Daily Archives: December 16, 2015

Elbit Systems signs $26.5m Asia-Pacific aircraft protection deal

Globes EnglishAircraft protection systemThe shoulder-launched heat-seeking missile protection system will be installed on a wide body jet of an Asia-Pacific country.

Israeli defense electronics company Elbit Systems Ltd. (Nasdaq: ESLT; TASE: ESLT) today announced that it has been awarded a contract to supply commercial multi-spectral infrared countermeasures (C-MUSIC) systems to be installed on a wide body jet aircraft of a country in the Asia-Pacific region. The $26.5 million contract will be performed over a two-year period.

Based on Elbit Systems’ MUSIC family of Directed Infrared Countermeasure (DIRCM) systems for fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, C-MUSIC is an advanced countermeasure system that uses advanced fiber laser-directed infrared countermeasure technology to protect mid to large size airliners against heat-seeking shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles, also known as man portable air defense systems (MANPADs).

Elbit Systems MUSIC family of DIRCM system integrated with the advanced Passive Airborne Warning System (PAWS) IR based missile warning system has undergone extensive testing with very successful results. Recently Elbit Systems, in cooperation with Airbus Military, participated in a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) testing one of the MUSIC family of DIRCM systems with excellent results. The MUSIC family of DIRCM systems is used by many customers worldwide on a wide range of small, medium and large aircraft platforms.

Elbit Systems ISTAR Division general manager Elad Aharonson said, “This contract is another major milestone for Elbit Systems, providing evidence of the high quality and reliability of our DIRCM Systems. We are proud to have been chosen by another customer in the Asia-Pacific region, which is an important market for us. C-MUSIC provides effective self-protection against IR-seeking weapons that pose a growing threat for aviation, as the proliferation and capabilities of MANPADs continue to advance. We hope more customers will follow in choosing our cutting-edge DIRCM solutions.”

Published by Globes [online], Israel business news – www.globes-online.com – on December 16, 2015

© Copyright of Globes Publisher Itonut (1983) Ltd. 2015

****-END-****

Elbit Systems’ MUSIC family of DIRCM systems integrate an advanced fiber laser technology together with a high rate thermal tracking camera and a small, highly dynamic mirror turret to provide effective, reliable and affordable protection to all types of aircraft and under all operational conditions.

The PAWS family of combat proven missile warning systems uses IR to reliably and rapidly detect the most advanced threats in all flight conditions.The MUSIC family of DIRCMs have been extensively and successfully tested by various countries and are in full scale production for several NATO customers, including Germany and Italy. In Brazil, Israel and other countries the MUSIC systems are integrated on military, VIP and commercial helicopters and other fixed-wing aircraft. The systems are also fully operational with Israel’s commercial aviation fleet, protecting commuter jet aircraft serving domestic and international destinations. 

Source:pgtyman.tistory.com/defense-update.com/ jewishbusinessnews.com

 

Tu-160 Blackjack Strategic Bomber, Russia

The Tu-160 supersonic strategic bomber (NATO reporting name of Blackjack) was manufactured by the Tupolev aircraft research and engineering complex joint stock company of Moscow and the Kazan-Gorbunov Aircraft Production Association in Tatarstan from 1980 to 1992.

The maiden flight of the bomber was completed in December 1981 and it entered service in April 1987. Production has since restarted and a Tu-160 was delivered to the Russian Air Force in May 2000. About 35 aircraft were built of which only 16 are in service in Russia.

Tu-160 strategic bomber

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.08.26-16-12-23КИНОКОМПАНИЯ ОФИЦЕРЫ ВКС и ВМФ РОССИИ

The Tu-160 was designated as White Swan due to its manoeuvrability and anti-flash white finish. The purpose of the aircraft is the delivery of nuclear and conventional weapons deep in continental theatres of operation. The aircraft has all-weather, day-and-night capability and can operate at all geographical latitudes.

The performance of the Russian Tu-160 is often compared with the US B-1B.

The Tupolev Tu-160 has a general resemblance to the US B-1, though the Tu-160 is a substantially bigger aircraft and has little similarity in detail; nobody at all familiar with aircraft would confuse the two. As mentioned, the Tu-160 has a low-mounted swing wing, with “wing-body blending” between the fuselage and the inner fixed wing glove sections, and a conventional swept tail assembly. Construction is unclear — it appears to be made mostly of aircraft aluminum alloy, with some titanium and some composite assemblies. Source airvectors.net

avtu160_5Image: airvectors.net

US B-1B bomber: Details

Tu-160 bomber upgrades

Kazan Aircraft Production Organisation (KAPO) was awarded a contract to upgrade the Russian Air Force’s 15 Tu-160 bombers. The Tupolev upgrade package includes new targeting systems, upgraded cruise missiles and an electronic warfare suite. The first upgraded aircraft was delivered in July 2006.

In September 2008, two Tu-160 bombers made the first transatlantic flight for the type, from Murmansk to Venezuela, on a training mission.

In June 2010, two Russian Tu-160 bombers completed a record-breaking 23hr patrol covering 18,000km of flight range. The bombers flew by the borders of Russia over the Arctic and Pacific Oceans and finally landed at Engels base in the Volga region.

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Tupolev completed bench tests of modernised avionics complex for the Tu-160 bomber in March 2013.

The Russian Defence Ministry awarded a RUB3.4bn ($105m) contract to Tupolev and KAPO for the modernisation of three Tu-160 bombers, in July 2013.

A Tu-160 aircraft with upgraded airborne radar and navigation equipment made first flight on 16 November 2014. It entered service with the Russian Air Force in December 2014.

Tu-160 variants

The Tu-160 has eight variants: Tu-160S, Tu-160V, Tu-160 NK-74, Tu-160M, Tu-160P, Tu-160PP, Tu-160R and Tu-160SK.

Tu-160V is an upgraded version which uses liquid hydrogen as fuel while Tu-160 NK-74 is an advance version powered by NK-74 engines.

Tu-160M can accommodate two additional long-range, hypersonic Kh-90 missiles. Tu-160P, also known as Tu-161, is a long range escort or interceptor aircraft.

Kh-90 GELA ГЭЛА (гиперзвуковой экспериментальный летательный аппарат) AS-X-21

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The Kh-90 GELA ГЭЛА (гиперзвуковой экспериментальный летательный аппарат) AS-X-21 was a Soviet Russian Air to Surface cruise missile which was supposed to replace subsonic intermediate range missiles in Soviet inventory. The missile was an ambitious project, as the main objective was to develop it into hypersonic missile.

The missile was designed by Chelomei at NPO Mashinostrenniye and designated as the AS-X-21 . It was equipped with a 1 Mt thermonuclear warhead and used inertial navigation with mid-course update via data link.

Manufacturer: Chelomei. Maximum range: 3,000 km (1,900 mi). Source wikiwand.com

Tu-160SK is an upgraded commercial version principally used to launch satellites within the Burlak system.

screenshot-www.gonzoaviation.com-2018.08.17-20-04-18gelio.livejournal.com0_10ef0a_8017779c_origMaxim Bogodvid

Russia’s Modernized Tu-160 Bomber: ‘More Lethal Than Ever’: Here

Excerpt 

“However, those tweaks are likely to be fairly minor. The major upgrades are almost certainly going to be focused on the bomber’s avionics suite,” he pointed out.

“In the project to modernize the Tu-160, KRET will be creating new on-board systems, controls, a gimbal-less inertial navigation system, electronic warfare complex, fuel use monitoring systems, as well as weapons control systems,” the representatives said.

“Unlike the stealthy Northrop Grumman B-2 or future B-21, the Russian bomber primarily relies on a combination of blistering speed and nuclear-tipped cruise missiles to deliver its doomsday payload,” he said.

Production of the modernized Tu-160M2 bomber would begin in 2020: Here

Excerpt

The serial production of upgraded Tupolev Tu-160M2 (NATO reporting name: Blackjack) strategic missile carriers will begin from 2022 and a total of 30-50 such aircraft are planned to be produced, President of Russia’s Aircraft-Building Corporation Yuri Slyusar said on Tuesday.

Russia’s Tu-160M2 Bomber More Advanced Than Anything Pentagon Has In Its Arsenal: Here

Excerpt

Russian Aerospace Forces Commander Viktor Bondarev has confirmed that the new Tu-160M2 strategic bomber would take to the skies in March 2018. Military analyst Viktor Tuchkov says that with an estimated combat effectiveness two and a half times greater than its predecessor, the Tu-160M2 is more advanced than anything the US has in its arsenal.

In an interview with Krasnaya Zvezda (‘Red Star’), the official newspaper of the Russian Ministry of Defense earlier this week, Col. Gen. Bondarev said that the first Tu-160M2 would take off for state trials in the spring, adding that the air force expects to receive about three-four planes per year in the years thereafter.

Smart “Swan”: new digital technologies will allow accelerating the modernization of the supersonic “strategist”: Here

Excerpt

In the Soviet time, several thousand designers worked on the design of the world’s largest supersonic bomber Tu-160 for a decade. Today, in order to ensure the reproduction of the aircraft in a new shape, the Unified Information Environment (EIS) is being created in Tupolev company, which provides digital design and production methods.

Using the EIS will allow to digitize the design documentation and launch production of the Tu-160M2 in the “digit”. In total, it is planned to attract about 1,500 specialists to participate in the project. Thanks to the EIS, all work is planned to be completed in about four years.

“Tu-160M2 differs from its predecessor in a fundamentally new complex of on-board electronics and a set of weapons,” Deputy Defense Minister of the Russian Federation Yuri Borisov said earlier. – Tu-160 in the M2 variant will be an absolutely new aircraft with a new on-board radio electronic equipment. Its efficiency will increase by 2.5 times in comparison with its predecessor. “

Russia Unveils New Tu-160M2 Strategic Super Bomber Update: Here

First images of the 1st (Soviet legacy airframe №08-04) Tu-160M2 strategic bomber during the rollout ceremony & transfer to the flight testing facility at the S.P. Grobunov Plant in Kazan on 16.11.2017. ©Iskander Asabaev. Source: RussianDefence.com

Excerpt

The Newest Version of the Massive Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack Was Rolled-Out This Week.

Russia has rolled out the latest upgrade of the world’s largest supersonic strategic bomber, the Tupolev Tu-160M2 “White Swan” NATO codename “Blackjack.

While the original version of the Tu-160 first flew in December of 1981, the program was halted with collapse of the Soviet Union. Ukraine acquired several of the aircraft that were subsequently traded back to Russia in a bombers-for-natural gas deal.

Russia’s upgraded Tupolev Tu-160M2 strategic bomber will perform its first test flight in January 2018: Here

Putin Proposes Civilian Version of Russia’s Tu-160 Supersonic Strategic Bomber

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Speaking to officials at the Gorbunov Aviation Factory in Kazan, southwest Russia on Thursday, Russian President Vladimir Putin pondered whether a passenger variant of the Tu-160, the supersonic variable-sweep wing heavy strategic bomber known as the White Swan, might be a viable idea.

Recalling the history of the Tu-144, the USSR’s answer to the British-French Concorde supersonic passenger airliner, Putin noted that that Soviet airliner “was taken out of production because airline tickets must take into consideration average salaries in the country.”

Today, “the situation is different,” the president said. “Big companies have appeared which could have used this aircraft.”

Pointing to the problem of Russia’s vast expanses, and the fact that a resident of Russia’s western region of Kaliningrad can fly faster to New York than he or she could to Vladivostok in the Russian Far East, Putin pondered whether perhaps Russia could make a civilian variant of the Tu-160, the successful supersonic aircraft design developed in the 1980s for the military which continues to be produced and modernized to this day.

The president expressed the idea after watching a test flight of the Pyotr Deynekin, the latest Tu-160 design.

Yuri Slyusar, the head of the United Aircraft Corporation, a company whose holdings include the Gorbunov plant, told Putin that UAC already has a project of a new supersonic passenger liner in the works.

Deputy Prime Minister Dmitri Rogozin, whose portfolio includes aerospace, Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu, Deputy Defense Minister Yuri Borisov, and Industry and Trade Minister Denis Manturov accompanied Putin during the plant inspection.

After observing the test flight, Putin praised the new plane’s developers and asked them to thank the test pilots on his behalf.

The Tu-144 was the Soviet Union and Russia’s first and only supersonic passenger airliner, designed by the Tupolev Design Bureau between 1960 and 1968 and produced by the Voronezh Aviation Plant. Tu-144 passenger flights flew along the Moscow-Alma Atta route for a short period in the late 1970s, with tickets priced at 1.5 times more than a flight aboard an ordinary passenger Tu-134. Despite making its first flight two months before the Concorde, the Tu-144 never achieved the same level of commercial success as its Anglo-French cousin. The Concorde, introduced in the mid-70s, continued flights across the Atlantic until the plane was retired from service in 2003. Source sputniknews.com

Tu-160 M2 Blackjack

The Russian bomber Tu-160 Blackjack is a supersonic aircraft, variable-geometry wing heavy strategic bomber. With the main purpose destroy target with precision nuclear and conventional weapons at the enemy at distances up to 10.000 km.

Tu-160 M2 – it is a deeply modernized version of the Tu-160 (M) Blackjack. The main differences concern the cockpit, powerplant, armament warehouses of electronics board and also given great importance to the reduction of Blackjack trace.

tu_160m21. It has the latest generation of electronic systems(such as: a long range navigation system and other new generation subsystems); 2. Flight refuelling probe, extended; 3. consists of a four crew comprised the pilot, the co-pilot, the navigation officer and the officer weapon system; 4. The structure and or wing, bring specific depths technology “Stealth”; 5. The Blackjack has two weapons bay, with a total capacity of 40.000 kg; 6. Power Plant NK-32 after burning turbofan engines;

The modernized version of Blackjack M2 will join service not before 2023 and will remain in service until 2063.

Armament:

X-101 (Kh-101)
 
X-555 (Kh-555)

Range: 5000-10.000 km
Cruise speed: 900 km/h
Service ceiling: 30-10.000 m
Circle of equal probability (CEP):
5-10 m
Warhead weight
(conventional head): 400 kg

  Range: 2000-5000 km
Cruise speed: 900 km/h
Service ceiling: 40-110 m
Circle of equal probability (CEP): 5 m
Warhead weight (conventional head):
410 kg

Version:

  • Χ-55 («izdelie 120» or RKB-500, AS-15)
  • Χ-55-ΟΚ («izdelie 124»)
  • Χ-55SM («izdelie 125» or RKB-500B, AS-15b) – long range
  • Χ-65 – configuration of Χ-55 with conventional warhead
  • Χ-555 – conventionally armed version with an improved guidance system and warhead. In October 1999 he was first tested.

tu_160

DESIGNER
OKB Tupolev
COUNTRY
Russia
TYPE
Strategical Bomber
CREW
4
POWER-PLANT
Four bypass engine ΝΚ-32
Thrust, kN
4 x 245.70
DIMENSIONS
 
Length, m
54,10
Height, m
13,10
Wing span, m
 
– minimum
35,65
– maximum
55,70
Wing area, m2
360
WEIGHT
 
Maximum take-off, kg
275.000
Normal take-off, kg
267.600
Empty, kg 110.000
Internal fuel, kg 171.000
PERFORMANCE
 
Maximum speed, km/h
2.200
Max speed in low height, km/h 1.030
Cruising speed, km/h 850
Rate of climb, m/min 4.200
Combat radius, km 6.000-15.000
Service ceiling, m
13.000
ARMAMENT
Warload- 22.500 kg (normal), maximum -40.000 kg.
2 drum with Cruise missiles Kh-55 and Kh-55L (Χ 55 or Χ 55M/SM (X-555 or X-101), with 12x Kh-15 with nuclear and HE warhead, thermonuclear and free fall bomb, mine.

Tu-160 M2 Blackjack source redstar.gr

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Bomber design

The bomber’s airframe has a distinctive appearance, with the wing and fuselage gradually integrated into a single-piece configuration. The airframe structure is based on a titanium beam, all-welded torsion box. Throughout the entire airframe, all the main airframe members are secured to the titanium beam.

The variable geometry outer tapered wings sweep back from 20° to 65° in order to provide high-performance flight characteristics at supersonic and subsonic speeds. The tail surfaces, horizontal and vertical, are one piece and all-moving.

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The Tu-160 uses fly-by-wire controls. The aircraft is equipped with three-strut landing gear, a tail wheel and a brake parachute. It can attack strategic targets with nuclear and conventional weapons in continental theatres of operation. For take-off, the aircraft requires a concrete runway of 3,050m.

Nikolai Kuznetsovdsc06767Image: redstar.grNikolai Kuznetsov

Tricycle landing gear

161Image: paralay.com

Tricycle landing gear is controlled bow rack and two main units located behind the center of mass of the aircraft. Track chassis – 5400mm, chassis base – 17800 mm. The size of the main wheels – 1260h485 mm, bow – 1080h400 mm. The nose landing gear located under the technical compartment in unsealed niche (in which the hatch to enter the plane), is equipped with a two-wheeled cart with an aerodynamic deflector, “the pressing” air jets to the tarmac just “garbage”, preventing it sucked into the air intake (hereinafter aircraft It is equipped with motor protection device against foreign objects using compressed air from the turbofan compressor). The front is removed by turning back on the flight.

dsc06750Front landing gear with an aerodynamic deflector behind the wheels to prevent debris from entering the engines – Image: redstar.gr160101Rear landing gear – Image: paralay.com

The two main landing gear with a six-wheeled trolleys mounted directly on the center and removed back on the flight in special compartments niches. When cleaning rack shortened, that allows you to “fit” in the minimum size of the chassis cover. With the release of the main rack, pushing, shifting to 600 mm to the outside. This increases the track chassis. The chassis design allows operation with existing bomber airfields without additional work on the strengthening of the runway. Translated by google – Source paralay.com

Tu-160 cockpit

КИНОКОМПАНИЯ ОФИЦЕРЫ ВКС и ВМФ РОССИИ

The crew of the Tu-160 comprises a pilot, co-pilot, a navigator and an operator. The four crew are equipped with zero / zero ejection seats, which provide the crew with the option of ejecting safely throughout the entire range of altitudes and air speeds, including when the aircraft is parked.

tu-160_cockpit_3tu-160_cockpit_5clhyy

There are four crew sitting in the pressurized cockpit in a 2×2 arrangement, including pilot (front left seat), co-pilot (front right seat), navigator / offensive systems operator (back left seat), and navigator / defensive countermeasures systems operator (back right seat). All crew sit on Zvezda K-36LM “zero zero (zero altitude zero speed)” ejection seats, which fire upward through doors on the roof of the cockpit. The ejection seats were eventually modified to pneumatically “pulse” to provide a massage, reducing crew weariness on long missions. The pilot and copilot have fighter-like sticks instead of yoke controls; cockpit layout is traditional, based mostly on dial indicators and displays, archaic by Western standards. A small galley and toilet are provided for crew comfort, unusual luxuries by the standards of Soviet-Russian combat aircraft. The crew get into and out of the aircraft through a door in the nose gear wheel well. Source airvectors.net

Possible look & layout of the new Tu-160M2 glass cockpit & workstations

RussianDefence.comRussianDefence.comRussianDefence.com
charly015.blogspot.ru

KD-36LM ejection seats

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K-36seat.gif

In the cockpit and cabins, all the data is presented on conventional electro-mechanical indicators and monitors, and not head-up displays or cathode ray tube displays.

The Tu-160 has a control stick for flight control as used in a fighter aircraft – rather than control wheels or yokes, which are usually used in large transporter or bomber aircraft.

КИНОКОМПАНИЯ ОФИЦЕРЫ ВКС и ВМФ РОССИИ

Weapons

The Tu-160 can carry nuclear and conventional weapons including long-range nuclear missiles. The missiles are accommodated on multi-station launchers in each of the two weapons bays.

tu_160blackTu-160 Blackjack. © K. Panitsidis098tmpd_hba2

Version:

  • Χ-55 («izdelie 120» or RKB-500, AS-15)
  • Χ-55-ΟΚ («izdelie 124»)
  • Χ-55SM («izdelie 125» or RKB-500B, AS-15b) – long range
  • Χ-65 – configuration of Χ-55 with conventional warhead
  • Χ-555 – conventionally armed version with an improved guidance system and warhead. In October 1999 he was first tested.

source redstar.gr

Tu-160M to get New Long Range Nuclear Capable Cruise Missile: Here

Raduga Kh-55 (AS-15) subsonic air-launched cruise missiles

screenshot-thaimilitaryandasianregion.wordpress.com-2018.08.15-15-04-47

The Kh-55 has pop-out wings and fins, and has an INS to get to the target area and terrain-following system for terminal attack. It differs visibly from the Tomahawk in that its entire R95-300 turbofan engine is extended out of the fuselage after launch, not just the air intake.

   KH-55 / AS-15 KENT (ESTIMATED SPECIFICATIONS):
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________
 
   spec                    metric              english
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

   wingspan                3 meters            10 feet
   length                  6 meters            19 feet 7 inches
   total weight            1,500 kilograms     3,300 pounds
   speed                   subsonic
   range                   2,500 kilometers    1,550 MI / 1,350 NMI
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

Source cmano-db.com

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.08.21-00-20-02КИНОКОМПАНИЯ ОФИЦЕРЫ ВКС и ВМФ РОССИИ

The Tu-160 is capable of carrying the strategic cruise missile Kh-55SM, which is known in the West by the Nato designation and codename AS-15 Kent. Up to 12 Kh-55SM missiles can be carried, six in each bay. The Kh-55SM is propelled by a turbofan engine. The maximum range is 3,000km, and it is armed with a 200kt nuclear warhead.

AS-15 Kent B [Kh-55SM, 200kT Nuclear]

screenshot-thaimilitaryandasianregion.wordpress.com-2018.08.15-15-08-36

GENERAL DATA:
Type: Guided Weapon Weight: 1700 kg
Length: 8.9 m Span: 3.1 m
Diameter: 0.77 Generation: None
Properties: Terrain Following, Weapon – TERCOM Navigation, Weapon – Pre-Briefed Target Only, Level Cruise Flight
Targets: Land Structure – Soft, Land Structure – Hardened, Runway, Mobile Target – Soft, Mobile Target – Hardened
WEAPONS:
AS-15 Kent B [Kh-55SM, 200kT Nuclear] – (1987, Tu-95MS-16) Guided Weapon
Land Max: 2963.2 km.

Source cmano-db.com

Kh-55 series missiles are carried by Bear and Blackjack heavy bombers. The Bear can carry six in an internal rotary launcher. It can also carry more Kh-55s externally, though in an overload flight condition: two are carried on a stores attachment between the fuselage and inboard engine, and three are carried on a stores attachment between the two engines on each wing, for a total of ten missiles. Roughly 1,500 Kh-55s were built into the early 1990s.

* A naval version of the Kh-55SM designated “3K-10 Granat” (NATO codename “SS-N-21 Sampson”) was built in parallel. Sources hint that it was strictly submarine launched. There are sketchy reports of an experimental derivative of the 3K-10 named the “3M-55 (SS-N-27)” that is intended for the antiship role, and has a “warhead” that is actually a solid fuel missile that performs a terminal attack at Mach 2.5 speed.

There was also production of a limited batch of a ground-launched version for the Red Army, the “RK-55” (NATO codename “SSC-X-4 Slingshot”) that was comparable to the US GLCM, but the INF treaty that killed off the GLCM killed off the RK-55 as well.

Source craymond.no-ip.info

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Kh-65 anti-ship missile

screenshot-thaimilitaryandasianregion.wordpress.com-2018.08.15-15-23-30

The Kh-65SE is a derivative of Kh-65 cruise missile intended as a long range, aircraft-launched anti-ship missile. It features an active radar seeker added to the Kh-55/65 navigation system for the terminal phase of the flight engagement.

The Kh-65SE has been designed to perform as a sea-skimming anti-ship missile with terminal active radar homing.

Dimensions

Diameter: 510 millimeter

Length: 6.04 meter (19.8 foot)

Wingspan: 3.10 meter

Performance

CEP: 150 meter

Max Range: 280 kilometer (151 nautical mile)

Speed

Top Speed: 256 mps (922 kph)

Weight

Warhead: 450 kilogram (992 pound)

Weight: 1,250 kilogram

Source deagel.com

Kh-555 – conventionally armed version

kh_555_cruise_missile-75860

The Kh-555 is a conventional variant of the Kh-55. The nuclear warhead has been replaced by a 400 kg unitary HE, penetration HE, or submunitions warhead. Other notable changes include the following:

  • Larger conformal fuel tanks (compared to the Kh-55SM).
  • Reduced radar cross-section.
  • Improved accuracy.
  • Increased range, 3,500 km.

Source missilethreat.csis.org

russian_weapons_8

Kh-101 air-launched cruise missile

screenshot-thaimilitaryandasianregion.wordpress.com-2018.08.15-15-19-40

The Kh-101 is an advanced cruise missile under development to eventually replace the Kh-55 missile onboard the Soviet/Russian strategic bombers such as Tu-160 and Tu-95. The Kh-101 has a 400-kg conventional warhead, stealth features, high subsonic speed and low altitude flight profile. The conventionally-armed Kh-101 has also been referred to as the Russian counterpart to the United States Air Force AGM-129 air launched cruise missile.

The Kh-101 has a highly accurate navigation system based on the GLONASS satellite navigation system and a highly accurate Inertial Navigation System (INS) as backup with a terminal TV-based seeker for precision-attack missions. The Kh-101 development has been strongly influenced by the successes of US military campaigns in the late 1990s and the emerging role of standoff weapons in modern conflicts. Up to eight (Tu-95) or up to 12 (Tu-160) of these missiles can be carried by a single Russian heavyweight bomber.

The Kh-101 and Kh-102 air launched cruise missile are supposed to be members of the same family of missiles sharing components and overall performance. The main difference between them is their warhead. As of 2006, the Kh-101 was near ready for deployment. Unconfirmed reports suggest that the missile entered service in early 2012 or later in 2013/2014.

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Performance

CEP: 6 meter

Max Cruising Flight Altitude: 10,000 meter

Max Range: 5,500 kilometer (2,970 nautical mile)

Min Cruising Flight Altitude: 30 meter

Speed

Cruise Speed: 972 kph (0.81 mach)

Top Speed: 1,236 kph (1.03 mach)

Weight

Warhead: 400 kilogram

Weight: 2,400 kilogram

Source deagel.com

The weapons bays are also fitted with launchers for the Kh-15P, which has the Nato designation and codename AS-16 Kickback. The Kh-15P Kickback has solid rocket fuel propulsion, which gives a range up to 200km. The Kickback can be fitted with a conventional 250kg warhead or a nuclear warhead. The aircraft is also capable of carrying a range of aerial bombs with a total weight up to 40t.

KH-15 (AS-16 KICKBACK)

screenshot-thaimilitaryandasianregion.wordpress.com-2018.08.15-15-02-18

Even the fast KSR-5 left something to be desired. Storable rocket propellants are corrosive and highly toxic, making them difficult to handle, and the KSR-5’s range and capability were inadequate. In the 1970s, the US Navy developed the Grumman F-14 Tomcat interceptor, which featured long-range Phoenix air-to-air missiles. The Tomcat / Phoenix combination, backed up by the Grumman E-2C Hawkeye carrier-based radar early warning aircraft, presented a clear threat to Soviet bombers operating in the anti-ship role. The Hawkeye could provide long-range “eyes” for the Tomcat, which had long range and endurance, allowing it to fire a Phoenix at a Soviet bomber long before the Red aircraft got within range of a carrier group. If the bomber did manage to take a shot with a cruise missile, the Phoenix might well shoot the missile down.

The Tomcat / Phoenix / Hawkeye threat led the Soviets to develop the low-level launch versions of the Kh-22 and KSR-5 missiles, and also to work on a missile that was much harder to intercept. The Soviets were impressed enough by the Boeing SRAM that Raduga developed an equivalent, the “Kh-15 (AS-16 Kickback)”, which has almost the same external appearance as the SRAM. It was the first Soviet large ASM with solid-fuel rocket propulsion.

The Kh-15 is a simple spike of a missile with three tailfins. The resemblance to SRAM is so close that it is tempting to refer to the Kh-15 as “SRAMski”. Unlike SRAM, however, as with the other large Soviet ASMs, the Kh-15 was designed for both strategic and anti-ship attack. There are three versions: the standard Kh-15 nuclear-armed strategic variant, with inertial guidance only; a conventionally-armed anti-ship variant, the “Kh-15A”, with an active radar terminal seeker; and an antiradar variant, the “Kh-15P”, with a passive radar seeker. An export version of the Kh-15A, the “Kh-15S”, was also built. After launch, the missile climbs to the edge of space and then dives on the target steeply at Mach 5, making it very hard to hit.

Raduga began work on the Kh-15 in the late 1960s and it was accepted for service in the early 1980s. A Tu-22M Backfire bomber can carry six Kh-15s in a revolver launcher in the weapons bay, plus four more under the wings. It is also carried by the Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack bomber. Source craymond.no-ip.info

КИНОКОМПАНИЯ ОФИЦЕРЫ ВКС и ВМФ РОССИИ

The Aviation Thermobaric Bomb of Increased Power (ATBIP), nicknamed the “Father of All Bombs” (FOAB)

avbpm-image03“Father of All Bombs” (FOAB) – Image: globalsecurity.org

Probably the most powerful conventional (non-nuclear) weapon in the world today is Russian “Aviation Thermobaric Bomb of Increased Power” (ATBIP, Russian: Авиационная вакуумная бомба повышенной мощности (АВБПМ)), nicknamed “Father of All Bombs” (FOAB) (Отец всех бомб). It is a Russian-made air-delivered / land activated thermobaric vacuum bomb with the same destructive power as a small tactical nuclear weapon.

2iln7twImage: hightechnologyzone.blogspot.com

FOAB overview

Blast yield of 44 tons of TNT produces just 7.8 tons of a new type of high explosive (explosive that produces supersonic velocity “shock front” and higher temperatures), developed with the use of nanotechnology. The bomb contains a 6,400 kilogram (6.4t) charge of a liquid fuel such as ethylene oxide, mixed with an energetic nanoparticle such as aluminium, surrounding a high explosive burster.

The bomb was successfully field-tested in the late evening of September 11, 2007. In describing the bomb’s destructive power, Russian deputy armed forces chief of staff Alexander Rukshin was quoted as saying, “all that is alive merely evaporates”. According to the Russian military, the new weapon will replace several smaller types of nuclear bombs in its arsenal. Source hightechnologyzone.blogspot.com

The bomb is reportedly four times as powerful as the US military’s GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb (whose official military acronym “MOAB” is often colloquially called the “Mother of All Bombs” as a backronym). This Russian device would therefore be the most powerful conventional (non-nuclear) weapon in the world.

At the same time there is a nonlinear relationship between the power of the bomb and the area damaged. The Russian bomb area 20 is larger and the combustion temperature is a factor of 2 higher. The picture of destruction by explosion AVBPM follows:

  • 90 meters from the epicenter – the complete destruction of even the most hardened structures.
  • 200 meters from the epicenter – the complete destruction of unfortified structures and the almost complete destruction of concrete structures.
  • 300 meters from the epicenter – the almost complete destruction of unfortified structures (houses). Reinforced structure partially destroyed.
  • 450 meters from the epicenter – partial destruction unfortified designs.
  • 1100 meters from the epicenter – the shock wave breaks the glass.
  • 2300 meters from the epicenter – the shock wave can knock a person down.

Source globalsecurity.org

Tu-160 avionics

КИНОКОМПАНИЯ ОФИЦЕРЫ ВКС и ВМФ РОССИИ

The aircraft is highly computerised, and the avionics systems include an integrated aiming, navigation and flight control system, with a navigation and attack radar, an electronic countermeasures system, and automatic controls.

The nose of the aircraft contains the Obzor-K (Survey) radar, which is used for both ground and air observation. It also contains another radar, the Sopka (Hill), which is used for terrain following when flying at low altitude. The upper center part in front of the windscreen contains the retractable inflight refuelling probe. Under the front fuselage there is a forward looking OPB-15T optical bombing sight and video. Behind the sight, there is the nose gear. The four man crew enters the cabin through the front gear bay. The pressurized cabin has four fighterjet-like K-36LM ejection seats. There are two control sticks for commander pilot (front left) and co-pilot (front right). The Tu-160 has a conventional flight deck, which is divided by a central console with the thrust and flap selection levers for the co-pilot. Behind the pilots there is the navigator/offensive weapons operator (left) and the navigator/electronic warfare and communications operator (right). Behind the crew there is corridor leading to a galley and a toilet.

The Tu-160 houses a Baykal self-defence systems of which most systems are located in the ‘carrot’ tail cone. These systems include a Mak (Poppy) infra-red missile launch sensor, radar warning receiver, electronic jammer and a battery of APP-50 chaff/flare dispensers. The underside of the tailcone houses the brake chutes. Directional control is provided by an all moving finSource milavia.net

Obzor-K radar

000-Tu-95MS-Obzor-1S.jpgLeninetz Obzor-MS clam pipe navigation and attack pulse-doppler radar (pictured here on a Tu-95) – Image: ausairpower.net

Obzor-K is an updated version of Obzor designed for the Tu-160 (Aircraft K). Linked to Sopka TFR. Range is around 300km.

A modernised Obzor radar is being developed for upgrading remaining Tu-160 and some Tu-95MS with LPI (Low Probability of Interception) and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) modes. Source aerospace.boopidoo.com

Retractable inflight refuelling probe

КИНОКОМПАНИЯ ОФИЦЕРЫ ВКС и ВМФ РОССИИ

OPB-15T optical bombing sight and video

dsc06749OPB-15T optical bombing sight and video under the nose of Tu-160 – Image: redstar.gr

Astrovizir AB-1 SM astro-navigation system

kpg77Image: militaryrussia.ru

In the mid 80-ies in the CDB “Arsenal” it was developed and produced in series astro-navigation system AV-1cm to determine (with inertial gyroscopic system and on-board computing device) aircraft position coordinates (strategic missile carrier Tu-160) at the lengthy duration of the flight. With its small size and weight, this asthma rovizir able to measure the angular coordinates of the stars to the 4th magnitude against the backdrop of the daytime sky with an accuracy of less than 0.01 arc. Translated by googlesource tinlib.ru

Baykal self-defence systems

dsc08245 Image: redstar.gr

APP-50 chaff/flare dispensers

The APP-50 passive jamming automatic units (decoy dispensers) are designed to protect aircraft from engagement in flight by airborne missile systems and air defence missile/artillery systems by dispensing radar/IR interference rounds. The dispensers are installed onboard aircraft, and can be controlled manually (from the control panel) or automatically. The APP-50 dispensers can be delivered in two variants: APP-50P for autonomous operation; APP-50A for integration into onboard electronic support systems. The dispenser can launch rounds (up to three types) in continuous, salvo, combined and emergency modes. Launch time intervals, number of salvos and number of rounds in one salvo (from 1 to 4) are set by operator or by the electronic support system.

Developer and manufacturer: Gorizont JSC

Performance:

 Launch altitude envelope, m  0 – 30, 000
 Launch time intervals, sec  0,1 – 8,0
 Round types  PRP-50, PPI-50
 Caliber, mm  50
 Number of rounds  24
 Dispenser weight (loaded), kg  53 – 56,5
 Launch modes  continuous,

salvo, by series

Source ktrv.ru

dsc06766Image: redstar.gr

Tu-160M2 to Have New Avionics That Will Increase Its Effectiveness Twofold

In addition to a new engine, Russia’s elite Tupolev Tu-160M2 strategic bomber (“White Swan”) is capable of carrying cruise and nuclear missiles and will receive cutting-edge avionics, said Vladimir Mikheev, the adviser of the deputy head of Russia’s Radio-Electronic Technologies Concern (RETC), according to Rossiyskaya Gazeta.

The new avionics and electronic warfare system of the Tu-160, codenamed Blackjack by NATO military experts, will begin this year. Construction of the design materials and documentation of battle performance characteristics and technical specifications are currently underway, Mikheev informed.

“There will be nothing left from the earlier version of Tu-160, only the platform. Much more advanced hardware will be installed on it,” Mikheev said, as cited by Rossiyskaya Gazeta.

The new avionics system is currently being tested on the Sukhoi PAK FA Tu-50, Russia’s fifth-generation fighter. After that, military engineers will take best elements tested on the Tu-50 and use them to create an aircraft with fundamentally new capabilities, the official representative of RETC said.

The new strategic bomber will also be equipped with an advanced radio-electronic system, highly effective against anti-aircraft missiles.

The revival of the production of this bomber was announced by the Russian Defense Minister in April 2015.

The Tu-160M2’s advanced equipment will make it possible to increase its effectiveness by more than two-fold as compared to the old version.

Russian Tu-160 Blackjack strategic bomber

Turbofan engines

tu-160-21

The aircraft propulsion system consists of four Samara NK-321 turbofan engines, each of which provide a maximum thrust of 25,000kg. The engines are installed in two pods under the shoulders of the wing. The air intake incorporates an adjustable vertical wedge.

160100Air intake incorporates an adjustable vertical wedge – Image: paralay.com

The bomber has an in-flight refuelling system. In the inoperative position, the refuelling probe is retracted into the nose of the fuselage in front of the pilot’s cabin. The aircraft fuel capacity is 160,000kg.

Russian will receive the first delivery of the renewed NK-32 engines for the Tu-160M2 bombers: Here

Excerpt

The renewed Tu-160M2 will be able to fly at an altitude level of 60,000 feet, where no existing anti-aircraft or missile defense system can reach it.

At the end of 2016 the Russian Defense Ministry will receive the first delivery of the renewed NK-32 engines for the Tu-160M2 strategic missile-carrying bombers.

According to the developers, the new engine will help the plane fly up to the stratosphere at an altitude of 60,000 feet.

“The new NK-32 version can work not only as a reactive plane engine but also as a rocket engine. Thanks to this the Tu-160M2 will be able to cruise at a height where no enemy anti-aircraft system can strike it,” said a source at the Russian defense industry.

Kuznetsov to test Tu-160M2’s NК-32-02 turbofans on the modernised test stand: Here

Excerpt

The aircraft test stand No. 1 of the Samara PJSC Kuznetsov (part of the United Engine Building Corporation) after a large-scale reconstruction was certified for the new NK-32 series 02 engines for the Tu-160 bomber-bomber.

The commissioning of this facility is a significant step in the production of the NK-32 series 02 engine for the Tu-160 series. It is here that new and repair engines of this type will be tested.

NK-32 engine

nk321_03

NK-32 is a three-shaft turbofan engine with 3-stage. fan, 5-stage. střednětlakým compressor with discharge of compressed air to further letounové systems 7-trans. a high pressure compressor (the compressor blades are made of titanium, steel, and in the steps of high pressure from nickel alloys). The engine has an annular combustion chamber with two lighters 1-trans. high pressure turbine blades monocrystalline, 1-trans. with medium and two-stage. high pressure turbine. The mixer currents afterburner chamber with a reduced infrared radiation and limited dýmením. Restrictions dýmení probably so true for Take-off with afterburner. Takeoff Tu-160 is in fact accompanied by a distinctive orange smoke nicknamed “foxtail”. This coloring is caused by the use of nitride fuels and a high proportion of nitrogen oxides in flue gas. Even so, the NK-32 one of the first engine on which were applied some approaches to reduce radar visibility and reduce infrared radiation. Output nozzle is a convergent-divergent having an outer diameter of 970-1760 mm.

dsc06764Image: redstar.gr

Current status of NK-32

Status after production

Serial production of engines NK-32 finished sometime in 1992-1994 (eg. Baranova OKB in 1994 ceased production of some components of the engine). In the following years many race only carried out repairs and inspections. And in a very limited capacity – at best, while only worked on one engine, others did not order any. This corresponded to a stagnation of the entire Russian Air Force.

Modernization

According to sources [Tomsk] had already done before 1996 modernization of the Tu-160 (marked by some media aircraft Tu-160M). Something started to happen but in the new millennium

In 2004-2006, based on government procurement carried out modernization of NK-32: Kuznetsov plant produced (or modified?) Several engines, which has been greatly increased resurs compared to the original types. This contract coincided with the beginning of an initiative on the modernization of the Russian long-range aviation. The first modified aircraft, the aircraft was No.02-02 “Valentin Bliznjuk” into service in the Air Force back filed July 5, 2006.

However, although the Russian Air Force plans its modernization in 2015, agency contract to modernize the entire fleet of NK-32 at that time received. Until mid-2007, at a meeting of representatives of the office Tupolev and OKB Kuznetsova confirmed the need for further operation and modernization of engines NK-32nd

The development office planned in 2008 to create documentation for the conversion of existing engines NK-32 phase I to release the NK-32 Phase II and from 2009 onwards to implement these modifications to increase the reliability and economical operation of power units of airplanes Tu-160th The changes should apply to the core engine, it should implement some structural and technological elements applied by ground gas turbine NK-37th One of the sources already in 2006 indicates that NK-32 engines Stage II have been tested on a test stand. Necessity to accelerate repairs and modernization of NK-32 is gaining prominence mainly because the Russian Air Force currently stepping up its activities.

КИНОКОМПАНИЯ ОФИЦЕРЫ ВКС и ВМФ РОССИИ
NK-32/321 RD-36-51 RD-36-51
Thrust – maximal kp 14000 20000
– Full afterburner kp 25000 20000
– Supersonic cruise mode kp 5100 5100
– Subsonic cruising mode kp
– To overcome M = 1 adj. He slept. kp
– idle kp
SFC – maximum thrust kg.kp -1.h -1
– Full afterburner kg.kp -1.h -1
– Supersonic cruise mode kg.kp -1.h -1 1.26 1.26
– Subsonic cruising mode
Airflow kg.s -1 365 (?)
pass ratio 1.36
Compressibility blower
The total compression of the compressor 28.2
Maximum temperature before turbine C 1357
The total length of the engine mm 7453 5228
The maximum diameter of the engine mm 1700 8) 1415
diameter blowers mm
Dry weight engine kg 3650 4125
The full weight of the engine kg
Acceleration from idle to max. Draft with
Acceleration from idle to full adj. He slept. with
Source [Dvig] [SST]

Source leteckemotory.cz

NK-32 based engine developed for PAK DA

dSeAWThe prototype engine for the PAK DA on a test bench of “Kuznetsov”, the publication of 13.11.2014 ( http://www.tupolev.ru/ ).

Four engines are installed in pairs in nacelles at the bottom of the fuselage. TA-12 APU is used as a stand-alone power unit. Source tupolev.ru

TA-12A APU

ta-12

TA12-60 is a single-shaft auxiliary gas-turbine engine with the equivalent power of 360 kWt. This engine is designed for aircraft and helicopter APUs. It is used for air turbine start of the helicopter and aircraft mid-flight engines, AC electric power of 115/200 V, power up to 60 kWA and providing air conditioning for cockpit and cabins.

High overall efficiency of the engine is based on the use of a 4-stage axial compressor. An annular reverse-flow combustion chamber of evaporative type provides 0,99 burning and low content of hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases. The engine contains a 3-stage axial turbine. Driving units, including alternator, are installed on the engine’s gearbox.

The noise level of the TA12-60 engine, when installed on the craft, does not exceed 90 dB.

The engine complies with the Norms of Aircraft Airworthiness (NLGS-3); this is confirmed by a type certificate No 101-VD issued by the Aviation Register of the IAC.

Since 2005 the TA 12-60 APU has been operated under the second strategy. The TA 12-60 APU is operated subject to the technical condition till the specified life time of the principle components is terminated (4,000 hr/starts).

The TA12-60 engine has been in serial production since 1996.

APPLICATION: Tu-204, Tu-214, Tu-334, Be-200, An-70, Yak-42.

Technical features:

Absorbed electric power of AC, kVA 60
Bleed air consumption, kgf 1,6
Bleed air pressure, kgf/sm2 4,9
Bleed air temperature, °С 250
Start and operation altitude, m 7000/9000
Environmental temperature, °С ± 60
Weight (without generator), kg 297
Specified number of operating hours/starts 2000/4000
Overall dimensions, mm 1588х682х718

Source aerosila.ru

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.08.20-22-05-15T24

Performance

The Tu-160 can climb at a rate of 70m per second. The maximum and cruise speeds of the bomber are 2,220km per hour and 960km per hour, respectively. The range of the aircraft is 12,300km. Its combat radius is 7,300km.

The service ceiling is 16,000m. The Tu-160 has a flight endurance of 15 hours.

The aircraft weighs around 110,000kg and its maximum take-off weight is 275,000kg.

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Revised Apr 11, 2017

Updated Jun 03, 2018

tu-160-15

Performance characteristics of Tu-160

Crew: 4 persons

Dimensions TU-160
Length: 54.1 m; Wingspan: 55.7 / 50.7 / 35.6 m; Height: 13.1 m; Wing area: 232 m²
Empty weight: 110 000 kg
Normal takeoff weight: 267,600 kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 275,000 kg
Engines: 4 × turbofans NK-32
Thrust max: 4 × 18 000 kg
thrust in afterburner 4 × 25 000 kg
fuel Weight: 148 000 kg

Maximum speed: at a height – 2,200 km / h (M = 1.6); In land – 1030 km / h (M = 0.84)
Cruising speed: 850 km / h (M = 0.69)
Maximum range without refueling 18 950 km
Practical range without refueling 12 300 km
combat radius of 6,000 km
Length flight: 25 hours
Practical ceiling: 22 000 m
Rate of climb: 4,400 m / min,
the run / Running distance: 900 m
thrust-to-weight ratio: at maximum take-off weight, 0.37; at normal takeoff weight-0.36

Source kollektsiya.ru

btu160_vlImage: combataircraft.comTu-160-Comp-1Image ausairpower.net

Look Out, China: India Wants a New Aircraft Carrier—With Help From U.S

 

December 15, 2015

India hopes to build its own indigenous nuclear-powered aircraft carrier—complete with electromagnetic catapults—with the cooperation of the United States. In recent years, Washington and New Delhi have drawn closer together in the maritime security realm, due in part to China’s more expansive maneuvering in both the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

The South Asian nation is already building a conventionally powered indigenous carrier called Vikrant, which India expects to commission into service in 2017. However, the 40,000-ton Vikrant follows a design philosophy similar to Russian vessels like the 45,000-ton INS Vikramaditya—which was originally commissioned into the Soviet Navy as Admiral Gorshkov. After extensive modifications that included the removal of its missile armament, the former Soviet vessel was equipped with a ski-jump aircraft launch system. The smaller indigenous Vikrant is being built along those same lines with a ski-jump.

While the Russian ski-jump design is simpler, easier to build and cheaper—it does have limitations. A ski-jump does not allow for strike aircraft to takeoff with full weapons and fuel loads. Moreover, lower performance aircraft like surveillance planes have difficulty getting airborne using ski-jumps. That limits the overall performance of the carrier air wing. A catapult design, while more complex and expensive, allows for a much wider range of aircraft weights and performance. As such, most carrier navies tend to favor catapults. Even the Soviets planned to install a catapult launch system onboard Ulyanovsk—Moscow’s last incomplete carrier before collapse of the Soviet Union.

As such, the Indians are abandoning the Soviet design philosophy in favor of nuclear-powered ships that are patterned after the U.S. Navy’s Gerald R. Ford-class carriers. According to Indian navy chief Admiral Robin Dhowan—who spoke to the Economic Times—the service’s Naval Design Bureau (NDB) is working on a 60,000-ton to 65,000-ton carrier for its second and third indigenous flattops. While no final decision has been made, Dhowan told the Indian business daily that the service is considering both General Atomics’ Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS)—which was developed forFord—and nuclear propulsion. The Indian interest in the EMALS technology comes shortly after Indian defense minister Manohar Parrikar visited the Nimitz-class carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) [pictured] with U.S. defense secretary Ashton Carter.

India and the United States have drawn closer in recent years, with Washington now far more open to military cooperation with New Delhi. Parrikar and Carter held a joint press conference at the Pentagon shortly before they visited Eisenhower to tout the two nations’ progress on their bilateral Defense Technology and Trade Initiative agreement. “Minister Parrikar and I discussed the progress that has been made towards cooperation on jet engines, and aircraft carrier design and construction, as well as opportunities to collaborate on additional projects of interest, which will also further Prime Minister Modi’s Make in India policy,” Carter said during the Dec. 10 press conference.  “Later this afternoon, we’ll observe live flight exercises on the USS Eisenhower, making Minister Parrikar the first Indian defense minister to go about a U.S. aircraft carrier. This speaks not just our important aircraft carrier technology cooperation, but to our expanding cooperation in maritime security, as well.”

Parrikar, for his part, reiterated India’s desire for greater collaboration on areas of high-technology where New Delhi can benefit from the American know-how.

“I have conveyed to Secretary Carter our desire to further collaborate in the higher-end tasks. . . technologies within the framework of DTTI.  We also reviewed the cooperation between our armed forces which have grown stronger,” Parrikar said.  “Today, India I’m pleased to say is conducting more military exercises with U.S. than any other country. Our cooperation in the area of maritime security is also becoming stronger, especially in the Indian Ocean region, where India is playing its due role and responsibility of net security provider.”

Indeed, as Indian and American cooperation continues to deepen, it’s possible that New Delhi will become Washington’s primary ally in the region—especially if China’s maritime provocations escalate.

Dave Majumdar is the defense editor for The National Interest. You can follow him on Twitter: @davemajumdar.

©2015 The National Interest. All rights reserved.

original article: nationalinterest.org

****-END-****

See INS Vikrant concept: Here

Nuclear Propulsion for India’s Next Generation of Aircraft Carriers

STOBAR aircraft carriers have to maintain speeds of 20-30 knots togenerate wind over deck to support the mission. In other words, it can not support launch missions in still conditions. It is also difficult to operate bulky airborne early warning (AEW) aircraft using this system which can make the carrier very vulnerable during wartime. So the need is to find solutions for all these problems, and the answer is Catapult Assisted Take-Off, Barrier Assisted Recovery (CATOBAR).CATOBAR uses “trap lines” to stop an aircraft while landing, and a catapult to help it launch. Initially there were reports that the Indian Navy is going with steam catapult for INS Vishal.

A steam catapult uses more than 600 kg of steam to launch an aircraft. Plus there is a requirement of hydraulics and oils, water to break the catapult, and associated pumps, motors and control systems.The result is a large, heavy, maintenance intensive system which requires more manpower. On the other hand, EMALS uses an approach analogous to an electromagnetic railgun results to accelerate the shuttle that holds the aircraft.The United Stated navy is the most experienced player in CATOBAR carriers, but all their carriers feature steam catapult system. EMALS is featuring in their new Ford class carrier, Gerald R. Ford which costs around whooping $13 billion.

CATOBAR offers more options such as supporting operations of heavier fighters, AEW aircraft and, crucially, unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs), when compared with STOBAR systems. This will give Indian Navy an upper hand in the region by expanding their mission envelope with UCAVs, using the pilotless aircraft for high-risk reconnaissance and suppression of enemy air defences. THE INS VISHAL :INS Vishal is going to be expensive as compared to the other aircraft carriers we have. It is very hard to believe from the recent reports that it will be a conventional– powered aircraft carrier. INS Vishal is still 10 to 12 years away from reality, so India has enough time to go for a nuclear powered aircraft carrier. (defencetalk.net)10483969_796398810413319_7795445695789549758_o

China’s first Aircraft carrier – Liaoning

The Liaoning was built using the hull of a Soviet Kuznetsov-class carrier, the Varyag, with a displacement of 65,000 tonnes, which China acquired from Ukraine in 2002. It is a conventionally powered carrier

China’s concept of 2nd carrier 

Japan’s Asahi Shimbun says that China is building two homegrown aircraft carriers of 80,000-ton displacement each. China has obtained from Russia the design drawings of Russia’s Ulyanovsk nuclear aircraft carrier and the technology of its nuclear power system. As a result, China’s new aircraft carriers will be nuclear powered.

The Ulyanovsk is the first nuclear aircraft carrier that former Soviet Union was building, but it was dismantled due to lack of funds when the Societ Union disintegrated. It has a displacement of 78,000 tons and can carry at least 60 fix-wing fighters and helicopters. What is worth special notice is that it was to use steam catapult according to its design.

The PLA has shown great interest in VTOL fighter jets and may use such fighters on its aircraft carriers.

Informed sources say that Chengdu Aviation Corp. plans to build a VTOL fighter similar to US F-35 VTOL fighter. The PLA may cooperate with Russia in developing it to use Russian Yak-41 and Yak-141 technology. Sources say that Chinese navy plans to build 6 newest Type 081 amphibious attack warships that can carry a few Chinese version of F-35 VTOL fighter jets to dominate the sea areas near China.

Judging by the USD300 million cost of a 28,000-ton Type 071 landing platform dock, the cost of a 40,000-ton amphibious attack warship will not exceed USD500 million. It is much cheaper and easier to build and maintain than a nuclear aircraft carrier for use in remote sea areas that costs billions of US dollars.

Source: Qianzhan.com “Exposure of the structural drawings of the aircraft carrier for 40 carrier-based aircrafts that China’s Jiangnan Shipyard is building in Shanghai” (summary by Chan Kai Yee based on the report in Chinese)

China plans to build a 110,000 ton ‘super aircraft carrier’ to rival US naval power

Sunday, December 22, 2013

CHINA has declared it is building a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier of a size to rival the biggest in United States naval service in the first move of a major new arms race.

Chinese website qianzhan.com cites “top People’s Liberation Army” sources as saying the 110,000-ton aircraft carrier should be launched by 2020.

“By that time, China will be able to confront the most advanced US carrier-based fighter jets in high sea,” the Chinese-language article reads.

The news follows rising tensions in the South and East China Seas where the most recent incident involved a near-collision with a US cruiser shadowing China’s first aircraft carrier, the refurbished Liaoning which was purchased from Ukraine.

China’s first homegrown aircraft carrier will be a larger version of Liaoning. The first of two such vessels is due to hit the water in 2015.

The design is reportedly based on drawings from the former Soviet Union of a nuclear-powered, 80,000 ton vessel capable of carrying 60 aircraft.

“Despite their lack of experience, Chinese scientific research personnel have the ambition to overcome various difficulties to master lots of new technologies and techniques in building China’s own powerful aircraft carrier,” the article reads. (vndata.blogspot.com)