8 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1980s
Sensors / EW:
Bull Nose [MGK-335M Platina] – (1981, Assoc w Mare Tail & Steer Hide) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search
Max Range: 27.8 km

Ships of class

9e9ad-plan

# Pennant number Name Builder Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
1 Jiangnan Shipyard (Group) Co. Ltd.[2] Under construction
2 Jiangnan Shipyard (Group) Co. Ltd.[2] Under construction
3 Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company[2] Under construction
4 Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company[2] Under construction

Preliminary projected 055 class parameters:

-Dimensions: ~180 meters long, ~23 meters beam
-Displacement: ~13,500 tons full, ~12,000 tons standard, ~10,000 tons empty
-Production run: unknown, with estimates varying greatly between 8 ships, 12 ships, and 24 ships
-Propulsion: 4 x QC-280 gas turbines (28 MW output each), COGAG configuration for initial batch, possibly IEPS for later batches
-Armament: 112-128 CN VLS, 1 x PJ-38 130mm gun, 1 x PJ-11 11 barrel 30mm CIWS, 1 x 24 cell HQ-10 CIWS SAM, 2 x triple 324mm lightweight torpedo launchers, 4 x 18 barrel multirole decoy/flare/ASW rocket launchers [potential for fielding rail guns and laser weapons in future variants with IEPS]
-Primary radars: Type 346A S band APAR, X band APAR, long wave (possibly L band) APAR
-Additional sensors and arrays: ECM suite, ESM suite, EO/IR sensors, ASW suite (likely to include bow sonar, towed array sonar, variable depth sonar, as well as towed torpedo decoy)
-Crew size: unknown, will be dependent on degree of automation of ship Source errymath.blogspot.com

Main material source wikiwand.com

Revised Jul 13, 2017

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