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Pilatus PC-21 Turboprop Trainer Aircraft

Pilatus Aircraft Limited rolled out the PC-21 training aircraft in May 2002. The PC-21 expanded envelope trainer aircraft is designed to fulfil the requirements for basic, advanced and fighter lead-in training for pilots and, if required, weapon systems officers (WSO).

The PC-21 project was launched in November 1998 and the development programme began in January 1999. First flight was in July 2002. The first aircraft has successfully completed over 400 flight hours. The second test aircraft made its maiden flight in June 2004 but, in January 2005, was destroyed in an accident which claimed the life of the pilot. A brief grounding of the first prototype was unconditionally cancelled shortly after.

The first pre production aircraft made its maiden flight in August 2005 and a second joined the flight test programme in 2006.

The PC-21 received certification for VFR (visual flight rules) operation in December 2004 and full certification for IFR (instrument flight rules) in December 2006.

Pilatus PC-21 training aircraft orders and deliveries

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pilatus-aircraft.com

In November 2006, the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) awarded a contract to Lockheed Martin Simulation, Training and Support to operate the RSAF Basic Wings Course and Pilatus supplied 19 PC-21 trainers under the contract. The first six were delivered in April 2008 and the RSAF began flight training with the PC-21 in July 2008.

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Citation Ten @flicker

In January 2007, Pilatus received an order from the Swiss Air Force for six PC-21 aircraft. All six were delivered in 2008.

Pilatus was awarded an additional CHF30m ($31.87m) contract by the Swiss Air Force in December 2010 for two PC-21 training aircraft. The contract also includes logistics and engineering services and supply of a debriefing system. Deliveries began in 2012.

Under a $494m contract signed in December 2009, the United Arab Emirates Air Force and Air Defence will procure 25 PC-21 turboprop aircraft. The contract also includes supply of an integrated ground-based training system and a comprehensive logistics support package. The maiden flight of the first PC-21 to be deployed at the UAE Air Force was completed on 22 November 2010.

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Saudi Arabia – pilatus-aircraft.com

Deliveries of 25 PC-21 equipped with the Pilatus training system to the UAE began in the first quarter of 2011. In May 2012 Saudi Arabia signed a contract with BAE systems to provide supply 55 Pilatus PC-21 aircraft and 22 BAE Systems Hawk Advanced Jet Trainer aircraft, which will be used to train pilots to fly Eurofighter Typhoon jets.

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pilatus-aircraft.com

PC-21 training turboprop aircraft features

The aircraft combines the procurement and operating costs of current-generation turboprop aircraft with a jet training capability. It has a higher wing loading that is more characteristic of a jet and the engine’s power output is scheduled by using a sophisticated power management system.

Operational conversion unit (OCU) training such as night vision goggles, basic radar interception and the simulated deployment of smart weapons can be transferred to the PC-21. By employing a PC-21 for straight-through training the cost of training a student to ‘wings graduation’ can be significantly reduced, the training time shortened and the student pilot’s advanced training failure rates reduced.

The aircraft is fitted with a fully digital glass cockpit with head-up displays, an up-front control panel (UFPC), hands-on throttle and stick (HOTAS) control and full sized multi-function displays giving a similar cockpit environment to current generation fighters, such as the AV-8B, F-16, F/A-18 and Gripen.

PC-21 aircraft design

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airrecognition.com

The PC-21 has a high-efficiency, three-spar, swept wing design with hydraulic ailerons supported by spoilers. The leading edges of the wings are of high-impact resistant material. The aircraft incorporates automatic yaw compensation.

The Mecaplex two section acrylic canopy has a thickened bird-strike-resistant front section.

Cockpit

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pilatus-aircraft.com

The pressurised tandem cockpit has an automated cockpit conditioning system, an anti-g system, and an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS). The Martin Baker Mark 16L zero-zero ejection seat has command ejection. The pilots have good all-round view: the front seat pilot has an 11 forward view and the rear pilot a 40 view.

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Anura @flicker.com

Each cockpit is fitted with three 152mm×203mm (6in×8in) active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCD). The central liquid crystal display is the primary flight display (PFD). The bezel-mounted display buttons and up-front control panel (UFCP) buttons are used to select the navigation, mission, systems and tactical data displayed on the two outer multi-function displays. Two 761mm Meggitt secondary back-up displays alongside the UFCP show the primary flight display, systems and essential engine data. All the PC-21 cockpit displays and lighting systems are night vision NVIS class B compatible.

Mike Luedey

The forward cockpit is fitted with a Flight Visions SparrowHawk head-up display with a FVD-4000 HUD symbol generator and the rear cockpit is equipped with a full colour HUD repeater display showing the view from the HUD camera, overlaid with HUD symbology information.

PC21-avionique

pilatus-aircraft.com

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pilatus-aircraft.com

The front and rear cockpits can be fully decoupled, allowing the instructor access to training modes and sensor data unavailable to the trainee pilot.

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pilatus-aircraft.com

Martin Baker Mark 16L zero-zero ejection seat

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It optimises the pilot field of view, improves comfort and pilot efficiency, and provides increased reliability and maintainability. With the Mk16 lightweight low-speed seat, ejection performance is optimised throughout the escape envelope, from zero height at zero velocity in a near level attitude through to 370 knots. It is designed to accommodate a very wide size and weight range.

US16LA EJECTION SEAT

  • Operating Ceiling: 50 000ft (15,250m)
  • Minimum height/Speed: Zero/zero in near level attitude
  • Crew boarding mass range: 62.3 to 123.0 kg
  • Crew size range: JPATS multi-variate body size cases 1 to 7
  • Maximum Speed for ejection: 370 KIAS (aircraft limit 316 KIAS)
  • Parachute type: GQ Type 5000
  • Parachute deployment: Cartridge initiated
  • Drogue parachute: 5 ft
  • Drogue deployment: Cartridge initiated and deployed
  • Harness type: Torso
  • Ejection seat operation type: Ejection guns and underseat rocket motor
  • Ejection gun: Twin
  • Ejection initiation: Handle on seat bucket initiates gas operated seat firing system
  • Automatic back-up unit: No, manual override
  • Electronic sequencer: No
  • Barostatic time-release unit: Yes + g-restrictor, cartridge initiated
  • Timers: Time delays in sequencing system
  • Seat adjustment: Up/down actuator operated 28 Vdc
  • Arm restraints: No
  • Leg restraints: Yes, two garters
  • Oxygen supply: Bottled emergency oxygen
  • Personal survival pack (PSP): Yes + automatic deployment
  • Aircrew services: Connection to emergency oxygen supply
  • Command ejection: Yes, via Interseat Sequencing System (ISS)
  • Canopy jettison: No
  • Canopy fracturing system: Yes
  • Interseat Sequencing System (ISS): Yes

Source martin-baker.com

The aircraft’s CMC Electronics FV-4000 mission computer is fitted with 500MHz Power PC G4 processors, each with 512MB memory for real-time, high refresh rate data processing. The open system avionics architecture allows for adaptation and system upgrade.

CMC Electronics FV-4000 mission computer

The FV-4000 features 500 MHz PowerPC G4 processors with up to 512 Mbytes of memory per processor for processing critical data in real time and at a high refresh rate. It has extensive video switching and graphics generation capability and includes an industry leading,14 Gbyte solidstate mass memory card. Its processing is supported by modules which can be added for
high-resolution graphics in the case of multifunction displays or for interfacing to any avionics bus or signal used with either military or civil systems.

esterline.com

The navigation suite includes an integrated laser inertial navigation sensor, a global positioning system and Kalman filter. The systems have ARINC and military-standard 1553B data bus interfaces.

Weapons

Four under-wing stores pylons and one centreline pylon can be installed.

Mission planning and training

A mission planning system (MPS) allows fast ground-based mission planning. The MPS provides benign handling for early stages of pilot training, while providing higher performance handling characteristics for advanced pilot training. The mission planning data is downloaded into the aircraft via a mission data loader.

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pilatus-aircraft.com

The mission data loader is compatible with all the PC-21 ground-based training systems and simulators. The mission data loader is also used for mission recording as the data storage medium. Mission recording is automatic from power-on to engine shutdown to allow complete mission playback after the flight. The system records all the display input data including the full colour head-up display, with event markers if required.

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pilatus-aircraft.com

A separate solid-state memory system is used to record the engineering data for the health and usage monitoring system (HUMS).

The up-front panel control (UFPC) allows information to be input into the aircraft’s mission and navigation systems. System operational modes include navigation, air-to-ground and air-to-air weapon aiming and FMS.

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pilatus-aircraft.com

Virtual avionics prototyping system (VAPS) was used for the design of the software which allows fast and efficient changes to the avionics as requested by a customer. The VAPS is used in both the aircraft avionics and in the ground-based training systems, ensuring that both function to the same software release standard.

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pilatus-aircraft.com

The avionics system can be modified to suit the student pilot’s phase of training. The avionics simulates front-line mission systems, including weapon aiming and the simulated release of weapons even when training rounds are not carried.

Engine

The aircraft is powered by a Pratt & Whitney PT6A-68B turboprop engine rated at 1,200kW (1,600shp) with a Hartzell E8991 KX five-bladed graphite propeller. The engine is fitted with a digital power management system which brings up full power at speeds over 360 km/h and gives the trainer aircraft a jet-like response.

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Le Pilatus PC-21 vu sur sa longueur © Radio France – Pierre MARSAT via francebleu.fr

PT6A-68B turboprop engine

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avcom.co.za

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PW

PC-21 performance

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pilatus-aircraft.com

The PC-21 can climb at a rate of 4,250 fpm and its maximum speed is 685 km/h. The aircraft can fly up to an altitude of 7,620m. The range and service ceiling of the PC-21 are 1,297 km and 11,582m respectively.

The low-altitude speed and climb rate for the PC-21 is more characteristic of a jet aircraft than a turboprop. The maximum level speed at low-altitude flight is 590km/h.

The aircraft’s take-off distance is 725m and landing distance, 900m. The aircraft weighs 2,330kg.

pilatus-aircraft.com

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Main material source airforce-technology.com

Main image pilatus-aircraft.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

M36 Class Patrol Boats

The M36-class patrol boats have been built by Marsun Company and are intended to serve the maritime patrol requirements of the Royal Thai Navy.

The patrol boat can conduct a range of missions such as marine law enforcement, prevention of onshore or sea infiltrations and protection of shipping and fishing boats.

It is also able to participate in search-and-rescue (SAR) missions and perform security operations for VIPs.

The first three vessels in the class were designated as T111, T112 and T113.

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shipbucket.com

The boats were launched by Marsun in March 2014 and delivered to the Royal Thai Navy later the same year.

Marsun laid the keels for the fourth and fifth M36-class vessels in June 2018 at its shipbuilding facility in Samut Prakan.

The latest vessels are named as T114 and T115 respectively.

M36-class patrol boat design

rtnm36_131

MARSUN

The M36-class patrol boats feature a mono-hull design with an integrating Aluminium hull and superstructure.

The mono-hull design ensures the vessel’s high-performance and durability and is designed to offer extended service-life, even when operating in harsh weather conditions.

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MARSUN

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MARSUN

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MARSUN

In addition, the vessel offers a clear deck space of 63m² and accommodates a rigid-hulled inflatable boat (RHIB) at the rear deck area.

The deck has a load capacity of 50t and can house two 20ft containers at the aft.

The boat can accommodate up to 28 crew members and 13 special operation forces.

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MARSUN

It has an overall length of 36m, a beam of 7.6m and a draught of 1.7m.

The on-board fuel tank has a maximum fuel-carrying capacity of 34m³, while the vessel’s freshwater storage unit has a capacity of 7.6m³.

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MARSUN

Complement
Crew 28 persons
Special Operation Force Unit 13 persons
Communication/
– HF/CB

– GMDSS

– HF/SSB

– HF/SSB Frequency Hopping

– VLF-HF

– VHF/FM (Low Band)

Navigation
– Marine Radar 25kW

– Marine Radar 12 kW

– DGPS

– Gyro Compass

– Wind Spee and Direction

– Echo Sounder

– Automatic Identification System

– Navtex Reviever

Armament
1 x 20 mm./30 mm. Machine Gun
2 x .50 Caliber Machine Guns

Source MARSUN

Armament aboard M36 class

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MARSUN

The forward bow deck is fitted with a single 20mm or 30mm machine gun.

Its duel-fed cannon is assisted by a hydraulic device for rearming process, while two large boxes are stationed near the weapon station to house the cartridges.

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MARSUN – GI-2 20 x 139mm Rapid Fire Automatic Cannon

The M36-class vessels also feature two weapon mounts that can hold machine guns, which are able to fire 0.50-calibre (12.7mm) ammunition.

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MARSUN

The aft deck is capable of accommodating a pedestal-mounted surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, allowing it to launch weapons such as Mistral SAMs.

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MARSUN

Navigation and communications

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MARSUN

The M36-class is equipped with navigation systems such as 25kW and 12kW marine radars, a differential global positioning system (DGPS), and direction and wind speed measuring devices.

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MARSUN

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MARSUN

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MARSUN

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MARSUN

The vessel also features an echo sounder, automatic identification system (AIS), gyro compass and Navtex receiver.

Its communication equipment includes high-frequency citizen band (HF-CB) radios, global maritime distress and safety systems (GMDSSs), a normal high-frequency single-side band (HF-SSB) and frequency-hopping HF-SSB, as well as very high-frequency (VHF) / HF and low-band VHF frequency modulation (FM) radios.

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MARSUN

Propulsion and performance of M36 class patrol boats

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MARSUN

The M36 class patrol boats are powered by three Cummins KTA50-M engines, which each have a rated power output of 1,800 brake horsepower (bhp) at 1,900rpm.

The engines drive three fixed-pitch propellers through three shafts.

3 x Cummins KTA50-M engines

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MARSUN

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MARSUN

Auxiliary power systems on-board the patrol boat include two Cummins generators with a capacity to produce 112kWe of power each, as well as a three-phase AC power supply with a rated voltage of 380V at 50Hz and a single-phase 220V AC electric power supply operating at 50Hz.

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MARSUN

The vessel has a maximum speed of more than 27k and is able to travel up to a range of more than 1,200 nautical miles.

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MARSUN

Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

SSN Barracuda Nuclear Powered Attack Submarine

Six Barracuda nuclear-powered attack submarines are to be built for the French Navy. The Barracuda Class is being introduced to replace the existing force of the four SSN Rubis submarines which entered service from 1983 to 1988 and the two SSN Amethyste Class submarines which entered service in 1992 and 1993.

The Barracuda missions include anti-surface and fast deep anti-submarine warfare, land attack using stealthy long-range cruise missiles, surveillance and intelligence gathering, crisis management and special operations.

The Barracuda submarine is a key element in the FOST (Force Océanique Stratégique) Navy Command of the French Strategic Nuclear Forces and the Marine Nationale 2015 Navy Model which defines the naval force requirements for 2015.

Barracuda attack submarine programme

barracuda-launch-32

Naval Group

In 1998 the French Ministry of Defence put in place the Barracuda integrated project team (BIPT) with team members Délégation Générale pour l’Armament (DGA); DCN, with responsibility as the platform design authority and ship building prime contractor; Technicatome, which has responsibility for the nuclear power system; and the Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (CEA), the French nuclear regulatory authority.

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Suffren’s fin hidden in scaffolding – Naval Group

The feasibility study for the Barracuda Class was successfully completed in 2002 and the programme entered the design definition phase in late 2002.

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Suffren – ewan-photo.fr

The French Navy vessel called “Suffren”, first of the nuclear Barracuda class attack submarines, leaves the workshops of its construction at the Naval Group site in Cherbourg, France, July 5, 2019. Picture taken July 5, 2019. REUTERS/Benoit Tessier

The French Defence Procurement Agency (DGA) awarded DCN and Areva TA (prime contractor for the nuclear power plant) the contract for the design, development and production of the first of class vessel, with options on the remaining five, in December 2006. The first submarine is scheduled to enter service in 2017 with the remainder at two yearly intervals to 2027.

Suffren in the water – DGA picture

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wikipedia.org

The first-of-class submarine will be called Suffren. The other hulls will be Duguay-Trouin, Dupetit-Thouars, Duquesne, Tourville and De Grasse. First steel for Suffren was cut in December 2007 at DCNS Cherbourg.

Naval Group

Barracuda nuclear submarine design

DCNS

The Barracuda will have a displacement of about 4,100t surfaced, which is an increase of 70% compared to the Amethyste Class submarines. The maximum speed will be 25kt and the diving depth more than 350m.

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French Navy

The high level of automation integrated into the submarine’s operational and mission systems will allow the submarine a complement of 60 (in two crews) compared to 78 in the Rubis and Amethyst Classes. The operational cost will be reduced by 30% compared to that of the Rubis Class.

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navyrecognition.com

The Barracuda incorporates a range of diving, safety and damage control technologies and an integrated platform management system (IPMS). Many of the technologies developed by DCN for the Le Triomphant Class and by Izar and DCN for the Agosta and Scorpene Classes are being integrated into the design of the Barracuda.

The ship design incorporates a range of stealth technologies to minimise the acoustic, magnetic, radar and visual signatures. The Barracuda provides a high silent running speed and manoeuvrability for the anti-submarine role.

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navalnews.com

EADS Astrium is supplying the life support system for the submarine, which will be based on the carbon dioxide regenerative technology Astrium has developed for human spaceflight.

Command and control

The French Navy vessel called "Suffren", first of the nuclear Barracuda class attack submarines, leaves the workshops of its construction at the Naval Group site in Cherbourg

The French Navy vessel called “Suffren”, first of the nuclear Barracuda class attack submarines, leaves the workshops of its construction at the Naval Group site in Cherbourg, France, July 5, 2019. Picture taken July 5, 2019. REUTERS/Benoit Tessier via navalnews.com

The SYCOBS (système de combat pour Barracuda et SSBN) the battle management system is being developed by DCN and Thales.

SYCOBS will also be fitted on the final SSBN submarine, Le Terrible, being built for the French Navy.

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The combat system integrates active and passive sensors, electronic, optronic and optical sensors and data processing, signal processing of downloaded external tactical data, the launch and control of torpedoes, missiles and countermeasures, external communications and navigation. The communications suite includes satellite and extra-long-frequency acoustic links.

Sagem Défense Sécurité has been contracted to supply the DAS surface detection system which comprises one radar mast and two optronic masts and integrates a passive electromagnetic detection sensor.

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navalnews.com

Thales provides the entire sonar suite among other systems:

  • MOAS (avoidance sonar)
  • Sonar bays
  • Interception antenna
  • Satellite communication
  • Electronic warfare / interceptor systems
  • Radio communications
  • Multi sensor monitoring
  • Flank antennas
  • Underwater phone
  • Cylindrical antenna

Video-French-Navys-New-Generation-SSN-Suffren-Launched-by-Naval-Group-1-1024x723

Safran provides the optronic masts and navigation system:

  • Serie 30 SOM (surveillance mast)
  • Serie 30 AOM (attack mast)
  • Serie 10 CSR (radar)
  • SIGMA40 XP INS

The mats incorporate advanced image processing, and their sensors and treatments can be upgraded.

Barracuda SSN will perform the current missions of nuclear attack submarines effectively:

  • support to deterrence (protection of SSBN);
  • control of air and maritime space (security of area);
  • escort key ships (aircraft carriers);
  • perform discreet intelligence gathering.

Barracuda SSN will also carry out new missions:

  • sea-to-land warfare (precision deep strike);
  • deployment and support of special forces.

Video-French-Navys-New-Generation-SSN-Suffren-Launched-by-Naval-Group-5

Source navalnews.com

Torpedoes

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The submarine has four 533mm torpedo tubes with water ram weapon discharge and accommodates 18 torpedo and missiles in a mixed load.

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Naval News

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Naval News

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Naval News

F21 Artemis torpedo

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naval-group.com

The French Defense Procurement Agency (DGA) awarded the 420 million Euro development, integration and procurement contract to DCNS on April 2, 2008. The contract included the procurement of 100 torpedoes and a six-year maintenance, logistics support and crew training contract. Besides, the contract establishes options to equip additional submarines with new procurement torpedoes. Production of the next generation torpedo will be carried out by DCNS and Italian company WASS (Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei), while Thales Underwater Systems (TUS) will manufacture the acoustic homing head. Source deagel.com

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naval-group.com

The submarine will carry new heavyweight torpedoes. The Barracuda will be capable of deploying the Black Shark torpedo developed by DCN and WASS (Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subaquei). Black Shark is a dual-purpose, wire-guided torpedo which is fitted with Astra active / passive acoustic head and a multi-target guidance and control unit incorporating a counter-countermeasures system.

Black Shark torpedo

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janes.com

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hindujudaic @slideshare.net

It has been designed to oppose the technologically most modern threats whether surface or underwater targets. It is a wire-guided torpedo by means of a fiber optic wire through which the launching means remains in communication to transmit and receive the necessary data for the mission success.

The heavyweight torpedo Black Shark is about 6 meters long (the length changes according to its configuration, whether exercise or service), its diameter is about 533 mm, it is very noiseless and can work in self-guidance mode during the last step of the mission.

In its most innovative version it is equipped with the new Lithium-Polymers battery. Source leonardocompany.com

Missiles

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mbda-systems.com

The Barracuda’s anti-surface missile is an upgraded version of the SM39 Exocet missile which is launched from the torpedo tube. The Exocet, armed with a 165kg warhead, uses inertial cruise guidance and active radar homing in the terminal phase of flight. The missile travels at high subsonic speed, Mach 0.9, to a target range of 50km.

SM39 Exocet missile

Exocet SM 39 in a Scorpene submarine

mbda-systems.com

Exocet SM39 is the submarine-launched version of the Exocet family. It features all weather capability, sea skimming flight, solid propellant and a high kill warhead.

The missile has a range of 50 km, which enables the submarine to go into action while remaining out of enemy detection and weapon range. Flexibility and versatility are provided thanks to the system’s large launch envelope.

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mbda-systems.com

Housed in a water-tight, highly resistant, propelled and guided underwater vehicle, the aerial missile is ejected as soon as it breaks the surface, to ensure a very low culmination altitude. It then rapidly homes into the target at sea skimming level: it uses an inertial navigation system followed by autonomous terminal guidance from an active RF seeker. Source mbda-systems.com

ExocetSM39-3.004-900x500

mbda-systems.com

ExocetSM39-3.005-900x500

mbda-systems.com

General data:
Type: Guided Weapon Weight: 670.0 kg
Length: 4.7 m Span: 1.1 m
Diameter: 0.35 Generation: None
Properties: Home On Jam (HOJ), Terrain Following, Search Pattern, Bearing-Only Launch (BOL), Weapon – INS Navigation, Level Cruise Flight
Targets: Surface Vessel
Sensors / EW:
Active Radar Seeker – (ASM MR, Exocet Blk II/III, ADAC Mk2) Radar
Weapon Seeker, Active Radar
Max Range: 9.3 km
Passive Radar Seeker – (Exocet Blk II/III) ESM
Weapon Seeker, Anti-Radiation
Max Range: 18.5 km
Weapons:
SM.39 Exocet Blk II – (1995) Guided Weapon
Surface Max: 51.9 km.

Source cmano-db.com

The new naval land-attack cruise missile, Naval Scalp, developed by MBDA, can be fired from Nato-standard 533mm torpedo tubes. Naval Scalp will enter service in 2012. The missile is derived from the Scalp EG and Storm Shadow air-launched missile.

The missile has long-range precision attack capability against targets at ranges up to 1,000km. Scalp has inertial guidance which is continuously updated in flight with digital terrain matching and GPS (global positioning system). An imaging infrared seeker and automatic target recognition provide terminal guidance.

The Scalp Naval version has a longer body than the air-launch version and the wings are extended from within the missile body after launch rather than being externally mounted. The missile is being developed for both submarine torpedo-tube ejection and surface ship vertical launch.

Naval Scalp

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MBDA

MdCN- NCM provides a unique operational capability with long range metric precision strike against politically / military sensitive targets.

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DGA-EM

MdCN- NCM is vertically launched from France’s FREMM frigates using the compact A70 SYLVER vertical launcher which is also capable of housing other MBDA missiles such as the ASTER family of air defence missiles.

On France’s future Barracuda nuclear-powered attack submarines, MdCN- NCM will be launched through the torpedo tubes. Source mbda-systems.com

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General data:
Type: Guided Weapon Weight: 1400.0 kg
Length: 6.5 m Span: 3.0 m
Diameter: 0.63 Generation: None
Properties: Terrain Following, Weapon – INS w/ GPS Navigation, Weapon – Pre-Briefed Target Only, Level Cruise Flight
Targets: Land Structure – Soft, Land Structure – Hardened, Runway, Mobile Target – Soft, Mobile Target – Hardened
Sensors / EW:
IIR Seeker – (Scalp EG, Storm Shadow, Fixed and Mobile) Infrared
Weapon Seeker, Imaging IR
Max Range: 18.5 km
Weapons:
MdCN [Naval SCALP EG] – (2017, Submarine) Guided Weapon
Land Max: 1018.6 km.

Source cmano-db.com

Unmanned underwater vehicles

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Naval News

The Barracuda will be configured to enable a future back-fitting of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), although there are no current operational requirements for the installation of a UUV.

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Naval News

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Naval News

The class will also be able to accommodate mines or carry 12 commandos, whose equipment can be carried in a mobile pod attached aft of the sail. One key unanswered question will be the type’s ability to launch and retrieve UUV robots, beyond options that can be launched and recovered via torpedo tube. Source defenseindustrydaily.com

Thales Underwater Systems has been selected as prime contractor for the sonar suite. The submarine is fitted with bow sonar wide-aperture flank sonar and towed sonar arrays.

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Naval News

UMS 3000 Bow – Hull Sonar, Active/Passive

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2010s
Sensors / EW:
UMS 3000 Bow – Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

UMS 3000 Flank – Hull Sonar, Passive-Only

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Passive-Only Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 129.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2010s
Sensors / EW:
UMS 3000 Flank – Hull Sonar, Passive-Only
Role: Hull Sonar, Passive-Only Ranging Flank Array Search & Track
Max Range: 129.6 km

Source cmano-db.com

SEACLEAR Mine & Obstacle Avoidance

thales7seas.com

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active-Only Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 1.9 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 2010s
Properties: Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Shallow Water Capable (Full) [Classification Flag Required]
Sensors / EW:
SEACLEAR – Hull Sonar, Active-Only
Role: Hull Sonar, Active-Only Shallow Water High-Definition Mine & Obstacle Avoidance
Max Range: 1.9 km

Source cmano-db.com

VELOX-M8 – Acoustic Intercept (Active Sonar Warning)

The VELOX-M8, broadband sonar interceptor, fulfils the automatic detection needs of single or multiple pulse acoustic signals. This equipment is specifically intended for threat detection first alert operations and for submarine surfacing lookout operations. Essential complement of the main sonar, the VELOX-M8 basic version has a broadband digital connection (100 Mbit/s) allowing it to be fully integrated into a combat system.

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Source thales7seas.com

Thales Underwater Systems has placed a contract on the Centre for Submarine Technology, a division of the UK MoD QinetiQ organisation, to carry out a feasibility study on the deployment of reelable thin line towed sonar arrays for the Barracuda class.

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Reuters

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Reuters

Barracuda nuclear propulsion system

French Reactor

gentleseas.blogspot.com

The nuclear propulsion system is a new hybrid design providing electric propulsion for economical cruise speeds and turbo-mechanical propulsion for higher speeds. The power plant will be based on technologies developed for the 150MW K15 pressure water reactor installed in the Triomphant Class submarine and the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier.

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Nuclear reactor steam generator being tested – Naval Group

Thermodyn of Le Creusot has been selected to provide the two turbo-generators and one propulsion turbine for each vessel.

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The engine space aboard Suffren – Naval Group

Specification

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navypedia.org

Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image defpost.com

Diamond DART-550 Aerobatic Trainer Aircraft

DART-550 (Diamond Aircraft Reconnaissance Trainer) is the second variant of the DART series developed by Austrian aircraft manufacturer, Diamond Aircraft Industries.

DART series aircraft are intended for civilian and military pilot training, aerobatic, utility, and reconnaissance missions. The series was first introduced at the Farnborough Airshow 2014, while the first aircraft in the series, DART-450, made its maiden flight in May 2016.

The aircraft is designed primarily for aerobatic training purposes and is also available in multiple variants with varying power rating, avionics, and seat configuration.

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The DART-550 on Diamond Aircraft’s display at Farnborough Airshow stand no. OE18 –  diamondaircraft.com

The maiden flight of the DART-550 took place in May 2018 and the aircraft was first displayed to the public during the Farnborough Airshow 2018. First customer demonstration flights were made in April 2019, when Paraguay Air Force and the airforce of an undisclosed European country participated.

EASA certification process of the DART-550 is underway as of May 2019. The aircraft is expected to receive type certification by the first quarter of 2021.

DART-550 aerobatic trainer aircraft design and features

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Built using carbon fibre materials, the DART-550 trainer features low-wing configuration with double-slotted wing flaps, which help attain maximum lift, low stalling speeds, and short-distance landings.

DART’s full carbon fiber safety cell – diamondaircraft.com

The wing leading edge is fitted with de-icing system to ensure uninterrupted flight during adverse weather conditions.

Wings are designed to accommodate large internal fuel tanks, which can support aircraft flight for eight hours. They are tested to withstand 0.65 Mach speeds in the wind tunnel.

Retractable tricycle landing gear is designed to absorb high impact and operate on unpaved surfaces.

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diamondaircraft.com

The aerobatic trainer aircraft features electric control seats in tandem configuration with a bird strike-proof canopy. The seats are designed to provide enhanced comfort and an improved view.

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diamondaircraft.com

The total wingspan of the aircraft is 11.79m, while its length is 9.75m and total height is 3.43m.

diamondaircraft.com

DART-550 cockpit and avionics

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diamondaircraft.com

DART-550 features an advanced Garmin G3000 dual glass cockpit for the pilot and trainer in the front and rear.

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diamondaircraft.com

Its avionics include 14.1in WXGA resolution primary flight display and multi-function display, 5.7in dual Garmin touchscreen controllers (GTCs) GTC 570, a pilot interface for flight display with infrared technology allowing the pilots to use gloves.

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diamondaircraft.com

The Garmin G3000 system offers round-the-globe communication, navigation, surveillance, and air traffic management (CNS / ATM), low flight warning using terrain awareness warning system (TAWS), and global automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) system.

Garmin G3000 system

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diamondaircraft.com

Fingertip Control Meets Integrated Flight Deck

  • Advanced flight deck for light turbine jets
  • Bright high-resolution displays with SVT™ let you see clearly even in IFR conditions
  • Displays divide into 2 pages to help display multiple systems and sensors
  • Intuitive touchscreen interface with shallow menus and audible feedback
  • Automatic Flight Guidance and Control Systems
  • Weather, charts, traffic, terrain and Global connectivity options

This digital avionics suite revolutionizes the interface between pilots and electronics: Streamlining menu structures. Eliminating visual clutter. Replacing a whole host of mechanical knobs, buttons and selector switches. What’s more, by centralizing data entry in one easy-to-access location, G3000 takes flight deck management to a whole new level — giving pilots more focused control with less wasted motion and effort. In short, your fingertips have never touched anything quite like this.

A new glass touchscreen controller, the GTC serves as your primary point of entry for the G3000 system. Featuring a desktop-style, icon-driven interface built on a new “shallow” menu structure, the GTC enables you to access more systems and sensors with fewer keystrokes or page sequences. Its user interface is totally software-based. So, it’s easily configurable for specific airframes and avionics configurations. What’s more, future enhancements, applications and system growth capabilities can be readily accommodated without physically altering the mechanical controls.

GTC touchscreen controller

Responsive, icon-identified “touchkeys” on the GTC controller make functions easy to locate and access with fewer hand/eye movements in the cockpit. In addition to full NAV/COMM radio management and simplified page navigation on the MFD, you can also use the 5.7-inch high-resolution GTC screen to control your remote audio/intercom system, as well as transponder codes and idents, electronic checklist entries, flight plan entry and editing, plus optional synoptic data and other selected mapping, traffic, weather, entertainment, and custom display options*. What’s more, handy “Back” and “Home” keys on the display let you quickly retrace steps or return to the desktop from any page — so you’ll never get lost in the software or need to memorize lengthy user sequences. The GTC controller can even double as a standby flight display in some configurations. Simplicity just comes naturally with G3000’s touchscreen design. Source garmin.com

australianaviation.com.au

The aircraft’s flight is controlled using the hands-on throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) system. A side-stick control system is fitted to enable manual control of the aircraft.

Other avionics systems can be fitted optionally based on customer and mission requirements.

The aircraft allows for the integration of high-resolution cameras to support multi-role operations.

Safety features

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diamondaircraft.com

Martin-Baker’s MK16 lightweight ejector seats are fitted in the aircraft to train pilots on basic flying skills and ejection techniques. The ejector seat provides quick escape when the aircraft is travelling at maximum velocity within certain parameters.

The MK16 ejection system is operated by cartridges powered by a rocket motor. The ejection is sequenced by the use of a gas-operated inter-seat sequencing system (ISS).

Россия, Aircraft and Croquetas @IG

Martin-Baker’s MK16 ejector seats

The JPATS (Joint Primary Aircraft Training System) is designed to train students in basic flying skills and is common to the U.S. Air Force and Navy. Designated the US16LA, this lightweight ejection seat is designed for training aircraft, such as the T-6 Texan II.

It optimises the pilot field of view, improves comfort and pilot efficiency, and provides increased reliability and maintainability. With the Mk16 lightweight low-speed seat, ejection performance is optimised throughout the escape envelope, from zero height at zero velocity in a near level attitude through to 370 knots. It is designed to accommodate a very wide size and weight range.

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US16LA EJECTION SEAT 

  • Operating Ceiling: 50 000ft (15,250m)
  • Minimum height/Speed: Zero/zero in near level attitude
  • Crew boarding mass range: 62.3 to 123.0 kg
  • Crew size range: JPATS multi-variate body size cases 1 to 7
  • Maximum Speed for ejection: 370 KIAS (aircraft limit 316 KIAS)
  • Parachute type: GQ Type 5000
  • Parachute deployment: Cartridge initiated
  • Drogue parachute: 5 ft
  • Drogue deployment: Cartridge initiated and deployed
  • Harness type: Torso
  • Ejection seat operation type: Ejection guns and underseat rocket motor
  • Ejection gun: Twin
  • Ejection initiation: Handle on seat bucket initiates gas operated seat firing system
  • Automatic back-up unit: No, manual override
  • Electronic sequencer: No
  • Barostatic time-release unit: Yes + g-restrictor, cartridge initiated
  • Timers: Time delays in sequencing system
  • Seat adjustment: Up/down actuator operated 28 Vdc
  • Arm restraints: No
  • Leg restraints: Yes, two garters
  • Oxygen supply: Bottled emergency oxygen
  • Personal survival pack (PSP): Yes + automatic deployment
  • Aircrew services: Connection to emergency oxygen supply
  • Command ejection: Yes, via Interseat Sequencing System (ISS)
  • Canopy jettison: No
  • Canopy fracturing system: Yes
  • Interseat Sequencing System (ISS): Yes

Source martin-baker.com

DART-550 engine and performance

GE-powered-Dart-550-credit-Diamond-Aircraft (1)

The H75-100 also comes with electronic engine controls (EEPC, for electronic engine propeller control) that enable pilots to fly with a single lever, so they can focus on flying, similar to what they would experience on a jet- or turbofan-equipped airplane. The EEPC technology has since further evolved, and GE’s advanced Catalyst line of turboprop engines now embeds a state-of-the-art FADEC (full authority digital engine control), on top of numerous 3D-printed components. – ge.com

The airframe of the DART-550 aerobic trainer aircraft is designed to accommodate a power plant with an output of 1,000hp. The aircraft is powered by General Electric GE H75-100 turboprop engine coupled to five-blade reversible MTV-5-1-E-C-F-R(P) MT propeller with feathering functionality.

GE H75-100 turboprop engine

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Overview

The GE H75 expands the GE Aviation turboprop lineup with power and performance tailored for business and general aviation aircraft. Featuring a maximum 750 SHP rating for both Takeoff and Maximum Continuous operation, the H75 is the ideal power solution to meet the requirements of many turboprop aircraft.

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The GE H75 features sophisticated technologies to reach higher levels of performance than preceding engine models. These technologies deliver sustained shaft horsepower capability for hot-day takeoffs and high altitude performance combined with improved engine fuel efficiency and increased temperature margins.

In addition, the unique configuration of the engine simplifies maintenance by eliminating the need for recurrent fuel nozzle maintenance and periodic hot section inspections.

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With the standard auto start and limiting unit for ground operations along with linear throttle response, the GE H75 eases pilot workload and enhances engine value and operability. Source air-tecm.com

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diamondaircraft.com

The aircraft requires a take-off distance of 600m and landing roll of 400m. The maximum power required for take-off is 550hp, while the ceiling altitude is 7,600m. The power plant can produce 550hp of continuous power during level flight.

MTV-5-1-E-C-F-R(P) MT propeller – ge.com

Fuel types such as Jet A-1, Jet A, TS-1, RT, No 3 jet fuel, and JP-8 can be used by the aircraft. The maximum usable fuel carried by the DART-550 is 826l and it has a flight endurance of more than eight hours.

The maximum take-off weight of the aircraft is 2,400kg, while its empty weight is 1,600kg. The top speed that it can fly at is 491km/h at 6,096m altitude.

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Eric Denison @flickr.com

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diamondaircraft.com

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diamondaircraft.com

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

DA62 MPP Special Mission Aircraft

The DA62 MPP (multipurpose platform) is a new special mission aircraft developed by Diamond Aircraft Industries. Based on the DA62 twin-engine light aircraft, the DA62 MPP was unveiled at the 2017 Paris Air Show.

The aircraft is an ideal platform for law enforcement, search-and-rescue (SAR), land and coastal surveillance, disaster management, infrastructure and environmental monitoring missions.

DA62 MPP design and dimensions

The fixed-wing aircraft features a sleek all-carbon composite airframe with advanced aerodynamics. The fuselage is of monocoque construction with corrosion-resistant subsystems. The structure integrates new-generation passive safety technology to deliver high-performance and superior crew protection.

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The ergonomically optimised cabin provides enough space to accommodate up to two pilots and two operators. The occupants can enter and exit the aircraft through two forward gull-wing doors. The fuselage also offers ample storage volume for mission equipment and systems.

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The DA62 MPP has a length of 9.19m, height of 2.82m and a wingspan of 14.55m. It has an empty weight of 1,590kg and maximum take-off weight (MTOW) of 2,300kg. The aircraft can carry a maximum payload of 710kg.

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Garmin G1000 avionics in DA62 MPP

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diamond-air.at

The cockpit of DA62 MPP integrates a state-of-the-art Garmin G1000 NXi avionics suite and fully integrated GFC700 three-axis automatic flight control system with flight director and yaw damper.

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diamond-air.at

The Garmin G1000 integrated flight deck is equipped with high-resolution primary and multifunction displays, GMC/GCU remote controllers, an air data computer, an air data and attitude heading reference system (ADAHRS), a magnetometer and a transponder.

GFC700

The avionics suite also integrates the SurfaceWatch runway identification and alerting technology, as well as an automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) for traffic and subscription-free weather data.

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The Garmin glass cockpit’s large displays plus the pilot’s slave unit that duplicates the observer’s screen. Source: monch.com

The production DA62 MPP will be equipped with Garmin G1000Nxi avionics with fully integrated three-axis GFC700 autopilot. With 10in primary flight and multifunction displays, G1000Nxi incorporates features such as wireless cockpit connectivity, including wireless database updates using Garmin Flight Stream, enhanced situational awareness with SurfaceWatch, visual approaches, and map overlay on the HSI.

The DA62 is equipped with the lightweight FLIR Systems Star SAFIRE 380 HD camera, digital line of sight (LOS) bi-directional datalink and beyond line of sight (BLOS) Ku-band SATCOM. It is fitted with the compact Garmin GWX 70 weather radar, UHF and VHF voice communication systems and the observer station is equipped with a Diamond in-house designed ABACUS 2.0 mission computer with a 17in full HD screen. The Carte Nav AIMS-HD situational awareness system is installed on the ABACUS 2.0 with integrated, on-board mission data recording. It is mission system software that process live video and data from cameras and other sensors including radar and the AIS global ship tracking system, and geo-references and displays that data in real-time in a customisable user interface. Combining sensor management with a variety of pre-mission planning, and post-mission review features it delivers enhanced situational awareness and improves mission effectiveness. Source: monch.com

Garmin GWX 70 weather radar

lf-lg

With its advanced solid-state transmitter design eliminating the need for life limited magnetron tubes, the GWX 70 — and GWX 70H that’s been made more rugged for helicopter operations — comprises the very latest and most reliable technology in onboard weather radar.

Scan with Doppler Accuracy

Bringing full-color storm cell tracking to your compatible Garmin multifunction display, this Doppler-capable weather avoidance tool combines excellent range and adjustable scanning profiles with precision target definition — for accurate, easy-to-interpret, weather analysis in the cockpit. With pilot-adjustable horizontal scan angles of up to 120°, you can easily focus scanning on the areas you want to watch, while vertical scanning lets you focus on storm tops, gradients and cell buildup at various altitudes. Plus, Weather Attenuated Color Highlight (WATCH™) can identify areas beyond the radar’s capability that may contain even more hazardous areas of precipitation.

vertical-horizontal-scan

Reduce Pilot Workload

On compatible displays, altitude compensated tilt in the GWX 70 reduces your workload by needing to manually adjust the radar’s tilt; simply set it once to the tilt angle you want, and it will automatically adjust with any change in altitude. Also, when interfaced with your aircraft’s analog gyro or AHRS system, the GWX 70 offers full radar stabilization to 30 degrees of pitch and roll. The GWX 70 also has a ground mapping mode that can assist in a number of applications — including navigation. Ground mapping mode provides a real-time depiction of the terrain below you. Source: garmin.com

Diamond Aircraft together with PIDSO developed an all-new antenna solution

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Two Austrian high-tech companies, the aircraft manufacturer Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH and PIDSO-Propagation Ideas & Solutions GmbH, producer of antennas, jointly developed a brand-new antenna solution.

For the first time reception of S-band and C-band frequencies has been combined in just one antenna, whereas until now two antennas were needed. Diamond Aircraft was in the need for such an antenna solution for its special mission aircraft DA42 MPP and DA62 MPP and found the perfect partner in PIDSO. Source: diamond-air.at

Special mission systems aboard DA62 MPP

The nose section of the aircraft houses electro-optical (EO)/infrared (IR) turrets with a maximum weight of up to 100kg.

Star SAFIRE 380-HDc

diamond-air.at

Long Range Performance in a Compact System

Introducing the Star SAFIRE 380-HDc, the first in a new class of compact, high performance, stabilized, HD imaging systems specifically engineered for helicopter ISR operators. Star SAFIRE 380-HDc provides an unmatched SWaP-C advantage for airborne applications that demand high performance ISR in a light-weight, compact package. Specifically tailored to excel at long range performance under extreme rotary aircraft conditions.

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diamond-air.at

Size, Weight, Power & Clearance (SWAP-C) Advantage

  • Lightweight (67lbs): Reduced weight minimizes center of gravity and balance concerns and increases mounting options and aircraft endurance
  • Reduced Power Requirements (200W): Reduced power demands on the aircraft
  • Built-in vibration isolation eliminates effects from high energy rotor blades

Long Range Performance

HDc-comparison-graphic

  • 1000mm optics provide 2x-4x greater magnification for longer reach than other light weight systems – fly higher for stealth and safety, or see more detail farther away
  • 4-axis stability delivers clear and sharp image detail
  • Continuous zoom lenses for thermal, color & low light offers uninterrupted viewing
  • Multi-FOV spotter enables instant / fast FOV changes to ensure nothing is missed
  • “Dual-view” capability for setting one camera to wide for awareness while zooming in on the detail with another
  • Real HD thermal and color provide extra resolution to enhance mission effectiveness
  • SWIR effective at imaging through smog, smoke and haze providing imagery when other sensors cannot

3rd Generation FLIR Real HD

The Star SAFIRE 380-HDc is the newest member of the Star SAFIRE HD family of interchangeable and digital, high definition, single LRU imaging systems providing a full spectrum of ISR capabilities. At FLIR, when we say Real HD, we mean it. All our HD cameras have native, high definition digital components and outputs, and we maintain that fidelity throughout the system. FLIR doesn’t compress, resize, or scale HD imagery, neither is the data file converted to another format. The HD imagery stays digital from its capture all the way to the output – same resolution, uncompressed, clear and pristine the entire way through. Source flir.com

The under-fuselage can support the carriage of payloads of up to 50kg for maritime or land radar applications. The aircraft also integrates a newly designed satellite communication (SATCOM) pod carrying L, Ku and Ka-band antennae.

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A larger version of the DA42 MPP and the latest of its Special Mission offerings, the DA62 MPP, like the DA42 MPP, can be equipped with three different sensors. A belly pod is designed to house a gamma ray spectrometer, for measuring radiation levels, either natural or from a nuclear powerplant or weapon. The wingtips can be outfitted with magnetic sensors sensitive to the earth’s magnetic field, capable of detecting unexploded. The nose boom hosts a low frequency sensor that can be employed in mineral exploration and/or locating sources of groundwater. Source ainonline.com

The aircraft is also equipped with an operator station with consoles for one or two operators to control and monitor the sensors on-board. The DA62MPP is also offered with special mission turnkey solutions.

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The turnkey solutions include a fixed-wing remote sensing platform, airborne sensors, data-links, and land-based stations. The operators are also provided with global support, spares, tooling, transport and associated pilot, and operator and maintenance training.

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diamond-air.at

diamond-air.at

Engines

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diamond-air.at

The DA62 MPP is powered by two Austro Engine AE330 turbo-charged common-rail injected 2.0l jet fuel engines equipped with the single lever electronic engine control unit (EECU). Each engine is coupled to a MTV-6-R-C-F/CF 194-80 three-bladed constant speed propeller.

diamond-air.at

The engines are compatible with Jet A-1, Jet A, TS-1, RT, No. 3 jet fuel and JP-8 fuels. The aircraft burns 28l/h, while utilising 35% of power at loiter speed.

AE330 turbo-charged common-rail injected 2.0l jet fuel engines

AE330image

austroengine.at

The most powerful heavy fuel engine in its class. Based on the successful and reliable AE300, the next Generation engine has evolved -the AE330. It provides more power than the AE300 at the same weight. Great fuel efficiency, reliability and easy operation make the AE330 the best aviation engine of today and the future.

screenshotAtUploadCC_1507975603467
screenshotAtUploadCC_1507975776236The AE330 produces 132 kW for take off and maximum cruise power. The low vibration level and the single power lever design improve the engine operation comfort and take a lot of workload from the pilot. This makes the engine the ideal powerplant for flight schools, private pilots and even special mission aircraft. Source: austroengine.at

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diamond-air.at

The aircraft can carry a maximum fuel load of 326l. Its main tank has the capacity to hold 189l, while the auxiliary tank can carry 137l of fuel.

The exhaust system on top of the power-plant blends fresh air with engine exhaust and uses the cowling as a shield to suppress the noise and IR signatures.

DA62 MPP performance

diamond-air.at

The aircraft has a minimum operational speed of 140km/h and can fly at a maximum speed of 352km/h. The maximum airborne endurance of the aircraft is 11.7 hours. The DA62 MPP can attain a maximum range of 1,356km at 50% power at 14,000ft.

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diamond-air.at

The take-off distance required for the aircraft is 883m, while ground roll/landing distance needed for the landing operation is 441m/779m. The aircraft can reach a maximum altitude of 6,096m. It delivers superior performance than larger and expensive conventional turboprop aircraft.

diamond-air.at

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

AC-130J Ghostrider

The AC-130J Ghostrider, a modified version of the MC-130J aircraft, is expected to replace the legacy AC-130H/U aircraft of the US Air Force. The first test flight of the AC-130J Ghostrider was completed in January 2014.

Lockheed Martin will deliver 37 AC-130J Ghostrider aircraft to the Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) by 2025. The total investment for the AC-130J Ghostrider programme is estimated to reach $2.4bn.

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dtic.mil

C-130J Hercules: Details

AC-130J Ghostrider development details

The first MC-130J arrived at Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) for conversion into the AC-130J configuration in January 2013. The aircraft was officially named Ghostrider in May 2012.

The preliminary design review (PDR) for the AC-130J programme was concluded in March 2013. The operational test readiness review (OTRR) and the critical design review (CDR) were conducted in April 2013 and August 2013 respectively.

Capt. Steve Visalli boards the newly created AC-130J Ghostrider in anticipation of its first official sortie Jan. 31, 2014 at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. The AC-130J’s primary mission is close air support, air interdiction and armed reconnaissance. Visalli is a flight test engineer with the 413th Flight Test Squadron. (U.S. Air Force photo/Chrissy Cuttita)

Northrop Grumman Corporation was awarded a contract by the AFSOC to supply radio frequency countermeasure platforms for the AC-130J aircraft in January 2016.

BAE systems was contracted to provide new electronic warfare systems for the AC-130J Ghostrider aircraft, in July 2017.

The initial operational capacity for 16 aircraft of the AC-130J Ghostrider fleet is scheduled for 2017, while the last delivery is scheduled for 2021.

AC-130J Ghostrider missions and capabilities

The hybrid AC-130J Ghostrider incorporates the flying proficiencies of the MC-130J and the air-to-ground combat capabilities of the AC-130. It will conduct continuous strike operations, including close air support (CAS) for troops in contact, convoy escort and point air defence. The deep air support missions are executed against pre-planned targets and targets of opportunity.

U.S. Air Force

The AC-130J Ghostrider’s primary missions are close air support, air interdiction and armed reconnaissance. Close air support missions include troops in contact, convoy escort and point air defense. Air interdiction missions are conducted against preplanned targets or targets of opportunity and include strike coordination and reconnaissance and overwatch mission sets. The AC-130J will provide ground forces an expeditionary, direct-fire platform that is persistent, ideally suited for urban operations and delivers precision low-yield munitions against ground targets. Source af.mil

The aircraft is capable of air refuelling with the universal air refueling receptacle slipway installation (UARRSI) system but is not fitted with the external hose-and-drogue pods for refuelling other aircraft.

Features of the AC-130J Ghostrider

Master Sgt. James Knight right, 18th Flight Test Squadron aerial gunner, instructs Staff Sgt. Rob Turner left, 1st Special Operations Group Detachment 2 aerial gunner, on new changes regarding pre-flight inspections in an AC-130J Ghostrider on Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., July 29, 2015. The aircrews of the 1st SOG Det. 2 were hand selected from the AC-130 community for their operational expertise and will begin initial operational testing and evaluation of the AC-130J later this year. (U.S. Air Force photo/Senior Airman Christopher Callaway)

The AC-130J is a highly modified C-130J aircraft that contains many advanced features.  It contains an advanced two-pilot flight station with fully integrated digital avionics. The aircraft is capable of extremely accurate navigation due to the fully integrated navigation systems with dual inertial navigation systems and global positioning system.  Aircraft defensive systems and color weather radar are integrated as well. The aircraft is capable of air refueling with the Universal Air Refueling Receptacle Slipway Installation system. Source af.mil

Lockheed Martin

AN/APN-241 Radar?

prometheus.med.utah.edu

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 92.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Early 2000s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
AN/APN-241 [MR-3000] – (2008) Radar
Role: Radar, Weather and Navigation
Max Range: 92.6 km

Source cmano-db.com

The AC-130J Ghostrider has an overall length of 29.3m, a height of 11.9m and wingspan of 39.7m. It can operate at a maximum altitude of 28,000ft with a payload of 42,000lb. Its maximum take-off weight is 164,000lb.

The fourth generation gunship aircraft can accommodate two pilots, two combat systems officers, and three enlisted gunners. The aircraft is also designed to accommodate the Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) system.

Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) system

Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) system

The AN/AAQ-24(V) Directional Infrared Countermeasure (DIRCM) system is the only DIRCM system in production today that will protect aircraft from today’s infrared guided missiles.

Traditional IR countermeasures are not effective against the modern IR missiles that are growing in popularity among terrorist groups and in thirdworld countries. A Directional Infrared Countermeasures (DIRCM) system is required to defeat the latest and future advanced IR threats, and has a lower life cycle cost compared to other IR countermeasure approaches.

  • Simultaneously tracks and defeats threats in clutter environments
  • Fast, accurate threat detection and simultaneous jamming in all current IR threat Bands (I, II and IV)
  • Counters all fielded IR missile threats using a single generic jam waveform
  • Complete end-to-end self-testing features reduce life-cycle maintenance
  • Compatible with existing support facilities

Customized installation

The AAQ-24(V) is available in a laser-based configuration. Northrop Grumman then selects from a modular family of transmitters, jammers and missile warning systems to provide a customized installation best able to meet your specific platform, mission and budget requirements. Upgrades to existing systems are easy to install without further airframe modifications.

Source northropgrumman.com

The AC-130J is fitted with an AN/ALR-56M radar warning receiver, AN/AAR-47 (V) 2 missile warning system, and AN/ALE-47 countermeasures dispensing system for reduced susceptibility. The safety and protection systems of the aircraft include a fuel protection system from ullage explosion, redundant flight critical components, and QinetiQ’s Last lightweight composite armour system to protect crew locations and oxygen supply areas from 7.62mm ball projectiles.

AN/ALR-56M radar warning receiver

BAE Systems

The AN/ALR-56M Advanced Radar Warning Receiver (ARWR) continuously detects and intercept RF signals in certain frequency ranges and analyzes and separates threat signals from non-threat signals. It displays threat signals to pilot on a priority basis and provides efficient and effective logistical support to the using command activities for the system. It contributes to full-dimensional protection by improving individual aircraft probability of survival through improved aircrew situational awareness of the radar guided threat environment. An RWR processor/memory capacity upgrade was required to allow incorporation of software algorithm enhancements (RAD, etc) to fix known threat ambiguity and false alarm problems. The F-16 SPO initiated an ALR-56M processor upgrade program which will provide a common processor for both the ALR-56M/56C configurations; the F-16 SPO committed funds to the common NRE tasks and the F-15 SPO is required to only fund unique F-15 RWR requirements. This upgrade will replace 7 SRUs with one. The ALR-56M includes a fast scanning superhet receiver, superhet controller, analysis processor, low band receiver/power supply, and four quadrant receivers. The ALR-56M is designed to provide improved performance in a dense signal environment and improved detection of modern threat signals, as compared to the version of the ALR-69 which it replaced. A miniaturized version of the F-15’s ALR-56C, the ALR-56M is a form and fit replacement for the ALR-69 RWR in the F-16 and other aircraft. It is installed primarily in F-16 Block 40 (Close Air Support – CAS) aircraft and above. ALR-69 upgrades are ongoing for earlier blocks of the F-16 and some other aircraft. The ALR-56M is the RWR chosen for integration into the open architecture Defensive System Upgrade Program (DSUP) in the B-1B bomber Conventional Mission Upgrade Program. Source fas.org

BAE Systems

AN/AAR-47 (V) 2 missile warning system

1-3

Employed on helicopters and transport aircraft, the AN/AAR-47 Missile Approach Warning System (MAWS) warns of threat missile approach by detecting radiation associated with the rocket motor and automatically initiates flare ejection.

The AN/AAR-47 is a passive Electro-Optic Missile Warning System designed to provide warning of Surface to Air Missiles (SAMS) and pass information to countermeasures systems. Employed on helicopters and transport aircraft, the AAR-47 Missile Approach Warning System (MAWS) warns of threat missile approach, enabling the effective employment of evasive maneuvers and electronic and infrared countermeasures.

Detection algorithms are used to discriminate against non-approaching radiation sources. The AN/AAR-47 system is similar to the AN/AAR-44, but instead of a revolving sensor unit it uses four IR sensors located in four quadrants on the Aircraft. The AAR-47 is a passive, missile- approach warning system consisting of four sensor assemblies housed in two or more sensor domes, a central processing unit, and a control indicator. The Warning System provides attacking missile declaration and sector direction finding and will be interfaced directly to the ALE-39/47 countermeasures dispenser. Without the AAR-47, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft have no infrared missile detection system. Source fas.org

USAF

AN/ALE-47 countermeasures dispensing system

The ALE-47 is so advanced, it thinks for itself. The system uses information from integrated electronic warfare sensors such as radar warning receivers and missile warning receivers to determine the correct response to defeat infrared and radio-frequency guided missiles. The cockpit crew has complete control of their threat situation by choosing to operate in any of the four modes: automatic, semi-automatic, manual, or bypass. Source baesystems.com

An AC-130U Gunship aircraft from the 4th Special Operation Squadron jettisons flares over an area near Hurlburt Field, Fla., on Aug. 20, 2008. The flares are used as a countermeasure to heat-seeking missiles that can track aircraft during real-world missions. (Air Force photo/Senior Airman Julianne Showalter)

USSOCOM’s Precision Strike Package (PSP) armament for the AC-130J Ghostrider

The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) developed and installed the modular Precision Strike Package (PSP) for the aircraft. The armament kits under the PSP include a 30mm GAU-23 automatic side firing chain gun, a 105mm cannon, and Standoff Precision Guided Munitions (SOPGM) comprising wing-mounted GBU-39 small diameter bombs and AGM-176 Griffin laser-guided missiles. The internally mounted missiles can be launched through the rear cargo door.

screenshot-ndiastorage.blob.core.usgovcloudapi.net-2019.02.06-20-17-40

usgovcloudapi.net

30mm GAU-23 automatic side firing chain gun

weaponsystems.net

The GAU-23 Bushmaster® Automatic Cannon is a next-generation Chain Gun weapon available and in use today. It continues the Bushmaster tradition of excellence with its design simplicity, external power, positive round control, ease of maintenance, and constant velocity ammunition feed. It incorporates all of the battle-proven features of the 25mm M242 and Mk44 Bushmaster cannons, with significant system commonality for low-risk, proven performance. Source army-guide.com

USAF

Type Autocannon
Caliber 30x173mm NATO, 30x170mm Rarden/KCB
Mechanism Externally powered, chain driven
Barrel 2.242 m, rifled
Dimensions 3.405 m long, 343 mm wide, 392 mm tall
Weight 156 kg overall, 69.4 kg barrel
Feeding Double belt feed
Rate of fire Single shot, 200, 400 rpm
Muzzle velocity 1.080 m/s (standard ammunition), 1.385 m/s (APFSDS)
Recoil 35 kN
Remarks Muzzle brake
Source weaponsystems.net

USAF

M102 105mm Cannon

imfdb.org

The M102 105mm Cannon was derived from the Army field artillery M1A1 howitzer and was modified to be fired from the left rear side door of the AC-130 gunship aircraft. To accomodate this cannon, one of the side-firing 40mm guns was removed from the aircraft and replaced by the radome that formerly had been installed in the door cavity. That change provided enough space for the 105mm gun to be mounted in the doorway in place of the radome. The gun was used extensively beginning with the Vietnam War. Source fas.org

AC-130-inside

Tech. Sgt. Jarred Huseman, left, and Tech. Sgt. Oscar Garcia, special missions aviators with the 1st Special Operations Group, Detachment 2, operate a 105 mm cannon on an AC-130J Ghostrider gunship, “Angry Annie,” during a training mission over Eglin Range, Fla., Jan. 23, 2017. The 105 mm cannon recoils back 49 inches, with 14,000 pounds of force. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Jeff Parkinson)

AC-130J Ghostrider gunship – USAF

Specification for towed howitzer

  • Length: 17.1 ft
  • Width: 6.4 ft
  • Height: 5.2 ft
  • Weight: 3,004 lbs
  • Crew: 8
  • Range: 11,500 m standard; 15,100 m rocket-assisted
  • Max. Rate of Fire: 10 rounds per minute for first 3 minutes
  • Sustained Rate of Fire: 3 rounds per minute
  • Ammunition: The M102 fires all standard NATO 105mm ammunition, but not the newer extended range ammo

Source militaryspot.com

USAF

GBU-39 small diameter bombs

The GBU-39B Small Diameter Bomb, or SDB, is an extended range all-weather, day or night 250-pound class, guided munition. The SDB relies on the Global Positioning System to provide navigation to the target. Additionally, its small size allows increased aircraft loadout to achieve multiple kills per sortie and inherently reduces the probability of collateral damage.

General Characteristics
Primary Function: Guided air-to-surface weapon
Contractor: Boeing Co.
Range: More than 40 nautical miles (46 miles)
Guidance System: Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System
Unit cost: Approximately $40,000
Initial operational capability: October 2006

Source af.mil

Two, Laser Guided Small Diameter Bombs are released from the wing of an AC-130J Ghostrider over White Sands Missile Range, N.M., Dec. 13, 2016. The AC-130J is outfitted with multiple weapons systems to include a 30mm and 105mm cannon, GBU-39 Small Diameter Bombs and AGM-176 Griffin missiles. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Jeff Parkinson) – Source: hurlburt.af.mil

AGM-176 Griffin laser-guided missiles

Description: The Griffin is a small, lightweight, flexible precision-guided weapon for irregular warfare operations developed and funded by Raytheon along with the Small Tactical Munition (STM) using components from other weapon systems developed by the company. The weapon reduced size makes possible to engage soft targets with minimal collateral damage. Its flexible guidance system and simple and user-friendly graphic interface allows the Griffin to operate easily as a fire and forget weapon using GPS coordinates or Inertial Navigation or as a high precision laser-guided missile switching between guidance modes depending on the target needs. The weapon system has been designed to be easily and quickly integrated onto existing platforms. In October 2010, the Griffin was already integrated and operational with the US Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) C-130W Dragon Spear aircraft. As of September 2011, the Griffin missile was in production and integrated on the C-130W Dragon Spear and the United States Marine Corps C-130 Harvest Hawk.

Dimensions
Diameter: 5 inch (127 millimeter)
Length: 43 inch (1,092 millimeter)
Performance
Max Range: 3 nautical mile (3.45 mile)
Weight
Launch Unit Weight: 44 pound (20.0 kilogram)
Warhead: 14 pound (6.35 kilogram)
Weight: 33 pound (15.0 kilogram)

Source deagel.com

The intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance equipment under the PSP include two electro-optical/infrared sensors, an all-weather synthetic aperture radar pod, a pilot helmet-mounted cueing system, and multiple video, data and communication links. A dual-console Mission Operator Pallet within the cargo bay controls all the PSP subsystems. The aircraft is also equipped with advanced fire control equipment.

Engines and performance

USMC KC-130J(QD-7982) Rolls-Royce AE2100D3 – wikimedia.org

The aircraft is fitted with four Rolls-Royce AE 2100D3 Turboprops with a thrust power of 3,458kW each. Each of the AE 2100D3 engines is 3.15m in length and 0.73m in diameter. The engines drive four six-bladed Dowty propellers.

4 x Rolls-Royce AE 2100D3

The Rolls-Royce AE 2100 is a 4,000-shp class two-spool turboprop engine with a 14-stage high-pressure compressor driven by a two-stage high-pressure gas turbine. The low-pressure shaft is driven by a two-stage power turbine and drives the compound planetary reduction gearbox connected to the propeller. The engine is the first to use dual FADECs (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) to control both engine and propeller.

The AE 2100 is a turboprop derivative of the AE 1107C-Liberty turboshaft engine. It has been developed to power military transports, long-range maritime patrol aircraft and the new generation of high-speed regional aircraft in the 50 to 70 seat category. The engine’s modular design and easily accessible components reduce maintenance costs, and operators benefit from over 80% parts commonality with the AE family of engines which includes the AE 3007 and AE 1107C-Liberty. The AE engine line overall has accumulated 65 million engine flight hours.

The AE 2100D3 engine is coupled to a six-bladed Dowty (GE Aviation Systems)) R391 propeller system for use on the Lockheed Martin C-130J Hercules Family (C-130J + C-130J-30 + HC/MC-130J + KC-130J + AC-130J) of military transport, special mission, aerial refueling, and gunship aircraft. It is also the engine of choice on Lockheed Martin’s LM-100J commercial freighter (a C-130J derivative aircraft).

Senior Airman Alexander Forest, 374th Maintenance Squadron maintainer, installs safety cable for fire-loop connections on a C-130J Super Hercules’ Rolls Royce AE2100D3 engine, Feb. 22, 2018, at Yokota Air Base, Japan. The 374 MXS isochronal inspection dock works on C-130’s from Yokota and Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan. Being responsible for aircraft from both bases, the 374 MXS work on aircraft 365 days a year to ensure all C-130’s are mission ready. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Donald Hudson)

Manufacturer: Rolls-Royce plc
Power:
AE 2100 A/P: 4,152 shp (3,096 kW)
AE 2100D2 and AE 2100D3: 4,637 shp (3,458 kW)
AE 2100J: 4,591 shp (3,423 kW)
Overall Pressure Ratio at Maximum Power: 16.6
Compressor: Two-spool, axial flow
Compressor Stages: 14 HP
Turbine: 2 HP + 2 PT
Engine Control: Dual FADEC
Combustor Type: Annular
Length: AE 2100D2 and AE 2100P: 118 in (2.99 m);
AE 2100D3: 124 in (3.15 m); AE 2100J: 114 in (2.89 m)
Diameter: 28.7 in (72.9 cm)
Dry Weight: AE 2100D2: 1,727 lbs (783 kg); AE 2100D3: 1,925 lbs (873 kg);
AE 2100J: 1,640 lbs (744 kg); AE 2100P: 1,610 lbs (730 kg)

Source fi-powerweb.com

thedrive.com

The aircraft is equipped with 60/90KV amp generators providing increased direct current (DC) electrical output. The aircraft can reach a maximum distance of 3,000 miles without refuelling and can fly at a speed of 362k at 22,000ft altitude.

antonis-karidis-c130j-profile-1024x619

httpstrikehold.net

General Characteristics

Primary Function: Close air support and air interdiction with associated collateral missions
Builder: Lockheed Martin
Power Plant: Four Rolls-Royce AE 2100D3 Turboprops
Thrust: 4,700 shaft horsepower
Wingspan: 132 feet 7 inches (39.7 meters)
Length: 97 feet 9 inches (29.3 meters)
Height: 39 feet 2 inches (11.9 meters)
Speed: 362 knots at 22,000 feet
Ceiling: 28,000 feet with 42,000 lb payload
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 164,000 lbs
Range: 3,000 miles
Crew: Two pilots, two combat systems officers, one sensor operator and four special mission aviators

Armament: Precision Strike Package with 30mm and 105mm cannons and Standoff Precision Guided Munitions (i.e. GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb and AGM-176 Griffin missile)
Date Deployed: TBD
Unit Cost: $115 million
Inventory: Active force, 32 by fiscal 2021

Source: af.mil

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image Paul Callaghan

PPA Class Multi-purpose Offshore Patrol Vessels

A class of seven multi-role offshore patrol vessels (Pattugliatori Polivalenti d’Altura (PPA)) on order for the Italian Navy will be delivered by 2026. Italian shipbuilding company Fincantieri is the prime contractor for the PPA-class.

Construction on the first patrol vessel began in February 2017. The ships are intended to perform a number of duties in Italy’s territorial waters. Their mission capabilities include patrolling, surface combat, anti-piracy, monitoring, protection and control of maritime zones, and rescue of personnel in distress.

FIRST STEEL CUTTING CEREMONY FOR PPA

27_Muggiano_-9_-13_feb_0

Left to right: Alberto Maestrini, Fincantiari General Manager; Adm Valter Girardelli, Chief of IT Navy; Domenico Rossi, IT Deputy Secretary of Defence; Adm Matteo Bisceglia, IT Naval Armament Director; Marco Tomassetti, OCCAR-EA PPA Programme Manager; Stefano Orlando, Shipyard Director

The First Steel Cutting ceremony for the Multipurpose Patrol Ship (Pattugliatore Polivalente d’Altura – PPA) took place in FINCANTIERI’s shipyard, in La Spezia, on 13 February 2017. The event represents the beginning of production of the first of seven PPA ships, and was honoured by the presence of the Italian Deputy Secretary of Defence, On. Domenico Rossi and the Chief of the Italian Navy, Admiral Valter Girardelli.

The OCCAR PPA Programme includes design, development and construction of 10 ships (7 + 3 optional), together with Temporary Support for ten years. The first ship will be delivered in 2021.

This new class of vessel is designed to operate in multiple scenarios, ranging from traditional military tasks to humanitarian support operations and disaster relief assistance, benefiting from an extensive use of the modularity concept (i.e. modular hospital, electrical power/drinkable water ashore and containers).

The ship presents many innovative features in both platform and combat system areas such as an advanced propulsion system and a piercing bow to enable a speed higher than 31 Kts, great flexibility due to the presence of modular areas and the integration of a cockpit which gathers bridge and Combat Information Center functions by using technologies and ergonomics, typically used in the aeronautical field. Source occar.int

sw_dscn4188

Paolo Thaon di Revel – © GIORGIO ARRA

The keel-laying ceremony of the first PPA was held at Fincantieri’s Muggiano shipyard in May 2017.

The first PPA will be delivered in 2021, and deliveries of the remaining vessels are scheduled to take place between 2022 and 2026.

PPA-class procurement details

The procurement of the PPA-class offshore patrol vessels is part of Italian Navy’s fleet renewal plan, which is aimed at replacing the ageing fleet of patrol boats, corvettes and frigates.

In May 2015, the Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation (OCCAR) awarded a €3.5bn ($3.89bn) multi-year contract to a consortium of Fincantieri and Finmeccanica (now Leonardo) for the construction of six PPAs, with an option for additional four units and one logistic support ship (LSS).

wikipedia.org

The contract also requires Fincantieri to provide integrated and in-service logistics support for the vessels for a period of ten years. A contract option was executed for the seventh vessel in November 2015, increasing the total contract value to approximately €5.4bn ($5.74bn).

The ships are being built at Fincantieri’s integrated naval shipyards at Riva Trigoso and Muggiano, Italy.

Design and features of Italy’s future offshore patrol vessels

Each offshore patrol vessel will be able to carry up to 171 crew members. The overall length is approximately 143m, while the length between perpendiculars is 133m. The depth and beams of the vessel are 10.5m and 16.5m respectively.

nsweek.com

An 11m-long rigid hull inflatable boat (RHIB) will be carried in the middle of the ship for patrol and transportation missions. Launch and recovery of the RHIB will be performed either by the lateral cranes located beside the RHIB or through a hauling ramp located at the rear. The vessel’s bridge is placed amidships.

nsweek.com

A hangar located at the aft of the vessel will hold up to two NH90 or one EH101 medium-lift utility helicopter. A flight deck, which is placed next to the hangar near the stern of the ship, is intended to support the operations of one NH90 or one EH101 helicopter.

Armament of the PPA-class vessels

The PPA-class offshore patrol vessels will be armed with OTO Melara 127/64 LW high-calibre Vulcano gun system (main armament) and OTO Melara 76/62 medium-calibre gun mounts for defence against surface, airborne, maritime, and asymmetric targets.

127 mm – Vulcano

leonardocompany.com

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO System consists of four key sub-systems:

  • the large caliber 127/64 LW Gun assembly,
  • the Automated Ammunition Handling System,
  • the Naval Fire Control Support and
  • the VULCANO  family  of ammunition.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO is a state of art medium caliber gun suitable for installation on large and medium size ships and intended for surface fire and naval gunfire support as main role and anti-aircraft fire as secondary role. The compactness of the gun feeding system makes possible the installation on narrow section crafts.


The 127/64 LW – VULCANO is equipped with a modular feeding magazine, composed by 4 drums with 14 ready to fire ammunition each, reloadable during firing, and highly flexible in terms of selection of ammunition, independently from their position in the drums. Ammunition flow is reversible as rounds can be downloaded automatically.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO can fire all standard 127mm / 5 inches ammunition as well as the new VULCANO  family of ammunition.

The 127/64 LW – VULCANO has digital / analogical interface and ballistic calculation capabilities that allow a smooth integration with any Combat Management System.

The Automatic Ammunition Handling System is a modular solution adaptable to any ship ammunition magazine layout; it is able to load the feeding magazine of the gun without man assistance during operation to allow a sustained firing action of the gun. The system is able to handle both standard 127mm /5-inches ammunition and new VULCANO family of ammunition.

The Naval Fire Control Support is a mission planning system that may support the Combat Management System for definition of possible firing solutions, ammunition selection, trajectory definition, best ship course identification.

The 127mm VULCANO ammunition family, is composed by Ballistic Extended Range (BER) and Guided Long Range (GLR) ammunition with different multifunctional fuses, sensor and final guidance that extend the range of the gun up to 100km.

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gall.dcinside.com

Source leonardocompany.com

nsweek.com

Medium Caliber Gun – Leonardo 76/62 SOVRAPONTE naval cannon

Capture5

gall.dcinside.com

The 76/62 Sovraponte naval gun is a light medium-caliber rapid-fire caliber that offers unparalleled performance and flexibility in any role of air and surface defense, particularly in the anti-missile function.

There is also the ability to very effectively involve ground targets for unique multi-role services.

The new 76/62 version is suitable for installation on ships of any type and class, including small naval units.

An interface will be available with a wide variety of naval and / or FCS / EOS combat management systems, according to digital and analogue standards, including open architecture.

The engagement speed can be selected from a single shot up to 120 shots per minute.
In operating conditions, the tactical time is less than 3 seconds and the standard deviation at cooking is less than 0.3 mrad, thus ensuring excellent precision.

0 76 SOVRA IMG_20160702_090438_zps8lctpptl

svppbellum.blogspot.com

The 76/62 in all its continuous evolutions is the only naval cannon available in the capacity of prolonged fire, a fundamental requisite in any scenario that foresees the simultaneous engagement of more maneuver targets, as required by the emerging asymmetric war scenarios.

The automatic loading takes place through a revolving loader and quick loading is easily done even during the shooting by two ammunition handling personnel.

The standard supply includes the new Digital Control Console (DCC) which uses digital technology to increase the functions available to the operator and maintenance personnel.

original_Prototype_of_the_new_console_for_the_Multipurpose_Offshore_Patrol_Ship_PPA_G

The 76/62 is ready for operation of the 3AP programmable multifunction fuse and is equipped with the flexibility to be equipped with:

– Integral Stealth Shield to reduce the ship’s total RCS;
– nose speed radar to update the FCS of any deviations from the range table values;
– Multiple feeding device for the handling, selection and automatic feeding of any type of loaded ammunition;
– STRALES system – a DART-guided projectile guidance system.

Translated by google – Source svppbellum.blogspot.com

Two 25mm remotely controlled small-calibre gun systems will be used for close-range combat operations, anti-smuggling and maritime interdiction. MBDA’s anti-ballistic missile system will be fitted to further increase the vessel’s anti-ship defence capability.

MARLIN – WS?

The MARLIN – WS  is an advanced system developed to meet the emerging requirements of modern naval warfare at best level of effectiveness and suitable either as main armament for small size vessels or as secondary armament for larger ship, with no deck penetration and simple installation.

The MARLIN – WS is a highly accurate and reliable multi-role system, particularly effective in the simultaneous engagement of multiple targets such as swarms of Fast Inshore Attack Crafts.

The MARLIN – WS can be fitted with either a 25mm or 30mm cannon and it is modular as to be configured according to an wide range of customers’ requirements.

The modular architecture offers an extensive combination of characteristics. Optical sensor suite with day and night vision and laser range finder can be mounted coaxially to or independent from the line of fire or not installed at all.

The excellent performance provided by the fast and accurate servo systems, are also ensured working either as a stand-alone system with own Remote Control Console or linked to the ship’s Combat Management System. The latest generation of built-in digital architecture provides a straightforward interface for being simply slaved to the ship’s Fire Control System or being fully integrated into the CMS through LAN technology with Fire Control System and video tracking capabilities residing within the weapon.

Source leonardocompany.com

The multi-role vessels will use a heavy-weight torpedo system to detonate under-water targets.

Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) capability 

“The PPA Full version will be able to embark and use the Aster 30 Block 1NT that is the anti-ballistic missile with the support of the radar system of the future LHD in terms of early warning detection” said Captain Esposito.

The long range detection of ballistic missiles will be realized with the L-band AESA radar based on gallium nitride (GaN) technology which allows the radar to have better performance in terms of range. The missile tracking capability will be provided by the C-band element of the new dual-band radar developed especially by Leonardo for the PPA.

An MBDA Italy representative explained that PPA Full will be able to detect and engage ballistic missiles on their own or in cooperation with other early warning sources via Link 16. He added that PPA Light+ variant could potentially have that BMD capability but the first real BMD capable ship for the Italian Navy will be the first PPA Full variant to be delivered in 2024. Source navyrecognition.com

Aster 30 Block 1 NT missile

screenshot-i1.wp.com-2019.02.09-19-23-24

MBDA

The Aster 30 Block 1 NT missile evolution consists in a new seeker operating in Ka band, replacing the current Ku band seeker, as well as a new improved weapon controller. This change delivers a significant performance enhancement.

The new missile will be capable of intercepting threats of the entry of the MRBM (Medium Range Ballistic Missiles) domain whereas the current Aster 30 Block 1 deals with SRBM (Short Range Ballistic Missiles) of up to 600 km range and it will also be capable of dealing with missiles with separable warheads. This new version of Aster will extend the antiballistic capability of the missile from a range of 600km up to 1,500km. On December 20, OCCAR (Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation) notified to EUROSAM, a consortium formed by MBDA and Thales, the amendment 1 of the contract for the “B1NT” programme. This amendment embodies the participation of Italy in the programme. It follows the notification of the initial contract under French mandate on December 23, 2015, and the Arrangement of Cooperation, signed in June 2016 by the French and Italian Defence Ministers, laying down the framework of responsibilities and rights of the two countries vis-a-vis the missile to be developed in cooperation, and its multiple applications in land and naval defence systems against air attacks and ballistic missiles. Source navyrecognition.com

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2019.02.09-19-21-25

MBDA

Anti-Ship Missile System TESEO

OTOMAT

MBDA

Enhanced version of the all weather OTOMAT MK2 missile system, providing improved performance in terms of OTHT (Over The Horizon Targeting) and operations in complex naval scenarios.

Capable of ranges from 6 to 180 km in all directions, the system relies on powerful mission planning (3D way-points, terminal sea skimming profile, simultaneous attack from different directions).

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MBDA

Target data is derived from the ship’s Command System or taken directly from the ship’s surface search radar. Mission Planning allows the selection of different firing modes (such as Fire and Forget or midcourse guided) and of specific trajectories and evasive manoeuvres.

Cruise and approach phases may be either fully inertial or partially guided from the launch ship through a radio-link. Mid course re-vectoring from a co-operating ship or helicopter is also possible.

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MBDA

The excellent capabilities of the new missile (short reaction time, Fire and Forget, INS/GPS navigation, high target selection, ECCM and anti-CIWS manoeuvres, warhead lethality with no collateral damage) allow the system to operate effectively in littoral warfare environments, as well as in blue waters. The terminal attack phase is based upon an autonomous terminal guidance using an active homing head with improved target selection capabilities in complex scenarios. Source mbda-systems.com

leonardocompany.com

Protection features

Passive protection for the vessel will be provided by OTO Melara Decoy Launching System (ODLS) remote-control launching system, which is effective against infrared seeker-equipped missiles and radars as well as anti-submarine warfare decoys.

Decoy Launching System (ODLS)

leonardocompany.com

The Decoy Launching System (ODLS) is a remote controlled system suitable for launching different types of multipurpose ammunition. Special versions can fire rockets of caliber other than 105-mm – 118-mm which represents the standard size. The ODLS is designed for accurate deployment of decoys, thus providing passive defence for a ship against radar and IR homing missiles and can also be employed in shore bombardment role.

The main characteristics of the ODLS are:

  • Capability  to simultaneously load different types of rockets (Chaff, IR, Illuminating);
  • Automatic  selection  of the type of rocket to be fired;
  • Continuous  engagement  action thanks to rapid reloading of launching units;
  • Complete automatic  control by the ship s EWS;
  • Safe operation  under all operational conditions;
  • No deck penetration.

Source leonardocompany.com

Elettronica’s electronic warfare system will be used to provide self-protection for the ship.

Navigation and communications

fincantieri.com

The vessel’s navigation and combat system operations will be performed by the crew members from the bridge using a combat management system, which integrates weapons, sensors and other units aboard the ship.

fincantieri.com

Marina Militare

A number of sensors will be installed to ensure safe operation of the boat at sea. They include next-generation identification friend and foe (IFF) sensor with a circular antenna, infrared sensor, diver detection sonar, active towed array sonar system, NA30S MK2 weapon control system based on a multi-sensor fire control radar (X and Ka), LPI SPS732 air and ground surveillance radar, and KRONOS dual-band 3D multi-function active electronically-scanned array (AESA) radar with four C- and X-dual band radars.

NA30S MK2 weapon control system

NA-30S MK2 is a new generation Weapon Control System designed to control modern guns (up to three) against conventional and asymmetric air/surface threats with a reduced reaction time.

NA-30S MK2 is based on a dual-band (X and Ka) naval tracking radar with a stealth antenna design which combines high tracking accuracies with improved range performance. Both X and Ka bands are processed in order to optimise tracking performance according to the targets.

X Band
For search and acquisition purposes, medium-to-long range detection and tracking, and reliable processing in adverse weather conditions.

Ka Band
For close in targets, low flying threats, need for increased accuracies, and DART ammunition guidance.

The Ka band, with its very narrow beam width, is optimally suited for measuring targets at low-elevation, without suffering from multi-path interference.

NA-30S MK2 provides gun control and ammunition guidance. The system can be provided with a dedicated multifunction console or can be controlled by any console within the Combat Management System (CMS).

The Weapon Control System automatically selects the optimum ammunition and firing patterns according to the tracked threats. A set of combined sensors (TVcamera, IR cameras and laser) can be mounted on the radar antenna to enable firing assessment and to provide either an alternative or redundant line-of-sight. Source leonardocompany.com

LPI SPS732 air and ground surveillance radar

SPS-732 is a compact X-band air/surface surveillance naval radar with fully coherent solid state technology and Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) capability. SPS-732 is built upon experience in designing and delivering naval surveillance radars to the most demanding Navies. It performs bi-dimensional surface and air target detection in all weather conditions and features track-while-scan with automatic track initialisation. Short reaction time combined with small target detection allow sea-skimmer threat detection and designation.

The solid state fully coherent 2D X-band air/surface surveillance SPS-732 family combines typical features of naval radars belonging to different class in one radar series.

The SPS-732 radar family offers superior performance for any ship class, including Landing
Craft, Offshore Patrol Vessels, Large Support Ships and Corvettes/Frigates. On board of medium/large-size vessels, the SPS-732 middle and highend version are a valuable, higher performance/price ratio alternative to 3D radars even against high threating targets like sea-skimming missiles in all sea and weather conditions. Source leonardocompany.com

KRONOS dual-band 3D multi-function AESA radar

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gall.dcinside.com

KRONOS® Power Shield is an early warning AESA radar for Anti Tactical Ballistic Missile (ATBM) guidance and Air Breathing Threat (ABT) defence. It is designed for naval application and is able to operate in both a rotating and staring mode.

The AESA fixed panels are coordinated by the system manager to minimize electromagnetic interferences and to allow the most effective coverage of the entire 360° x 90° surveillance volume.

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To each task is associated a specific radiated waveform, time of execution and frequency for each direction of the surveillance volume. Scheduling /Prioritization and Task Execution are key blocks of the system architecture:

Scheduling and Prioritization set the sequence of tasks to be executed by each panel. Task Execution manages the physical implementation of all microevents (e.g. transmit/receive modules programming, gate enabling, etc.) which make up the task itself.

All functions operate typically on a time scale of seconds, except Scheduling and Prioritization which operate on a msec time scale and Task Execution
which operates on a nsec base.

Source leonardocompany.com

Multiple non-rotating optical heads will be fitted on the four sides of the ship to provide 360° surveillance. Target detection and tracking will be performed by a static IRST (infrared search and track) system. A bathythermograph unit will be used for measuring the water temperature.

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Leonardo Company

Communication for the boat will be provided by integrated communications systems including multi-band satellite systems, software-defined radios and long-range acoustic devices (LRAD).

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Leonardo Company

PPA-class OPVs propulsion and performance

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Paolo Thaon di Revel – © GIORGIO ARRA

The PPA-class will be powered by a combined diesel and gas (CODAG) propulsion system consisting of two MTU 20V 8000 M91L engines, each developing 10,000kW of power, and one GE LM2500+G4 gas turbine with a capacity of 35,320kW.

2 x MTU 20V 8000 M91L engines

aa-powersystems.com

1 x GE LM2500+G4 gas turbine

LM2500+G4 is the fourth generation of the industry-leading LM2500. Main features are increased power (17%) compared to the third generation LM2500+, and the same high reliability, availability and the same high efficiency (lower SFC).

The LM2500+G4 system’s modular design provides for easy and timely repair and refurbishment, with its split compressor casing, in-place blade and vane replacement, in-place hot-section maintenance and external fuel nozzles. The LM2500+G4 is ideal for the Italian, French and Moroccan FREMM frigates and other military ships, and is available as a generator set.

Technical

Output 47,370 shp (35,320 kW)
SFC .352 lb/shp-hr (214 g/kW-hr)
Heat rate 6,469 Btu/shp-hr
8,675 Btu/kWs-hr
9,150 kJ/kWs-hr
Exhaust gas flow 205 lb/sec (93 kg/sec)
Exhaust gas temperature 1,020°F (549°C)
Power turbine speed 3600 rpm
Average performance, 60 Hertz, 59°F, sea level, 60% relative humidity, no inlet/exhaust losses

Source geaviation.com

The vessel will also feature four MAN 12V175D GenSets, each rated at 1,640kW, and two shafts, driving controllable-pitch propellers.

Driven by GE’s shock-proof MV3000 drives, the small gearbox-mounted electric motors will be installed to drive the ship at low speeds, while generating power for the onboard sensors and weapons.

Marina Militare

The offshore patrol vessel can achieve a maximum speed of more than 32kt and a range of 5,000nm. The MTU diesel engines alone allow the vessel to sail at speeds of 24kt.

edrmagazine.eu

Contactors involved

Sensors and weapon systems for the PPA multi-role offshore patrol vessels will be supplied by MBDA, OTO Melara, Elettronica, and WASS.

Leonardo’s subsidiary Selex is responsible for providing combat management system for the vessels. The company will develop a bridge system in co-operation with Fincantieri. In addition, Selex will provide assistance for subsystems such as sensors and weapons.

GE’s Marine Solutions was selected to supply seven LM2500+G4 gas turbines in March 2016. The turbines will be developed by Avio Aero in Italy, while GE Power Conversion will produce drives.

Rolls-Royce won a contract in October 2016 to provide 14 MTU 20V 8000 M91L engines for seven PPA vessels, with deliveries scheduled to commence in 2017.

fincantieri.com

fincantieri.com

Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

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Updated Nov 15, 2019