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Ilyushin Il-276 Multi-Purpose Transport Aircraft

IL-214 is a twin-engine, multipurpose medium range military transport aircraft designed and being manufactured jointly by United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) of Russia and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) of India. The aircraft is suitable for military as well as commercial operations. It is being built to meet requirements of the Russian Air Force (RAF) and Indian Air Force (IAF).

The aircraft will supersede the obsolete fleet of Antonov An-12, An-26 and An-27s in the RAF. It will also replace the 110 An-32s currently in service with the IAF. The maiden flight of the IL-214 is expected to take place in 2014, with service entry planned for 2016.

Antonov AN-12

The tactical military transport aircraft An-12 is intended for transportation of cargo and technical equipment weighing up to 20 tons and up to 90 cubic meters on lines of small and average extent.

An-12 aircraft in civil performance passed the airworthiness standards of aircrafts, applicable by IKAO and certified and approved in the demilitarized execution for operation in civil aviation.

The aircraft is executed according to the high wing scheme with four fan engines АI-20 М takeoff power on 4250 h.p.

The flight control equipment installed on the aircraft, provides compliance to modern IKAO requirements.

The aircraft crew consists of five people of the aircrew: captain, co-pilot, navigator, flight engineer and flight radio operator. If necessary – two persons of the operation technical staff and operator of cargo compartment.

In the fuselage bow there is the crew cabin, in the other part there is the unpressurised cargo compartment.

The cargo compartment has the dimensions optimized by the sizes of the main stream of transported freights, and allows to transport freights in containers and bunched on rigid pallets, non-standard (bales, barrels, etc.) freights, and also nonself-propelled and self-propelled wheel equipment.

There is applied on the aircraft the complex of the transport equipment which includes: upper onboard cargo-loading device with loading capacity up to 2500 kg, the rope cargo-loading device for rolling by pushback tug the not self-propelled wheel equipment, the mooring equipment.

Loading and unloading of freights in containers and packetize on pallets can be made from the ramp extension by means of the upper onboard cargo-loading device.

By means of the upper onboard cargo-loading device it is also made loading and unloading of non-standard freights of weighing up to 2500 kg. Loading and unloading of self-propelled equipment is made under the own steam, and not self-propelled wheel equipment – by means of the pushback tug and the cable assembly.
The big thrust/weight ratio, existence on the aircraft auxiliary power unit (APU) for on-board starting of engines and onboard mechanic means of loading-unloading operations, the high engines’ location and landing gear design with tires of low pressure are provide the self-sufficient aircraft operation as from surfaced airfields (artificial runway), and from unpaved, beachy, ice and snow-covered (ice flight strip).

Modern radio coherent and flight control equipment established on the aircraft provides the aircraft flights in all geographical areas, over earth and water surfaces, in simple and difficult weather conditions, day and night with high accuracy of the automatic aircraft navigation on the route and landing at the meteorological minima corresponding to 1 category IKAO (60х800 m). Source

By the Day of the Air and Space Forces of Russia, TASS created a special projectdetailing the promising military transport Il-276, the first flight of which is scheduled for 2023. Almost all the data presented on the new aircraft are exclusive information and published for the first time.

The special project provides information on how a new transport could be, what design bureau could become its developer and what place the new machine will take in the line of military transport workers of modern Russian aviation. It also tells about the advantages of the IL-276 over the obsolete An-12, which is currently in use by the Russian Defense Ministry, and the possibilities of using it in addition to transporting troops and landing troops.

“In general, the demand for such aircraft in Russia and the world is great, and we are confident that the IL-276 will find its place in the sky and will become an indispensable” labor aircraft “, said Pavel Cherenkov, First Deputy General Director of Il, TASS.

The start of serial deliveries of the IL-276, previously known as the Russian-Indian project MTA (Multipurpose Transport Aircraft – “Multi-Purpose Transport Aircraft”), is scheduled for 2026. From 2019, PJSC “Il” will start developing simulators and training aids that will allow pilots to master a new machine. Translated by google – source An-12 vs IL-276 – TASS

The IL-214 can carry out passenger transport, paratroop deployment and medical evacuation missions both day and night even in hostile environments. It can take-off from and land on elevated airfields such as unprepared airstrips and unpaved runways including grass, mud and snow.

The IAF is planning to procure 45 IL-214 aircraft. The RAF will acquire 105 IL-214s by 2020.

Development of the IL-214/Il-276 transport aircraft

Time Line

Governments of India and Russia signed a 50:50 joint venture agreement in 2000 for the $600m IL-214 development project. The project includes design and development of the IL-214T transport aircraft and a 100-seater civilian variation, IL-214-100 passenger version, for which HAL will be the prime contractor.

The IL-214 was initially designated as IRTA-21 by HAL in 2003. It was later renamed as the multirole transport aircraft (MRTA). Russia and India signed a protocol agreement in June 2004 to begin joint construction of the IL-214 aircraft. Engineering and feasibility studies were completed in 2004.

JSC Irkut Aviation and Industrial Association (JSC IAIA) was selected by Russia while HAL was chosen by India for the IL-214 project. HAL revealed the withdrawal of JSC IAIA from the project in March 2008. Ilyushin Aviation Complex (IAC) was selected as the new contractor for the IL-214 development.

The front fuselage, wings and avionics will be built by HAL, while IAC will work on the aft and centre fuselage sections. The IL-214 was displayed at the Aero India Expo held in 2009. The joint venture agreement was officially announced in October 2009 during Indian Defence Minister A.K. Antony’s visit to Russia.

India Is Out, But Russia Continues Developing Il-214/Il-276 Transport

The Russian government will fund development of the Ilyushin Il-214 medium airlifter and production of about a hundred such aircraft for the Russian Air and Space Force (VKS), according to industry sources close to the program. Allocations for procurement will be provided in the Kremlin’s new Armament Program after 2020, following the current program timed for 2010-2020.

The Il-214 is, effectively, a version of the Indo-Russian Multirole Transport Aircraft (MTA). Moscow and New Delhi signed a government-to-government agreement for the MTA in 2007. This was followed three years later by a co-development agreement at the industry level. A newly established Multirole Transport Aircraft Ltd. (MTAL) company based in Bangalore made its first appearance at airshows with a stand at AeroIndia 2010.

The development costs were previously estimated at $600 million, and were to be covered by both parties on equal terms. Serial examples of the aircraft would cost between $35 and $40 million. The global market for the MTA was forecast at 400 units, including special mission versions for electronic warfare, airborne early warning and control, reconnaissance and patrol and airborne tanker.

India’s Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) and its Russian collaborators signed agreements in 2012 that established a joint team of 150 designers in Moscow and Bangalore. The team started working on MTA documentation in December that year. Shortly thereafter, however, the effort was discontinued over disagreements and misunderstandings. In January, Ilyushin general manager Sergei Velmozhkin told reporters: “As a joint project between Russia and India, this project has been halted.”

Designers in Moscow, however, continue to develop documentation for the aircraft tailored to VKS requirements. A September 2015 protocol between Russia’s Ministry of Defense and industry calls for completion of Il-214 development.

“The Indians are very difficult people to do business with,” Ilyushin general designer Nikolai Talikov told AIN. “At first, it looked like they are all set to go, but later they began to hesitate. The two countries considered many options, including joint production of Il-114 and, later, the MTA…In the end, Russia will make this aircraft alone, under the designation Il-214.”

The Il-214 program is currently at the draft design stage. Documentation for the manufacturing plant—Aviastar, in Ulianovsk—will be prepared after the design house completes similar work on the smaller Il-112V tactical airlifter for production at the VASO plant in Voronezh. According to Talikov, VASO is on track to make an airframe for structural testing this year, followed by a first prototype and its maiden flight in 2017.

Subsequently, the Il-214 prototype is planned for completion “around 2020,” Talikov said. Developmental prototypes and early production examples will have twin Aviadvigatel PS-90A1 turbofans, each developing 17.4 tons of thrust. These will later be replaced by the more advanced PD-14M producing 18 tons of thrust.

The current work schedule and engine choice are markedly different from earlier ones. Under agreements signed in 2007-2010, the MTA was to make its maiden flight between 2016 and 2018. It was to be powered by CFM International CFM56 or IAE V2500 turbofans, as these were favored above Russian and Ukrainian options to power 45 deliverable aircraft for the Indian air force.

The most recent information on MTA/Il-214 performance and specification metrics available from Russian industry sites specify a maximum takeoff weight of 68 metric tons (149,912 pounds), maximum payload of 20 metric tons (44,092 pounds)and runway length at 1,600 m to 1,800 m (5,250 to 6,000 feet). Design targets include transportation of a 20-ton payload to 2,250 km (1,214 nm) and 10-ton payload to 6,400 km (3,454 nm) at a cruise speed of 437 ktas. The aircraft’s service life will be 35 years and 30,000 flight hours.

Outwardly, the Il-214 resembles a classic twinjet with T-shaped empennage and two high-bypass turbofan engines on underwing pylons. The cabin cross section (with fuselage diameter of about 16 feet) is similar to the much heavier Il-76 four-engine transport. The Il-214 will be able to accommodate two standard army trucks or five airline containers. In a single-deck layout, the aircraft would accommodate 70 to 82 paratroopers; a double-decker would carry up to 150.

The crew station is modeled after that of the Il-476 and features six multifunction displays and two head-up displays. Takeoff and landing operations can be made using both paved and unpaved runways, in hot-and-high environments, and during day or night conditions. Source

Russia to continue MTA work after India withdraws from project: Details


Work at the ‘Ilyushin Aviation Complex’, to develop the multi-purpose military transport aircraft (MTA) will continue despite India’s withdrawal from the project, said an official company representative to RIA Novosti on Wednesday, at the ‘Army-2016’ forum.

lyushin and TsAGI started work to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of the Il-276

Il-276 will pass joint state and certification tests for the first time

Certification tests of the twin-engine medium-sized military-transport aircraft IL-276 will be conducted jointly with the state one for the first time in the domestic aircraft industry. As expected, the innovation will considerably reduce the time of certification of the aircraft and accelerate its introduction into the civilian aviation.

«For the first time in the history of the creation of military transport aircraft, the request for proposals will be prepared both under the standards of the Ministry of Defense and under the requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). This will allow to combine state and certification tests and to count the results for both military and civil purposes. At the present time, the preliminary design of this aircraft and the process of approving the tactical and technical task is underway in the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation», – said Pavel Cherenkov, First Deputy General Director of the PJSC «Ilyushin Aviation Complex».

The thrust loading of the aircraft and the high lift devices should ensure the operation of the IL-276 from austere and ground airfields, including those located in hot and high-altitude areas, as well as in the Far North and Siberia.

The dimensions of the cargo cabin of the aircraft take into account the operational features of the aircraft both for military purposes and for civil aviation flights. Built-in loading and unloading mechanization is developed taking into account the vast experience of the operation of IL-76 aircraft and providing mechanized loading of heavy mono-cargoes, large-sized equipment, cargo on pallets and in international containers.

As previously reported, the priority of the IL-276 program is the construction of a military transport aircraft that will meet all the requirements of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. Completion of the bulk of the design work, preparation of production and the first flight is planned in 2023, the beginning of serial procurement of the aircraft to the troops is expected in 2026. Source

DmTy6EOW0AETsiYRussia in RSA

Russia’s new medium-airlift military transport aircraft to make its first flight in 2023: Details


MOSCOW, October 31. /TASS/. The Il-276 medium-airlift military transport aircraft, earlier known as the Russian-Indian project dubbed the “Multipurpose Transport Aircraft,” is anticipated to make its maiden flight in 2023, head of the Program for the Medium-Airlift Military Transport Aircraft at Ilyushin Aviation Complex, Igor Bevzyuk, said in an interview with TASS.

Features of the Russian-built multipurpose military aircraft

d9fa12ad30a128c653961b9db400b445Russian internet images

The IL-214 will feature a high wing monoplane design, glazed in nose, T-shaped tail empennage, semi-monocoque fuselage, two telphers, a cargo winch and rollers comprising cargo handling equipment. It will be made up of sophisticated aluminium alloys and composite materials. The stepped cockpit will be equipped with six multifunctional displays along with two head-up indicators. It can accommodate three flight crew members including pilot, co-pilot and flight engineer.

The aircraft will also boast a rear-ward ramp to load or unload freight and carry out air drop missions. The 13.8m long, 3.45m wide and 3.4m high spacious cabin will carry 18.5 tons of cargo, 82 soldiers or 74 paratroopers. Approximately 60 severely wounded soldiers can be accommodated in the cabin.

Design features

Turbofan engine and performance of IL-214

The IL-214 will be powered by two PD-14 turbofan engines designed and built by Aviadvigatel OJSC, of Russia.

The engines are impounded to top-mounted wings. Each engine can generate a maximum thrust of 6,000lbs. Fuel consumption is 10% to 15% lower compared to that of conventional turbofan engines.

The PD-14 is fitted with a single-stage fan, a four-stage low pressure compressor, dual stage high pressure turbine, an eight-stage high pressure compressor, a four-stage low pressure turbine and an annular combustor. The fan tip diameter of the engine is 1.9m. The dry weight varies between 2,770kg and 2,850kg.

PD-14 turbofan engine Flight Research Institute

Main Advantages of PD Engines

High reliability
Mean time to engine in-flight shutdown which is not recoverable in flight > 200 000 h
A/C departure reliability related to engine readiness > 99,96 %
Low fuel consumption
Reduced SFC compared to other contemporary engines > 10…15 %
Compliance with upcoming environmental standards
Noise reduction relative to ICAO Stage 4 requirements > 15…20 EpNdB
NOx emission reduction relative to ICAO 2008 requirements > 30 %
Compliance with current certification requirements АП-33, FAR-33, CS-E, ETOPS

Engine Modifications under Development

  • The family of advanced turbofan engines for short- and medium-haul aircraft comprises the following engines: PD-14, PD-14А, PD-14М, PD-10;
  • PD-14 – baseline engine for МС-21-300 aircraft;
  • PD-14А – derated modification of the engine for МС-21-200 aircraft;
  • PD-14М – uprated modification of the engine for МС-21-400 aircraft;
  • PD-10 – derated modification of the engine (10…11 ton-force) for SSJ‑NG aircraft.
Engine Specifications
(all parameters are without intake losses and customer air bleeds)
PD-14А PD-14 PD-14М PD-10
T/O thrust (Н = 0; М = 0), ton-force 12,5 14,0 15,6 10,9
Cruise SFC, kg/kgf·h -(10-15) % relative to other contemporary engines of the similar thrust range and application
Fan diameter, mm 1900 1900 1900 1677
Dry engine weight, kg 2870 2870 2970 2350
Engine configuration 1+3+8-2+6 1+3+8-2+6 1+4+8-2+6 1+1+8-2+5

Besides, the technologies developed within the PD-14 Engine Program are planned to be used to make IGTs for GT Compressor and Generator Packages rated at 8 and 16 MW.


PD-14 Engine – United Engine Corporation

The IL-214 can fly at a maximum speed of 870km/h. Its cruise speed is 800km/h. The maximum and ferry ranges of the aircraft are 2,500km and 6,000km respectively. The service ceiling is 13,000m. The take-off and landing distances are 1,300m and 1,200m respectively.

Il-112V airlifter: Details

Ilyushin IL-76MD-90A: Details

Estimated technical characteristics

Dimensional characteristics
Length, m 37,7
Height, m 12,95
Wingspan, m 35,5
Total airfoil area, m2 160
Fuselage diameter, m 4,8
Power plant parameters
Number x engine type 2 x turbojet engine
Engine model PS-90A-76
Top thrust (SI system, H=0), kgf 16 000
Weight parameters
Maximum takeoff weight, tons 72
Maximum payload, tons 20
Fuel tank capacity, l 30 700
Aircraft performance
Cruising speed, km/h 800
Flight altitude, m to 12 100
Flight range with payload of 20 tons, km 2 000
Required airstrip length 1 530
Number of seats
Crew, persons 3 (2)
Military personnel single-deck version:
70 paratroopers
70 wounded
Double-deck version:
150 military personnel
Freight compartment parameters
Length x Width x Height, m 13,85×3,45×3,4
Project life
Calendar operating life, years 35
Number of flights 24 000
Number of flight hours, hr. 30 000


Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main material source

* Very limited info on time of posting


Lynx KF-31/KF 41 Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV)

The Lynx infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) is a state-of-the-art, highly protected, tracked armoured vehicle developed by Rheinmetall. The IFV was unveiled for the first time at Eurosatory 2016 exhibition held in June 2016.

The Lynx IFV is offered in two configurations, Lynx KettenFahrzeug (KF) 31 and KF 41. The KF 31 weighs up to 38t and accommodates three crew and six troops, whereas the KF 41 is an extended version with a capacity to carry three crew and eight infantrymen.

KF 31

LynxKF 31 –

A key feature of the Lynx combat family is its versatility. The Lynx comes in two versions: the KF31 and KF41 (KF stands for “Kettenfahrzeug”, or tracked vehicle in German). Weighing up to 38 tonnes, Lynx KF31 can seat 3+6 soldiers. Lynx KF41 is slightly larger and can carry 3+8 soldiers. 31 –

The Lynx can be configured for various roles:

  • Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV),
  • Command & control,
  • Armoured reconnaissance,
  • Repair & recovery or
  • Ambulance. Armoured reconnaissance – Armoured Personnel Carrier – Repair & recovery – Ambulance –

A high degree of commonality in parts and components is another prominent feature of the Lynx family of vehicles. This simplifies logistic support and has a positive impact on training. Furthermore, customized service support is available worldwide – ranging from training and logistics to in-theatre repairs and technology transfer. Source

Armament 31 – Jane’s by IHS Markit

The Lynx IFV is mounted with a Rheinmetall LANCE turret armed with a stabilised and externally-powered 30mm or 35mm automatic cannon. The turret allows the crew to effectively engage targets at a maximum distance of 3,000m.

ClAMP3fXEAAd4yaKF 31 RMG 7.62mm co-axial machine gun – JPW_FIDES twitter

The IFV can also be armed with an anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) launcher and a secondary remotely controlled weapon system mounted with a 7.62mm co-axial machine gun. The secondary weapon station is connected to the main optics. Source –

Both variants can be configured as command and control, armoured reconnaissance, repair and recovery, and ambulance vehicles.

KF41 Lynx Command Variant 41 command and control – Jane’s by IHS Markit

Command Variant is armed with a remotely controlled .50 Cal machine gun

Remote Weapon Station 12.7mm MG Eshel, Defense-Update

Rheinmetall offers a family of fully digital and stabilized, remotely controlled weapon stations that can be integrated on various vehicle platforms and used for different mission profiles. Various sizes of weapons can be accommodated from small to medium calibres, including 40mm grenade launchers. The weapon station family is designed with a high level of commonality and modularity, and is fully compliant with military standards for human factors engineering. Our weapon stations meet a wide range of specific customer requirements such as:

  • Integration of small and medium calibre weapons
  • Integration of a broad variety of optical modules
  • Operation as a standalone system or as part of a network of systems

Full stabilisation, super elevation, long-range day/night all-weather sights, smoke protection systems, and the capability to integrate NATO and non-NATO weapons are available options on certain models. Rheinmetall’s weapon stations are fielded for instance on vehicles with the Canadian Army, the Nexter VBCI for the French Armed Forces, the MPPV and AIV for the Belgium Army, and are integrated on the Fuchs APC for the Armed Forces of an international customer.


Design and features of Lynx IFV

The Lynx IFV is based on a highly modular design concept, allowing for the integration of special mission kits to produce a specific variant. The mission kit comprises a specific roof, mission-specific installations and equipment.

tumblr_pb87ngjHpK1ws46zho1_1280KF 41 –

The monocoque hull design of Lynx IFV houses power-pack in the front and exhaust system at the rear. Driver’ position is located on the left front side of the hull, whereas the crew is seated in a mission-neutral space. 41 –

The commander, gunner and driver are provided with hatch covers to enter and exit the vehicle. Crew can also ingress and egress the vehicle through the hydraulically-operated rear ramp. The vehicle also has a roof hatch at the rear of the crew compartment, which acts as an observation point and emergency exit. 41 –

Key features at a glance

Mission dynamics

-Superb force protection
-Extreme mobility
-Premium crew comfort

Superior battlefield awareness

-Exact orientation of the weapon stations and superior field awareness
-Instantaneous detection of specific threats
-Automatic target recognition and tracking
-Real time situational awareness

Armed to the teeth

-Main armament: 35mm Wotan cannon
-Main Sensor Slaved Armament/MSSA with 360° view
-Antitank guided missiles
-Counter strike with ADS and ROSY


Lynx IFV armament

KF 41 – Huang Yimin

The Lynx IFV is mounted with a Rheinmetall LANCE turret armed with a stabilised and externally-powered 30mm or 35mm automatic cannon. The turret allows the crew to effectively engage targets at a maximum distance of 3,000m.

30 mm x 173 / 35 mm x 228 WOTAN30 / WOTAN35

The WOTAN30 is an externally driven, medium-calibre automatic cannon with a rate of fire of 200rds/min. Easy to handle and highly reliable, the WOTAN30 can neutralize a wide variety of targets, making it the perfect choice for arming modern IFVs and other combat vehicles. The WOTAN35 is the latest member of the new WOTAN family and, due to its larger calibre, delivers longer range and deeper penetration than 30mm cannons. Source 41 –

The IFV can also be armed with an anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) launcher and a secondary remotely controlled weapon system mounted with a 7.62mm co-axial machine gun. The secondary weapon station is connected to the main optics.

Rafael Spike LR2 ATGMs

KF 41 – DTR Magazine

Spike-LR II is smarter, sharper and agiler than its predecessors, but is designed to operate from the same launchers used for Spike MR and LR, in dismounted configurations, on vehicles, weapon stations, marine platforms, and helicopters. It will also fit the new lightweight launcher developed by RAFAEL for aerial platforms, enabling light helicopters to defeat tanks, vehicles or bunkers from ten kilometers away. The new missile will be presented for the first time at the Paris Air Show in June.

6n2A view of the Spike LR II; it is fitted with an uncooled sensor and has an increased range of 5.5 km. (photo P. Valpolini)

Weighing 12.7 kg – 10% less than the legacy LR, Spike LR II provides major enhancements over the current LR variant -in lethality, range, and resolution. First and foremost, the new version enhances the Spike’s capability to defeat targets of all types – from main battle tanks with advanced, reactive and active protection, to fortified and evasive targets and those hidden in bunkers, buildings.

RAFAEL offers the missile with a choice of two warheads – an anti-tank missile optimized with an enhanced tandem warhead that increases armor penetration by 30 percent over the previous generation. Another advantage of the new missile is its ability to strike at higher impact angles – Spike LR II will be able to hit targets at up to 70 degrees, delivering more lethal top attack profile. According to RAFAEL, the SPIKE LR II is the only missiles known to have an inherent Counter-APS (CAPS) capability.

The second type is the multi-purpose version, provided with a different tandem warhead using multiple fusing presets designed to defeat light or fortified targets. The variable fusing enables the operator to set the fuse to penetrate a target or explode on impact. Designed to operate as a penetrating warhead, the missile’s warhead would breach a small hole through reinforced concrete, for the main charge to follow through.

The missile maintains the fiber-optic data link for man-in-the-loop control but the new missile can defeat those targets from an extended range of up to 5,500 meters. Source

KF 41 – Huang Yiminscreenshot--2018.05.22-05-42-45


RMG 7.62mm co-axial machine gun 41 – Shephard Media

The RMG7.62, which is currently under development, is a foreign-powered, largely 7.62 mm x 51 mm, weapon that is largely sealed against environmental influences. All components necessary for remote operation are located in or on the weapon. Benchmarks of the design are high reliability, system security and easy safe handling. Thanks to the integration of all remote control functions and the cradle, the RMG 7.62 can be quickly installed in a variety of platforms. With the RMG7.62 NATO standard ammunition can be fired with the MG3 standard links.


New is the remote-controlled pipe exchange device with three tubes in a bundle: Is a pipe shot hot, electrically the tube bundle is rotated and so the manual manual pipe replacement electrically, realized under protection and brought a cool tube in firing position in less than 5 seconds. Nanocoatings and high-performance materials ensure a long service life. The weapon is completely ITAR free. The cadence of the weapon can be set to up to 800 rounds per minute. Due to the large stock of ammunition on the weapon, the high cadence and the automatic running change, the RMG7.62 is suitable as an effector for weapon stations or as a coaxial MG for combat and armored infantry fighting vehicles. The weapon is created in cooperation with the Bundeswehr.  Source

Observation and fire control

KF 41 – Rheinmetall YouTube

The turret houses two electro-optical (EO) sights including a stabilised electro-optical sensor system (SEOSS) panoramic sight with an integrated laser rangefinder and fire control system (FCS), and an SEOSS sector sight aligned with the main armament.

Seoss – Stabilized Electro-optical Sighting System

Seoss enables accurate engagement of targets while on the move, both day and night and under conditions of limited visibility. Perfect for high-end combat vehicles, Seoss stabilized electro-optical sensor system is a compact digital fire control unit. Featuring dual-axis stabilization, the Seoss can be mounted without difficulty to any suitable surface on the vehicle. It is equipped with a Saphir® thermal imaging device, a daytime camera and an eye-safe laser rangefinder. All the data necessary for evaluating the situation appear on a display conveniently located in the interior of the vehicle. Apart from the target, these include the system status, range and type of ammunition.

Main features

  • Primary stabilized
  • 2-axis stabilized sensor head with: Thermal imager 3rd generation, high resolution daylight CCD camera (optional), eyesafe laser range finder, integrated fire control and stabilization electronics
  • Detection, recognition, identification and engagement of moving and stationary targets also on the move
  • Interface to battle management system (optional)
  • Very compact design and low weight
  • Easy integration without extensive turret modification (no turret penetration)
  • High degree of logistic communality between the versions (sector or panoramic)
  • Available as Seoss-sector, Seoss-panoramic and Seoss-MOUT

Product variants

  • Seoss-sector
  • Seoss-panoramic
  • Seoss-MOUT

Source 41 – Rheinmetall YouTube

Each EO sight can be operated by both the commander and the gunner; one of them ensures all-round visibility irrespective of the turret motion. The turret can be integrated with a situational awareness system (SAS), an additional commander’s sight, a laser warning system (LWS), an independent weapons station, an acoustic shot locator system and C4I systems.

The fully digital fire control system of LANCE ensures a high-precision rate of fire of 200 rounds a minute.

Self-protection of Lynx IFV

The modular design of Lynx IFV integrates ballistic armour, which protects the crew from anti-tank weapons, medium-calibre ammunition, shrapnel and shell splinters, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and bomblets.

The interior of the vehicle also incorporates a spall liner for additional protection against potential threats. The vehicle is also offered with mine and IED protection packages and decoupled seats for add-on protection.

The vehicle is optionally equipped with hard kill active defence system (ADS) for 360° passive protection against a wide range of attacks. The Rheinmetall SolarΣShield mobile camouflage system aboard the vehicle further reduces heat loading, as well as infrared, visual and radar signatures.

KF 41 –

Lynx IFV diesel engine

The Lynx IFV is powered by a new generation COTS diesel engine, which develops a power output of 560kW (750hp) for the KF 31 and 800kW (1,050hp) for the KF 41 variant. The engine is coupled to a fully-automatic transmission system.

Liebherr diesel engine D9512 (KF 31)

The Liebherr diesel engine D9512 with 12 cylinders in V-arrangement and a displacement of 24,2 liters has a maximum power of 750kW at 1,900 revolutions. The engine features for regulated and unregulated markets identical performances, the same requirements for the machine‘s cooling system, and the same interfaces when installed. This enables the customer to use the same device design for different emission standards.

Configuration V-engine
Number of cylinders 12
Flywheel housing SAE 0 / SAE 1
Bore 128 mm
Stroke 157 mm
Displacement 24.2 l
Power rating 565 – 750 kW
Rated speed 1,500 – 1,900 rpm
Max. torque 4,675 Nm
Dimensions (L/W/H) 1,856 / 1,236 / 1,314 mm
Dry weight 2,050 kg
Auxiliary outputs (PTO) 2
Emission standards EU Stage V / EPA Tier 4f / IMO III / EPA Tier 0 (Fuel consumption optimised)


The KF 31 engine was mated to an Allison automatic transmission. 41 –

Liebherr diesel engine D9612 (KF 41)

The Liebherr diesel engine D9612 with 12 cylinders in V-arrangement and a displacement of 27 liters has a maximum power of 1,100 kW at 1,800 revolutions. The engine features for regulated and unregulated markets identical performances, the same requirements for the machine‘s cooling system, and the same interfaces when installed. This enables the customer to use the same device design for different emission standards.

Configuration V-engine
Number of cylinders 12
Bore 135 mm
Stroke 157 mm
Displacement 27.0 l
Power rating 650 – 1,100 kW
Rated speed 1,500 – 1,900 rpm
Max. torque 6,230 Nm
Dimensions (L/W/H) 1,839 / 1,262 / 1,338 mm
Dry weight 2,350 kg


Renk HSWL 256 automatic 6-speed transmission (KF 41)

RENK’s transmissions of the HSWL 256 type represent the state of the art, and have been selected for use in the highly sophisticated PUMA infantry fighting vehicle used by the German Bundeswehr and for the British Army’s Ajax family. The HSWL 256 transmission is based on RENK’s extensive expertise as well as knowledge gained thanks to the ongoing consideration of practical experience. The HSWL 256 transmission combines a compact design with weight-optimized individual parts, guaranteeing both a long service life as well as the capability to safely move, steer and brake vehicles over a large weight range. This transmission has an outstanding track record for use in medium-weight vehicles.


Lynx IFV vehicle mobility

KF 41 – Rheinmetall YouTube

The forward hull integrates final drives, whereas the rear houses the idler sprockets with track tensioners. The running gear constitutes six road wheels per side, on either rubber or light metal tracks. The vehicle has a maximum speed of 70km/h.

The Lynx IFV can negotiate gradients of up to 60° and lateral slopes of 30°. It has the ability to cross ditches up to 2.5m-wide, ford water streams of up to 1.5m-deep and climb 1m-high vertical obstacles.



Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main material source

Mi-26T2/Mi-26T2V Heavy-Lift Transport Helicopter

The Mil Mi-26 is a twin-engine heavy transport helicopter designed and manufactured by Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant, Russia, for both military and civilian roles. It is the second largest and powerful helicopter in the world, and entered into service in 1985.

The helicopter’s maiden flight took place in December 1977. About 276 Mi-26 helicopters are currently in service worldwide.

Mi-26 helicopter variants

The Mi-26 has 13 variants, which include Mi-26A, Mi-26M, Mi-26MS, Mi-26NEF-M, Mi-26P, Mi-26PP, Mi-26PK, Mi-26S, Mi-26T, Mi-26TP, Mi-26TS, Mi-26TZ and Mi-27.

The Mi-26A is an advanced version of the Mi-26 and completed its flight test in 1985. It is upgraded with a structured PNK-90 flight navigation system for automated approach and decline.

Another variant, the Mi-26M is an upgraded version of Mi-26. It is incorporated with a flight navigation system, D-127 turboshaft engines, an electronic flight instrumentation system and aerodynamic rotor blades for better performance.

The Mi-26T is a commercial cargo or freight transport version. It was first showcased in the 1997 Moscow Air Show. The helicopter was later displayed at Farnborough Air Show held in 2002 after installing advanced avionics by Rostvertol.


Mi-26T –

Mi-26T, the world’s best line production helicopter in terms of load capacity, is unrivaled in cost-performance parameters. This type helicopters are intensively used for all sorts of operations: transportation, evacuation, fire fighting etc. Mi-26T is capable of carrying up to 20 tons of cargo inside fuselage or on the external sling.

Mi-26T cockpit – – – – – – T24



Max. speed
295 km/h
Cruise speed
255 km/h
Max. flight range with main fuel tanks
800 km
Operational ceiling
4,600 m
Hover ceiling (OGE)
1,520 m

Weight Parameters

Max. take-off weight
56,000 kg
With underslung load
56,000 kg

Max. Payload, kg

in transport cabin
20,000 kg
on external sling
20,000 kg

Engine 2 х D-136 (2 х 11 400 h. p.)

Take-off power
h. p.
Contingency power
h. p.

Cabin Dimensions

12.1 m
3.29 m
3.17 m



Mi-26T specification

The Mi-26MS is an upgraded model of the Mi-26T. The variant is a medical evacuation helicopter and comprises intensive care section for four casualties and two medics, ambulance section for five stretcher patients, three seated casualties and two attendants, and a laboratory.

The Mi-26NEF-M is another variant of Mi-26 fitted with a search radar below the nose radome. It is an anti-submarine warfare version, which boasts heat exchangers and towed MAD housing fitted on a ramp.

The Mi-26P is a passenger transport version, which can carry 70 to 100 passengers. The variant features airline-type seating, with a centre aisle, bathroom, kitchen and cloakroom near the flight deck.

Another variant, the Mi-26PP, is a radio relayed version with its first flight test completed in 1986. The Mi-26PK is derived from the Mi-26P. It is a flying crane helicopter introduced in 1997. The Mi-26S is a disaster relief version incorporated with a discharging liquid tank and underbelly spraying apparatus.

The Mi-26TP is a fire-fighting helicopter, which can distribute 17,260l of water from a squat VSU-15 bucket. It was first introduced in 1994.

Another variant, the Mi-26TS, is an export version of the Mi-26T supplied to Samsung Aerospace Industries, South Korea.

The Mi-26TZ is a fuel tanker version, while the Mi-27 is airborne command post variant.

Mi-26TZ fuel tanker version Mi-26TZ is a specially adapted for transporting and filling fuel in the field – Документальные Фильмы

Type :   special modification of the heavy-duty helicopter typeMi-26 ( Halo A ),serving as the role of a ground filling station

Determination :   Fuel transmission to helicopters and front-combat combat airplanes and ground fighting techniques

Differences from the Mi-26 helicopter (Halo A) :

– installation of three removable modules, two with fuel tanks with a total capacity of 14,000 liters, a fuel pump and a control panel and one with four air fuel hoses, ten hoses on diesel and a fuel gauge inside the cargo compartment hoses – Документальные Фильмы

Manufactured :   at least six serial machines

Users :   Kazakhstan and Russia

Crew:    two pilots, navigator and on-board mechanic

Drive:   two turbo-shaft engines of the Progress D-136 type with a maximum power of 11,400 kp

Radar:  weather station type 8A313 Groza , installed inside the hull spike

Equipment:   SRO-1P identification system Parol-2D, warning system RL type SPO-15 (L006) Berjoza and six whirlpools of 32 misleading IR / RL targets of the ASO-2V type (three- installed on the sides of the central part of the fuselage, in the area above the main bogie)

Capacity:   Tank with 14,000 liters of fuel and canisters 1,040 l of lubricants transported inside the cargo cabin with dimensions 12,08 mx 3,25 mx 2,91 m



Time necessary for conversion from refueling equipment version………….1h.25 min
From transport version to refueling equipment version…………………………  1h. 25 min


Performance with refuel equipment of Mi-26 T in conformity with performance of standard Mi-26T

Capacity of transported fuel   14.040 lt
Transported fuel  aviation kerosene T-2, TS-1, RT
Diesel DL, DZ, DA grades
Transported lubricants  (52 tanks of 20 liters each) 1.040 lt
Fuel distribution rate with pressure from pump (3,8-4,0 kgf/cm2) on each hose
With 4 hoses of aviation fuel Up to 300 lt/min
With 10 hoses of diesel fuel 50…..150 lt/min
Fineness of filtration of distributed fuel
Aviation 5 μm
Diesel 12…16 μm
Time of deployment for distribution to consumers
Aviation fuel 10 min
Diesel fuel 15 min
Time for stowage
Aviation fuel refueling equipment 15 min
Diesel fuel refueling equipment 25 min


Mi-26 helicopter upgrades for Defense Ministry

Holding “Helicopters of Russia” prepared a project for the modernization of the Mi-26 helicopter for Russian military aircraft. At present, the Rostvertol plant is already working on the creation of a prototype of the new Mi-26T2V with the subsequent implementation of a complex of flight tests.

As the general director of the holding “Russian Helicopters” Andrey Boginsky said, the machine will embody the latest technical solutions taking into account the use in combat operations. “I want to note that we are talking about the modernization of the military version of the Mi-26 rather than the Mi-26T2 helicopter, which is exported,” he said.

The modernized Mi-26T2V is a heavy wide-body transport helicopter with a carrying capacity of 20 tons. The number of crew members of the updated version remained the same – 5 people.

The new machine will be able to provide flights in the conditions of any region, including, with complex physico-geographical and unfavorable climatic conditions. Also, the helicopter will be able to be operated in conditions of unequipped trails and along routes outside the trails, over unoriented terrain, in conditions of fire and information counteraction of the enemy.

The machine is equipped with a modern integrated complex of on-board radio electronic equipment NPK90-2, which provides helicopter piloting day and night with automatic flight along the route, exit to a predetermined point and approach, as well as pre-landing maneuvering and return to the main or alternate aerodrome. The air defense system of the helicopter provides helicopter protection against missile damage with radio and opto-electronic guidance. Source DD 20 OCTOBER 2017

Mil Mi-26T2V 

7_d554b1b6Mi-26T2V – Rostvertol

Differences from the Mi-26 helicopter :

– installation of an automated flight-navigation complex type NPK-90-2 instead of the original navigation equipment (this reduced the number of crew members from four persons to two) – Pictures below of Mi-26T2V shows 4 crew stations

Mi-26T2V cockpit – GTRK – GTRK – GTRK – GTRK Don-TR

– installation of modified interconnection equipment

– installation of new instrumentation inside the cockpit

– installing new impact-resistant seats inside the crew’s cabin

– installing new external lighting to allow the use of night vision glasses – Женя Вертолет – Женя Вертолет – Женя Вертолет – Женя Вертолет – Женя Вертолет – Женя Вертолет – Женя Вертолет YouTube

– installation of the L370E26L Vitebsk Defense Complex, consisting of a L370-2-01 Warnetting Anti-Missile System (L370-2-01), a L370-5L directional intruder and 28 dummy targets. All of the components of the Vitebsk-type complex are located within two pairs of tandem-shaped conformal containers that are attached to the sides of the central part of the hull. While the front is just behind the front side entry door, the rear pair of Vitebsk-type complex containers is located directly above the main chassis. While the front containers contain a L370-5L type lane and one L370-2-01 (one for the front and rear half-sphere), two 14-meter dumbbells are built into the hind legs of each of the rear containers. Source

L370E26L Vitebsk Defense Complex – Russian Helicopters

It is designed to protect aircraft from anti-aircraft missiles with infrared, radar or combined homing heads. “Vitebsk” is able to track the launch of missiles within a radius of several hundred kilometers from the aircraft and “take away” the missile from the target.


Structurally, the complex L-370 “Vitebsk” is made in the form of blocks that can be located inside the fuselage and on the outer hinges of the aircraft or helicopter. The main elements of the complex are laser radiation detection equipment, ultraviolet rocket launching direction finder, control system, opto-electronic suppression station and false thermal targets (LTC) devices. The known modifications of BKO-L-370B52 (for Ka-52), L-370E8 (for MI-8MT), L-370E26L (for MI-26), L-370E50 (for Ka-50). Defense Complex – Женя Вертолет YouTube

The main element of Vitebsk is the digital station for active interference (LSS) L-370-3S. It exceeds the Sorbtsiya (Su-27), Omul (Su-25), Gardenia (MiG-29) and suppresses the enemy radar in a wider frequency range. The complex includes a system of protection against missiles with a thermal homing head (TGSN), which blinds enemy missiles with a laser spotlight. Translated by google – ource



Ø carrier rotor: 32,00 m
Ø tail rotor: 7.61 m
Total length: 40,03 m
Length of hull: 33.73 m
Height: 8.15 m
Empty weight: ?
Max. takeoff weight: 56 000 kg
Max. speed: 295 km / h
Practical access: 4 600 m
Max. range without / with 4 PTB: 800/1 920 km


Mi-26T2 – Airguardian

The Mi-26T2 is a modernisation of the Mi-26T heavy-lift transport helicopter designed by Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant, a division of Russian Helicopters.

The modernised helicopter is designed to transport heavy cargo and equipment. It can be used to quickly transport up to 82 troops and their equipment, as well as a wide range of heavy-weight combat vehicles.Телеканал Звезда

Preliminary flight tests were carried out in 2014 and serial production of the Mi-26T2 helicopter began in May 2015.

Rostvertol, which is part of Russian Helicopters, built the helicopter at its Rostov-on-Don factory. factory – T-24

Avionics for the Mi-26T2 helicopter were developed by OJSC Ramenskoe Instrument Design Bureau (RKPB), a subsidiary of KRET.

The ambulance / emergency response variant of the Mi-26T2 helicopter can carry up to 60 wounded people. It can be configured to perform various other operations, including fire-fighting, fuel delivery, construction and installation works.

The helicopter can also provide self-contained refuelling to ground-based vehicles.

Mi-26T2 demonstration and orders

The helicopter was exhibited at the International Aviation and Space show MAKS 2011, HeliRussia 2011, and Dubai Airshow 2013. It entered  the first stage of flight trials in 2011. It was demonstrated to the Algerian Armed Force in July 2012 and offered for the Indian Air Force in November 2012.

Russian Helicopters received an order to deliver six Mi-26T2s for the Algerian Air Force under a $2.7bn contract in March 2014. The first helicopter performed its maiden flight in December 2014. Algerian Air Force – Algeria Today

On June 26, 2013, the Algerian Air Force ordered a total of 6 Mi-26T2 helicopters. The first one (SL-21) was also the first serial specimen of the Mi-26T2 helicopter, and it was first released in the cloud on December 25, 2014. On February 11, 2015, the second series Mi-26T2 (SL-22 ). Upon completion of the tests, both of these Mi-26T2 helicopter specimens were used to train the flight and ground personnel of the customer. It was only then, on 8 July 2015, that they embarked on a trip from Rostov to Don to Algeria, respectively. at the base of Bild. The day arrived at the destination. But this was preceded by a stopover on one of the Greek islands. The other two Mi-26T2 series (SL-32 and SL-34) were flown in June and July 2015. Their handover was made before the end of the same year. Translated by google – source Algerian Air Force – Algeria Today

Algeria ordered a second batch of eight Mi-26T2 helicopters in August 2015.

King Abdullah Design and Development Bureau placed an order with Russian Helicopters to deliver four Mi-26T2s for the Royal Jordanian Air Force, in April 2016. The first helicopter was delivered in January 2018.

Mi-26T2 transport helicopter design and features

The Mi-26T2 heavy-lift transport helicopter features new digital avionics suite and an upgraded engine. It is capable of executing missions during both day and night under all weather conditions. main landing gear – Телеканал Звезда

Attached to the helicopter is double-wheeled landing gear in a tricycle arrangement. Its main rotor system consists of eight blades, while the tail rotor system consists of five blades.Тамаз Мухашаврия YouTube

The base variant is 12.1m long, 3.29m wide and 3.17m high. The helicopter has a cargo lifting capacity of 20t and accommodates the maximum weight of the cargo inside the cargo cabin or from an external sling, which is operated by a flight engineer.

Two members of crew operate the helicopter. A door on each side of the cabin facilitates easy entry and exit for the crew. It is fitted with a new air conditioning and cargo compartment heating systems.Первый каналПервый канал

Mi-26T2 cockpit – Первый канал

The Mi-26T2 heavy-lift transport helicopter features a glass cockpit fitted with an electronic display system of five liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), control panels, airborne computer, as well as standard and infrared (IR) lighting equipment.

1024px-Mil_Mi-26T2,_Rostvertol_AN1989586Mi-26T2  cockpit –

Additionally, a Tranzas TSL-1600 light can be installed to visually control external loads in night conditions. The cockpit can be optionally fitted with night vision goggles (NVG) based on the customer requirements. – Первый канал

Avionics suite onboard the Mi-26T2

The Mi-26T2 features a BREO-26 digital avionics suite to improve stability and control in all flight modes over unfamiliar terrains. The onboard avionics include NPK 90-2 flight and navigation system along with NAVSTAR / GLONASS, modern communications system, airborne flight recorder system, backup device system, and an on-board control system. – Первый канал

A round-the-clock gyro stabilised optoelectronic system is also fitted to provide increased surveillance capabilities.

The Mi-26T2 prototype has already been tested with the L370E26L Vitebsk self-protection suite, borrowed from the Ka-52 Alligator. The costly system integrates L370-2-01 Reagent missile approach warning sensors and directional IR jammer; the jamming effect is also being enhanced by pumping out IR flares from chaff/flare dispensers scabbed onto the fuselage sides. with Vitebsk self-protection – Тамаз Мухашаврия YouTube

The Mi-26T2, in its baseline configuration, comes equipped with the all-new Russian-made BREO-26 digital avionics package, built around the KRET NPK90-2 flight-navigation avionics suite with a LINS-100RS laser inertial navigation system and an A737-1 satellite navigation receiver as well as the PKV-26D digital autopilot.

NPK-90-2 navigation equipment

The complex of on-board radio-electronic equipment NPK90-2 provides:

  • round-the-clock piloting in simple and difficult weather conditions;
  • automatic flight along the route with the provision of possible operational change of the flight route manually and by commands from ground control points of air traffic;
  • continuous automatic determination of the position and motion of the helicopter;
  • automatic determination of polar coordinates relative to radio beacons and their indication;
  • exit to a predetermined point from a given direction, issuing information about the time of arrival at the intermediate (final) point of the route
  • approach and pre-landing maneuvering in accordance with the landing scheme introduced for the aerodrome, including a repeated approach;
  • return to the main and alternate aerodromes, as well as to landing areas for the shortest distance;
  • providing information on flight parameters, operation of helicopter units and systems, tactical situation;
  • display of an electronic map of the locality;
  • information on the remaining path, traveled track, ground speed, instrument speed, track actual speed, and altitude flight barometric.


LINS-100RS inertial system

LINS-100RS – is a joint development of «SAGEM Defense Securite» (France), and JSC RDC, JSC ITT (Russia).

LINS-100RS – has been designed according to Western and Russian standards.

LINS-100RS is a strapdown inertial-navigation system on base of ring laser gyros (RLG) and pendulous accelerometers.

LINS-100RS includes a SNS receiver installed into a monoblock (antenna assembly is included). The system has a mounting frame for providing accurate tie to coordinate system of aircraft. A monoblock case is a dust-moisture-proof design.

The system provides definition and output of flight/navigation para-meters, and is designed for new and upgraded aircraft and helicopters. Source – Первый канал

PKV-26D digital autopilot

An integrated navigation flight planning and communication system is also included in the package, as well as a precise auto hover system, digital map display, five MFI-10-7V multifunctional displays replacing a number of conventional ‘stem-gauge’ instruments. – Первый канал

The other new avionics components are represented by the KS-26T2 communications suite, a 7A-813C weather radar and a GOES-series day/night observation turret (with gyro-stabilised infrared and TV-cameras).

Type 7A813C weather radar

It also features customer-selectable options such as night vision goggle-compatible interior and exterior lighting, a TSL-1600 searchlight, a Vitebsk self-protection suite and a SKY899 traffic collision avoidance system. Source

TSL-1600 searchlight

p39helicopter.gifTSL-1600 searchlight –

TSL-1600 has high light characteristics, which makes it possible to effectively conduct search and rescue, rescue operations, patrol, investigative-search, security measures. The floodlight can also be used for nighttime photo and video shooting.



The projector is designed for visually concealed and unconcealed aviation operations for various purposes, used in various climatic and meteorological conditions and in various areas above the earth’s and water surfaces (mountainous terrain, urban and rural areas, forests, water bodies). Search and lighting projector can be installed on a helicopter of any type with sufficient power of the generator and search and rescue aircraft. The TSL-1600 does not have its own controls and displays.For these purposes either a control panel or a set of switching and indicating elements on the aircraft or a combination thereof is used.

Another advantage of the TSL-1600 is that it can work in automated control mode, receiving commands from external controls (multi-function indicator TDS-84, FLIR, etc.). This function allows to keep or accompany the object of observation, regardless of the spatial position and speed of the aircraft.

Tactical and technical indicators

Source of visible light
Lamp Type gas discharge xenon
Power 1600 W
The power of light 30 000 000 cd
Life time up to 1000 hours
IR mode
The spectral range (800 ÷ 1200) nm
Beam divergence in narrow beam mode 4
Beam divergence in wide beam mode 20
Power Cardan Suspension
Angle of rotation in azimuth 350 ° (± 175 °)
Angle of rotation by elevation angle + 10 ° (up) ÷ – 110 ° (downwards)
Angular velocity in azimuth 0-40 ° per second
Angular velocity in slope 0-40 ° per second
Searchlight as a whole
Radiation spectrum visible and infrared
Readiness time 1 sec – for lighting the lamp
Input voltage 27 V (24,0 ÷ 32,0) direct current
Input current 65 A (nom.); 75 A (max.)
Dimensions: (L x W x H) 418 mm x 425 mm x 427 mm
Total installation weight 29 kg


SKY899 traffic collision avoidance system

  • Self-calibrating antenna constantly maintains the bearing accuracy of tracked targets and offers the most precise traffic positioning information
  • Verbal Intruder Positioning (VIP) announces range, bearing and relative altitude of intruder aircraft through the cockpit’s audio system
  • Unmatched 5-Year  Warranty
  • “Look Up/Look Down” altitude display modes highlight specific layers of relative altitude range — useful during climbs, descents and takeoff
  • Optional bottom mount antenna installation, useful for helicopter applications
  • Integrates with Stormscope Lightning Detection Systems
  • Economically fulfills TCAS I requirements for most aircraft
  • 35-mile surveillance & display range
  • Additional ARINC 429 EFIS output
  • The preferred choice of OEM’s worldwide


Mi-26T2 engine

The Mi-26T2 heavy-lift transport helicopter is powered by two modernised, electronically controlled D-136-2 turbo-shaft gas turbine engines designed by Ivchenko-Progress and produced by Motor Sich.

The engine is equipped with full authority automatic control system of FADEC controls and generates 12,500hp of emergency power, while the maximum power rating is 11,650hp. Its engine delivers improved performance, even in hot climatic conditions.


The helicopter has an operating range of approximately 800km and a maximum range 1,905km when fitted with auxiliary fuel tanks.

2 x D-136-2 turbo-shaft gas turbine engines (Mi-26T2)

Takeoff (SLS, ISA)
N, hp. 12,200
C, kg/hp/h 0.210
Dimensions, mm 3,715 x 1,382 x 1,124
Weight, dry, kg 1,150


APU inlet Mi-26T2V – Женя Вертолет on Mi-26T – exhaust Mi-26T2V – Женя Вертолет for external APU source Mi-26T2V – Женя Вертолет YouTube

Characteristic Mi-26T2

Modification   Mi-26T2
Main screw diameter, m   32.00
Diameter of tail rotor, m   7.61
Length, m   40. 03
Height, m   8.145
Width, m   3120
Weight, kg  
  empty   28000
  normal take-off   49600
  maximum take-off   56,000
engine’s type   2 GTD ZMKB Progress D-136-2
Power, hp   2 x 11650
Maximum speed, km / h   290
Cruising speed, km / h   255
Practical range, km   2000
Range of action, km  
  with refueling of main fuel tanks   800
  with refueling basic and add. fuel tanks   1905
Practical ceiling, m   4600
Static ceiling, m   1 500
Crew, people   2 + 1
Payload:   up to 120 passengers or 20000 kg of cargo in the cabin or on the suspension


Main material source

Updated Sep 03, 2018

F100 Alvaro de Bazan Class Frigate

The F100 Alvaro de Bazan Class is a 5,800t multipurpose frigate built by the Spanish shipbuilder, Izar (formerly E.N. Bazan). In February 2005, the naval shipbuilding activities of Izar were spun off into a new company, Navantia.

The first batch of four ships was ordered by the Spanish Navy in January 1997. The first, Alvaro de Bazan (F101), was launched in October 2000 and commissioned in September 2002. The second, Almirante Juan de Borbon (F102), was launched in February 2002 and commissioned in December 2003.

The third, Blas de Lezo (F103) was launched in May 2003 and commissioned in December 2004. The fourth, Mendez Nunez (F104), was launched in November 2004 and delivered in March 2006.

In June 2005, the Spanish Government announced plans to procure a fifth Alvaro de Bazan Class vessel, Cristobal Colon (F105). Procurement of the new vessel was authorised by the government in May 2006. Construction began in June 2007 and the keel was laid in February 2009. The ship was launched in November 2010 and entered sea trials in June 2012. A sixth vessel, Juan de Austria (F106) is also planned, to commission in 2013.

The F-100 frigate is a multi-purpose ship with the following capabilities:

  • Medium-size oceanic escort.
  • Command and control ship in conflict scenarios, capable of operating with allied fleets, and providing cover to expeditionary forces.
  • Capable of operating in coastal and blue waters depending on the conflict situation.
  • High anti-air capability.

The F-100 project entails important challenges; among them:

  • An AEGIS Combat System around the SPY-1D radar which, up to now, was used only in larger combatants such as destroyers and cruisers.
  • Integrate national weapons and sensors into the AEGIS System.
  • Other specific developments like the Navigational Data distribution (DIANA) or the Platform Control Integrated System.

Source YouTube
Name No Builder Laid down Launched Comp Fate
Álvaro de Bazán F101 Navantia, Ferrol 14/6/1999 27/10/2000 19/9/2002 in service (2018)
Almirante Juan de Borbón F102 Navantia, Ferrol 27/10/2000 28/2/2002 3/12/2003 in service (2018)
Blas de Lezo F103 Navantia, Ferrol 28/2/2002 16/5/2003 16/12/2004 in service (2018)
Méndez Núñez F104 Navantia, Ferrol 16/5/2003 12/11/2004 21/3/2006 in service (2018)
Cristóbal Colón F105 Navantia, Ferrol 20/2/2009 4/11/2010 23/10/2012 in service (2018)


Alvaro de Bazan Class Aegis combat system

Álvaro de Bazán – david –

The ship incorporates the AN/SPY-1D Aegis Combat System from Lockheed Martin Naval Electronics and Surveillance Systems. The main missions of the ship are fleet protection, anti-air warfare, operation as a flag ship for a combat group, anti-surface and anti-submarine warfare.

In June 2008, Spain requested the foreign military sale (FMS) of Raytheon Tomahawk Block IV land attack missiles to arm the F100 frigates.

Alvaro de Bazan is the first European ship with the Aegis weapon system. In July 2003, Alvaro de Bazan (F101) took part in combined Combat Systems Ship Qualification Trials (CSSQT) with the Aegis Class destroyer USS Mason (DDG 87). A second CSSQT trial took place in September 2004 with Almirante Juan de Borbon (F102) and USS Pinkney (DDG 91). In June 2007, Mendez Nunez (F104) took part in the first tri-nation CSSQT, with Arleigh Burke class destroyer USS Gridley (DDG 101) and the Royal Norwegian Navy frigate Fridtjof Nansen (F310).

Nansen Class Anti-Submarine Warfare Frigate: Details

In 1994 Spain entered an agreement with Germany and the Netherlands, which provided cooperation in development and in national construction of the frigates. In Spain, Izar built the F100, in the Netherlands, Royal Schelde built the LCF (De Zeven Provincien Class) and in Germany the ARGE 124 group (Blohm and Voss as the leading yard, Howaldtwerke-Deutsche Werft and Thyssen Nordseewerke) built the F124 (Sachsen Class). The agreement covered cooperation on the ship platform and not on the systems.

De Zeven Provinciën-class frigate: Details

Aegis combat data system

F110 Frigate – NavantiaOficial YouTube

The Aegis combat data system controls the detection, control and engagement sequence through the AN/SPY-1D radar, the command and decision systems (C&D) and the ship’s weapons control system (WCS). The F100 is the first frigate to be equipped with Aegis.

F110 Frigate – NavantiaOficial YouTube

The ship has satellite communications and Link 11 secure tactical data link.

Weapons systems

The ship has two four-celled Boeing Harpoon anti-ship missile systems. Harpoon is a medium-range missile with a range of 120km, 220kg warhead and active radar terminal guidance. The surface-to-air missile system is the evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM) developed by an international team led by Raytheon.

2 x four-celled Boeing Harpoon anti-ship missile systems

screenshotAtUploadCC_1514616913064Spanish Navy Frigate SPS Mendez Numez’s – Contando Estrelas

RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile

The Harpoon is an all weather, subsonic, over the horizon, anti-ship missile which can be launch from surface ships, submarines and aircraft. Its guidance system consists of a 3-axis integrated digital computer/ radar altimeter for midcourse guidance, and an active radar seeker for the terminal phase of the flight.

The Harpoon flies at subsonic speeds, with a sea-skimming flight trajectory for improved survivability through reduced probability of detection by enemy defenses. It was designed to strike enemy ships in an open ocean environment.

The ship launched RGM-84 Harpoon was introduced in 1977, as well as the encapsulated submarine launched UGM-84.

Diameter: 340 millimeter
Length: 4.63 meter (15.2 foot)
Wingspan: 910 millimeter
Max Range: 124 kilometer (67 nautical mile)

Top Speed: 237 mps (853 kph)
Thrust: 660 pound
Warhead: 224 kilogram (494 pound)
Weight: 691 kilogram


Spanish Navy Frigate SPS Mendez Numez’s – Contando Estrelas

ESSM has semi-active radar guidance with tail control motor to improve range, speed and manoeuvrability. The medium-range Raytheon standard missile SM-2MR Block IIIA provides area defence. SM-2MR has a range of 70km, a speed of Mach 2.5 and has semi-active radar seeker and an Aegis radio command link. Both ESSM and SM-2MR use the Lockheed Martin Mark 41 vertical launch system.

Mk 41 vertical launch system (48 cell)


The MK 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) is the worldwide standard in shipborne missile launching systems. Under the guidance of the US Navy, Martin Marietta performs the design, development, production, and field support that make the battle-proven VLS the most advanced shipborne missile launching system in the world. The Mk 41 VLS simultaneously supports multiple warfighting capabilities, including antiair warfare, antisubmarine warfare, ship self-defense, strike warfare, and antisurface warfare.

The Vertical Launching System (VLS) Mk 41 is a canister launching system which provides a rapid-fire launch capability against hostile threats. The missile launcher consists of a single eight-cell missile module, capable of launching SEASPARROW missiles used against hostile aircraft, missiles and surface units. Primary units of the VLS are two Launch Control Units, one 8-Cell Module, one 8-Cell System Module, a Remote Launch Enable Panel and a Status Panel.


F110 Frigate – NavantiaOficial YouTube

Raytheon standard missile SM-2MR Block IIIA

SM2BLKIIIA view3.jpg3f13ab02-0dc7-45ec-b53e-a9c28bba83b0Large

The Standard Missile-2 is the world’s premier fleet-area air defense weapon, providing superior anti-air warfare and limited anti-surface warfare capability against today’s advanced anti-ship missiles and aircraft out to 90 nautical miles and an altitude of 65,000 feet. SM-2 is an integral part of layered defense that protects the world’s important naval assets and gives warfighters a greater reach in the battlespace.

SM-2 Block IIIA and IIIB features

  • Advanced semi-active radar seeker technologies in both continuous wave and interrupted continuous wave guidance modes
  • Tail controls and solid rocket motor propulsion to engage the world’s advanced high-speed maneuvering threats at tactically significant ranges
  • IIIB enhances the IIIA’s existing superior capabilities by adding autonomous infrared acquisition
  • High-technology active radar target detection device and directional warhead to ensure successful destruction of the target


*Standard SM-2MR Block IIIB on F105 Cristóbal Colón


General Characteristics, SM-2 Block III/IIIA/IIIB Medium Range
Primary Function: Surface to air missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems.
Date Deployed: 1981 (SM-2 MR).
Propulsion: Dual thrust, solid fuel rocket.
Length: 15 feet, 6 inches (4.72 meters).
Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.3 cm).
Wingspan: 3 feet 6 inches (1.08 meters).
Weight: SM-2: 1,558 pounds (708 kg).
Range: Up to 90 nautical miles (104 statute miles).
Guidance System: Semi-active radar homing (IR in Block IIIB).
Warhead: Radar and contact fuse, blast-fragment warhead.


RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow

RIM-162 ESSM was developed by the U.S. Navy in cooperation with an international consortium of other NATO partners plus Australia. ESSM is a short-range, semi-active homing missile that makes flight corrections via radar and midcourse data uplinks. The missile provides reliable ship self-defense capability against agile, high-speed, low-altitude anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs), low velocity air threats (LVATs), such as helicopters, and high-speed, maneuverable surface threats. ESSM is integrated with a variety of U.S. and international launchers and combat systems across more than 10 different navies.

ESSM has an 8-inch diameter forebody that tapers to a 10-inch diameter rocket motor. The forebody includes a guidance section uses a radome-protected antenna for semi-active homing and attaches to an improved warhead section. A high-thrust, solid-propellant 10-inch diameter rocket motor provides high thrust for maneuverability with tail control via a Thrust Vector Controller (TVC).

ESSM’s effective tracking performance and agile kinematics result from S- and X-band midcourse uplinks, high average velocity and tail control, increased firepower through a vertical “quad pack” launcher (Mk-41 VLS), and greater lethality with a warhead designed for defeating hardened ASCMs.

Primary Function: Surface-To-Air and Surface-To-Surface radar-guided missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems, Tuscson, Ariz.
Date Deployed: 2004
Unit Cost: $787000 – $972000 depending on configuration
Propulsion: NAMMO-Raufoss, Alliant (solid fuel rocket)
Length: 12 feet (3,64 meters)
Diameter: 8 inches (20,3 cm) – 10 inches (25,4 cm)
Weight: 622 pounds (280 kilograms)
Speed: Mach 4+
Range: more than 27 nmi (more than 50 km)
Guidance System: Raytheon semi-active on continuous wave or interrupted continuous wave illumination
Warhead: Annular blast fragmentation warhead, 90 pounds (40,5 kg)


F110 Frigate – NavantiaOficial YouTube

Tomahawk cruise missile


Tomahawk is an all-weather submarine or ship-launched land-attack cruise missile. After launch, a solid propellant propels the missile until a small turbofan engine takes over for the cruise portion of flight. Tomahawk is a highly survivable weapon. Radar detection is difficult because of the missile’s small cross-section, low altitude flight. Similarly, infrared detection is difficult because the turbofan engine emits little heat. Systems include Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver; an upgrade of the optical Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation (DSMAC) system; Time of Arrival (TOA) control, and improved 402 turbo engines.

The Tomahawk land-attack cruise missile has been used to attack a variety of fixed targets, including air defense and communications sites, often in high-threat environments. The land attack version of Tomahawk has inertial and terrain contour matching (TERCOM) radar guidance. The TERCOM radar uses a stored map reference to compare with the actual terrain to determine the missile’s position. If necessary, a course correction is then made to place the missile on course to the target. Terminal guidance in the target area is provided by the optical Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation (DSMAC) system, which compares a stored image of target with the actual target image. Source


General Characteristics
Primary Function: Long-range subsonic cruise missile for striking high value or heavily defended land targets.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems Company, Tucson, AZ.
Date Deployed: Block II TLAM-A IOC – 1984
Block III – IOC 1994
Block IV – IOC 2004.
Propulsion: Block II/III TLAM-A, C & D – Williams International F107 cruise turbo-fan engine; ARC/CSD solid-fuel booster
Length: 20.3 feet; with booster: 20 feet 6 inches (6.25 meters).
Diameter: 21 inches
Wingspan: 8 feet 9 inches (2.67 meters).
Weight: 3,330 pounds with rocket motor.
Speed: Subsonic – about 550 mph (880 km/h).
Range: Block III TLAM-C – 900 nautical miles (1000 statute miles, 1600 km)
Block III TLAM-D – 700 nautical miles (800 statute miles, 1250 km
Block IV TLAM-E – 900 nautical miles (1000 statute miles, 1600 km)
Guidance System: Block II TLAM-A – INS, TERCOM
Warhead: Block II TLAM-N – W80 nuclear warhead
Block III TLAM-C and Block IV TLAM-E – 1,000 pound class unitary warhead
Block III TLAM-D – conventional submunitions dispenser with combined effect bomblets.


The ship is equipped with the BAE Systems, Land & Armaments (formerly United Defense) mk45 mod 2 gun controlled by the DORNA radar / electro-optic fire control system from FABA. DORNA sensors include K-band radar and tracking radar along with an infrared camera, TV and laser rangefinder.

Mk45 mod 2 gun

Visit to Vigo of the frigates “Álvaro de Bazán” F-101 and “Admirante Juan de Borbón” F-102 of the Spanish Navy, both of the class “Álvaro de Bazán” (also known as F-100), May 27 and 28, 2017. – Contando Estrelas

*For F-105 – 127/54 Mk 45 Mod. 4


Fully-automatic naval gun mount employed against surface (anti-surface warfare – ASuW), air (anti-air warfare – AAW) and land attack (Naval Surface Fire Support – NSFS) targets.


The MK 45 gun was developed as a lighter weight, more easily maintained replacement for the MK 42 5″/54 caliber gun mount. It is designed to engage surface and air targets and to provide naval surface fire support for expeditionary operations. The MK 45 MOD 4 gun mount upgrade includes a longer barrel (62 caliber) that improves the gun’s effectiveness as a land attack weapon (naval surface fire support).

The gun mount includes a 20 round automatic loader drum. The gun’s maximum firing rate is 16-20 rounds from the loader drum per minute. The rounds in the loader drum can be fired with one crewmember located at the EP-2 console below deck. Additional rounds can be loaded and fired by the full crew (Mount Captain, EP-2 Operator and four ammunition handlers), all of which are stationed below deck.

screenshotAtUploadCC_1514617125731Visit to Vigo of the frigates “Álvaro de Bazán” F-101 and “Admirante Juan de Borbón” F-102 of the Spanish Navy, both of the class “Álvaro de Bazán” (also known as F-100), May 27 and 28, 2017. – Contando Estrelas
General Characteristics
Primary Function: Fully-automatic, naval gun mount.
Date Deployed: 1971 (Mark 45 Mod 0)
Range: 13 nautical miles (14.9 statute miles) with conventional ammunition.
Type Fire: 16-20 rounds per minute automatic, conventional ammunition.
Magazine Capacity: 600 rounds conventional for Destroyers; 1200 rounds conventional for Cruisers.
Caliber: 5 inch 54 caliber (MK 54 Mod 1/2) barrel length of 270 inches (54 x 5)
Guidance System: MK 45 Gun Mount is remotely fired from the MK 160 Gun Computer System or MK 86 Gun Fire Control System during normal operations
Platforms: MK 45 MOD 1 (5″/54) – CGs 61, 63-68 (2 gun mounts per ship). MK 45 MOD 2 (5″/54) – DDGs 51-80 5″ 54 (1 gun mount per ship); CGs 69-73 (2 gun mounts per ship). MK 45 MOD 4 (5″/62) – DDG 81-113AF (1 gun mount per ship); CG 52-60, 62 (2 gun mounts per ship).


DORNA radar / electro-optic fire control system

DORNA radar / electro-optic fire control system on top of bridge on the lower right of picture – Tom McClean YouTube

DORNA is an evolved concept of a Fire Control System oriented towards client needs which accordingly adapts its interfaces to the vessel’s Combat System, Navigation System, Weapons, or on-board video distribution system.

It boasts anti-air warfare, surface, and coastal capabilities, besides surveillance, training and maintenance features, as well as other secondary features such as navigation support, warning rounds, etc.

It is available in two basic configurations: either equipped with a monitoring radar and
electrical-optical sensors (such as the ones installed in frigates F100 and BAM ships of the
Spanish Navy) or only with electric-optical sensors (such as those installed in LCS ships of the
US Navy). Source

As in Eletro-optical variante, the new generation is DORNA R/E-O Mod3A FCS which includes enhanced functionalities such as Post-mission analysis and Improved Onboard Training, apart from great compaction and simplified Through Life Support.

In both variants, DORNA comprises the following units:

  • Console. Its main task is to act as the human machine interface (HMI) center for the operator’s actions and supervision. It is optional, as DORNA can be integrated and handled from a Multi-Function Console of the CMS, if any.
  • FCS Director. It is a stabilized tracker mount with sensors, besides the associated control unit and (depending on the application) the tracking radar units.

DORNA [IR] – Infrared

General data:
Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 185.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Sensors / EW:
DORNA [IR] – Infrared
Role: Infrared, Weapon Director Camera
Max Range: 185.2 km


DORNA [Radar Tracker] – Radar

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 11.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 1980s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
DORNA [Radar Tracker] – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Weapon Director
Max Range: 11.1 km


DORNA [TV Camera] – Visual

General data:
Type: Visual Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 185.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Visual, 3rd Generation TV Camera (2000s/2010s, CCD)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Sensors / EW:
DORNA [TV Camera] – Visual
Role: Visual, Weapon Director TV Camera
Max Range: 185.2 km


The close-in weapon system (CIWS) is the 20mm Meroka 2B also from FABA. The Meroka CIWS includes infrared camera, video autotracker and is cued by the Aegis radar. Meroka has a range of 2,000m. There are also two 20mm machine guns.

2 x Oerlikon anti-aircraft gun 20/120 mm

Alvaro de Bazan – Telemadrid YouTube

CALIBER: 20mm and 120 calibers


WEIGHT: 405 Kg.

PART LENGTH: 4.6 meters

LENGTH CANYON: 2.4 meters

STRIPED: 12 dextrorsum stripes with passage from 0 to 6º


INITIAL SPEED: 1,200 meters per second

FEEDING: 40 shots drum

MAXIMUM SHOOTING LENGTH: 1,000 shots per minute

DIRECTION OF SHOOTING: Anti-aircraft viewer with grate reticle and aiming eyepiece with reticle


  • 2,000 meters in anti-aircraft shot
  • 2,500 meters in horizontal shot


2 x 25/75 Mk 38 on F105 Cristóbal Colón

25/75 Mk 38 on F105 Cristóbal Colón – Ikonos Press

The MK-38 is a 25-mm machine gun installed for ship self-defense to counter High Speed Maneuvering Surface Targets (HSMST).

General Characteristics
Primary Function: (Mod 1) Single barrel, air cooled, semi- and full-automatic, manually trained and elevated machine gun system.
Contractor: Contractor Mod 1: Designed and assembled by Crane Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center; components procured from various contractors.
Date Deployed: 1986.
Contractor Mod 2/3: BAE Systems Minneapolis, Minnesota; Rafael, Haifa, Israel.
Date Deployed: 2005; 280 systems installed as of December 2016.
Date Deployed: 2005.
Range: 2500 yards (effective range)
Type Fire: Single shot or Burst Mode; Maximum 180 rounds per minute automatic.
Caliber: 25 mm (1 inch).
Guidance System: Mod 1: N/A, manually trained and elevated.
Mod 2/3: Stabilized, remote control with electro-optic fire control system and auto-tracking capability.


4 x Browning 12.7 mm

Browning 12.7 mm on Alvaro de Bazan – Telemadrid YouTube

The ship has two mk32 double torpedo launchers for mk46 lightweight torpedoes and also two anti-ship mortars.

Mk32 double torpedo launchers

Mk32 Mod torpedo launcher (photo : Naval History)

12.75 inch (324mm) Mark 32 Surface Vessel Torpedo Tubes (Mk 32 SVTT):

Mk-32 / Mod. 9 (2 tubes) – for Mk-44, Mk-46 torpedoes

Mk-32 SVTT can be modified to use other 12.75″ torpedoes (such as EuroTorp MU90 / Eurotorp A244S LWT / BAE Systems StingraySource

Mk46 lightweight torpedoes (Mk46 NEARTIP Mod 5)

Type Anti-submarine torpedo
Platform Aircraft, surface ships, ASROC
Diameter 324 mm
Length 2.59 m
Weight 234.8 kg
Warhead 45 kg Mk 103 Mod 1 warhead with PBXN filling
Guidance Active/passive acoustic seeker
Propulsion Twin propeller
Power supply Liquid propellant Otto fuel engine
Speed 40 kt
Range 11 km
Depth 15 to 450 m below sea level

Sikorsky Seahawk helicopters

The F100 has a flight deck 26.4m long and will accommodate one helicopter. The Spanish Navy has acquired six new Sikorsky SH-60B LAMPS Mk III Seahawk helicopters.

A programme to upgrade six existing Seahawk helicopters to LAMPS mkIII standard was completed in January 2004. The helicopters are equipped with a FLIR and Hellfire laser-guided air-to-surface missiles and are deployed on the F100 and Santa Maria Class frigates.

Countermeasures suite

screenshotAtUploadCC_1514617620595Visit to Vigo of the frigates “Álvaro de Bazán” F-101 and “Admirante Juan de Borbón” F-102 of the Spanish Navy, both of the class “Álvaro de Bazán” (also known as F-100), May 27 and 28, 2017. – Contando Estrelas

The ship’s countermeasures suite includes Aldebaran Electronic Support Measures / Electronic Countermeasures (ESM/ECM) system, from Spain’s Indra Group, four Lockheed Martin Sippican mk36 SRBOC chaff and decoy launchers and the AN/SLQ-25A Nixie acoustic torpedo countermeasures system from Argon ST of Newington, Virginia. Mk3300 ESM Antenna and Mk 9500 ECM Antenna MÉNDEZ NÚÑEZ (F-104) – Tom McClean

Mk 9500 ECM suites

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 2000s
Sensors / EW:
EN/Mk9500 Regulus [Comms Monitor] – ESM
Max Range: 926 km


EN/SLQ-380 Aldebaran Mk3300 ESM

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1990s
Sensors / EW:
EN/SLQ-380 Aldebaran Mk3300 [ESM] – ESM
Max Range: 926 km


Nixie torpedo countermeasures

U.S. Navy photo

The decoy, also known as “Nixie,” is a modular, digitally controlled, electro-acoustic soft-kill countermeasure system. It uses an underwater towed body acoustic projector, deployed astern by a fiber optic tow cable. The system defends ships against wake homing, acoustic homing and wire-guided torpedoes. Source

General data:
Type: Decoy (Towed) Weight: 21 kg
Length: 0.94 m Span: 0.187 m
Diameter: 0.152 Generation: Late 1990s
Targets: Surface Vessel
AN/SLQ-25A Nixie – Decoy (Towed)
Surface Max: 1.9 km.


4 x Decoy lunchers (SRBOC MK-36)

BLAS DE LEZO (F-103) – Aitor Beobide Rubio Spotters

The BAE Systems Mk 36 SRBOC Chaff and Decoy Launching System is a shipboard, deck-mounted, 6-barreled mortar-type array that launches type-specific countermeasures against a variety of threats. Following launch and dispersion, Mk 36 SRBOC chaff and infrared countermeasures are designed to lure hostile missiles away from ships under attack by creating false target sets. Source


F110 Frigate – NavantiaOficial DE LEZO (F-103) – Aitor Beobide Rubio Spotters

The first four F-100 ships are equipped with the Lockheed Martin AN/SPY-1D fixed phased array radar for air and surface search. AN/SPY-1D is a multi-function E/F band, three-dimensional radar which is an essential part of the Aegis system. It provides instantaneous beam steering, target detection, fire control tracks on hundreds of targets, and multiple target kill assessment.

“The main missions of the F100 frigate include fleet protection and anti-air warfare.”

AN/SPY-1D radar

Visit to Vigo of the frigates “Álvaro de Bazán” F-101 and “Admirante Juan de Borbón” F-102 of the Spanish Navy, both of the class “Álvaro de Bazán” (also known as F-100), May 27 and 28, 2017. – Contando Estrelas


Army/Navy Joint Electronics Type Designation System/AN/SPY-1 Radar is critical for the U.S. Navy’s aerial radar infrastructure and is a key component of Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System at sea and on land. U.S. Navy cruisers and destroyers employ SPY-1—in addition to a number of foreign vessels—for Aegis Sea-Based BMD, while on land, the radar system is utilized by Aegis Ashore missile defense sites. Developed by Lockheed Martin, SPY-1 radar was originally designed as an air defense system, but has been upgraded to include a ballistic missile defense (BMD) capability. SPY-1’s passive electronic scanning system is computer controlled, using four complementary antennas in order to provide full 360 degree coverage. It operates in S-band and is a multi-function phased-array radar capable of search, automatic detection, transition to track, tracking of air and surface targets, and missile engagement support.

The SPY-1 can maintain continuous radar surveillance while automatically tracking more than 100 targets at one time. Public numerical figures on the SPY-1 detection range claim that it can detect a golf ball-sized target at ranges in excess of 165 km. When applied to a ballistic missile-sized target, the SPY-1 radar is estimated to have a range of 310 km. The system is designed for blue water and littoral operations however SPY-1 configuration must be modified to look above the terrain to avoid causing excessive false targets from land clutter. Configuration changes to mitigate this technical issue have made it more difficult for AN/SPY-1 to identify and track low and fast targets.

Regional Defense—Engagement Capability Aegis BMD systems are capable of detecting, tracking, targeting, and intercepting cruise and ballistic missile targets. After detecting and identifying a regional missile threat, Aegis BMD can engage and intercept the target using Standard Missile variants guided by tracking information provided by SPY-1. Aegis BMD-equipped cruisers and destroyers are being equipped with the capability to intercept short- and medium-range ballistic missiles as quickly as 10 seconds after the radar “sees” the missile’s movement.

Homeland Defense—Long-Range Surveillance and Tracking Aegis Destroyers on BMD patrol detect and track Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles with SPY-1, reporting tracking data to the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). The BMDS shares tracking data to cue other missile defense sensors and provides fire control data to Ground-based Mid-course Defense (GMD) interceptors located at Fort Greeley, Alaska and Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. To date, twenty-one Aegis Cruisers and Destroyers have been upgraded with the Long-Range Surveillance and Tracking capability. At-sea tracking events and flight tests have verified the capability to track Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles and demonstrated the connectivity and reliability of long-haul transmission of tracking data (across nine time zones), which is necessary to support missile defense situational awareness, target acquisition, and engagements.

Deployment Variants of the AN/SPY-1 radar are employed by all Aegis BMD systems, both on land—with Aegis Ashore—and at sea—on Ticonderoga (CG-47) Class Aegis Cruisers and Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) Class Aegis Destroyers. As of June 2015, there are 33 Aegis BMD-capable combatants in the U.S. Navy, 5 cruisers (CGs) and 28 destroyers (DDGs). Of the 33 ships, 16 are assigned to the Pacific Fleet and 17 to the Atlantic Fleet. U.S. allies with Aegis BMD-capable vessels, namely Japan, the Republic of Korea, Norway, and Spain also use the SPY-1.

SPY-1 radar employed by Aegis Ashore is virtually identical to that used by Aegis Sea-Based BMD. Currently, there is only one active Aegis Ashore site, which is located at the Deveselu Military Base in Romania, along with one under construction in Poland. There is an additional land-based test facility in Kauai, Hawaii.

screenshotAtUploadCC_1514617125728Spanish Navy Frigate SPS Mendez Numez’s – Contando Estrelas

SPY-1 Variants

Four different SPY-1 radar variants are currently deployed on U.S. ships. The original SPY-1 variant was a test version of the radar that was never deployed. The SPY-1A and 1B variants are equipped by Aegis cruisers and have two antenna faces on each of the two deckhouses, while the SPY-1D and 1D(V) variants are equipped by Aegis destroyers and have four antenna faces, each antenna covering slightly more than 90° in azimuth. All U.S. Aegis systems that have been upgraded for BMD are equipped with either the 1B, 1D, or 1D(V) version.

  • SPY-1A The SPY-1A was installed on the first Aegis cruiser, the USS Ticonderoga (CG 47), which was deployed in 1981. The U.S. Navy is currently in the process of phasing out the SPY-1A and most Aegis cruisers employ the upgraded 1B variant.
  • SPY-1B This SPY-1 variant has an improved antenna that is better suited to operate in a cluttered environment. The SPY-1B also has around twice the average power of the SPY-1A. 1B is currently employed by most Aegis cruisers.
  • SPY-1D The SPY-1D was the first SPY-1 radar developed for Aegis destroyers. This variant is similar to the 1B version, however, one transmitter is used by the 1D to drive all four radar faces, which are all located on a single deckhouse. This upgrade also improves the radar’s performance against low-altitude, reduced radar cross-section targets in heavily cluttered environments and in the presence of electronic countermeasures. The four U.S. destroyers based in Rota, Spain in 2015 as part of the European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) are equipped with SPY-1D radar.
  • SPY-1D(V) Called the “littoral warfare” radar, the SPY-1D(V) improved clutter rejection and moving target detection, enhancing the capability of Aegis radar in cluttered environments.
  • SPY-1F This variant—known as the “frigate array radar system”—is designed for Aegis frigates and is a smaller version of the SPY-1D. While not employed by the U.S. Navy, the SPY-1F is used by Norway on their Fridtjof Nansen-class Aegis frigates.


* SPY-1D(V) for F105 Cristóbal Colón

F110 Frigate – NavantiaOficial YouTube
General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 60960 m
Range Max: 324.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 1.1 km Generation: Early 1990s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
AN/SPY-1D MFR – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air, Long-Range
Max Range: 324.1 km


F110 Frigate – NavantiaOficial YouTube

2 x MK 99 radar illuminator

Aft MK-99 Fire Control System (FCS) Spanish Navy Frigate SPS Mendez Numez’s – Contando Estrelas

The MK-99 Fire Control System (FCS) is a major component of the AEGIS Combat System. It controls the loading and arming of the selected weapon, launches the weapon, and provides terminal guidance for AAW missiles. FCS controls the continuous wave illuminating radar, providing a very high probability of kill. The Mk-99 Fire Control System (FCS) also controls the target illumination for the terminal guidance of Ship Launched SM-2 Anti-Air Missiles.

The Mk 99 MFCS controls the loading and arming of the selected weapon, launches the weapon, and provides terminal guidance for AAW (Anti-Air Warfare) missiles. It also controls the target illumination for the terminal guidance of SM-2 Anti-Air missiles. The radar system associated with the Mk 99 MFCS is the missile illuminator AN/SPG-62. Source

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 305.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Late 1980s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination
Sensors / EW:
AN/SPG-62 [Mk99 FCS] – Radar
Role: Radar Illuminator, Long-Range
Max Range: 305.6 km


BLAS DE LEZO (F-103) – Andreas Randall YouTube

The fifth vessel, Cristobal Colon (F105), is fitted with the SPY-1D(V), which includes an upgrade to improve littoral performance. The air-search radar is the three-dimensional TRS and surface-search radar is the G/H band AN/SPS-67(V)3 from DRS technologies.

Thales Sirius LR-IRST long-range dual-band infrared search and track systems (?)

Thales Naval Nederland Sirius LR-IRST long-range dual-band infrared search and track systems This is a high-powered Infra Red surveillance system. It is very useful for locating sea-skimming missiles. It is designed and build by Thales. Sirius is a dual-band IR detection and tracking sensor with an 8-12 micron and a 3-5 micron IR camera on a pedestal. The former has a window which elevates to 14 degrees and the latter a window which elevates to 3 degrees. Scan rate is 53 rpm and an airplane can be detected at up to 15km, a missile at up to 12km. The system can carry over 500 tracks and provides automatic alerts on the 32 most threatening tracks with a false alarm rate of less than 1/hr. SIRIUS provides data directly to the SEWACO Combat Data System as digital data to the databus and video to the video bus. Each band can be processed separately providing three different outputs – each band individually or a combined output.




The AN/SPS-67 is a two-dimensional pulsed radar set primarily designed for surface search and navigation, and limited air search capability. It can also detect antiship-missiles (ASM) and low-flying aircraft. The AN/SPS-67 is a successor to the AN/SPS-10.

The AN/SPS-67(V)3 antenna consists of an L-band IFF- monopulse array antenna integrated atop a C-band feed horn array antenna using horizontal linear polarisation. Its nominal elevations beam width is 28 degrees.

Below-decks, AN/SPS-67 consists of a transceiver, a video processor, a radar control unit, an antenna controller and an antenna safety switch, all of which are housed in five cabinets. System performance is improved via the addition of a very narrow pulse mode (0.1 µs) for better navigation and improved resolution of small targets at short ranges. Long and medium pulse (1 and 0.25 µs) modes are used in open sea for detection of long- and medium-range targets.

frequency: 5 450 … 5 825 MHz
pulse repetition time (PRT):
pulse repetition frequency (PRF): 750, 1200 or 2400 Hz
pulsewidth (τ): 1 µs, 0.25 µs or 0.1 µs
receive time:
dead time:
peak power: 280 kW
average power:
instrumented range: 56 NM (≙ 104 km)
range resolution:
beamwidth: 1.6°
hits per scan:
antenna rotation: 2 or 4 rpm
MTBCF: > 600 hrs




The Radar Set AN/SPS-73(V)12 is a short-range, two-dimensional, surface search/navigation radar system that provides contact range and bearing information. The AN/SPS-73(V)12 provides for signal processing and automatic target detection capability. The AN/SPS-73(V)12 surface search function provides short-range detection and surveillance of surface units and low-flying air units, while the AN/SPS-73(V)12 navigation function enables quick and accurate determination of own ship position relative to nearby vessels and navigational hazards. The system’s radar processors and displays combine Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products and specialized technologies to create navigational awareness. The AN/SPS-73(V)12 is replacing the AN/SPS-64(V) and AN/SPS-55(V) systems in their capacity as navigational radars on the US Navy Ships.

The AN/SPS-73(V) radar has Built-In-Test functionality for improved reliability, capability and maintainability. The AN/SPS-73(V) can track up to 200 targets on a single system or 300 targets on a dual system with speeds up to 210 knots. The AN/SPS-73(V) Radar tracks surface crafts, obstructions, shorelines, buoys and navigational markers in order to assist in navigation, collision avoidance, surface surveillance and limited detection of low flying aircraft. The AN/SPS-73(V) is designed to commercial standards for navigation radars and is in compliance with various electronics interfacing standards (e.g., NMEA 0183). This radar system is a digital system, which outperforms the previous analog AN/SPS-64(V) Radar. The system can be easily integrated with other navigation and information processing systems, such as AIS, Electronic Chart Display Information System-Navy (via IBS) and Navigation Sensor System Interface. The AN/SPS-73(V) system can also be modified to accommodate future interfaces and requirements; the systems’ Interface Design Document describes the data, status, and control inputs and outputs of the radar and facilitates integration into other systems.

General Characteristics
Primary Function: Short-range, two-dimensional, surface-search/navigation radar system that provides contact range and bearing information.
Contractor: Raytheon Portsmouth, Rhode Island (Original Equipment Manufacturer).
Unit Cost: $421,000.
Weight: Above Deck: AS-4472/SPS-73(V) – 18.5 lbs., AS-4473/SPS-73(V) – 21.8 lbs., AB-1399/SPS-73(V) – 63.9 lbs., AB-1399(A)/SPS-73(V) – 68.9 lbs., 7614132. Antenna Safety Switch – 2.0 lbs.

Source IFF MÉNDEZ NÚÑEZ (F-104) – Tom McClean

The hull-mounted sonar is the Raytheon DE1160 LF active and passive sonar. The Sikorsky SH-60 Seahawk helicopter is equipped with AN/SQQ-28 LAMPS III sonobuoys.

Raytheon DE1160 LF active and passive sonar


The DE 1160 is known as the DE 1164 when configured as a Variable-Depth Sonar (YDS). As a YDS, the sonar can descend to 656 ft (200 m) and be towed at speeds up to 20 knots.
The DE 1160 is capable of convergence zone performance when equipped with three additional transmitter cabinets (for a total of eight) and a larger, low-frequency transducer array. This configuration, which is fitted to the Italian aircraft carrier Giuseppi Garibaldi, is known as the DE 1160LF. The DE 1160LF/VDS combines the capabilities of the 1160LF with the VDS ability to adapt to the environment of the DE 1164.

The 1167 is smaller and less expensive. The sonar can be fitted in a hull dome or deployed as a VDS, or as an integrated hull dome and VDS. The VDS transmits at 12 kHz and the 36-stave circular, hull-mounted array transmits at either 12 or 7.5 kHz. Source

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 14.8 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1980s
Sensors / EW:
DE 1160LF – Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 14.8 km


AN/SQQ-28 LAMPS III sonobuoys

The AN/SQQ-28 sonar signal processing system, part of the SQQ-89 (V) USW Combat System, provides shipboard sonobuoy processor support for the Light Airborne Multipurpose System (LAMPS MK III) to detect submarines and provide accurate classification and targeting data. The LAMPS helicopter uses sonobuoys and magnetic anomaly detection devices to detect underwater contacts. Acoustic and electromagnetic data generated by these sensors are relayed from the helicopter to ownship for processing, evaluation, and display by the AN/SQQ-28. The AN/SQQ-28 also provides for the relaying of tactical instructions, weapon delivery information, and transmission of other processed data, including digitized voice communications to the LAMPS helicopter. When the LAMPS helicopter is performing its anti-ship surveillance and targeting mission, the AN/SQQ-28 relays radar and ESM data from the helicopter to ownship’s command and control system. The system incorporates the AN/UYS-1 Advanced Signal Processor (ASP) Input Signal Conditioner (ISC) subunit to provide analog and digital input channels and preconditioning of acoustic signal data received from sonobouys, as well and other functions including tape control and audio. Source

AN/SQQ-89(V) Surface Ship ASW Combat System

SQQ-89 12 Aug 2014

The AN/SQQ-89(V) Surface Ship ASW Combat System provides integrated Undersea Warfare (USW) combat management, fire control, command and control, and onboard training to enable surface combatants to support engagement of USW targets in both open ocean and littoral environments. The AN/SQQ-89(V) provides surface warships with a seamlessly integrated undersea/anti-submarine warfare detection, localization, classification and targeting capability. The system presents an integrated picture of the acoustic tactical situation by receiving, combining and processing active and passive sonar sensor data from a variety of hull-mounted arrays, towed arrays, and sonobuoys. In addition to active and passive detection, the system provides a full range of USW functions: underwater fire control, onboard training capability, a highly-evolved display subsystem and integration with the Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS MK III and Block II Upgrade) helicopter for sonobuoy signal processing. The system has been deployed on Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG 7) class frigates (all currently in foreign naval service), Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) class destroyers, and Ticonderoga (CG 47) class cruisers. When installed on Aegis equipped destroyers and cruisers, the AN/SQQ-89(V) is integrated with the Aegis Combat System. It is the technological foundation for the AN/SQQ-90 system aboard Zumwalt (DDG 1000) class destroyers, the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Mission Package and is being considered for the future Fast Frigate (FF) ASW suite, as well as the basis of several Foreign Military Sales (FMS) sonar system packages. Source DE LEZO (F-103) – Aitor Beobide Rubio Spotters

CODAG propulsion system

The F100 is equipped with a combined diesel and gas propulsion (CODAG) system with two GE LM 2500 gas turbines providing 34.8MW and two Navantia diesel engines rated 9MW. The shafts drive two controllable pitch propellers.


Displacement standard, t F101-104: 4555

F105: 4605

Displacement full, t F101-104: 6000

F105: 6050

Length, m 133.2 pp 146.7 oa
Breadth, m 18.6
Draught, m 7.20 max 4.75 mean hull
No of shafts 2
Machinery F101-104: CODOG: 2 General Electric LM-2500 gas turbines / 2 Caterpillar CAT3600B12 diesels

F105: CODOG: 2 General Electric LM-2500 gas turbines / 2 Caterpillar CAT3600B16 diesels

Power, h. p. F101-104: 47600 / 12240

F105: 47600 / 16320

Max speed, kts 29
Fuel, t gas turbine / diesel oil
Endurance, nm(kts) 5000(18)
Armament F101-104: 2 x 4 Harpoon SSM (8 RGM-84F), 1 x 48 Standard SM-2MR Block IIIA SAM / ESSM SAM (VLS, 32 RIM-66L / 64 RIM-162), 1 x 1 – 127/54 Mk 45 Mod. 2, 2 x 1 – 20/120 Oerlikon, 4 x 1 – 12.7/90, 4 – 324 Mk 32 Mod. 9 TT, 1 helicopter (SH-60B)

F105: 2 x 4 Harpoon SSM (8 RGM-84F), 1 x 48 Standard SM-2MR Block IIIB SAM / ESSM SAM (VLS, 32 RIM-66L / 64 RIM-162), 1 x 1 – 127/54 Mk 45 Mod. 4, 2 x 1 – 25/75 Mk 38, 4 x 1 – 12.7/90, 4 – 324 Mk 32 Mod. 9 TT, 1 helicopter (SH-60B)

Sensors F101-104: SPY-1D, SPS-73(v)12, SPS-67(v)3, 2x SPG-62, DORNA radars, Sirius e/o director, DE1160 sonar, Elnath Mk 9000, Aldebarán SLQ-380, Regulus Mk 9500 ECM suites, 4x Mk 36 SRBOC decoy RL, SLQ-25 Nixie torpedo decoy, DANCS CCS

F105: SPY-1D(v), 2x Aries, 2x SPG-62, DORNA radars, FLIR e/o detector, Sirius e/o director, DE1160 sonar, Elnath Mk 9000, Aldebarán SLQ-380, Regulus Mk 9500 ECM suites, 4x Mk 36 SRBOC decoy RL, SLQ-25 Nixie torpedo decoy, DANCS CCS

Complement 235


Main material source

Maim image Spanish Navy Álvaro de Bazán class –

Antonov An-188 Military Transport Aircraft

Antonov An-188 multi-purpose military transport aircraft is a modification of An-70 medium-range transport aircraft developed by Ukrainian aircraft manufacturing company Antonov.

The An-188 aircraft development programme was unveiled at the 51st Paris Air Show held in Le Bourget, Paris, France, in June 2015.

Turkish Undersecretary for Defense Industries (SMM) and Ukrainian state-run defence company entered a co-operative agreement to jointly produce the An-188 aircraft, during the Eurasia Airshow held in Turkey in April 2018. A scale model of the aircraft was also displayed at the air show.

The aircraft will be modified in compliance with Nato standards and will be installed with new components and equipment outsourced by foreign companies. It is intended primarily for the Ukrainian Air Force.

The aircraft will be used for transportation of personnel, cargo and all kinds of military equipment.

An-188 military transport aircraft design and features

The An-188 military transport aircraft has a length of 41m, height of 16m and wingspan of 44m. It will have a maximum take-off weight of 140t and maximum cargo carrying capacity of 50t.


The airlifter design uses a high-wing arrangement with four engines. It will be fitted with a strengthened landing gear assembly consisting of a twin-wheeled nose gear and a multi-wheeled main gear underneath the fuselage.

Featuring short take-off and landing (STOL) capability, the jet-powered aircraft will be able to perform take-off and landing on different airfields, including unpaved runways and short runways with a length of 915m.

Cargo hold of the AN-70

The cargo cabin of the aircraft will be 19.1m-long, 4m-wide and 4.1m-high. With a volume of 400m³, the spacious cargo cabin will allow for the carriage of a variety of cargo, including military equipment, Puma / Lynx helicopters, infantry fighting vehicles, construction equipment, pallets, containers, and humanitarian cargo.

by RodgerSaintJohn

The aircraft can accommodate up to 300 soldiers or 206 wounded troops over two decks when deployed in medical evacuation operation. More than 130 fully equipped paratroops can be carried aboard the aircraft in troop transport configuration.

The aircraft can airdrop up to 21t of cargo and carry heavy payloads weighing up to 35t.


Antonov An-70: Details

Cockpit and avionics

Antonov An-70 cockpit – Alexey Reznichenko

The An-188 military transport aircraft will have advanced glass cockpit that seats up to three crew members, including a pilot, a co-pilot and a flight engineer. The cockpit will feature modern head-up displays, and latest navigation and communication equipment.

The aircraft will be outfitted with modern and reliable avionics to support safe operation.

An-188 military transport aircraft propulsion and performance

The An-188 military transport aircraft will be equipped with four modern, cost-effective D-436-148FM turbofan engines, rated at 8,800kgf each.

Manufactured by JSC Motor Sich Public, the engines will deliver high speed and increased flight range with less fuel consumption. The engine is 3.7m-long, 1.78m-wide and 1.93m-high, and has a dry weight of 1,450kg.

D-436-148FM turbofan engines

Designed to power short-haul passenger aircraft with passenger capacity of up to 100 people. Installed on the An-148 and the An-158 regional passenger aircraft. It meets the effective environmental requirements of ICAO standards. In commercial production since 2005.

 Automatic control system
adjustment types:
D-436-148B D-436-148D
Takeoff (S/L static; ISA)
Thrust, kgf 6,570 7,010
Specific fuel consumption, kg/h/kgf 0.351 0.351
Maximum cruise( Н=11,000 m, Мп=0.75 ISA+10°С)
Thrust, kgf 1,560 1,560
Specific fuel consumption, kg/h/kgf 0.6 0.6
Dimensions, mm 4,034 x 1,784 x 1,930
Weight, dry, kg 1,400


The aircraft will also be compatible with AI-28 new-generation engines or CFM International LEAP high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines.

CFM International LEAP high-bypass turbofan engines

The LEAP® engine was developed by Safran Aircraft Engines and GE through their joint company, CFM International, to power the next generation of single-aisle commercial jets. Combining the best technologies from the two partners, LEAP offers operators exceptional performance while retaining the legendary reliability of the CFM56®. These capabilities have already made the engine a best seller, even before it has entered revenue service.

Applications Airbus A319neo, Airbus A320neo, Airbus A321neo
Max. takeoff thrust (lbf) 35,000
Bypass ratio 11
Fan diameter (in) 78
Number of fan/low-pressure/high-pressure compressor stages 1+3+10
Number of high-pressure/low-pressure turbine stages 7+2
Entry into service 2016


The airlifter will have a speed of approximately 800km/h and a cruising altitude of approximately 12,000m. It will be able to travel to distances up to 7,700km based on the engine type. The fuel consumption of the plane is estimated to be 4,600kg per flight hour.


Main material source

MH-47G Chinook Special Operations Helicopter

The Boeing MH-47G is a special operations variant of the CH-47 Chinook multi-role, heavy-lift helicopter. It is in service with the US Army Special Operations Aviation Command (USASOC). The first new-build MH-47G helicopter was delivered to the USASOC in September 2014.

The MH-47G is used in heavy-lift missions such as the transportation of troops, ammunition, vehicles, equipment, fuel and supplies, as well as civil and humanitarian relief missions. The helicopter can conduct long-range missions at low level, in adverse weather conditions during the day / at night.

Boeing received a $26.9m indefinite-delivery / indefinite-quantity contract for the production of Block 2 MH-47G aircraft in July.

Boeing receives contract for MH-47G special operations helicopters: Here


Boeing has received a $27 million contract from the U.S. Special Operations Command for preparatory work on the production of Block 2 MH-47G Chinook special operations helicopters, the Department of Defense announced.

The contract calls for incorporating new and existing stockpiles of government and contractor components to upgrade CH-47 ariframes to the MH-47G variant. The airframes are being modified under the auspices of the Thechnology Applications Program Office.

The 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) of the US Army has the requirement for 61 MH-47Gs. The MH-47G modernisation programme is aimed at delivering a mix of remanufactured and new MH-47Gs to the USASOC.

MH-47G design and features

The MH-47G incorporates a monolithic, machine-framed fuselage integrating long-range fuel tanks, and an extendable refuelling probe to receive fuel mid-air from fixed-wing tankers. The helicopter also possesses advanced cargo-handling capabilities.

The airframe houses a rear ramp for loading / unloading of troops, supplies and vehicles. The port side of the fuselage features a gunner’s window / firing port. The helicopter offers seating for five crew, including two pilots and three crew-chiefs or aerial gunners.

A U.S. Army Special Forces soldier backs a LTATV vehicle up the ramp of a MH-47 Chinook.U.S. Air National Guard photo by Tech. Sgt. Jorge Intriago/Released

The helicopter can be fitted with special operations equipment such as a fast rope insertion extraction system (FRIES), a special patrol insertion and extraction system (SPIES), a rope ladder, an electrically powered rescue hoist and a personnel location system (PLS).

The fuselage of the MH-47G measures 15.9m-long and 4.8m-wide. The overall length of the helicopter with unfolded rotors is 30.18m. It has a maximum gross weight of 24,494kg and can transport a useful load of 11,340kg.

The MH-47G uses 2 T55-GA-714A engines with IES-47 Infrared Exhaust Suppressors fitted to reduce the helicopter’s IR visibility. Enhanced Air Transportability Pylons allow for faster re-build of an air-transported helicopter. ‘Fat tanks’ are fitted in the form of enlarge fuel sponsoons that extend the MH-47G’s range. An extendable refueling probe allows the aircraft to take on fuel mid-air from compatible fixed-wing tankers. The airframe a belly hatch, bubble windows along each side and a rear ramp that can be used to load and off-load troops, supplies and vehicles. A rescue hoist/winch is mounted above the starboard-side forward door. A gunner’s window / firing port is found on the port side fuselage, rear of the flight deck. A door is on the opposite side, which has a rescue hoist mounted over it. Source

US Army begins process to replace manufactured MH-47G Block 1 Chinooks with Block 2 newbuilds

The US Army is moving ahead with plans to begin replacing its current remanufactured MH-47G Block 1 Chinook special mission helicopters with newbuild Block 2 platforms.

A request for information (RFI) issued by the Aviation Integration Division (AMCOM) on 14 March calls for an initial six newbuild MH-47G Block 2 Chinooks with an option for a further eight helicopters to partially replace the army’s 61 MH-47Gs that were made from remanufactured CH-47D and MH-47D/E airframes.

Fielded by the US Army Special Operations Command (USASOC), the current MH-47G fleet comprises the 61 remanufactured Block 1 helicopters (62 were delivered – 35 CH-47Ds, 9 MH-47Ds, and 18 MH-47Es – although one was lost on operations in Afghanistan), as well as 8 newbuild MH-47Gs for a total fleet of 69 Block 1 platforms.

Derived from the baseline CH-47F heavy-lift Chinook, the MH-47G is a specialist special-mission platform that features double-capacity ‘fat’ fuel tanks, an in-flight aerial refuelling probe, a digital advanced flight control system, and classified sensors and electronic warfare kits specified by SOCOM. The USASOC’s MH-47Gs are among the most heavily utilised in the army’s inventory, and it is likely that all 69 Block 1 helicopters will eventually be replaced with Block 2 models.

The Block 2 enhancements, which are being developed for the US Army’s wider CH-47F fleet, include the Advanced Chinook Rotor Blade (ACRB), which features geometry and a new asymmetric aerofoil to increase the aircraft’s lift capacity by about 1,500 lb (680 kg) at 4,000 ft and 35°C in the hover (the army’s 4K/95 performance benchmark). Source

Cockpit and avionics

The helicopter features a fully integrated digital cockpit management system. The cockpit accommodates a pilot and a co-pilot in a side-by-side arrangement. The night vision goggle-compatible glass digital cockpit features five liquid crystal multi-function displays (MFDs) and two control display units (CDUs).

Pilots of a MH-47G Chinook perform pre-flight tests. Note the 5 MFD LCD displays visible as part of the digital glass cockpit. The pilots interact with these MFDs via the switches in their surrounding bezel. Also visible, level with the pilot’s upper arms, are the screens and keyboards for the 2 lower Control Display Units (CDUs). U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Elizabeth Rissmiller/Released

The integrated digital common avionics architecture system (CAAS) of the cockpit allows for the integration of global communications and navigation systems, including a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and a multi-mode radar. The FLIR, along with an electro-optical camera mounted below the chin, enables low-level flights in low-visibility and adverse weather conditions.

The cockpit also houses a digital moving map display, dual digital data buses, an inertial doppler navigational system, an automatic target hand-off system, a GPS receiver and a Rockwell Collins low-frequency automatic direction finder.

The on-board communication systems include a high-frequency (HF) radio, a single-channel ground and airborne radio system, four ultra high-frequency (UHF) / very high-frequency (VHF) radios, a blue force tracking system, an IFF transponder and a digital inter-communication system (DICS).

The cockpit also features digital moving map display, dual MIL-STD-1553 digital databuses, AN/ASN-137 inertial doppler navigational set, CP1516-ASQ automatic target hand-off system, AN/ASN-149(V)2 GPS receiver and Rockwell Collins AN/ARN-149(V) low-frequency automatic direction finder.

Fight to Fly Photography YouTube

Rockwell Collins AN/ARN-149(V) low-frequency automatic direction finder

The system gives your military aircraft around the world the ability to navigate in austere locations where a commercial AM broadcast signal is the only available navigation aid.

Features & Benefits

  • Lightweight – under 11 lbs for complete system
  • Synthesized digital tuning
  • Internal, field-upgradable, MIL-STD1553 compatibility (input and output functions) with retention of analog interface
  • 100 to 2199.5 kHz frequency coverage in 500 Hz steps; positive digital selection
  • Integrated sense-loop antenna, dual antenna available for dual installations
  • Dual identification tone filter enhances Morse tones for positive aural identification even with noisy reception conditions
  • Two preset emergency channels
  • Easy retrofit; uses existing control wiring in most cases
  • Internal QEC, connector-strapped; airframe wiring sets QEC
  • Meets RTCA MOPS
  • DO-160 rated for hard mounting in helicopters and fixed wing aircraft
  • High reliability; predicted MTBF is 4,900 hours


MH-47G Sensors

  • AN/ZSQ-2 EOSS – A foward-looking infrared (FLIR) and electro-opitcal camera mounting in a bubble under the helicopter’s chin enables the pilots to fly low level, at night and in marginal weather
  • AN/APQ-174B Multi-mode Radar ‘Silent Knight’ multi-mode radar
    the MH-47’s radar features terrain-following, terrain-avoidance and weather detection modes

AN/ZSQ-2 electro-optical sensor system

AN/ZSQ-2 V1 Electro-Optical Sensor System (EOSS) – Image – Joe A. Kunzler

The Raytheon AN/ZSQ-2 electro-optical sensor system is part of the company’s Multi-Spectral Targeting System (MTS) family of sensors for target detecting, ranging, and tracking. The sensor system is packaged in a turreted or forward-looking pod combining electro-optical and infrared sensors, as well as full-motion video camera for long-range surveillance and high-altitude target acquisition, tracking, and laser designation.

The sensor pod is capable of integrating multiple-wavelength sensors, near-infrared and color TV cameras, target illuminators, eyesafe laser range finders, image merging capability, spot trackers, and other kinds of avionics, Raytheon officials say. The AN/ZSQ-2 can laser-designate targets for the AGM-114 Hellfire air-to-ground missile, the Paveway laser-guided bomb, and other U.S. and NATO laser-guided munitions. Source

AN/APQ-174B/187 Multi-mode Radar ‘Silent Knight’ multi-mode radar

AN/APQ-174B Multi-mode Radar ‘Silent Knight’ multi-mode radar – Michael Block

The AN/APQ-174/186 Multi-Mode Radar family protects aircrew and aircraft by lowering the probability of detection by enemy forces.

The APQ-174/186 Multi-Mode Radar (MMR) family provides terrain following and terrain avoidance for a wide variety of military aircraft. The MMR allows safe flight down to a 100-ft set clearance at night, in adverse weather, and in high-threat environments. It lowers the probability of detection by enemy forces and increases mission success through terrain masking and minimizing time spent in threat range. It reduces risk to the aircrew and the aircraft by balancing the low-level terrain clearance altitude with flight safety considerations.

The MMR uses proven control algorithms, high-reliability designs, and extensive built-in-test software to provide a high-confidence system with high user acceptability. MMR modes include:

  • Terrain following (TF)
  • Low power/low velocity (LP/LV) TF
  • Terrain avoidance (TA)
  • Ground mapping (GM)
  • Air-to-ground ranging
  • Weather detection (WX)
  • Beacon interrogation (BCN)
  • Cross scan modes (TF/TA, TF/GM, TF/WX, TF/BCN)

The APQ-174B is deployed on the U.S. Army Special Operations MH-60K and MH-47E aircraft. The APQ-186 is a derivative of the APQ-174 currently being developed for the U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) CV-22. Source

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 3.7 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Early 1990s
Properties: Pulse-only Radar
Sensors / EW:
AN/APQ-174 MMR/TFR – Radar
Role: TFR, Terrain Following Radar
Max Range: 3.7 km


MH-47G Communications Gear

  • AN/ARC-220 High Frequency (HF) Radio
  • AN/ARC-201D Single channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS)
  • 4x AN/ARC-231 (UHF, VHF) including 2 with satcom capability
  • AN/ASN-145 AHRS Jam-resistant radios
  • MTX Blue Force Tracker
  • AN/APX-123 IFF Transponder
  • Digital Inercommunication System (DICS)


AN/ARC-220 HF Airborne Communication System


Military users need an easy-to-operate, multifunctional, fully digital signal processing (DSP) high-frequency radio for rotary-wing applications. That’s why Rockwell Collins designed the AN/ARC-220 HF airborne communications system. It provides embedded Automatic Link Establishment (ALE), serial tone data modem, text messaging and GPS position reporting functions.

The ARC-220 was designed specifically for rotary-wing applications, enabling pilots to keep their eyes out of the cockpit. It is fielded on all U.S. Army Black Hawk, Chinook and Apache helicopters and has identical capabilities to the VRC-100, which is fielded by the U.S. Army at Aviation Tactical Operation Centers.

Features & benefits

  • Specifically designed for rotary-wing platforms
  • Automatic Link Establishment (ALE) offers best clear-channel selection
  • Digital signal processing
  • Global range and 200 watts of power ensure continuous tactical communication
  • Embedded data modem
  • Upgradable to meet future requirements



The Harris AN/ARC-201 delivers the reliability of SINCGARS field-proven voice and data communication systems, combined with battle-ready networking capabilities, all in a lightweight form factor.

Reliable Tactical Communications with Secure Anti-Jam Voice and Data

The SINCGARS Airborne Radio’s integration of COMSEC and the Data Rate Adapter (DRA) combines three Line Replaceable Units (LRU) into one—reducing overall aircraft radio weight. This Type 1 airborne solution prevents jamming and interception through noisy channel avoidance and enhanced frequency hopping, and supports future battlefield requirements with improved error correction, Enhanced Data Modes (EDMs), more flexible remote control and Global Positioning System (GPS) compatibility.

Key Benefits

  • Features SINCGARS, the world’s most fielded radio technology
  • Reduced weight for deployment versatility
  • Compatible with legacy SINCGARS data modes
  • Supports future digital battlespace requirements


AN/APX-123 IFF Transponder

Our CXP products incorporate all of the advanced features required in today’s
global military and civil air traffic control environments. The AN/APX-123/A
transponder contains an NSA-certified M4/M5 crypto and meets all U.S. and
NATO Mode 5 requirements. The transponder’s open-system architecture
design and high-density field programmable gate array technology ensures
ongoing versatility and future utility through software upgrade only, without
the risk and cost associated with hardware modifications. The CXP is configured
for replacement of all AN/APX-100, AN/APX-101, AN/APX-108, AN/APX-64,
AN/APX-72 and AN/UPX-28 transponders.

Features and/or benefits
• Flexible interface designed to accommodate retrofit and new installations
• Supports Modes 1, 2, 3/A, C, 4 and Mode 5 Level 1 and 2
• Supports Mode S Level 3 and interface to TCAS II systems per RTCA/DO-181
• Elementary surveillance (ELS) and enhanced surveillance (EHS)-compliant
• ADS-B Out compliant per RTCA/DO-260B
• DoD AIMS 03-1000 certified
• NSA-certified M4/M5 crypto
• MIDS and JTIDS-compatible
• Optional remote control unit for use on non-bused platforms
• MIL-STD-1553 control and status for glass cockpits
• Ethernet and RS-232 for shipboard control
• FAA TSO-C112 and TSO-C166 certification


MH-47G armament and self-protection

A Night Stalkers crew chief fires a M134 minigun from the forward starboard opening. This port can be opened up fully to create a doorway from which troops can fast-rope down to the ground. Note the winch fitted over the doorway. This can be used to lift individual troops up into the aircraft. A rope ladder can also be fitted here. U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Marcus Butler

The helicopter is armed with two M134 7.62mm electrically operated, air-cooled mini guns and two M240 7.62mm belt-fed machine guns mounted on either side of the fuselage at the forward and rear sections.

2 x M134 7.62mm electrically operated, air-cooled mini guns


The M134 Minigun is an externally operated weapon which uses electrical motor drive to operate its action. Typical power requirements for 3,000 rounds per minute (50 rounds/second) rate of fire are 24-28 V DC, 58 Amp (~1.5 KWt); with increase of rate of fire power requirements rise accordingly. The gun operates on Gatling principle, that is it employs a rotary cluster of six barrels, each with its own bolt group. Bolts are moved back and forth behind each barrel as their operating roller passes an internal curved track machined inside the receiver cover. Typically, the topmost barrel in the cluster has its bolt fully open and the bottom barrel in cluster has its bolt fully closed, locked and firing pin released to fire the loaded cartridge. Barrel locking is achieved by the rotary bolt head. Since the gun operates on external power, it is immune to dud / misfired rounds, which are ejected during the normal cycle of operation. Feed is provided either by linkless chute or by the linked ammunition, In the latter case, a powered feeder/delinker module is installed on the gun; it receives necessary power through the gear from the gun motor. To properly operate the gun, it is fitted with electronics control box, which, in the case of manually controlled installation, has an ‘master arm’ switch and fire controls (triggers). Typical feed arrangement uses a large container holding some 1,500 (full weight ~ 125 lbs / 58 kg) to 4,500(full weight ~ 295 lbs / 134 kg) rounds, with maximum capacity reaching well over 10,000 rounds per gun in certain heavy helicopter installations (such as used in CH-53 and CH-47 during Vietnam war). The container is connected to the gun via the flexible chute. If chute is overly long, an additional electrical feed booster is installed on the ammunition container.

Caliber  7.62×51 NATO
Weight 24…30 kg gun with motor and feeder/delinker, less ammunition container and power source
Length 801 mm
Barrel length 559 mm
Feed belt in 1500, 3000 or 4500 round containers
Rate of fire 3000 or 4000 rounds per minute, fixed


2 x M240 7.62mm belt-fed machine guns

M240 mounted on a MH-47G – Michael Block

The FN MAG is a gas operated, belt fed, air cooled automatic weapon. It uses the long piston stroke gas system with the gas regulator, located below the barrel.The bolt is locked using a swinging shoulder that engages the cut in the floor of the receiver. The air-cooled barrel is quick-detachable, with the carrying handle attached to it to help handling of the hot barrel. The receiver is made from steel stampings.

The M240 is fed using the disintegrating steel belts of various lengths. The rate of fire can be selected between “low” (~650 rpm) and”high” (~950 rpm), depending on the tactical situation, and the gun can be fired in full auto only. The charging handle is located on the right side of the receiver.

The simple folding bipod is attached to the gas block, and there’s a mounting points on the bottom of the receiver to fit into the various mountings,including infantry tripods. The open sights are fitted by standard, and some of the latest production MAG versions have Picatinny-style scope mounts on the top of the receiver. Standard guns are fitted with the pistol grip and trigger, and the wooden (early models) or plastic (present manufacture) butt, coaxial guns(like M240C) have the trigger replaced by the electric solenoid, and the pintle-mounted versions, like the M240D, have the spade grips instead of the pistol grip and the butt.

Caliber: 7,62x51mm NATO
Weight: 11 – 13 kg on bipod (depending on version), ~21 kg on tripod
Length: 1260 mm
Barrel length: 545 mm
Feed: belt
Rate of fire: selectable, 650-750 and  950-1000 rounds per minute


The defensive aids aboard the rotorcraft include a common missile warning system (CMWS), an integrated radio frequency countermeasures suite, a laser warning system and XM216 dark flares.

Defensive systems

  • Common Missile Warning System (CMWS)
  • Suite Of Integrated Radio Frequency Countermeasures (SIRFC)
  • AN/AVR-2b Laser Warning System
  • XM216 Dark Flares (invisible to naked eye)

AN/AAR-57 common missile warning system (CMWS)

BAE Systems’ AN/AAR-57 Common Missile Warning System provides advanced missile warning and hostile fire detection for rotary and fixed-wing aircraft. The system uses electro-optic missile sensors (EOMS) paired with an electronic control unit (ECU) to quickly respond to current and evolving threats in any situation. Designed to automatically detect a wide range of missile and hostile fire threats, CMWS gives the pilot and aircrew the confidence to complete the mission.

Superior detection

  • Compatible with existing chaff, flare and RF decoy dispensers, and laser DIRCM systems
  • Over 2,100 systems installed on fixed –wing and rotary-wing aircraft
  • Flown more than 2 million combat theatre flight hours
  • Hostile fire indication capabilities
  • Enables data recording capabilities for post-mission analysis
  • Can be used as a centralized processing system for Integrated Aircraft Survivability Equipment


AN/AVR-2b Laser Warning System



The AN/AVS-2B(V) was derived from the system developed for the Sikorsky RAH-66 Comanche. Goodrich claimes it is 40% smaller, 45% lighter (i.e. approx. 2,5 pounds (1,5 kg) per sensor) and uses 45% less power than the previous AN/AVR-2A(V) version . The system provides increased functionality for threat detection and data interface and has demonstrated a 500% improvement in reliability. The model was introduced into service in 2004. Source

Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 18.5 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 1990s
Role: LWR, Laser Warning Receiver
Max Range: 18.5 km
AN/AVS-2B(V)  – Image:


The AN/ALQ-136(V)2 CMS is designed for the Special Electronics Mission Aircraft (SEMA) and the Special Operations Aircraft (SOA) — RC-12, MH-47E, MH-60K, EH-60A. This CMS is programmed to respond to the pulse radar signals of the most critical threat weapon system anticipated to be encountered by SEMA and SOA in a hostile environment. It can operate against multiple threat weapons systems simultaneously. It has programmable modules, covers a broader frequency range than the (V)1 CMS and has built-in preplanned product improvement capabilities. The AN/ALQ-136(V)2 CMS consists of three types of line replaceable units (LRUs). These LRUs include one receiver/transmitter (RT) assembly, one control indicator assembly and four antennas. The RT assembly utilizes state-of-the-art gate array and gallium arsenide lightweight circuit boards. The total system weight is 72 pounds. Source

Engines of MH-47G special operations helicopter

Fight to Fly Photography

The helicopter is powered by two Honeywell T55-GA-714A engines, which develop a maximum power output of 3,529kW each. The engines are equipped with infrared (IR) exhaust suppressors to reduce the IR visibility of the helicopter. The helicopter has the capacity to carry 7,828l of fuel.

T55-GA-714A engines

The T55-714A features a seven-stage axial compressor, a two-stage free power turbine, a two-stage gas producer turbine, centrifugal compressor, and a reverse-flow atomizing combustor. All models can be configured with a Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) system.

Upgrade kits are currently available from Honeywell for the T55 Family of engines. These will update the engine with latest technology standards. Compared to older T55 engines, the T55-714A upgrade provides a 22% power increase, a 7% improvement in fuel efficiency and a significant enhancement of reliability and maintainability. Altogether, the upgrade results in a 25% reduction in operation and support costs. Also, the time between engine overhauls will increase to 3,000 hours. The goal is to go to on-condition maintenance in the future.

Honeywell‘s next generation T55-L-71X engines will offer the flexibility of even more power with improved SFC.

Manufacturer: Honeywell International, Inc.
(originally produced by Lycoming Engines – Textron)
Power: Continous: 4,168 shp; Max: 4,867 shp
Overall Pressure Ratio at Maximum Power: 9.32
Compressor: Axial flow/centrifugal
Compressor Stages: 7-stage axial/1-stage centrifugal
Turbine: 2 HP + 2 PT
Engine Control: FADEC
Length: 47.1 in (1.2 m)
Diameter: 24.3 in (61.6 cm)
Dry Weight: 830 lbs (376 kg)
Platforms: CH-47 Chinook; MH-47 Special Forces Chinook
Price/Unit Cost: $1.06 million (in 2016)
Introduced: 1950s (first T55 model)
First Run: 1950s (first T55 model)
First Flight: September 21, 1961


The power plant provides a maximum speed of 315km/h and long-range fuel tanks ensure a maximum mission radius of 630km.

MH-47G Specifications

Crew Pilot, Co-pilot + 3 crew chiefs/gunners
Engines 2xTextron Lycoming T55-4-714 Turboshaft engines
Dimensions L – 15.87m
W (rotor diameter) – 18.82m
H – 5.59m
Weights 12,210 kg (empty)
24,494 kg (max loadout)
Max Speed 259 kph
Range 1382 km
Armament 4 gun stations (port/starboard front and rear) :
2x m134 7.62mm miniguns (front)
2 xM240D 7.62mm machine gun (rear)


Main material source

MK VI Patrol Boats

The MK VI patrol boats are designed and built by American boat manufacturer, Safe Boats International (SBI) to serve as the next-generation patrol boats for the US Navy. The 85ft patrol boats will replace the ageing patrol boat fleet of Naval Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC) and will support the Coastal Riverine Force (CRF).

SBI was awarded an initial $36.5m contract for six MK VI Patrol Boats in May 2012. The US Navy signed a $34.5m firm-fixed-price agreement with SBI for four additional MK VI patrol boats in July 2014. The agreement includes options for two more boats, bringing the total value of the contract to $52.2m. The US Navy plans to acquire a total of 48 Mark VI Patrol Boats.

180424-N-NT795-842 SAN DIEGO (April 24, 2018) Sailors assigned to Coastal Riverine Squadron (CRS) 3 are underway aboard MKVI patrol boat during unit level training conducted by Coastal Riverine Group (CRG) 1 Training and Evaluation Unit. CRG provides a core capability to defend designated high value assets throughout the green and blue-water environment and providing deployable Adaptive Force Packages (AFP) worldwide in an integrated, joint and combined theater of operations. (U.S. Navy photo by Chief Boatswain’s Mate Nelson Doromal Jr/Released)

The U.S. Navy quietly updated its fleet last month, adding its first new patrol boat since the mid-1980s. The Mark VI Patrol Boat is an 85-foot vessel that seats 10 crewmen and eight passengers, reaching a sprint speed of more than 35 knots.

Built by Safe Boats International, a military supplier with the motto, “God, Country and Fast Boats,” the Mark VI is designed to patrol shallow littoral areas, support search-and-seizure operations, and function as a high value shipping escort, among other duties. The Navy expects to deploy its first 10 MK VI boats next year and expand the fleet starting in 2018. Source

SBI received a contract modification in July 2015 to supply two additional boats to the US Navy, bringing the total number of orders to 12.

Navy orders two Mark VI patrol boats with on-board networking and flat-screen displays: Here


U.S. Navy surface warfare experts are ordering two 85-foot patrol boats that have surveillance and battle-management networking, as well as flat-screen monitors mounted throughout the vessels.

Officials of the Naval Sea Systems Command in Washington announced a $17.8 million contract modification Friday to Safe Boats International LLC in Bremerton, Wash., to provide two Mark VI patrol boats.

The boats are being built at SBI’s large craft production facility (LCPF) situated in the Port of Tacoma, Washington. SBI hired 100 new employees in addition to the existing 275 workers to build the boats.

The first of 12 MK VI patrol boats was delivered to the US Navy in August 2014. The boat successfully completed sea trials and was handed over to NECC for operational deployment in 2015. The remaining 11 boats are expected to be built by March 2018.

Coastal Riverine Group 2 (CRG 2) of the US Navy received two MK VI patrol boats in September 2015.

US Navy Patrol Boat Mark VI Debuts in Arabian Gulf: Here


The US Navy’s latest patrol boat, the Mark VI, has made its operational debut in the Arabian Gulf this month.

The patrol boat was designed and built by American boat manufacturer Safe Boats International to serve as the next-generation patrol boats for the US Navy. Mark VI arrived at the 5th Fleet base of operations in Bahrain in March, according to the ship’s program manager, US Navy Lt. David Weinreb.

The fleet of 85-foot patrol boats is cued to replace the aging patrol boat fleet of Naval Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC) and will support the Coastal Riverine Force (CRF).

Currently there are four Mark VI patrol boats in the US Navy, Weinreb said, with two assigned to the 5th Fleet with a third due to be delivered.

One more Mark VI is planned to be sent out to the 5th Fleet, he said, adding that three of the four existing boats are allocated for the Gulf.

Sailors assigned to Coastal Riverine Group (CRG) 1 Det Guam oversee the lifting of a MK VI patrol boat in order to perform yearly scheduled maintenance at the Port Authority in Guam on Jan. 11, 2017. CRG 1 Det Guam is assigned to Commander, Task Force 75, which is the primary expeditionary task force responsible for the planning and execution of coastal riverine operations, explosive ordnance disposal, diving engineering and construction, and underwater construction in the U.S. 7th fleet area of operations. (U.S. Navy Combat Camera Photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Daniel Rolston)

MK VI patrol boat missions

The MK VI patrol boat is the first mission-specific patrol boat designed for the US Navy since the mid-1980s. It will replace the smaller 68ft Mark V and 34ft Sea Ark to defend the green-water navy. The CRF will deploy the patrol boats for critical infrastructure protection (CIP) in and around foreign ports across the world.

U.S. Defense System

The boats can operate in brown, green or blue waters, and will be deployed to patrol shallow littoral regions beyond the harbours and bays. They can conduct missions in the open ocean for protecting defence forces.

The versatile patrol vessels can support search-and-seizure operations, maritime intercept operations, theatre security cooperation operations and other clandestine security force activities. They can function as escorts for high value assets and also take part in mine hunting and fast attack combats.

The boat is ideal for coordinated efforts with Naval Special Warfare and Naval Special Operations operators such as Navy SEALs and Explosive Ordinance Disposal (EOD).

Unmanned systems

The U.S. Navy’s MK VI Patrol Boat is designed to carry a variety of unmanned systems.  At Sea Air Space 15, the boat displayed a PUMA UAV. It will also be configured to carry two MK 18 Mod 2 Kingfish mine hunting UUVs.  Source

MK 18 Mod 2 Swordfish UUV

Based on Hydroid REMUS 600 (Lightweight)
Dimensions: 12‐3/4” diameter, 11‐1/2’ long / Weight: 600 lbs in air
Operating Depth: 5m‐300m (Search to 3 m)

MKVI-RemuMK 18 Mod 2 Swordfish UUV

Dynamic Focus Side Look Sonar (SLS)
Neil Brown Conductivity & Temperature Sensor (CT)
WET Labs Beam Attenuation Meter (BAM) Optical Sensor
Imagenex 852 Pencil Beam Sonar (Obstacle Avoidance)
WET Labs ECO FLNTU (Fluorometer & Turbidity measurement)

Long baseline (LBL) Acoustic (via Ranger)
Freewave Radio Modem (via Gateway Buoy)

Up/Down looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)
Doppler Velocity Log (DVL)
Kearfott Inertial Navigation Unit (INS)
P‐code GPS

  • Body Type: Torpedo
  • Size (LxWxH): 3.93m x 0.66m x 0.66m
  • Body Size (LxWxH): 3.93m x 0.32m x 0.32m
  • Hull Material: Aluminum
  • Weight: 282.00kg
  • Maximum Depth: 600.00 m
  • Dynamic Buoyancy: No
  • Self-Righting: Yes
  • Obstacle Avoidance: No
  • Endurance (nominal load): Information not available
  • Manufacturer Website: Link


MKVI-Remus2MK 18 Mod 2 Swordfish UUV

RQ-20A Puma AE

Navy Petty Officer 3rd Class Neil Wierboski prepares an unmamned aerial vehicle for launch aboard Mark VI patrol boats during training conducted by the Coastal Riverine Group 1 Training and Evaluation Unit in the Pacific Ocean, May 9, 2018. Wierboski is assigned to Coastal Riverine Squadron 3.

The Aqua Puma All Environment (AE) RQ-20A is a small tactical, hand-launched UAS produced by AeroVironment, Inc. and marinized for use by the United State Marine Corps and Naval Special Warfare. Puma is an acronym for “Pointer Upgraded Mission Ability,” indicating the vehicle’s derivation from the Pointer. The electrically-powered RQ-20A carries stabilized electro-optical and infrared cameras, an 860 nanometer laser illuminator and has a maximum flight time of two hours and ceiling of 10,000 feet. The Puma’s Ground Control Station (GCS) has a communications range of 20 km and is common with the smaller Wasp and Raven RQ-11 UAS.  AeroVironment’s Digital Data Link (DDL) gives the Puma encrypted, beyond-line-of-sight voice, video, data, and text communication capabilities.  The aircraft can use GPS to automatically land within 25 meters of a chosen spot, including on the water. Source


Payloads Gimbaled payload, 360 degree continuous pan, +10 to -90 degrees tilt, stabilized EO, IR camera, and IR Illuminator all in one modular payload
Range 20 km
Endurance 3+ hours with an LE battery
Operating Altitude (Typ.) 500 ft (152 m) AGL
Wing Span 9.2 ft (2.8 m)
Length 4.6 ft (1.4 m)
Weight 14 lbs (6.3 kg)
GCS Common GCS with Raven® and Wasp® AE
Launch Method Hand-launched, rail launch (optional)
Recovery Method Autonomous or manual deep-stall lan


Design and features

by gaston18
by gaston18

MK VI patrol boat is a modification of the 780 Archangel Class patrol boat, which was also built by SBI. The boat is designed to decrease Total Ownership Cost (TOC) and manpower. Its aluminium hull is enhanced for performance, fuel efficiency, easy maintenance and firepower.

The boat is equipped with ballistic protection, with armour plating around the engines and fuel storage. The boats are small enough to fit inside the well deck of LHD, LPD and LSD class amphibious warfare ships. Thus, they can be transported to any location in a short period of time.


The patrol boat is armed with two remotely controlled and stabilised MK-38 Mod2 25mm machine gun systems, small arms mounts and six crew served 50-calibre machine guns. It also has the provision to install other weapons such as mini guns, grenade launchers and smaller calibre machine guns.

2 x MK-38 Mod2 25mm machine gun system

MK-38 Mod2 25mm machine gun system –  US Navy

The MK 38 MOD 0 25mm MGS replaced the MK 16 20mm gun system and was then later upgraded to a MK 38 MOD 1 MGS. A total of 387 MK 38 MOD 1 MGSs were procured and deployed in the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). In 2003, the chief of Naval Operations (CNO) directed the Navy to pursue a simple, stabilized, low cost solution for outfitting near-term deployers to counter small boat threats. The Navy began fielding the Mk 38 MOD 2 in 2005. Due to the success of the MK 38 MOD 2 MGS, the program scope was expanded in July 2012 to add several ship classes and to develop a modification to the system. This modification is known as the MK 38 MOD 3 which is a technical refresh of the MK 38 MOD 2. The first MK 38 MOD 3 is to be fielded in FY17.  Source

U.S. Defense SystemU.S. Defense System

50-calibre machine guns

U.S. Navy Quartermaster Jonathon Williams, assigned to Coastal Riverine Squadron (CRS) 3, fires a .50-caliber machine gun aboard Mark VI patrol boat during a simulated small boat attack exercise as part of unit level training provided by the Coastal Riverine Group (CRG) 1 Training and Evaluation Unit in San Diego May 10, 2018. The CRG provides a core capability to defend designated high value assets throughout the green and blue-water environment and providing deployable Adaptive Force Packages (AFP) worldwide in an integrated, joint and combined theater of operations. (U.S. Navy photo by Chief Boatswain’s Mate Nelson Doromal Jr.)
DESIGNATION 0.50″/72 (12.7 mm) M3M FH Herstal MG
SHIP CLASS USED ON Rotary-wing aircraft
DATE IN SERVICE 2001-2003 (evaluation)
2004 (service)
WEIGHT 79.9 lbs. (35.8 kg)
GUN LENGTH OA 59.8 in (1.520 m)
BARREL LENGTH 36 in (0.914 m)
RIFLING LENGTH 31.5 in (0.800 m)
CHAMBER VOLUME 1.5 in3 (24.6 cm3)
RATE OF FIRE 950 – 1,100 rounds per minute cyclic
200 rounds per minute practical


M240 machine guns

180510-N-NT795-153 SAN DIEGO (May 10, 2018) Electronic Technician 3rd Class Carlos Jacob Gilmore, assigned to Coastal Riverine Squadron (CRS) 3, fires the M240 machine gun aboard MKVI patrol boat during a simulated small boat attack exercise as part of unit level training provided by Coastal Riverine Group (CRG) 1 Training and Evaluation Unit. CRG provides a core capability to defend designated high value assets throughout the green and blue-water environment and providing deployable Adaptive Force Packages (AFP) worldwide in an integrated, joint and combined theater of operations. (U.S. Navy photo by Chief Boatswain’s Mate Nelson Doromal Jr/Released)

The FN MAG is a gas operated, belt fed, air cooled automatic weapon. It uses the long piston stroke gas system with the gas regulator, located below the barrel.The bolt is locked using a swinging shoulder that engages the cut in the floor of the receiver. The air-cooled barrel is quick-detachable, with the carrying handle attached to it to help handling of the hot barrel. The receiver is made from steel stampings.

The M240 is fed using the disintegrating steel belts of various lengths. The rate of fire can be selected between “low” (~650 rpm) and”high” (~950 rpm), depending on the tactical situation, and the gun can be fired in full auto only. The charging handle is located on the right side of the receiver.

Caliber: 7,62x51mm NATO
Weight: 11 – 13 kg on bipod (depending on version), ~21 kg on tripod
Length: 1260 mm
Barrel length: 545 mm
Feed: belt
Rate of fire: selectable, 650-750 and  950-1000 rounds per minute



Water-jet – DefenseWebTV

The propulsion system consists of twin diesel engines and water-jets. The engines can burn both marine grade diesel fuel and JP-5 aviation fuel. The boats can reach a maximum sprint speed of 30kt at full load. The propulsion system enables the boat to sail up to a range of more than 600nmi.

U.S. Navy photo

 2 x MTU 16V 2000 M94 engines


Accommodation aboard the patrol boat

U.S. Defense System

The boat consists of a pilothouse and a main deck cabin. The pilothouse contains state-of-the-art shock mitigating seating for the crew. Work stations are integrated into the seats for easy access to the controls and displays, and to minimise injury and fatigue.

The spacious interior can accommodate ten crewmen and eight passengers. Basic amenities such as berthing accommodations, galley and shower facilities ensure extended missions.


The main cabin can be configured to accommodate unmanned, remotely operated vehicles and additional shock mitigating seating. It can also be converted into a temporary medical triage area during emergencies. Small boats, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and underwater unmanned vehicles (UUVs) can be launched and recovered from the rear deck and stern of the boat.

General Characteristics, MK VI Patrol Boat 

Propulsion: Installed Power: 5,200 HP – 2 x MTU 16V2000 M94 and 2 x Hamilton HM651 Water Jets
Length: LOA: 84.8′
Beam: 20.5′
Displacement: 170,000 lbs (full load displacement)
Draft: less than 5 ft
Speed: Cruise: 25+ Knots; Sprint: 35+ Knots
Range: 600+ Nautical Miles
Crew: 2 Crews, 5 Personnel each, plus 8 Person Visit, Board, Search and Seizure (VBSS) Team (18 Total)
Armament: MK 50 (.50 cal) Gun Weapon System (Qty 4); MK 38 Mod 2 (25 mm) Gun Weapon System (Qty 2); MK 44 Machine Gun System; Multiple Crew Served Weapon & Long Range Acoustic Hailing Device (Qty 6)


Main material source