Monthly Archives: November 2015

British Brimstone missiles capable of hitting 70mph moving target used to obliterate ISIS


LASER-GUIDED supersonic missiles that can hit a target moving at 70mph with little or no collateral damage are key to defeating Islamic State terrorists in the Middle East.

PUBLISHED: 10:00, Mon, Nov 30, 2015 | UPDATED: 10:22, Mon, Nov 30, 2015
Tornado fighter jet, which carry the Brimstone missilesTornado fighter jet, which carry the Brimstone missiles
 Brimstone rockets which cost £100,000 each are the jewel in the crown of Britain’s armed forces and are already being used to rain down fire on the extremist’s network in Iraq.

The missiles use steerable fins to guide the missile towards the target and are said to be so accurate that they can be fired from 20,000 feet and seven miles away and still go through a small window.

Brimstones are so sophisticated that they can be fired at enemy targets in built-up areas with little risk of causing civilian casualties.

Britain and Saudi Arabia are the only two countries to have invested in the weaponry, which compares favourably to the American-made Hellfire missiles that are known to produce a large amount of shrapnel.

Brimstones, which cost £850m to bring into service, were designed for use against armoured vehicles and can hit fast-moving targets.

Brimstone missilesBrimstone missiles

The weapons use a twin charge warhead, with the first explosion piercing the outer, armoured shell of the target and the second explosion propelled through the hole.

Each rocket includes an in-built radar, allowing it to be used in all weather conditions, as well as a self-destruct function to abort a mission.

Brimstones, which weigh 49kg, are 1.8 metres long and have a range of 11 miles, were used against Colonel Gaddafi in 2011 and before that against the Taliban in Afghanistan.

The deadly weapons could be fired at ISIS jihadis in Syria as early as Wednesday if David Cameron holds a much-anticipated vote on extending bombing raids beyond Iraq.

Defence Secretary Michael Fallon said he had been briefing Labour MPs on military action over the weekend but stressed the Government does “not yet” have a guaranteed majority to back airstrikes.

He rejected claims that bombing Raqqa and other ISIS-held cities could lead to a large number of civilian casualties as the terror group retreats into tunnels or uses the local population as “human shields”.

The deadly weapons could be fired at ISIS jihadis in Syria as early as Wednesday if David Cameron holds a much-anticipated vote on extending bombing raids beyond Iraq.

Defence Secretary Michael Fallon said he had been briefing Labour MPs on military action over the weekend but stressed the Government does “not yet” have a guaranteed majority to back airstrikes.

He rejected claims that bombing Raqqa and other ISIS-held cities could lead to a large number of civilian casualties as the terror group retreats into tunnels or uses the local population as “human shields”.

Jet firing Paveway bombsJet firing Paveway bombs

The increased accuracy of the Paveway IV allows for a warhead half the size of the earlier Paveway weapons, giving the potential for a single aircraft to carry more weapons and so strike multiple targets in a single pass.

Storm Shadow is another long-range, air-launched missile and is one of the most advanced weapon of its kind in the world.

The missile is equipped with a powerful conventional warhead and is designed to strike hardened targets and infrastructure such as buried and protected command centres.

Storm Shadow is a British, French and Italian air-launched cruise missilStorm Shadow is a British, French and Italian air-launched cruise missile

RAF jets also carry general purpose bombs that come in two types, the 505kg and a smaller 312kg version, and date back to those used in the Second World War.

At ten times the weight of the Brimstone missile, general purpose bombs can be dropped as freefall bombs or fitted with a retarder unit, which slows the bomb in flight, allowing aircraft to drop one at low level over the target and get clear before it detonates.

They have been adapted for use on supersonic strike aircraft and some are also converted for use as Paveway II and Paveway III devices, which can be guided by laser.

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Brimstone Flight Profile

Is Russia Building Up Air Defense Shield All Over Syria? – Sputnik



Is Russia Building Up Air Defense Shield All Over Syria?

20:41 29.11.2015(updated 20:47 29.11.2015)

Anti-aircraft missile system S-400 during combat duty to ensure the safety of the Russian air group in Syria

Russia is actually building an all-over air defense zone in Syria, according to Russian Zvezda TV channel. The Hmeymim air base, Russian jets and also pilots will be protected by the most advanced Russian weapons.

After a Turkish jet shot down a Russian Su-24 bomber over Syria, the Russian Defense Minister reported to President Vladimir Putin that the air defense system around the base needed to be enhanced.

The president said approved the move and 24 hours later an S-400 missile defense system was deployed to the Hmeymim base.

The S-400, an upgrade of the S-300 Growler family, is a new-generation anti-aircraft defense system operated solely by the Russian military. It knows no equals in the world, including the US-made Patriot system.

The S-400 ensures air defense using long- and medium-range missiles that can hit aerial targets at ranges of up to 400 kilometers. It is also can hit ground and sea targets.

The system is not only versatile but also very mobile. It has a mobile deployment time of 15 minutes, and a stand-by deployment time of only 15 seconds.

Meanwhile, the Russian Air Force task unit continues to carry out airstrikes against Islamic State (ISIL) positions in Syria. Russian jets are conducting up to 80 sorties a day.

Russia plans to build up its anti-ISIL offensive in Syria. New Su-27 and Su-30 jets are expected to be deployed to the Hmeymim base in the near future. Russian pilots will also be equipped with advanced electronic warfare devices.

© 2015 Sputnik. All rights reserved

The S-400 Triumf Mobile Multiple Anti-Aircraft Missile System (AAMS)The S-400 Triumf Mobile Multiple Anti-Aircraft Missile System (AAMS)

Latakia, Syria

Bergamini class (FREMM) frigates, Italy

The Italian Carlo Bergamini class warships were developed as a part of Franco-Italian FREMM multi-mission frigate program. Even though resulting Italian Carlo Bergamini class and French Aquitaine class ships look different, they use many common subsystems. The Carlo Bergamini class bears strong resemblance with the Horizon class, which was another joint Franco-Italian program.


FREMM Aquitaine Frigate: Details


These Italian Carlo Bergamini class warships are clearly destroyers, but being called frigates for political reasons. There are two variants of the Carlo Bergamini class. One of them are general purpose frigate, that are equally good at all aspects of naval warfare, while the other ships are optimized for anti-submarine warfare role. These have enhanced submarine hunting features, but at a cost of reduced land attack and anti-ship capabilities.

Alpino F594 – WarshipPorn @reddit

General characteristics

The general characteristics of the class is a displacement of 6,900tons, length of 144.6m, beam of about 20m, maximum speed of 30knots and range of 6,700n.m. with a cruising speed of 15knots.  The ship has a crew of 145 persons (GP variant) or 147 persons (ASW variant) while 9 more persons are added to the crew for two helicopters on board. The vessels have a complement of about 200 people on board. Each vessel can accommodate one or two NH90 ASW helicopters or one NH90 and one EH101 helicopters. Moreover, each ship carries two RHIBs for commando operations (one of 7m at the right side, starboard, and one of 11m at the left side, port) while the GP variant carries one more RHIB of 11m in the stern door instead of VDS sonar in ASW variant. Source

GP version

bergamini-gpClick to enlarge: modified photo of  Bergamini class frigate GP version of Italian Navy. High resolution image here. – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.comimage029

Italy has ordered six of these vessels optimized as general-purpose warships, and four optimized for anti-submarine warfare. The lead ship was commissioned with the Italian Navy in 2013. The last one is planed to be commissioned in 2021.

ASW version

Bergamini ASWClick to enlarge: modified photo of  Bergamini class frigate ASW version of Italian Navy. High resolution image here – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.comimage031
Name Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
Carlo Bergamini (F590) 2008 2011 2013 active, in service
Virginio Fasan (F591) 2009 2012 2013 active, in service
Carlo Margottini (F592) 2010 2013 2014 active, in service
Carabiniere (F593) 2011 2014 2015 active, in service
Alpino (F594) 2012 2014 excepted in 2016 sea trials
Luigi Rizzo (F595) 2013 2015 expected in 2017 under construction
Federico Martinengo (F596) 2014 expected in 2017 expected in 2018 under construction
Antonio Marceglia (F597) 2015 expected in 2018 expected in 2019 under construction
Spartaco Schergat (F598) expected in 2017 expected in 2019 expected in 2020 ordered
Emilio Bianchi (F599) expected in 2018 expected in 2020 expected in 2021 ordered


These Italian warships have enhanced stealth features, including reduced radar cross section and noise levels. The “general purpose” version is operated by a crew of 199 men, while vessels optimized for anti-submarine operations have a crew of 201 men.

The primary radar is the Selex MFRA multi-functional active phased array radar. It can detect air targets at a range of more than 400 km. It also provides fire control for air defense missiles.


Selex MFRA multi-functional active phased array radar

The forward mast and the EMPAR MFRA radar on top – Image:


At the top of the forward mast in a large round radome it is mounted the multi-function phased array radar, Selex EMPAR (European Multi-function Phased Array Radar) Multi-Function Radar Active (MFRA) / SPY-790 MFRA, which provides simultaneous surveillance, tracking and weapons control. The EMPAR MFRA is an active radar (Active Electronically Scanned Array – AESA) and not passive (Passive Electronically Scanned Array – PESA) as it is the EMPAR radar of the Orizzonte class destroyers. EMPAR is the primary sensor in the FSAF/SAAM-IT and PAAMS missile systems. It operates at C-band, performing concurrently 3D detection, multiple target tracking and missile guidance. Specifically, the multi-function capabilities include full volumetric search coverage, low altitude and surface search, multiple target tracking (up to 300 tracks) and up-link transmission when needed for missile guidance. It counters different threats such as high diving and sea skimming missiles, aircraft and helicopters and any kind of vessels. The system provides an almost continuous 360 degree view while the maximum range is about 120-150km for aircrafts and 25km for missiles. Source

Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 148.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
MM/SPY-790 EMPAR MFR – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 148.2 km




Status of the FREMM Programme

Planning assumptions for the Italian Navy are 10 FREMM-IT (4 ASW variants and 6 GP variants) at a cost of€5.8 billion.

FREMM-IT will replace the Maestrale and Lupo-class frigates in service with the Italian Navy.

As of 2014, the Italian government has approved funding for the first eight FREMM-IT to be delivered to the Italian Navy (4 ASW variants and 4 GP variants). In the 2013 Italian budget, the Italian government laid-out the necessary financing for two more GP variants (FREMM-IT 7 & 8) and the contract was awarded in September 2013. On 18 June 2014, the Defence Parliamentary Commission authorized units 9 and 10, that have to be funded by 16 April 2015.

FREMM-IT 9 & 10 will have AAW & ATBM capabilities and will have A70 VLS for cruise missiles. All Italian FREMM-ITs have extended AAW capabilities, with SAAM-ESD CMS and Aster 30 (& Aster 15) missiles for extended area defence. SAAM-ESD CMS use Selex ES MFRA, a 3D active radar (AESA), an evolved version of the Selex ES EMPAR PESA radar (previously embarked on Horizon-class destroyers and the aircraft carrier Cavour).

The Selex ES MFRA 4FF (EMPAR’s evolved version, destined for the 9th and 10th FREMM) will have four flat radar sensors, with three times the original range and full ATBM capabilities.

Since the 7th FREMM-IT, there will be updates to other systems, such as:

  • the COC and bridge will be integrated
  • the cruise speed will be enhanced to 19/20 knots (with more powerful diesel engines)




For years, Selex has become one of the leading manufacturers of technologies for defence systems, producing panoply of products developed to fulfil security needs of many armed forces. The stages of designing, developing as well as production of defence equipments were done with information superiority in mind. Two of Selex’s most successful surveillance radar systems are the RAN-30X/I along with the KRONOS 3D radar system.

Designed to compete in the “surveillance radar” category, the RAN-30X/I has climbed the vertical ladder to place itself among the most accomplished radar system available in the market. Selex has designed the radar with new a structural configuration, allowing for higher operational flexibility and adaptability to different platforms thus requiring minimal set-up time as well as operational cost.

The RAN-30X/I operates on four main roles. It was designed to perform multiple roles as a measure taken in fulfilling naval forces demand for multi-purpose radar. The roles are, Surface and Air Surveillance (mode 1) for small air and surface target detection, Anti-sea-skimmer detection (mode 2), Over the Horizon (OTH) detection (mode 3), and lastly the Helicopter control and navigation (mode 4).

Depending on the different operational mode, the radar, according to Selex has different instrumental range. In mode one at 15rpm, the radar has an efficiency range of 100km, followed by mode two at 30rpm with 40km efficient range. The third mode, with a gradual rotation of 3rpm, the radar scans for threats within a dazzling 200km range and lastly in mode 4, with 30rpm the radar has a range of 25km.

Currently operational onboard the Italian Navy’s “Cigala Fulgosi” OPV Class vessel, the radar is also currently operating on board Thailand’s Pattani class OPV which had successfully conducted an anti-piracy operation in the Gulf of Eden. This achievement, at one stage has marked the radar capability in supporting high-risk and high-stake high sea operations. Source

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 111.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
RAN-30X/I – (SPS-791 RASS, OTH) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 3D Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface
Max Range: 111.1 km



Selex NA-25X fire control system


NA-25X which is a modern fire control system based on the ORION RTN-25X tracking naval radar, a J-band fully coherent equipment which is characterised by anti-nodding, extensive ECCM and anti-clutter features together with high tracking accuracy. A set of two EO sensors (TV camera, IR camera) can be mounted on the radar director, to enable firing assessment and to provide an alternative line-of-sight on the same target. A third sensor (Laser Range Finder) can be mounted to provide a complete EO tracker facility. NA-25X can be provided with a dedicated multifunctional console or controlled by any console of the Combat Management System (CMS). The FCS can be easily integrated in every CMS and completely remote accessible. A couple of Targets Designation Sight (TDS) enhance the FCS configuration. Through an internal additional function, NA-25X system can be integrated inside an Artillery System (including at least two FCSs), to optimize the use of all onboard guns against multiple concurrent targets (missiles, air and surface targets). The system perfomrs the following tasks: radar and optronic autonomous search with automatic/manual self-designation, surveillance and self designation on ship’s search radar video, automatic engagement of evaluated priority target up to firing action, automatic air/missile/shore and surface targets tracking, automatic detection of launched missile, control of up to three guns with different calibres in the anti-air/anti-surface warfare and CIWS roles, line-of-sight/line-of-fire stabilization and Track While Scan (TWS) on external naval data. Source



GENERAL DESCRIPTION SASS is a long range, passive IRST for naval applications, operating simultaneously in MWIR (3-5 μm) and LWIR (8-12 μm) spectral bands. It is able to detect and track air and surface targets with full 360° horizontal coverage and to provide InfraRed (IR) maps of the scene around the ship. It supports threat evaluation providing a statistical classification of tracks. SASS has a modular architecture based on a stabilised panoramic head equipped with IR sensors and an electronic cabinet hosting the processing and control units. Special design care has been devoted to facilitate on-board maintenance.



  • High sensitivity/ high resolution/ dual band IR head
  • Accurate stabilisation against sea motion
  • Long range passive surveillance
  • Automatic target detection and track initialisation
  • Multi-target tracking of air and surface targets
  • Panoramic and blown up images, in two different bands
  • Flexible interface with other on-board systems and with

combat management systems

  • High reliability and easy maintenance on-board.



General data:
Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 111.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Sensors / EW:
SASS IRST [IR Far] – Infrared
Role: Infrared, Target Search, Tracking and Identification Camera
Max Range: 111.1 km


SASS is a long range, passive IRST for naval applications, operating simultaneously in MWIR (3-5 μm) and LWIR (8-12 μm) spectral bands. It is able to detect and track air and surface targets (about a 100) with full 360° horizontal coverage and to provide InfraRed (IR) maps of the scene around the ship. It supports threat evaluation providing a statistical classification of tracks. SASS has a modular architecture based on a stabilised panoramic head equipped with IR sensors and an electronic cabinet hosting the processing and control units. Source

Nettuno 4100 by ELT Elettronica

The NETTUNO-4100 ECM System can provide naval platforms with an Active Electronic Defence using selected ECM tactics, exploited through DRFM generated signals. These tactics can be equally effective against both terminal missile attacks and long range designation radar systems, surface search and tracking radars in support of anti-surface engagements.

fremm-f592-3Nettuno 4100 electronic jammers aft of two hangars, the right side. Top of Helicopter hanger is the OTO 76mm gun. NA-25X radar / photoelectric fire control system under the guidance, is pointing to the starboard – Image:

Nettuno 4100 is a state-of-the-art radar ECM having a scalable architecture which can be configured for different needs by:

  • assessing the needed Effective Radiated Power (ERP) in relation to the ship Radar Cross Section (RCS) and role
  • dimensioning the antenna array and the transmitted power to the ERP required for the defence purposes.

In any case , the Nettuno 4100 systems can cooperate with other onboard EW sensors.

System Highlights

  • Full azimuth coverage, 50° Elevation
  • Electronic beam steering (electronically stabilized against ship movements)
  • Wide frequency coverage (H to J bands)
  • Full solid-state design ensuring high ERP and graceful degradation in case of failure
  • Detection, measurement and jamming of emitter side-lobe
  • Multi-threat jamming capability through time-sharing resource management
  • High level of readiness (no warm-up)
  • High reliability and maintainability
  • BITE down to module/card level
  • Easy on-board integration and installation (no wave guides).


SLAT launchers with Canto-V anti-torpedo countermeasure system (ASW)


The CANTO-V is the next-generation anti-torpedo countermeasure system for existing and future surface ships developed by DCNS as part of the CONTRALTO-V product line. The CANTO-V countermeasure system consists of a pneumatic launcher and decoys designed to counter advanced torpedoes. CONTRALTO-V has been designed to operate with multiple launchers with the decoys being deployed following a ballistic trajectory. DCNS successfully conducted a series of test in May and June 2011. Source

The ASW variant includes the DCNS CONTRALTO-V Torpedo Countermeasures system (or else known as SLAT system) for surface vessels. CONTRALTO®-V is composed of several subsystems for an optimized defense against torpedoes: the reaction system, which calculates and suggests optimized evasive manoeuvres and sets off the countermeasures, the deployment system (launcher) fitted to several types of launchers (mortar, pneumatic, rocket) and the CANTO®-V countermeasure. CANTO®-V is a broadband active acoustic countermeasure. It is designed to saturate the torpedo data processing system by emitting specific and smart acoustic signals covering the whole torpedo frequency band in both active and passive mode. Its mission consists in exhausting the threat by creating and constantly renewing hundreds of false targets on a 360-degree coverage area (5 sec deployment). This concept, called dilution/confusion, is the only one capable of defeating advanced torpedoes while consuming less munitions and it is efficient whatever the number of torpedoes or their types and doesn’t need to be deployed far from the threatened ship. The system offers a 95% escape probability against torpedoes detected at 3,000 meters. Watch the video to realize how the system works. Both ASW and GP variants are equipped with two OTO Melara/Selex SCLAR-H decoy launchers for 105mm or 118mm multipurpose rockets. Source

SCLAR-H decoy launchers (GP & ASW)

sclar_h_chaftOTO Melara SCLAR-H system – Image:

Dimensions: 1.88 mx 1.794 mx 2.06 m

Weight: empty: 1,150 kg, with 20 rockets of 105 mm: 1,750 kg

Arco rotazione: -150 ° / + 150 °

Alzo: -5 ° / + 60 °

Capacity: can hold 20 rockets ready to launch

Rate of fire: 1 rocket per second

OTO Melara SCLAR-H system – Image:

Impiego:   The SCLAR is a multiple rocket launcher system produced by Breda Meccanica Bresciana, typically used by ships for the launch of false targets such as flares and chaff. It has a caliber of 105 mm, lifting and swiveling, and can also fire rockets explosives in a radius of 10 km. The launcher is designed for accurate deployment of false targets thereby providing the passive defense against missiles for the ship radar and IR search; the typical mode of operation (at various intervals) include: Confusion (dilution); dissimulation; Distraction; dump;


Its main features are:

  • possibility of loading simultaneously different types of rockets (Chaff, IR, flares);
  • Automatic selection of the rockets to be launched;
  • Possibility of repeated engagements, because of the availability of a large number of rockets, loaded into individual sealed containers;
  • Automatic control by the ship’s electronic warfare suite;
  • Full coordination with the active defense systems of the ship; – Ability to function in all weather conditions and in a position NBC (automatic)

Translated by google – Source

Sonar CAPTAS 4 (ASW Version)

An unrivalled performance against quiet submarines to achieve any anti-submarine warfare missions including escort, area sanitization and own force protection.


  • Ultra long range
    Capable of very large detection in every environmental condition.
  • Reduced operator workload
    The only large VDS to provide automated deployment and recovery procedures without operator on aft deck.
    The lowest operating and training manpower for this class of system.
  • Cooperative asset
    Very accurate target positioning to prosecute and engage distant submarines with airborne assets.
    Multi-static capability with virtually all low frequency sonar in operation world-wide.
    Minimising interference with other VDS and BMS
  • Embedded torpedo defence
    Permanent self defence capability.
  • Mammals safe
    Adjustable source level & noise monitoring for sea mammal protection.
  • Low Life Cycle Cost

Large installed base and continuous evolutions for Inherent customer’s long term support.


A rugged design for sea operations which allows the ASW units to transmit and receive at the right depth with two separate arrays and maximize the detection of extremely quiet submarines.

The system is designed to independently deploy the arrays at optimum depth to continuously survey 360 degrees with a well covered water column, thus overcoming harsh propagation conditions and surface-layer problems inherent to Hull Mounted Sonar.

FFG Carlo Margottini (F592) and its CAPTAS 4 towed sonar array in action. Photo: Marina Militare Italiana 


System features:

  • For platforms > 3000T
  • In operation since 2004
  • Operated from CMS Multi-Function Consoles
  • Two winches to independently deploy/tow the transmit towed body and the receive array
  • Bottom safety warning function
  • Integrated On-Board-Training capability
  • Performance prediction function for sonar optimisation
  • Passive and active sonar track association
  • State of the art adaptive signal processing
  • Comprehensive Built-in Test capability
  • Cutting edge technology employees due to continuous product upgrade

Transmit array features:

  • Highest Source Level for this type of sonar due to its 4 Free Flooded Rings antenna
  • 360° bearing omni-directional transmission
  • Low reverberation effect, due to its vertical directivity
  • Optional underwater telephone capability

Receive Triplet Array Features:

  • Instantly resolves right/left ambiguity issue


Active Frequencies: below 2kHz
Bandwidth: Wide FM
Pulse lengths: up to 16s
Pulse Modes: FM, CW and COMBO
Operational limits: Up to sea state 6
Operating depth: Up to 230m depth, e.g. 180 m at 12knts
Detection performance: Up to second oceanic Convergence Zone


The ships are equipped with a Thales UMS 4110 CL low frequency active and passive Bow Mounted Sonar. The hull mounted sonar covers a very large area providing ASW all-round surveillance as it can detect any kind of threat or object from a long range in any environmental condition. It has an excellent target positioning allowing to prosecute and engage distant submarines with organic weapons or airborne assets. Source

Thales UMS 4110 CL hull sonar

Image for illustration only

A high performance sonar that provides effective anti-submarine capability together with self-protection against torpedo threats and underwater obstacles in brown and blue waters.

  • Large area coverage
    Very long range detection in any environmental condition, complementary asset to CAPTAS Variable Depth Sonar.
    Detects up to Convergence Zone in the Mediterranean and uses Bottom Bounce propagation.
  • Self-protection against multiple threats
    Permanent self-protection against incoming torpedoes.
    Complementary underwater obstacle/mine-like avoidance capability.
  • Cooperative asset
    Excellent target positioning allowing to prosecute and engage distant submarines with organic weapons or airborne assets.
    Capable of multi-static operation with most current low frequency active sonar in operation world-wide.
  • Reduced operator workload
    Manned by a single operator. Same Human Computer Interface look & feel as CAPTAS VDS for high interoperability.
  • State-of-the-art sonar
    Enhanced performance, robustness and reliability thanks to spiral technological update and new transducers.
  • Mammals safe
    Adjustable source level & noise monitoring for mammal protection.

System features:

  • Designed for medium to large size surface combatant
  • Very high source level at relatively low frequency
  • Provides ASW all-round surveillance
  • Several transmit configurations, allowing operation with two ships in the same area
  • Integrated On-Board-Training capability
  • Performance prediction function for sonar optimisation
  • Comprehensive built-in test capability


Array (Weight/Height/Diameter): (10t / 2.2m / 2.0m)
Active frequency range: 4600 to 6100 Hz
Pulse types: Hyperbolic FM, CW and COMBO
Pulse length: 60 ms to 4 s
Range scale: Up to 72 kYds
Active modes:
– ASW: 360°, Omni-directional
– Obstacle Avoidance: ± 90° off the ship’s bow
Wide HFM bandwidth: 2000 Hz, against reverberation effect
Passive frequency range: 4200 to 6100 Hz. (when no active transmission allowed)
Passive functions: All around broadband surveillance, LOFAR, DEMON & audio channels


General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
Sensors / EW:
UMS 4410CL – (FREMM) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km


Principle of operation of sonars (© THALES) – Image:

The electronic equipment completes two GEM SPN-753G (V) 10 ARPA navigation radars (auto-tracking up to 50 targets), one GEM SPN-753G (V) 10 for helicopter approach control, a Selex SPN-730 Low Probabily Intercept (LPI) Navigation Radar and Precision Approach Radar (PAR), one Selex ES IFF SIR M5-PA and a Selex Full Integrated Communication System (Satcom UHF/SHF/Ku, Immarsat, GMDSS, LOS LF/MF/HF and V/UHF, Link11, Link16, Link22). Moreover, a Thales TUUM-6 Digital Under Water Communication System that offers Long range Low Probably Intercept (LPI) data transmission, high data rate transmission and communication with divers and two SOF ESUD Quick Pointing Devices (QPD). The combat system is the Selex ES Athena with 21, three displays, MFC (Multi Functional Consolle): 17 into COC, 2 in backup COC, 1 on bridge and 1 into Command Planning Room.

Selex SPN-730 Low Probabily Intercept (LPI) Navigation Radar



The SPN-730 comprises two units that, if required, can be supplied already integrated with a conventional navigation radar to provide a LPI operational mode. When low interceptability against ESM or Anti Radiation Missiles (ARM) is required, the SPN-730 provides high LPI performances, while ensuring continued excellent detection capabilities. The SPN-730 is highly modular and comprises the TransmitterFront-End Receiver Unit, the Digital TX RX/ Processor Unit and a RF switch to interface existing antenna

SPN-730 can be installed with:

  • standard Navigation Antenna Group (slotted array)
  • standard ARPA console.


Key features

  • LPI Pulsed Radar with Power Management
  • compact, modular, lightweight
  • solid state transmitter, intrinsic coherent architecture
  • digital compressed pulses
  • interfaced with on-board Electronic Warfare devices without degradation of their performance
  • frequency agility, PRF jittered
  • high resistance to ECM
  • standard video output and control signals for easy integration with ARPA and/or multifunctional consoles
  • sector blanking transmission
  • plot Extraction/Track-While-Scan option
  • pulse Doppler growth capability



General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 92.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 2000s
Properties: Pulse-only Radar
Sensors / EW:
MM/SPN-730 – (LPI) Radar
Role: Radar, Surface Search & Navigation
Max Range: 92.6 km


There is a 16-cell Vertical Launch System (VLS) for Aster-15 and Aster-30 surface-to-air missiles. The Aster-15 has a range of around 30 km, while the Aster-30 have a range of around 120 km. However this loadout of 16 missiles is comparatively small for such a large warship.


STRALES in front of VLS 

Behind the front gun, it is installed a DCNS Sylver A50 VLS with 16 cells (two VLS modules) for MBDA Aster 15 anti-aircraft/missile missiles for local and area defence (medium range) and Aster 30 missiles that provide long range interception capability for area defence (see the video for Sylver VLS).

Similarly with the French FREMM frigates, the space located backwards of the current silos allows for 16 more missiles, and specifically two A70 silos for land-attack/cruise missiles in the future. But as of today the Italian Navy is using that space for the crew accommodation. Both Aster 15 and 30 missiles featuring the same terminal dart. Source

Aster air defence missile system


The ASTER modular family of vertically launched missiles have been designed to meet the high demanding requirements of the emerging air threats such as aircraft, UAVs, helicopters and specially missiles. The ASTER missiles can be installed on ground- and sea-based platforms. They feature hit-to-kill capability, a very valuable skill against ballistic missiles. The missile family entered service in 2002 with the French Armed Forces. The ASTER 15 and ASTER 30 are integrated on the SAAM (ASTER 15), PAAMS (ASTER 15 and ASTER 30) and SAMP/T (ASTER 30) air defense systems. These systems will be employed by the armed forces of France, Italy and the United Kingdom.

ASTER 15 and ASTER 30

ASTER 15/30 – Image:

The two-stage ASTER missiles are provided with two different solid propellant boosters resulting in the ASTER 15 and the ASTER 30 models. The ‘Pif-Paf’ control system enables the ASTER missile to counter high maneuverable missiles achieving a direct impact (hit-to-kill). The ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion combines conventional aerodynamic control with control by gas jets acting through the centre of gravity of the missile. Until mid-course the guidance of an ASTER missile is based on the Inertial Navigation System (INS) updated through an uplink, in the terminal phase the guidance is provided by an active Radiofrequency seeker. The final stage of the ASTER missile is a ‘dart’ equipped with the seeker, a sustainer motor, a proximity fuze and a blast fragmentation warhead.

The ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion – Image:

The ASTER 15 is a short range missile intended for self-defense (point defense) purposes against highly maneuverable threats. The ASTER 15 is integrated on the SAAM and beginning in 2006 in the PAAMS system. The SAAM is installed on French-built frigates and the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier. The PAAMS will be provided to the Horizon frigates (France and Italy) and the Type 45 destroyers (United Kingdom).

The basic structure of -ASTER 15/30 – Image:

ASTER 15 version

Diameter: 180 millimeter (7.09 inch)
Length: 4.20 meter (165 inch)
Max Range: 30,000 meter (16.2 nautical mile)
Min Range: 1,700 meter (0.92 nautical mile)
Target’s Max Altitude: 13,000 meter (8.08 mile)
Top Speed: 1,000 mps (3,601 kph)
Weight: 310 kilogram (683 pound)

ASTER 15 data Source

ASTER 30 version

Number of Stages: 2
Diameter: 180 millimeter (7.09 inch)
Length: 4.90 meter (193 inch)
Max Range: 120 kilometer (65 nautical mile)
Min Range: 3,000 meter (1.62 nautical mile)
Target’s Max Altitude: 20,000 meter (12.4 mile)
Top Speed: 1,494 mps (5,380 kph)
Weight: 450 kilogram (992 pound)

ASTER 30 data Source

“General purpose” variants of the Carlo Bergamini class are fitted with a single Otobreda 127 mm gun and a single OTO Melara 76 mm gun. “Anti-submarine” variants have two OTO Melara 76 mm guns. The 76 mm guns are dual-purpose weapons. These rapid-firing guns use guided shells and can engage surface, air and land targets. These also act as close-in weapon systems for last ditch defense against incoming missiles. Also there are two 25-mm remotelly-controlled cannons that are used to engage small surface threats.

General purpose frigate armament

image015GP frigate armament – Image:

ASW purpose frigate armament

image017ASW frigate armament – Image:

The frigates have one main gun on the bow deck which is either the  OTO Melara Super Rapido 76mm/62cal gun on the ASW variant or the OTO Melara 127mm/64cal Lightweight (LW) on the GP variant.

11247742_677208995739257_913001970_nCarlo Bergamini (F590) Otobreda 127/64 mm gun 

Each vessel has a secondary OTO Melara Super Rapido 76mm/62cal gun installed on the starboard roof of the helicopter hangar. The 76mm guns are part of the STRALES system which consists of the naval gun, a Radio Frequency Guidance System with the electronic control unit and the DART ammunition. STRALES is an all-weather system that was designed to engage and to destroy multiple manoeuvring targets with the use of guidance ammunition for increased accuracy and therefore lethality. STRALES includes a Radio Frequency Guidance System provided with a mechanical frame to be connected to the gun-mount structure. A gun shield is provided with a watertight cover which can be automatically removed to deploy the guidance antenna; once actual target position and stabilisation data are available, STRALES operates as a stand alone system. The DART projectile is equipped with the new DART microwave  programmable  multifunction  fuse. The effective operating range is greater than 8km while the maneuverability is higher than.. 40g! A new Multiple-Feeding (MF) ammunition loading system for the 76/62 mm is also available as a separate kit which is able to select any ammunition contained in the branches regardless of its position (typically, DART and standard ammo). The gun can intercept air and surface targets at a distance of 16 km (6km the effective range against anti-ship missiles) unleashing 120 rounds per minute weighting greater than 6kg each. The gun has excellent performance in any kind of role, such as air defence, anti surface, anti-missile and shore bombardment role. It is claimed by OTO Melara that these guns can engage 4 missiles before they reach the ship. Source

VULCANO system – Image:

Otobreda 127/64 mm gun (GP version)


The upcoming Oto-Melara (now OtoBreda) 127/64 Lightweight (LW) naval gun is a rapid fire gun mount suitable for installation on large and medium size ships, intended for surface fire and naval gunfire support as main role and anti-aircraft fire as secondary role. The compactness of the gun feeding system makes possible the installation on narrow section crafts.

The gun can fire all standard 5 inch (127mm) ammunition including the new Vulcano long range guided ammunition.

Modular automatic feeding magazines allow the firing of up to four different and immediately selectable types of ammunition; the magazines (four drums, each with one shell ready to fire) can be reloaded while the mount is in operation.

An ammunition manipulator system is available to transport projectiles and propelling charges from the main ammunition store to the feeding magazines, which are automatically reloaded. Ammunition flow is reversible. Rounds can be automatically unloaded from the gun. Digital and Analog interfaces are available for any Combat Management System, also according to Corba protocol. The 127/64 LW Naval Gun Mounts includes a Vulcano module, which acts twofold:

– Programmer for ammunition’s fuse and guidance system.
– Mission Planning and Execution for Naval Fire Support Action (firing solutions, selection of ammunition, definition of trajectories and firing sequences, ballistic computations accounting for ammunition type, etc.), as a standalone or in interaction with ship’s Network Centric System.

wnit_5-64_lw_carlo_bergamini_pic127 mm/64 on Italian Frigate Carlo Bergamini. Photograph copyrighted by Occar wnit_5-64_lw_vulcano_sabot_picVulcano unguided projectile. Note how the projectile is carried down in the propelling cartridge. This will allow it to be used in the 54-caliber barrel. Picture courtesy of Ministero della Difesawnit_5-64_lw_vulcano_gps_picFuture Vulcano Projectile with Inertial and GPS guidance. Picture courtesy of Ministero della Difesa

Technical data:
Caliber: 5 inches / 127 mm
Barrel lenght: 320 inches / 8,128 meters (= 64 caliber)
Weight: 33000 kg (without ammunition)
Elevation: -12° / +70°
Traverse: +/- 155°
Rate of fire: 32 rounds per minute
Range: 23000 meters, max. / 15000 meters effective / 8600 meters AA / up to 100 km with Vulcano ER/LR ammunition
Ammunition stowage: 56 rounds ready to fire in 4 loader drums / 500-600 in magazine
Ammunition: all standard 5-inch ammunition including the new Vulcano extended range / long range guided ammunition

OTO-Melara 127/64 LW source

OTO Melara Super Rapido 76mm/62cal gun

OtoBreda 76/62SR Super Rapid with DAVIDE/STRALES guidance system

The Oto-Melara / Oto-Breda 76/62SR 76mm (3-inches) 62-caliber Super Rapid gun is a lightweight, automatic loading, rapid fire naval gun system used against shore, sea and air targets.

Manufacturer: 1963-2001 Oto-Melara / 2001- OtoBreda
Produced: Compact: 1963- / Super Rapid: 1988-

Technical data:
Caliber: 3 inches / 76,2 mm
Barrel lenght: 186 inches / 4,72 meters (= 62 caliber)
Weight: 7900kg, empty (Super Rapid)
Shell: 76 x 900 mm / 12,34 kilograms
Elevation: – 15° to + 85°
Traverse: 360°
Rate of fire: Compact: 85 rpm / Super Rapid: selectable from single shot up to 120 rpm
Muzzle Velocity: 925 m/s (1100 m/s – DART)
Magazine: Compact: 80 rounds / SR: 85 rounds
16 kilometers with standard ammunition
20 km with extended range ammunition
up to 40 km with VULCANO ammunition

– Compact
– Super Rapid
– Stealth casing
– DAVIDE/STRALES radio frequency guidance system for DART guided ammunition

HE (high explosive) – 6,296kg / Range 16km / effective range 8km (4km vs. air targets at elev. 85°)
MOM (multi-role OTO munition)
PFF (pre-formed fragmentation) – anti-missile ammunition
SAPOM (semi-armored piercing OTO munition) – 6,35kg / Range 16km
SAPOMER (semi-armored piercing OTO munition, extended range) – Range 20km
DART (driven ammunition reduced time of flight) – sub-calibre guided ammunition against multiple targets
(missiles and maneuvering targets at sea) 4,2kg in barrel / 3,5kg in flight / 660mm lenght / effective range >8km
VULCANO (76mm unguided and guided extended range ammunition) – under development


Oto-Breda 76/62SR 76mm (3-inches) Source

25-mm remotelly-controlled cannons

Two OTO Melara Oerlikon KBA 25mm/80cal  guns which are installed one to port and one to starboard 

The frigates have also two OTO Melara Oerlikon KBA 25mm/80cal  guns which are installed one to port and one to starboard. The guns are stabilized, electric servo-drive assisted, while a weapon control is featured in order to allow the gunner to remain steady at any barrel elevation, laying the gun with the maximum accuracy even against targets at maximum elevation. A conventional aiming system is fitted to the mount, but also an IR sight with integrated ballistic reticule is available. The rate of fire is about 650 rounds per minute and the effective range for aerial targets is about 2,000m. The gun has two 126-round boxes on each side of it. Source

4 x OTOMAT anti-ship missiles (GP)


The Otomat Mk2 Block IV is an all-weather, subsonic, long range, sea-skimming anti-ship missile with extended capabilities for littoral warfare and coastal attack missions. The Otomat Block IV missiles can be retargeted and carry out coordinated attacks. It can be installed on different fighting ships from small fast patrol boats to large destroyers and cruisers.

The Otomat missiles can be launch irrespective of ship’s bearing, the target data is provided by the sensors of the ship. Once launched, the missile is guided through he INS supported by the GPS and a radar altimeter. Target information can be updated from ship’s sensors or another platform via a protected built-in radio-link. The terminal phase of the attack is performed through the active radar seeker.

Otomat missile launcher

The Otomat Block IV missile can perform maneuvers, simultaneous arrival at the target area and different attack directions in order to escape ship’s defenses and increase the kill probability. The Otomat is also well protected against the effects of countermeasures. It is provided with an impressive 210 kg semi-piercing warhead detonated by proximity, contact and grazing.

MBDA Otomat/Teseo Mk2Ablock IV guided anti-ship missile in four single launchers amidships


Diameter: 400 millimeter

Length: 4.46 meter (14.6 foot)


Max Range: 150 kilometer (81 nautical mile)

Min Range: 4,000 meter


Warhead: 210 kilogram (463 pound)

Otomat Block IV source

1684457_-_mainAlpino (F594)

The “general purpose” variant is armed with four OTOMAT anti-ship missiles. These have a range of around 200 km. The ASW variant is armed with four MILAS anti-submarine missiles, that drop torpedo remotely from the ship.

4 x MILAS anti-submarine missiles (ASW)

MILAS missile. Photo: MBDA

Derived from the OTOMAT MK2 missile system, MILAS is designed to carry and release an MU-90, or similar, lightweight torpedo, close to the designated submarine position, as indicated by the ship sonar or by a co-operating ASW helicopter or MPA.

MILAS is capable of ranges from 5 to in excess of 35 km in all directions.


The system effectiveness relies on the capability to update the trajectory and the torpedo release point continuously during the missile flight, with the added advantage of modifying the torpedo settings in respect of target manoeuvres.

milas2_NKMEImage: from the net

With its fast reaction time, operational range and availability, the system provides the launching ship and the escorted naval formation permanent and effective defence against the submarine, be it conventional or nuclear.

Components of MILAS – Image:

MILAS missiles can also be used together with OTOMAT MK 2 missiles in a common system for combined ASW and ASuW operations as in the Italian FREMMs.

Developed in co-operation by France and Italy, MILAS is in operational service with the Italian Navy. Source

Also there are two tripple launchers for EUROTORP MU90 lightweight torpedoes. These are present on both “general purpose” and “anti-submarine” variants.

EUROTORP MU90 lightweight torpedoe


The MU90/IMPACT Advanced Lightweight Torpedo is the leader of the 3rd generation of LWTs. Designed and built with the most advanced technology, the weapon is of fire-and-forget type conceived to cope with any-task any-environment capability requirements and meet the ASW operational needs of the 21st century.

The weapon has been designed to counter any type of nuclear or conventional submarine, acoustically coated, deep and fast-evasive, deploying active or passive anti-torpedo effectors


Main Dynamic Features
Linearly Variable speed …………………… 29 to >> 50 kts**
Range …………………… >10,000 m at max. speed**
> 23,000m at min. speed**
Minimum depth for launching …………………… < 25 m
Max. operating depth …………………… >> 1000 m**
Agility and manoeuvrability ……………………. Extreme
Diameter (NATO Standard) …………………… 323,7 mm
Length …………………… 2850 mm
Weight …………………… 304 kg
Main Acoustic Features
Operational bandwidth …………………… >>10KHz
Acoustic coverage …………………… 120°H x 70°V
Simultaneous targets …………………… Up to 10
Main Counter-Counter Measures
Stationary target detection capability
Decoy classification
Anti-Jammer tactics

(**) = real value classified


Launcher of MU90 torpedo – Image:

These Italian warships have a double hangar for helicopters and can accommodate either two NH90, or one NH90 and one AW101. These are used for search and rescue, utility operations, long-range anti-submarine and anti-ship warfare.

image052Carlo Bergamini (F590)

NH90 multi-role helicopter: Details


AugustaWestland AW101


The AugustaWestland AW101 is a modern naval utility helicopter. Originally this chopper was known as Eurocopter Industries EH101. It was jointly developed and produced by Augusta of Italy and Westland Helicopters from United Kingdom.

The EH 101 had its roots in a UK project to replace the Sea King. The design was later revised to meet Italian navy as well as Royal Navy requirements. Westland and Agusta established European Helicopter Industries Ltd, which received formal go-ahead in 1984 for nine prototypes and subsequent development of what became the EH 101. The first prototype made its maiden flight in 1987.

In 2000 Augusta and Westland Helicopters merged and formed AugustaWestland. Since 2007 this helicopter is marketed as AugustaWestland AW101. There are utility and anti-submarine warfare versions of this helicopter.

The EH101/AW101 is in service with Italy and United Kingdom. It has been exported to Algeria, Canada (CH-149 Cormorant), Denmark, Nigeria, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, and Turkmenistan. It is license-produced in Japan (Kawasaki MCH-101) and the United States. It is worth noting that Britain, Denmark and Portugal use the name Merlin for this helicopter.

Entered service 1998
Crew 1-2 men
Dimensions and weight
Length 22.81 m
Main rotor diameter 18.59 m
Height 6.65 m
Weight (empty) 10.5 t
Weight (maximum take off) 14.6 t
Engines and performance
Engines 3 x Rolls-Royce / Turbomeca RTM 322-01 turboshaft engines
Engine power 3 x 2 312 shp
Cruising speed 278 km/h
Service ceiling 4.5 km
Range 1 056 km
Endurance 5 hours
Missiles 2 x Sea Eagle, Marte 2, AM.39 Exocet or AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles
Torpedoes 4 x Marconi Stingray torpedoes


Indal Twin Claw (TC-ASIST)

An intelligent claw capture system for non-probe installed aircraft


While Indal ASIST (Aircraft Ship Integrated Secure and Traverse) is a popular system for those navies that have probe-equipped helicopters, for some navies the option to install a telescoping probe on their existing helicopters is difficult. In order to support non-probe installed aircraft, Curtiss-Wright has developed the Indal Twin Claw (TC-ASIST) system, a derivative of its already proven and successful ASIST system.

The TC-ASIST system provides full security after landing and through all on-deck operations, up to and including Sea State 6 conditions. The pilot, assisted by visual cues, flies the aircraft to a position over the designated landing area on the flight deck. The Indal Rapid Securing Device (RSD), fitted with a pair of claw arms designed to capture and secure the wheel spurs of the aircraft, tracks the helicopter position with the capture arms at a ready position at either end of the RSD. The claw arms are spring loaded and held in the down position until tire sensors contact each tire as the arms are brought in. Upon contact, spring force rotates the claw arm upwards until it contacts the wheel spur. Each claw arm acts independently, but they are mechanically interlocked to ensure simultaneous operation.


Once the aircraft is secured, it is ready to be aligned/straightened for traversing from the designated landing area to the hangar or any intermediate location. All deck handling operations can be accomplished without the need for personnel on the flight deck.

General Provides positive, uninterrupted securing provided at all times
Recovery Assist Optional ASIST style helicopter tracking system available to supplement standard deck cues and line up lines
100% free-deck landing
Capture Area 3~4 m2 [typical]
Compatible with harpoon deck-lock grid
Maneuvering and Traversing Achieved through single operator controlled movement of Rapid Securing Device along deck track
Constant helicopter lateral positioning maintained during traversing

TC-ASIST system source

The Carlo Bergamini class have an advanced Combined Diesel-Electric and Gas (CODLAG) propulsion system. For normal operation the ships use a single General Electric LM2500+G4 gas turbine, developing 42 900 shp. For slow-speed and quiet anti-submarine operations the ships use hybrid electric propulsion with two 2.5 MW electric motors which are connected to the propeller shafts. These are powered by 4 diesel generators. Maximum speed is 29 knots (55 km/h). Maximum range is 6 700 nautical miles (12 300 km) at 15 knots (28 km/h). So Italian vessels are slightly faster and have longer range than their French counterparts.

Propulsion system

  • France: CODLOG
  • Italy: CODLAG
  • 1 × 32 MW gas turbine General Electric/Avio LM2500+G4
  • 2 × 2.5 MW electric motors Jeaumont Electric
  • 4 × diesel generators
  • France: MTU Series 4000 (2,2 MW everyone)
  • Italy: Isotta Fraschini VL 1716 (T2ME series by 2,15 MW everyone, on first two frigate; HPCR series by 2,8 MW everyone, since the third frigate)
  • 2 × shafts, driving controllable pitch propellers
  • 1 × 1 MW bow thruster
  • France: 27+ knots (50 km/h (31 mph))
  • Italy: 29+ knots (55 km/h (34 mph))
  • France: 6,000 nm (11,000 km (6,800 mi)) at 15 knots
  • Italy: 6,700 nm (12,300 km (7,600 mi)) at 15 knots


1 x General Electric LM2500


The General Electric LM2500 is an industrial and marine gas turbine produced by GE Aviation. The LM2500 is a derivative of the General Electric CF6 aircraft engine.

The LM2500 is available in 3 different versions:

  • The LM2500 delivers 33,600 shaft horsepower (shp) (25,060 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 37 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 24 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 36 percent at ISO conditions.
  • The improved, 3rd generation, LM2500+ version of the turbine delivers 40,500 shp (30,200 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 29 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 38 percent at ISO conditions.
  • The latest, 4th generation, LM2500+G4 version was introduced in November 2005 and delivers 47,370 shp (35,320 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39.3 percent at ISO conditions.

LM2500 installations place the engine inside a metal container for sound and heat isolation from the rest of the machinery spaces. This container is very near the size of a standard 40-foot (12 m) intermodal shipping container – but not the same, the engine size very slightly exceeds those dimensions. The air intake ducting may be designed and shaped appropriately for easy removal of the LM2500 from their ships. Source

RENK main gear arrange-ment for Italian FREMM

4 x Isotta Fraschini VL 1716 C2ME (Italy FREMM)


Overall the Italian Carlo Bergamini class warships are larger and are superior in many respects to the French Aquitaine class. However the Italian vessels do not carry any land attack cruise missiles, that are present on the French frigates.


sea-trials-begin-for-new-italian-frigateLuigi Rizzo (F595)

Trieste, April 20, 2017 – The frigate “Rizzo” was delivered today to the Italian Navy at Fincantieri’s shipyard in Muggiano (La Spezia). It is the sixth vessel of the FREMM program – Multi Mission European Frigates – commissioned to Fincantieri within the international Italian-French program, coordinated by OCCAR (the Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation). Orizzonte Sistemi Navali (51% Fincantieri and 49% Leonardo) is the prime contractor for Italy in the FREMM program, which envisions the building of 10 units, all already ordered.

“Rizzo” is the sixth unit built by Fincantieri including the combat system, the second in multipurpose configuration after the “Carlo Bergamini”, delivered to the Italian Navy in 2012. 144 meters long and with a displacement at full load of approximately 6,700 tons, the FREMM frigates represent technological excellence: designed to reach a maximum speed of 27 knots and to provide accommodation for 200 people (crew and staff), these vessels are able to always guarantee a high degree of flexibility and to operate in a wide range of scenarios and tactical situations.

The FREMM program, representing the Italian and European defence state of the art, stems from the renewal need of the Italian Navy line “Lupo” (already removed) and “Maestrale” (some already removed, other close to the attainment of operational limit) class frigates, both built by Fincantieri in the 1970s.

These units – which will become the backbone of the naval fleet over the next decades –significantly contribute to the development of the tasks assigned to the Italian Navy, being able to operate in various sectors, from specific military purposes to those in favour of the community. Source

Sixth Italian Navy FREMM frigate starts sea trials: Here

sixth-italian-navy-fremm-frigate-starts-sea-trialsLuigi Rizzo (F595). Photo: Italian Navy – Image:




Main material source

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image – Luigi Rizzo F595 –

Revised Jan 28, 2017

Updated Dec 19, 2018

Improved Bergamini class FREMM

super-bergaminiThe Improved Bergamini class FREMM as she was showcased during DIMDEX 2016. High resolution image here. – Image:

Country-specific equipment

Common equipment

  • OTO Melara 76/62 mm Super Rapid gun (on Italian Navy versions with Davide/Strales guided-ammunition)
  • 2 x torpedo launchers Eurotorp/WASS B515/3 for MU 90 torpedoes with Calzoni AHS (Automatic Handling System)
  • 1 x Selex ES NA-25 DARDO-F fire control system for the 76mm cannon
  • 2 x SLAT (Systeme de Lutte Anti-Torpille) anti-torpedo system (into Italian Navy only for ASW version) ASW DLS (Anti Submarine Weapon Decoy Launcher System) based on Thales ALERT sonar system, DCNS RATO command system and WASS CMAT weapon system (with 12 tube launcher for 127 mm’s WASS C-310 decoy and jammers)
  • NH90 helicopter, with capability for AW101, Cougar and Caracal
  • Thales UMS 4110 CL hull sonar
  • Thales UMS 4249 CAPTAS4 towed sonar (anti-submarine versions only)
  • Thales TUUM-6 Underwater Telephone
  • 2 x Sigen MM/SMQ-765 EW system: with JASS (Jamming Antenna Sub System) ECM, Nettuno 4100, by ELT Elettronica and Thales ESM (Communications and Radar ESM)
  • 2 x SOFRESUD Quick Pointing Devices “QPD”

Italian-specific equipment

  • 16 cells of SYLVER A50 VLS for Aster 15 and Aster 30 missiles
  • Space reserved for SYLVER A70 launchers for 16 SCALP Naval or similar cruise missile, but not fitted
  • Selex ES IRST SASS
  • another one Selex ES NA-25 DARDO-F fire control system for the second cannon (76/62 mm or 127/54 mm)
  • Selex ES EMPAR active 3D radar (MFRA).
  • Selex ES RASS (RAN-30X-I) surface radar (OTH)
  • LPI navigation radar Selex ES SPN-730 and two navigation radar GEM-Elettronica MM/SPN-753
  • Selex ES IFF SIR M5-PA; since the 7th FREMM-IT replaced with Leonardo-Finmeccanica IFF SIR M5-PA Conformal
  • Selex ES Athena combat system (CMS), with 21, three displays, MFC (Multi Functional Consolle): 17 into COC, 2 in backup COC, 1 on bridge and 1 into Command Planning Room
  • Selex ES SAAM-ESD extended area AAW combat system (for Aster 15 & Aster 30 missiles)
  • 2 x OTO Melara SCLAR-H DLS Multipurpose Rocket Launcher
  • 8 x Teseo\Otomat Mk-2/A block 4, for naval and land attack
  • 2 x Oto Melara/Oerlikon 25/80 mm, remote weapon system, controlled by close CMS
  • Curtiss-Wright TC-ASIST helicopter handling system (for both helicopters)
  • WASS SNA-2000-I, Mine Avoidance Sonar
  • L-3 ELAC Nautik SeaBeam 3050, Multi-beam echo sounder (only on ASW version)
  • 1 x 7 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat release and recovery lateral systems (Stemar 6,8 m, FNM HPEP 225 HP engine, 38 knots, 6 crew)
  • 1 x 11 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat release and recovery lateral systems
  • 11 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat fast release and recovery system (only on GP version)
  • ASW version: 2 x OTO Melara 76/62 mm Davide/Strales CIWS guns, one on the hangar (both with Strales guided-ammunitions) and 4 MILAS ASW missile
  • GP version: 1 x OTO Melara 127/64 mm gun with Vulcano guided ammunition, with a range up to 120 km, and AAHS (Automated Ammunition Handling System) with 350 rounds + 56 in turret and a second OTO Melara 76/62 mm Davide/Strales CIWS gun on the hangar (with Strales guided-ammunitions)


Eurocopter AS565 Panther

The Eurocopter AS 565 Panther is a multirole light helicopter, designed for troop transport, logistic support and medical evacuation. It is operational with the Brazilian Army, the armed forces of Saudi Arabia and the Israeli Defence Force. The army version is designated the AS 565UB and the naval versions AS 565MB (unarmed) and AS 565SB (armed). The helicopter first flew in 1984 and entered production in 1986. 259 AS 565 Panthers have been ordered: 181 army and 78 naval versions.

The Eurocopter AS565 Panther is the military version of the Eurocopter AS365 Dauphin medium-weight multi-purpose twin-engine helicopter. The Panther is used for a wide range of military roles, including combat assault, fire support, anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, search and rescue, and medical evacuation (MEDEVAC). Source

Bulgarian Navy Panther AS565MB

In January 2005, the Bulgarian Navy ordered six AS 565MB helicopters for maritime surveillance, search and rescue, anti-submarine and anti-surface operations and 12 Cougar AS 532 AL helicopters at a cost of €360m ($477m). The AS565MB helicopter orders were later cut down to three due to financial crisis in Bulgaria. The first of the three aircraft was delivered in October 2011. The variant AS 565MB is capable of working in both day and night shipborne operations in all environments.

French Navy

As a tactical troop transport, the Panther has the capacity to transport ten commandos. For medical evacuation, it can accommodate up to four patients and one doctor. A sling with a 1,600kg capacity or a 90m-long electrical hoist for loads up to 27.2kg can be fitted.

AS565SA Panther – Image: Jean Thomas Rembert

AS 565 Panther helicopter design

The construction of the helicopter is similar to that of the Eurocopter AS 365N3 Dauphin multipurpose helicopter but the build incorporates more composite materials for high strength and lower radar signature. The infrared signature was reduced by the application of IR-absorbing paint. The entire structure has high crash tolerance and the fully laden helicopter at maximum take-off weight of 4,300kg is able to withstand a vertical impact from 7m. The fuel system is rated to withstand a 14m crash and the fuel tanks are self sealing.

The control servomechanisms and the engine controls are armour protected. The fuselage is fitted with cable cutters.

The helicopter is of light alloy construction with extensive use of glass fibre reinforced plastic and Nomex for added strength and for weight reduction. It has a Starflex fibreglass rotorhead with four main rotor blades.

AS565SA Panther main rotor – Image: Jean Thomas Rembert

The blades can be folded manually and are equipped with quick disconnect pins. The main rotor blades incorporate a carbon fibre reinforced plastic spar and are filled with a Nomex honeycomb material. The blades are corrosion and damage resistant.

An 11-bladed Fenestron faired-in tail rotor provides a higher level of safety for ground crew, air crew and passengers when manoeuvring at low altitudes, during landing or on the ground.

AS565SA Panther – Image: Jean Thomas Rembert

Cockpit systems

The helicopter is fitted with a two-pilot Thales Avionics navigation system. The military secure communications system can be fitted to suit the country’s operational requirements. The crew seats are rated to withstand impacts to +20g.

The electronic warfare suite includes a Thales TMV 011 Sherloc radar warning receiver, 2×2 multifunctional displays (MFD), torpedo control box, OTHT joystick, 10.4in colour tactical display (radar, navigation and FLIR), an infrared jammer and Alcan Elips chaff and flare decoy dispensers.

The helicopter is also equipped with advanced automatic flight control systems (AFCS).


The AS 565 helicopter is armed with Giat M621 20mm cannon pods, 68mm and 70mm unguided rockets. It also carries Matra Mistral air-to-air missiles, AS 15 TT anti-surface missiles, HOT anti-tank missiles, and mk46 or Whitehead A.244/S anti-submarine warfare torpedoes missiles.

Giat M621 20mm cannon pod

800px-nexter_nc621GIAT (now Nexter Systems) M621 canon pod –  Image:

The M621 is a French 20 mm automatic cannon, designed by GIAT (now Nexter Systems). It is used on armored vehicles, aircrafts, helicopters and small coastal vessels in France, India, Romania and other countries. Its variants include THL 20, chin mounting for helicopters; SH 20, door mounting for helicopters; CP 20, pintle-mounted naval gun, and others. The gun entered service in 1973 and is still in service today.


  • Type: Automatic gun
  • Calibre: 20×102 mm
  • Gun Weight: 100.3 lbs (45.5 kg)
  • Gun Length: 86.9 in (220.7 cm)
  • Bore Length: 57.5 in (146 cm)
  • Capacity: Belt fed, platform dependent capacity (160 for model 15A naval mounting, 300-750 for THL 20)
  • Rate of fire: 750 rpm
  • Muzzle velocity: 980-1030 m/s depending on ammunition type


68mm and 70mm unguided rockets


Matra Mistral air-to-air missile

The Mistral is a short-range air defense weapon missile system. It was designed and manufactured in France by Matra BAE Dynamics (now MBDA). It features a lightweight man portable launcher, which can be operated by a single soldier. The Mistral SAM can also be launched from armored vehicles, ships and helicopters. More than 17 000 missiles have been produced. The Mistral is used in around 25 countries.

The Mistral missile is a fire-and-forget type weapon with a high technology infrared homing seeker, which is fully autonomous after firing. The missile is lightweight and is very accurate. Maximum altitude is 3 000 m at a maximum speed of 930 m/s. The homing head has high sensitivity due to the incorporation of matrix multiplier unit picking up infrared radiation in the 3-5 micron range.

Image: CEOWORLD magazine

The missile has a 3 kg High Explosive (HE) warhead with high density tungsten balls for increased damage. It uses a laser proximity detonation mechanism, that reduces the chance of premature detonation. The missile also has a gyro-based proportional navigation, that rejects flares. The seeker of Mistral also incorporates a narrow field of view, thereby rejecting decoys interference.

Propulsion system of the missile includes a booster and a sustainer motors. After leaving the canister the booster gives missile an initial velocity of 40 m/s. Then the sustainer motor kicks in, increasing the missile speed to the maximum.

The identification friend-or-foe interrogator is used to determine if the incoming aircraft is friend or foe.

ATAM is an air-to-air version of Mistral, intended for helicopters and aircraft.

Entered service 1988
Missile length 1.86 m
Missile diameter 0.09 m
Fin span 0.18 m
Missile weight 18.7 kg
Missile weight in container 21.4 kg
Weight with launcher 41 kg
Warhead weight 3 kg
Warhead type High Explosive
Range of fire 6 km
Altitude of fire 3 km
Guidance Infrared homing


AS 15 TT anti-surface missiles

Image result for AS 15 TT anti-surface missile

The sleek AS-15TT has small cruciform tail fins, and swept-back wings mounted in the midsection. The wings have antenna pods mounted on their tips. The missile is fitted with a blast-fragmentation warhead derived from that used on the AS-12. Although it does have a radar altimeter for sea-skimming attacks, it does not have a terminal seeker. Targeting is performed by the launch helicopter using radar, and flight instructions are relayed to the missile by a digital data link.

   _____________________   _________________   _______________________
   spec                    metric              english
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________

   wingspan                56.4 centimeters    1 feet 10 inches
   length                  2.6 meters          7 feet 1 inch
   total weight            100 kilograms       220 pounds
   warhead weight          30 kilograms        66 pounds

   speed                   high subsonic
   range at altitude       15 kilometers       9 MI / 8 NMI
   _____________________   _________________   _______________________


HOT anti-tank missiles


© Aérospatiale

The HOT (Haut subsonique Optiquement Téléguidé Tiré d’un Tube, or High Subsonic Optical Remote-Guided, Tube-Launched) is a second-generation long-range anti-tank missile system developed originally as an effort to meet a joint German-French Army requirement, by the then German firm Bölkow and the French firm Nord. Engine Two-stage solid fuel rocket, Range 75-4,300 m at 864 km/h Guidance SACLOS

Mk46 or Whitehead A.244/S anti-submarine warfare torpedoes

Mk46 anti-submarine warfare torpedoes

Turboshaft engines

AS565SA Panther – Image:  Pierric Boudehen

The AS 565 Panther is equipped with two Turbomeca Arriel 2C turboshaft engines, each rated at 635kW, for reliable performance in hot and high conditions. Full authority digital engine control (FADEC) provides fully automatic engine starting and ensures engine operation is maintained within the acceleration, torque and temperature operational limits. The hover ceiling within ground effect is 2,600m and the never exceed speed is over 285km/h.

2 x Turbomeca Arriel 2C turboshaft engines

The Arriel 2C is the latest version of the Arriel turboshaft engine family. The Arriel 2 features a very simple design, with a reduced number of parts and only five modules for easy maintenance. It capitalizes on the experience and know-how gained with the Arriel 1 family. The Arriel 2 has a TBO (Time Between Overhaul) of 3,500 hours.

The Arriel 2C powers the Eurocopter AS 365 Dauphin, capable of carrying 10 persons in its basic configuration, and China’s H 410 A.

AS565SA Panther – Image: Jean Thomas Rembert
OEI 30 sec 718 kW / 963 shp
OEI 2 min 646 kW / 866 shp
OEI Continuous 626 kW / 839 shp
AEO (take-off) 626 kW / 839 shp
AEO (Max. continuous) 581 kW / 779 shp


Four underfloor tanks and one centre fuselage tank provide a total fuel capacity of 1,130 litres. For extended range the helicopter can be fitted with an auxiliary fuel tank and a ferry tank. The range with standard fuel is 820km

Tricycle-type landing gear

AS565SA Panther – Image: Jean Thomas Rembert

The helicopter has hydraulically retractable tricycle type landing gear, with a twin wheeled nose unit and single wheeled main units. The main and nose units are equipped with oleopneumatic shock absorbers. The nose unit retracts rearward and the main wheels retract into wheel troughs in the fuselage.

AS565SA Panther – Image: Jean Thomas Rembert


The AS565 helicopter can climb at a rate of 8.9m/s to 792km range. It can fly at a maximum speed of 287km/h. The ferry range and service ceiling of the helicopter are 827km and 5,865m respectively. The endurance of the helicopter is 4.1 hours. The maximum take-off weight of the helicopter is 4,300kg.

Indonesian Spec

Safran Arriel 2N engines


Certified in December 2014, the 2N is the newest addition to the Arriel family. A variant of the Arriel 2+, it powers the Airbus Helicopters AS565MBe Panther. The Arriel 2N is seventeen per cent more powerful than the Arriel 2C in previous versions of the Panther. The Arriel 2N is capable of a take-off power of 986 shp and features a special 30-minute take-off power rating for the most demanding missions. Its maximum power, via the One Engine Inoperative (OEI) rating, approaches 1130 shp. As with other members of the Arriel 2+ family, the 2N integrates a combination of new and proven technologies. It features a new axial compressor, a new HP compressor diffuser, new HP turbine blade material and a new-generation, dual-channel Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) linked to a modernized fuel system. The Arriel 2N represents the ideal engine solution for new helicopter projects, such as Korea’s LAH military helicopter. Source

L-3 Ocean Systems DS-100 HELRAS dipping sonar


The Helicopter Long-Range Active Sonar (HELRAS) DS-100 has been demonstrated to be the highest-performance helicopter dipping sonar in the world. The wet end comprises a descending vertical transmit array of seven projector elements and a receive array of eight hydraulically driven arms that expand to a diameter of 2.6 meters when deployed.

The DS-100 is capable of operating at depths to 500 meters and has Figure Of Merit (FOM) sufficient to achieve second convergence zone detection in deep water and unparalleled direct path coverage. Low-strength targets moving at slow speeds are detected through the use of high-resolution Doppler processing and long shaped pulses. Extended duration wide bandwidth FM pulses (up to 5 seconds) are available to detect the near-zero Doppler target as well.

The low (1.38 kHz) active center frequency designed into the DS-100 using proprietary transducer and beam-forming technologies, allows multiple boundary interactions, reduced reverberation contamination of the received signals, and interoperability with shipboard sonars and sonobuoys in bistatic or multistatic employment.

In addition to its long-range surveillance and search capabilities, the DS-100 is well-suited to redetection, target localization and weapon delivery against deep and shallow water targets. The sonar system is fully compatible with MIL-STD-1553B databus architectures and its advanced reeling machine evolved from the field-proven AQS-13/18 series. Source


Operating depth 500 m

Projector 8 elements (7 sonar, 1 UWT), array length 5.2 m

Operational modes

Active operation centered at 1.311, 1.38, 1.449 KHz:

CW (0.039 sec PW to 10 sec PW) at 3 frequencies

Frequency modulation

Linear period FM (PW 0.156 sec to 5.0 sec); FM triplet (PW 0.625 sec to 1.25 sec)

50 Hz downsweep: at 3 center frequencies

100 Hz downsweep: at 3 center frequencies

300 Hz downsweep: at 1 center frequency (1.380 KHz)

Active display formats: All beam Doppler range; bearing-range/Doppler-range; bearing-range; A-scan

Passive operation BW: 800 Hz to 2000 Hz broadband; in band DEMON

Passive Display formats: Bearing-time; bearing frequency, automatic line integration

(narrowband and DEMON)

Source level 218 dB/µPa/yd

Beam width Vertical -15º to +15º

Receive beams 32 half beams, 16 full beams

Number of target tracks 10

Range scales 1, 1.5, 2.5, 4, 6, 10, 16, 25, 40, 60 n miles

Receive array 2.6 m diameter x 1.2 m high


Submersible unit: 155 kg

Dome Control, Reeling Machine, Cable & Reel: 130.5 kg

Common Acoustic Processor & Cable Interface Power Supply: 40.5 kg

Integrated System: 326 kg

Sonar Control: 6.3 kg

Flat Panel Display: 9 kg

Standalone System: 341.3 kg

Technical data


Variants: Here

Harbin Z-9

Harbin Z-9

Z-9C: Version for PLA Naval Air Force, for deployment aboard certain classes of destroyers and frigates; in service by late 2000. Believed to be equivalent to Arriel 2-engined Eurocopter AS 565 Panther, but equipped with Thales HS-12 dipping sonar and KLC-11/J-band (Chinese version of Agrion 15) surface search radar; armament includes two Yu-7 torpedoes or TV-guided C-701 anti-surface vessel missiles. Source

Specifications (Z-9B)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1 or 2 pilots
  • Capacity: 10 passengers or 1,900 kg (4,189 lb) payload internal, 1,600 kg (3,527 lb) payload slung
  • Length: 12.11 m (39 ft 9 in)
  • Height: 4.01 m (13 ft 2 in)
  • Empty weight: 2,050 kg (4,519 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 4,100 kg (9,039 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Zhuzhou Aeroengine Factory WZ-8A turboshaft, 632 kW (848 hp) each
  • Main rotor diameter: 11.94 m (39 ft 2 in)
  • Main rotor area: 111.98 m2 (1,205.3 sq ft) swept area


  • Maximum speed: 305 km/h (190 mph; 165 kn)
  • Cruising speed: 260 km/h (162 mph; 140 kn)
  • Ferry range: 1,000 km (621 mi; 540 nmi) with internal auxiliary tank
  • Endurance: 5 hours
  • Service ceiling: 4,500 m (14,764 ft) * Hovering Ceiling in ground effect: 2,600 m (8,530 ft)
  • Hovering Ceiling out of ground effect: 1,600 m (5,249 ft)


2 fixed 23 mm Type 23-2 (AM-23) cannon on attack variants. Pylons for rockets, gun pods, ET52 torpedo, HJ-8 anti-tank missiles, or TY-90 air-to-air missiles.

Z-9 Technical data

Operators: Here

Specifications (AS365 MB Panther)

General characteristics Data from

  • Crew: 1 or 2 pilots
  • Capacity: 10 troops
  • Length: 13.68 m (44 ft 11 in)
  • Height: 3.97 m (13 ft 0 in)
  • Empty weight: 2,380 kg (5,247 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 4,300 kg (9,480 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Turboméca Arriel 2C turboshaft, 635 kW (852 hp) each
  • Main rotor diameter: 11.94 m (39 ft 2 in)
  • Main rotor area: 111.98 m2 (1,205.3 sq ft)


  • Maximum speed: 306 km/h (190 mph; 165 kn)
  • Service ceiling: 5,865 m (19,242 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 8.9 m/s (1,750 ft/min)


  • Guns: Giat M621 20 mm (0.787 in) cannon pods.
  • Rockets: 68 mm (2.677 in) or 70 mm (2.756 in) unguided rockets.
  • Missiles:

Technical data

Main material source

F-15K Slam Eagle

The F-15K Slam Eagle is a multi-role fighter aircraft manufactured by Boeing for the Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF). It is an advanced variant of the F-15E Strike Eagle fighter. It can conduct long-range precision strike missions during day or night, in all weather conditions.

F-15E ‘Strike’ Eagle: Details

The F-15K is equipped with state-of-the-art mission equipment to conduct air-to-ground, air-to-air, and air-to-sea missions.

The ROKAF selected the F-15K Slam Eagle for its Next Generation Fighter Programme in April 2002. The aircraft made its first flight in March 2005. The first aircraft was rolled out from the Boeing site in St. Louis the same month.

Burner Friday: Boeing F-15K SLAM Eagle

The SLAM Eagle. It just sounds badass, and one look at this jet will convey that it is badass, indeed. The F-15K is a multi-role fighter aircraft manufactured by Boeing for the Republic of Korea Air Force. It is an advanced variant of the F-15E Strike Eagle fielded by the USAF and, like its predecessor, it can conduct day/night long-range precision strike missions, in all weather conditions.

Equipped with state-of-the-art mission equipment to conduct air-to-ground, air-to-air, and air-to-sea missions, the F-15K has several features not typically found on USAF Strike Eagles. Included is an AAS-42 IRST, a customized Tactical Electronic Warfare Suite (TEWS) to increase jamming effectiveness, and cockpit compatibility with night vision goggles.

The ARC-232 U/VHF radio with Fighter Data Link system is standard, as well as the advanced APG-63(V)1 radar. The radar incorporates the air-to-air and air-to-ground modes of the APG-70 radar on U.S. jets with additional sea-surface searching/tracking, ground-moving target tracking, and enhanced high-resolution ground mapping for long-distance target identification. It allows the jet to engage air, land, and sea-based threats simultaneously.

The F-15K is also equipped with the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System, interfacing the sensors with weapons such as AGM-84K SLAM-ER and JASSM, as well as the standard AIM-9 and AIM-120 air-to-air missile options. The combination of improved avionics and sensors, as well as advanced weaponry, make the SLAM Eagle a vicious, lethal platform. Source


F-15K orders and deliveries

“The F-15K is equipped with state-of-the-art mission equipment to conduct air-to-ground, air-to-air, and air-to-sea missions.”

The ROKAF placed a $4.2bn contract with Boeing for 40 F-15K Slam Eagle fighter jets, in June 2002. The first two F-15Ks were delivered to Korea at the Seoul Air Show in October 2005. The 40th F-15K aircraft was delivered during the Red Flag exercise at Nellis Air Force Base in August 2008. All deliveries under the contract were officially concluded in October 2008.

SangYeon Kim

BAE Systems Awarded F-15k IFF Contract

In 2002 BAE Systems received initial funding from the Boeing company to produce advanced Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) systems for the Republic of Korea’s new fighter aircraft – the F-15K.

Under the contract with Boeing, valued at more than $9 million, BAE Systems Advanced Systems business unit at Greenlawn will develop and build as many as 40 AN/APX-113 Combined Interrogator Transponder (CIT) systems plus spares, and provide associated data and units for lab testing.

The IFF transponders allow the military to rapidly identify its own friendly aircraft from enemy or potentially hostile aircraft. Source

SangYeon Kim

The aircraft’s service life is planned through 2040, with technology insertions and upgrades throughout its life cycle.

The F-15K became the first Eagle variant to release a SLAM-ER standoff weapon on 27 March 2006. The firing was made at Point Mugu, California, at 25000 ft and Mach 0.8, around 180 km (100 nm) from the target.

The last airframe of the first batch (of 40 airframes) has been delivered as agreed on 8th October 2008, during the Seoul Air Show. One airframe has been crashed due to pilot error (the pilot blacked out during a high-G maneuver) on 6th August 2006. The F-15K left Daegu Air Base at 19:42. The aircraft discharged simulated air-to-air weapons at 20:11 but, while manoeuvring to respond to an opponent’s attack, the crew sent a “knock it off” signal at an altitude of 11,000ft – the aircraft crashing 16 seconds later, at 20:12:19. Source

In April 2008, Boeing received a contract to deliver 21 F-15K aircraft to ROKAF under Next Fighter II programme. Boeing delivered the first six of 21 F-15Ks in 2010. Two more aircraft were delivered in April 2011. The ninth and tenth aircraft were delivered in June 2011. All the deliveries were concluded with the handover of final two aircraft to the ROKAF at Daegu Air Base in April 2012.

Second batch of 21 F-15Ks

Not much before the completion of the first batch deliveries, the Korean government announced on 25th April 2008 that a second batch of 21 F-15Ks, worth 2.3 billion USD, was ordered (this second batch would have originally contained 20 airframes, but it was increased by one to compensate for the airframe lost in 2006). The delivery was scheduled between 2010 and 2012. Unlike the first batch of F-15Ks, this second batch will be powered by Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 engines. 46 engines will be built by Samsung Techwin under license. South Korea added that P&W engines have commonality with its KF-16’s. It is a bit unusual to have different types of engines for the same aircraft type, but Pratt & Whitney offered better pricing, part production sharing, and warranty options.

The first jet of this second batch (produced by Boeing under the Next Fighter II contract), airframe F-15K41 completed its first flight on 22 April 2010. Batch 2 deliveries were performed in the following schedule:

  • 6 airframes (F-15K41 through F-15K46) delivered in 2010.
  • 2 airframes (F-15K47 and F-15K48) delivered at Daegu Air Base on Mar 15, 2011.
  • 2 airframes (F-15K49 and F-15K50) delivered at Daegu Air Base on May 31, 2011.
  • 3 airframes (F-15K51 through F-15K53) delivered at Daegu Air Base on Aug 20, 2011.
  • 3 airframes(F-15K54 through F-15K56) delivered in January, 2012.
  • 3 airframes (F-15K57 through F-15K59) delivered at Daegu Air Base in March, 2012.*
  • 2 airframes (F-15K60 and F-15K61 delivered at Daegu Air Base on Apr 2, 2012.
* Note that airframes F-15K57 through F-15K59 rolled off from the assembly line in January 2012. After having participated in Red Flag 2012 they were flown back to St. Louis and after a few modifications they were delivered “officially” to South Korea in March 2012.

With this, Boeing completed all deliveries on-schedule and on-cost. Fleet service life is planned through 2040.

In 2011 the Slam Eagles received the Sniper targeting pod as well. After Lockheed Martin demonstrated the benefits of Sniper pod’s capability for ROKAF by successfully flying Sniper on the F-15K and the KF-16 aircraft with a common Sniper pod software load in 2009, the first pods arrived to Daegu Air Base on Apr 18, 2011Source

Sniper targeting pod


Sniper pods provide improved long-range target detection/identification and continuous stabilized surveillance for all missions, including close air support of ground forces. The Sniper pod enables aircrews to detect and identify weapon caches and individuals carrying armaments, all outside jet noise ranges. Superior imagery, a video datalink and J-series-weapons-quality coordinates provided by the Sniper pod enable rapid target decisions and keep aircrews out of threat ranges.

High resolution imagery for non-traditional intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (NTISR) enables the Sniper pod to play a major role in Air Force operations in theater, providing top cover for ground forces, as well as increasing the safety of civilian populations.


Sniper pods include a high definition mid-wave forward looking infrared (FLIR), dual-mode laser, HDTV, laser spot tracker, laser marker, video data link, and a digital data recorder. Advanced image processing algorithms, combined with rock steady stabilization techniques, provide cutting-edge performance. The pod features automatic tracking and laser designation of tactical size targets via real-time imagery presented on cockpit displays. The Sniper pod is fully compatible with the latest J-series munitions for precision weapons delivery against multiple moving and fixed targets.

Advanced Targeting Pod – Sensor Enhancement (ATP-SE) design upgrades include enhanced sensors, advanced processors, and automated NTISR modes.

The Sniper pod’s architecture and modular design permits true two-level maintenance, eliminating costly intermediate-level support. Automated built-in test permits flightline maintainers to isolate and replace an LRU in under 20 minutes. Spares are ordered through a user-friendly website offering in-transit visibility to parts shipment.

The Sniper pod’s modular design also offers an affordable road map for modernizing and enhancing precision targeting capabilities for U.S. Air Force and coalition partner aircraft.

General characteristics
Primary function: positive identification, automatic tracking and laser designation, NTISR
Prime contractor: Lockheed Martin
Length: 98.2 inches (252 centimeters)
Diameter: 11.9 inches (30 centimeters)
Weight: 446 pounds (202 kilograms)
Aircraft: F-15E, F-16 Block 30/40/50, A-10, B-1
Sensors: high resolution FLIR and HDTV, dual mode laser designator, laser spot tracker and laser marker
Date deployed: January 2005


“Tiger Eyes” AAS-42 Infra-red search and track

F-15K.jpgAAS-42 Infra-red search and track mounted on pylon with Sniper targeting pod of F-15K

Sensors: The F-15K received improved LANTRIN pods. The AAQ-14 pod features a new 3rd generation FLIR sensor which Boeing calls as “Tiger Eyes”. The pod gives the Slam Eagle IRST capabilities in air-to-air engagements.

Lockheed Martin’s IRST is a development of the AN/AAS-42 system that was originally carried by Northrop Grumman F-14D Tomcats. However, it has been undergoing development since then, first for the abortive pod-mounted system for the F-15 Eagle, and now further refined for the Super Hornet application. Source

irstaas42F-14D AAS-42 –

The TIGER Eyes is an advanced electro-optical sensor suite that will provide targeting, all-weather navigation, terrain-following and Infrared Search and Track (IRST) for the F-15K multirole fighter. TIGER Eyes is an evolution of combat-proven LANTIRN and US Navy IRST technology.

The TIGER Eyes sensor suite includes a mid-wave FLIR, terrain-following radar, 40,000 feet altitude laser, CCD-TV, and a long-range IRST. It will enable release of air-to-surface weapons at the longer ranges available for those weapons today. The system’s IRST, similar to the F-14-mounted IRST, will enable the F-15K to engage passively, long range airborne targets without using the radar system.

In April 2006 Boeing selected Lockheed Martin to provide Sniper Advanced targeting pods, Tiger Eyes navigation pods, and an Infrared Search and Track (IRST) System for the Republic of Singapore F-15SGs. Under an undisclosed fixed-price five-year contract this advanced electro-optical sensor suite will be integrated into the F-15SG aircraft beginning in the second quarter of 2007. Source

Properties: Pod – Night Navigation/Attack (Incl. Bomb, Rocket Delivery)
Sensors / EW:
AN/AAS-42 – Infrared
IRST, Imaging Infrared Seach and Track
Max Range: 185.2 km
Tiger Eyes Pod [IRST] – (LANTIRN Gen 3, Sniper XP Pylon) Sensor Pod
Properties: Pod – Terrain Following (Land: 200ft [60.9m], Sea: 100ft [30.5m]), Pod – Night Navigation/Attack (Incl. Bomb, Rocket Delivery)
Sensors / EW:
Tiger Eyes [TFR] – Radar
TFR, Terrain Following Radar
Max Range: 3.7 km
Tiger Eyes [FLIR] – Infrared
Infrared, Attack Camera
Max Range: 111.1 km
Tiger Eyes [CCD] – Visual
LLTV, Attack
Max Range: 55.6 km
Tiger Eyes Pod [FLIR, CCD TV + TFR] – (LANTIRN Gen 3) Sensor Pod

Lockheed Martin LANTIRN navigation and targeting system

The Tiger Eyes system is comprised of two pods: the Lockheed Martin IRST (top pod) and a standard LANTIRN pod (bottom pod)

LANTIRN Extended Range (ER) navigation and targeting pods provide today’s warfighter with enhanced range, resolution and reliability delivering multi-mission success with a low cost of ownership. LANTIRN ER allows aircrews to operate, in daylight or darkness, at mission altitudes from sea level to 40,000 feet, all with outstanding targeting performance.  LANTIRN ER, which is the latest LANTIRN production configuration, is offered as a newly fabricated pod, or as an upgrade to existing pods. Source

The FLIR imagery, for terrain following, avoidance and navigation, is generated by a wide field of view FLIR sensor, sensor, mounted in the port LANTIRN navigation pod, together with the terrain following radar (TFR). The second LANTIRN pod, starboard mounted, is termed the targeting pod. It contains a narrow field of view FLIR sensor, boresighted with a laser rangefinder/designator and importantly, in its later versions, an automatic target recogniser. Source

The FLIR imagery, for terrain following, avoidance and navigation, is generated by a wide field of view FLIR sensor, sensor, mounted in the port LANTIRN navigation pod, together with the terrain following radar (TFR). The TFR is an advanced digital system which automatically controls its power output, both in direction and time (it will build up a terrain profile in its memory, store it, switch off and turn on again only when necessary to rebuild the profile), is frequency agile and can be configured for ground mapping. The frequency agility and silent on/off operation make it very difficult to detect. The second LANTIRN pod, starboard mounted, is termed the targeting pod. It contains a narrow field of view FLIR sensor, boresighted with a laser rangefinder/designator and importantly, in its later versions, an automatic target recogniser. Source

LANTIRN Extended Range (ER) navigation

LANTIRN Extended Range (ER) navigation F-15K  – Mu Yeol Lee

LANTIRN stands for Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night. This system consists of two pods hung under the air intakes – the AN/AAQ-13 navigation pod under the right intake and the AN/AAQ-14 targeting pod under the left intake. Since LANTIRN pods are in use with other platforms (A-10, F-16) where they have other hanging points, adaptor units are needed to fix them on the F-15E. The adaptor units are the ADU-576/A for the navigation pod and ADU-577/A for the targeting pod. This is the only place on the F-15E for them and they cannot be exchanged. Although both of the pods are capable of working alone, most of the time they come in pair, an F-15E with only one LANTIRN pod is a rare sight. Source


U.S. Air Force photo / Staff Sgt. Jim Araos-Released

The glass cockpit of the F-15K accommodates two crew members including a pilot and a weapon systems officer (WSO). The cockpit display suite from Kaiser Electronics integrates three flat panel colour displays, four multi-purpose displays, two upfront control panels, a wide field of view head-up display (HUD), and a joint helmet mounted cueing system (JHMCS).

F-15K Pilot stationF15K5F-15K WSO station
F-15K  – Mu Yeol Lee


The F-15 Eagle is equipped with this version of the ACES II. It replaced an Escapac seat used in the prototypes and early aircraft. This version differs from the rest of the basic side-pull ACES II seats (A-10, F-117) in the configuration of the headrest canopy breakers, and the side-pull handles. The picture below shows the size difference between the handles on the A-10 (right) and the F-15 (left). The A-10 seats originally had no canopy breakers as in the example shown, but were later fit with a single canopy breaker. The F-117 has a metal canopy frame which precludes the use of a canopy breaker. The handles on the F-117 closely resemble the A-10 handles. Source

F-15 Eagle Losses & Ejections: Here

Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS)

In an air-to-air role, the JHMCS, combined with the AIM-9X missile, form the High-Off-BoreSight (HOBS) system. HOBS is an airborne weapon-interception system that enables pilots to accurately direct or “cue” onboard weapons against enemy aircraft merely by pointing their heads at the targets to guide the weapons, while performing high-G aircraft maneuvers that may be required to complete the attack.

In an air-to-ground role, the JHMCS is used in conjunction with targeting sensors (radar, FLIR, etc.) and “smart weapons” to accurately and precisely attack surface targets. It allows F-15E aircrew to provide unparalleled support to ground troops in the CAS environment.

In all roles, the JHMCS provides the pilot with aircraft performance, targeting, weaponry and threat warning information, regardless of where the pilot is looking, significantly enhancing pilot situation awareness throughout the mission. In a dual-seat aircraft, each crewmember can wear a JHMCShelmet, perform operations independent of each other, and have continuous awareness of where the other crewmember is looking.

System Features

Unlike one of its predecessor, the DASH system, which is integrated into the helmet itself, JHMCS is a clip-on attachment unit, which can be latched into position with one hand during flight (see photo below). It fits to modified HGU-55/P, HGU-56/P or HGU-68/P helmets and it features a newer, faster digital processing package than that used in the DASH. The overall design is more advanced than DASH, based on the collective knowledge accumulated by Elbit and Kaiser through the years.


The JHMCS has a magnetic helmet-mounted tracker (like DASH), which determines where the pilot’s head is pointed, combined with a miniature display system that projects information onto the pilot’s visor. A magnetic transmitter unit is fixed to the pilot’s seat and a magnetic field probe is mounted on the helmet to determine where the helmet is actually pointing. A Helmet Vehicle Interface ( HVI) interacts with the aircraft system bus to provide signal generation for the helmet display. The head tracker and visor display together act as a targeting device that can aim sensors and weapons.

To obtain a variety of information and sensor-based data pilots can refer to the visual display on the inside of the helmet while remaining in a “heads-up” or “outside” position during combat; this eliminates the break in visual contact that occurs when they look away to check the display readouts in the cockpit. This significantly improves pilot situational awareness during all mission elements. The visor display presents monochrome calligraphic symbology (stroke display) with information like airspeed, altitude, G-load, AoA, target range, targeting cues, threat warnings, etc. JHMCS provides support for raster scanned imagery to display FLIR or IRST pictures for night operations and provides collimated symbology and imagery to the pilot. JHMCS symbology covers a 20 degree field of view for the right eye, with an 18 mm exit pupil (see photo below).

To aim and fire a missile, pilots simply move their heads to align a targeting cross (placed in the middle of the projected imagery) with the target and press a switch on the flight controls to direct and fire a weapon.

To attack a ground target, the pilot can acquire the target with a sensor and note it’s location on the helmet display. Alternatively, the pilot can use the helmet display to cue sensors and weapons to a visually detected ground target. Note that precision ordnance cannot be released based on JHMCS targeting alone, the system is not accurate enough for this. However it can be used to direct the aircraft’s much more precise targeting systems (targeting pod) towards the target the pilot is looking at. This way the tedious “soda-straw” search limited to a display image generated by the narrow field of view targeting system can be shortened significatly. With JHMCS, target acquisition can follow a much quicker “look, sharpen, shoot” process.

The system can be used without requiring the aircraft to be maneuvered, significantly reducing the time needed to prosecute an attack, which also minimizes the time spent in the threat environment.

Since targets may be located at high-off-boresight line-of-sight locations in relation to the shooter, the system delivers a short-range intercept envelope that is significantly larger than any other air-to-air weapon in use. When combined with the AIM-9X missile, JHMCS allows effective target designation up to 80 degrees either side of the aircraft’s nose.

The JHMCS display assembly requires two cable connections: a high voltage power cable for operation and a data cable for information exchange with the host aircraft. Unlike in DASH the high voltage power supply is not embedded in the helmet, it feeds up via an umbilical, through a quick disconnect inline high coltage rated connector.

When used in conjunction with a datalink, the system permits handoff of visually detected targets from one aircraft to another, with the second aircraft receiving visual cueing to the target. Source

ARC-232 U/VHF radio

Modes: UHF/VHF, LOS, Have Quick I & II & SATURN
Frequency Range: VHF FM 30-87.975 MHz, VHF AM 108-173.975 MHz, UHF AM/FM 225-399.975 MHz, Guard Receive: 121.5 & 243 MHz with 99 Preset Channels.
Spacing: 8.33kHz & 25 kHz

The AN/ARC-232 (V) 467/468 is a 30 to 400 MHz UHF/VHF multi-band LOS system and is a form-fit replacement for the AN/ARC-164. Features include: VHF/AM/FM, VHF maritime, UHF/AM/FM; SATURN; Have-Quick I/II ECCM; MIL-STD-1533 compatibility; and a panel or remote mount configuration. Options include SINCGARS, 8.33 kHz channel spacing and TDMA in VHF/AM for the FAA. Components available include: C-12623 and C-12624 NVIS radio set controls. Power in watts: AM: 10 & FM: 15.

The AN/ARC-232(V) Starblazer supports the requirement for an airborne, multi-band, multi-mission, anti-jam, voice and data network-capable communication system in one small, light-weight package qualified to military standards. The AN/ARC-232(V) is designed for application and installation on a broad range of fixed and rotary wing aircraft and provides the military VHF and UHF (very high frequency and ultra high frequency) capability required for air defense and close air support. The AN/ARC-232(V) airborne communications system is a form and fit replacement for the AN/ARC-164 family of transceivers. There are both panel and remote mount versions available that are controllable via Military Standard (MIL-STD-1553B) Data Bus, RS-422 or ARINC 429 Interface. Source

Weapon systems

The F-15K Slam Eagle accommodates a wide range of weapons and a payload of over 13,000kg for achieving multi-role strike capability.

The aircraft can carry a combination of air-to-air weapons including a 20mm cannon, AIM-9 Sidewinder infrared-guided air-to-air missiles, Raytheon AIM-7 Sparrow radar-guided air-to-air missiles, AIM-120 advanced medium-range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM), and AGM-130 missile.

M-61A1 20mm Gatling gun

M-61A1 20mm Gatling gun

The M61 20mm Vulcan is an externally powered, six-barrel, rotary-fire gun having a rate of fire of up to 7200 spm. The firing rate is selectible at 4,000 spm or 6,000 spm. The gun fires standard electrically primed 20mm ammunition. The M61A1 is hydraulically or ram-air driven, electrically controlled, and uses a linkless ammunition feed system.

Each of the gun’s six barrels fires only once during each revolution of the barrel cluster. The six rotating barrels contribute to long weapon life by minimizing barrel erosion and heat generation. The gun’s rate of fire, essentially 100 rounds per second, gives the pilot a shot density that will enable a “kill” when fired in one-second bursts.

M-61A1 20mm Gatling gun on F-15K – Yunhyok Choi

The M61 20mm cannon is a proven gun, having been the US military’s close-in weapon of choice dating back to the 1950s. The F-104, F-105, later models of the F-106, F-111, F-4, B-58, all used the M61, as does the Air Force’s F-15 , F-16 and F-22, and the Navy’s F-14 and F/A-18. The internally mounted 20mm cannon system is common to all versions of the F-15. This system combines the widely used (F-4, F-16, F-18) M61 cannon with 940 rounds (A through D models) or 500 rounds (E model) of ammunition. The cannon can be loaded with target practice, armor piercing, or high explosive incendiary rounds. The primary use of the cannon is in the extremely short range (less than 2000 feet) air-to-air environment, where more sophistacated air-to-air missiles are ineffective. Alternately, the cannon has limited usefulness in a ground strafing role. Source

AIM-9X Sidewinder


The AIM-9X missile is the next generation Sidewinder. AIM-9X will provide US and allied nations fighters with the following capabilities: full day/night employment, resistance to countermeasures, extremely high off-boresight acquisition and launch envelopes, enhanced maneuverability and improved target acquisition ranges. One of the main breakthrough of the AIM-9X missile is a thrust vector controlled airframe. AIM-9X carries a contact fuze device and a new IR seeker that will enable, through the JHMCS, high off-boresight engagements. Its digital design architecture will ensure future growth capability.

The AIM-9X missile will be integrated on F-15C/D/E, F/A-18C/D/E/F, F-16s and F/A-22A. No plans have been released about integration of AIM-9X on the F-35. No combat related features of the AIM-9X are its reduced ownership costs, reduced maintainability, high availability and affordability. The US Navy and the US Air Force plan to buy 10,080 missiles. AIM-9X foreign military sales could be 5,000 units according to US government sources.

Diameter: 130 millimeter (5.12 inch)
Length: 3 meter (118 inch)
Wingspan: 350 millimeter (13.8 inch)
Max Range: 26,000 meter (14.0 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 850 mps (3,061 kph)
Warhead: 10 kilogram (22.0 pound)
Weight: 85 kilogram (187 pound)


AIM-120 AMRAAM Slammer

f-15k_super_eagle_08_of_31AIM-120C AMRAAM

The AIM-120 advanced medium-range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM) is a new generation air-to-air missile. It has an all-weather, beyond-visual-range capability and is scheduled to be operational beyond 2000. AMRAAM is a supersonic, air launched, aerial intercept, guided missile employing active radar target tracking, proportional navigation guidance, and active Radio Frequency (RF) target detection. It employs active, semi-active, and inertial navigational methods of guidance to provide an autonomous launch and leave capability against single and multiple targets in all environments.

The AMRAAM weighs 340 pounds and uses an advanced solid-fuel rocket motor to achieve a speed of Mach 4 and a range in excess of 30 miles. In long-range engagements AMRAAM heads for the target using inertial guidance and receives updated target information via data link from the launch aircraft. It transitions to a self-guiding terminal mode when the target is within range of its own monopulse radar set. The AIM-120 also has a “home-on-jam” guidance mode to counter electronic jamming. With its sophisticated avionics, high closing speed, and excellent end-game maneuverability, chances of escape from AMRAAM are minimal. Upon intercept an active-radar proximity fuze detonates the 40-pound high-explosive warhead to destroy the target. At closer ranges AMRAAM guides itself all the way using its own radar, freeing the launch aircraft to engage other targets.


Presently, there are three series of AMRAAM: AIM-120A, AIM-120B, and AIM-120C.

AIM-120A.  First production AIM-120A, delivered by Hughes in 1988 to the 33d TFW at Eglin AFB, Florida.

AIM-120B and AIM-120C versions are currently in production, the latter with smaller control surfaces to permit increased internal carriage capability in the F-22. AIM-120B deliveries began in FY 94, and AIM-120C deliveries began in FY 96.

P3I.  An improvement program seeks to develop AMRAAM capabilities, including software reprogrammability, advanced counter-countermeasures, and options for improved propulsion.

The AIM-120A is a non-reprogrammable missile (requires a hardware change to upgrade the missile software). The AIM-120B/C is reprogrammable through the missile umbilical using Common Field-level Memory Reprogramming Equipment (CFMRE). The AIM-120C has smaller aerosurfaces to enable internal carriage on the Air Force F-22 aircraft. The USAF All-Up-Round (AUR) container houses an internal cable which enables up to four missiles to be reprogrammed while in the container. USN containers are not equipped with the cable and must be opened to reprogram the missile. All three AMRAAM variants are currently approved for use on the F-15C/D/E, F-16C/D, and F/A-18C/D aircraft. Source

AGM-130 Missile

The AGM-130, in production for the U.S. Air Force, provides the warfighter with advanced combat capabilities for superior effectiveness.

The AGM-130 is a powered air-to-surface missile designed for high- and low-altitude strikes at standoff ranges against a variety of targets.

Carrying forward the modular concept of the GBU-15 guided weapon system, the AGM-130 employs a rocket motor for extended range and an altimeter for altitude control. The AGM-130 provides a significantly increased standoff range than the GBU-15. The AGM-130 has two variants, based on the warhead: the AGM-130A with a MK-84 blast/fragmentation warhead and the AGM-130C with a BLU-109 penetrator.

The AGM-130 is equipped with either a television or an imaging infrared seeker and data link. The seeker provides the launch aircraft a visual presentation of the target as seen from the weapon. During free flight this presentation is transmitted by the AXQ-14 data-link system to the aircraft cockpit monitor.

The seeker can be either locked onto the target before or after launch for automatic weapon guidance, or it can be manually steered by a weapon systems officer. Manual steering is performed through the two-way data link.

The AGM-130 is designed for use in the F-15E aircraft. The development of the AGM-130 was initiated in 1984 as a product improvement to the GBU-15 guided glide bomb system. In the mid-1990s, the AGM-130 weapon system received a significant modification upgrade when Global Positioning System and inertial navigation systems guidance capabilities were added. This combined enhancement provided the AGM-130 weapon system with an adverse weather capability.

A US Air Force (USAF) F-15E Strike Eagle aircraft assigned to the 494th Fighter Squadron (FS), Royal Air Force (RAF) Lakenheath, United Kingdom (UK), releases a specially painted AGM-130 Missile over the Utah Test and Training Range during Exercise Combat Hammer, a Weapon System Evaluation Program conducted at Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Utah (UT).

The first unit was operational in 1994.

Primary Function: Air-to-surface guided and powered bomb
Contractor: Boeing Co.
Thrust: Classified
Length: 12 feet, 10.5 inches (3.90 meters)
Launch Weight: 2,917 pounds (1,312.65 kilograms)
Diameter: 18 inches (45.72 centimeters)
Wingspan: 59 inches (149.86 centimeters)
Range: Classified
Ceiling: 30,000-plus feet (9,091 meters)
Speed: Classified
Guidance System: television/imaging infrared seeker man-in-the-loop; autonomous GPS/INS
Date Deployed: 1994


The AIM-9 Sidewinder has a range of 8km, while the range of Sparrow is 45km. The AMRAAM can strike aerial targets within the range of 55km.

The air-to-ground weapon systems aboard the F-15 include precision-guided munitions such as AGM-84D Harpoon anti-ship missiles and AGM-84E SLAM-Expanded Response (ER) air-to-ground missiles.

AGM-84 Harpoon, SLAM, SLAM-ER


The Harpoon missile provides the Navy and the Air Force with a common missile for air, ship, and submarine launches. The weapon system uses mid-course guidance with a radar seeker to attack surface ships. Its low-level, sea-skimming cruise trajectory, active radar guidance and warhead design assure high survivability and effectiveness. The Harpoon missile and its launch control equipment provide the warfighter capability to interdict ships at ranges well beyond those of other aircraft.

The Harpoon missile was designed to sink warships in an open-ocean environment. Other weapons (such as the Standard and Tomahawk missiles) can be used against ships, but Harpoon and Penguin are the only missiles used by the United States military with anti-ship warfare as the primary mission. Once targeting information is obtained and sent to the Harpoon missile, it is fired. Once fired, the missile flys to the target location, turns on its seeker, locates the target and strikes it without further action from the firing platform. This allows the firing platform to engage other threats instead of concentrating on one at a time.

An appropriately configured HARPOON can be launched from an AERO-65 bomb rack, AERO-7/A bomb rack, MK 6 canister, MK 7 shock resistant canister, MK 12 thickwall canister, MK 112 ASROC launcher, MK 8 and MK 116 TARTAR launcher, or submarine torpedo tube launcher.

South Korean F-15K with AGM-84D Harpoon anti-ship missile – Mu Yeol Lee 

The AGM-84D Harpoon is an all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system produced by Boeing [formerly McDonnell Douglas]. The Harpoon’s active radar guidance, warhead design, and low-level, sea-skimming cruise trajectory assure high survivability and effectiveness. The missile is capable of being launched from surface ships, submarines, or (without the booster) from aircraft. The AGM-84D was first introduced in 1977, and in 1979 an air-launched version was deployed on the Navy’s P-3 Orion aircraft. Originally developed for the Navy to serve as its basic anti-ship missile for fleetwide use, the AGM-84D also has been adapted for use on the Air Force’s B-52G bombers, which can carry from eight to 12 of the missiles.

The AGM-84E Harpoon/SLAM [Stand-Off Land Attack Missile] Block 1E is an intermediate range weapon system designed to provide day, night and adverse weather precision strike capability against high value land targets and ships in port. In the late 1980s, a land-attack missile was needed. Rather than design one from scratch, the US Navy took everything from Harpoon except the guidance and seeker sections, added a Global Positioning System receiver, a Walleye optical guidance system, and a Maverick data-link to create the Stand-off Land Attack Missile (SLAM). The AGM-84E uses an inertial navigation system with GPS, infrared terminal guidance, and is fitted with a Tomahawk warhead for better penetration. SLAM can be launched from land-based or aircraft carrier-based F/A-18 Hornet aircraft. It was employed successfully in Operation Desert Storm and UN relief operations in Bosnia prior to Operation Joint Endeavor.

The SLAM-ER (Expanded Response) Block 1F, a major upgrade to the SLAM missile that is currently in production, provides over twice the missile range, target penetration capability, and control range of SLAM. SLAM-ER has a greater range (150+ miles), a titanium warhead for increased penetration, and software improvements which allow the pilot to retarget the impact point of the missile during the terminal phase of attack (about the last five miles). In addition, many expansions are being made to improve performance, survivability, mission planning, and pilot (man-in-the-loop) interface. The SLAM-ER development contract was awarded to McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (Now BOEING) in February of 1995. SLAM-ER achieved its first flight in March of 1997. All Navy SLAM missiles are currently planned to be retrofitted to SLAM-ER configuration. About 500 SLAM missiles will be converted to the SLAM-ER configuration between FY 1997 and FY 2001.

Primary Function: Air-to-surface anti-ship missile
Mission Maritime ship attack
Targets Maritime surface
Service Navy and Air Force
Contractor: Boeing [ex McDonnell Douglas]
Power Plant: Teledyne Turbojet and solid propellant booster for surface and submarine launch
Program status Operational
sea-launch air-launch SLAM SLAM-ER
First capability 1977 1979
Thrust: 660 pounds
Length: 15 feet
(4.55 meters)
12 feet, 7 inches
(3.79 meters)
14 feet, 8 inches
(4.49 meters)
Weight: 1,470 pounds
(661.5 kilograms)
1,145 pounds
(515.25 kilograms)
1,385 pounds
(629.55 kilograms)
Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.29 centimeters)
Wingspan: 3 feet (91.44 centimeters)
Range: Greater than 60 nautical miles 150+ miles
Speed: 855 km/h
Guidance System: Sea-skimming cruise with mid-course guidance monitored by radar altimeter, active seeker radar terminal homing inertial navigation system with GPS, infrared terminal guidance
Warheads: Penetration high-explosive blast (488 pounds)
Explosive Destex
Fuze Contact
Development cost $320.7 million
Production cost $2,882.3 million
Total acquisition cost $3,203.0 million
Acquisition unit cost $527,416
Production unit cost $474,609
Quantity Navy: 5,983; Air Force: 90
Platforms A-6F/A-18, S-3, P-3, B-52H, ships


South Korean F-15K with  AGM-84E SLAM-ER air-to-ground missile – GPS/IIR-guided AGM-84H SLAM-ER cruise missiles that can deliver accurate hits on ships and land targets up to 250 km away

Seoul to deploy Asia’s first Taurus missiles: Details


The South Korean military will deploy within a few months “jamming proof” air-to-ground guided missiles in a move to quickly enhance the country’s ability to detect and destroy North Korea’s weapons of mass destruction, officials said Tuesday.

Dozens of Taurus missiles that can be carried on F-15K fighters will be delivered from Germany by the end of this year.

South Korea tests ‘stealthy’ cruise missile in show of firepower to nuclear North: Here

Photo: AP


South Korea said Wednesday it conducted its first live-fire drill for an advanced air-launched cruise missile it said would strengthen its pre-emptive strike capability against North Korea in the event of crisis.

South Korea’s military said the Taurus missile fired from an F-15 fighter jet travelled through obstacles at low altitudes before hitting a target off the country’s western coast.

Taurus KEPD 350 missile system

The air-to-ground guided Taurus KEPD 350 missile system has an overall weight of 1,400kg. It has a length of 16.7ft, wingspan of 6.7ft and diameter of 3.5ft. It falls under the MTCR category two weaponry.

The missile is made of modular sections which can be configured based on the individual missions. Its electronic systems are also modular. APCON has supplied the missile seeker electronics.

The Taurus missile is suitable for day and night and all weather deployment. It has low observability and terrain masking features for survivability. The modular design and reliability reduce the lifecycle cost of the system.

The missile carries about 481kg of inert multi-effect penetrator, high sophisticated and target optimised (MEPHISTO) dual stage warhead system for superior target penetration. The ignition system of the warhead is based on programmable intelligent multipurpose fuse (PIMPF).

The programmable fuse is designed with layer counting and void sensing technology. It was developed by TDW Gesellschaft für verteidigungstechnische Wirksysteme.

The blast and fragmentation capabilities eliminate the collateral damage to civil facilities near the target. The stand-off and precision capabilities of the missile and deployment range of more than 350km ensure maximum safety to the aircraft and crew.

Taurus KEPD 350 is powered by Williams P8300-15 Turbofan engine which provides the missile with a cruise speed of about Mach 0.6 to 0.95 at very low altitudes. The missile has a range of up to 500km (270nm) which is about 15% more than the ones propelled with JP10 fuel.

Navigation of the missile is controlled through Tri-Tec navigation system. It combines data from an inertial navigation system (INS), MIL-global positioning system (GPS), terrain reference navigation (TRN) and infrared seeker based image based navigation (IBN) sensors.

The missile can also navigate long distances without the GPS subsystem. It is equipped with an integrated mission planning system to determine its flight path.

Type : Long-range air-to-surface missile
Weight : 1,400 kg
Length : 5.1 m
Diameter : 1.08 m
Warhead : 500 kg, Mephisto (Multi-Effect Penetrator, HIgh Sophisticated and Target Optimised)
Engine : Williams P8300-15 Turbofan
Wingspan : 2.064 m
Operational range : over 500 km
Flight altitude : 30–40 m
Speed : Mach 0.80~0.95
Guidance system : IBN (Image Based Navigation), INS (Inertial Navigation System), TRN (Terrain Referenced Navigation) and MIL-GPS (Global Positioning System)

Spec source

South Korea has released photos of a Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile being loaded on its F-15K Slam Eagle jet. Seoul announced that its Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile is now ready for combat.

40 missiles were recently delivered to the country earlier this month.

South Korea planned to acquire and integrate the missile with its F-15K Slam Eagles after being refused Lockheed Martin’s AGM-158 JASSM by the U.S.

Taurus KEPD 350 is the first European missile to be integrated onto a Korean fighter aircraft. Source

Targeting and countermeasures

“The F-15K Slam Eagle can fly at a maximum speed of Mach 2.5.”

The AN/APG-63 (V)1 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar fitted to the F-15K is equipped with air-to-air and air-to-ground capabilities. The radar can track high-flying and low-flying targets, ground moving targets and sea surface targets. It provides high-resolution ground maps for identifying targets at long ranges.


APG-63(V)1 mechanical-scanned array radar. With the A/G software of the APG-70 ported to the new platform, new sea surface and track modes and ground moving target track capability were added to meet the specific needs of the Republic of Korea. The new radar also has some kind of NCTR capabilities ( Non-Cooperative Target Identification/Recognition), although this area is highly classified. It is safe to say that the end result turned out to be the best F-15 radar in the world ever (including radars in other foreign versions, for example the F-15I Raam). Source

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 185.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 1990s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Low Probability of Intercept (LPI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Continuous Wave Illumination
Sensors / EW:
AN/APG-63(V)1 – (LPI) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Air-to-Air & Air-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 185.2 km


The F-15K uses Link-16 Fighter Data Link to distribute target information to other aircraft during coordinated air-to-air missions. The onboard Hands-on Throttle and Stick (HOTAS) controls allow the crew to operate weaponry, radars, avionics and other mission equipment. The aircraft is equipped with late-generation targeting and navigation systems such as forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and infrared search and track (IRST).

Link 16 data net system

ViaSat’s team is leading the transformation in Link 16 Airborne Terminal technology by being the first to upgrade the design of many components of the terminal to provide greater flexibility, enhanced technological capabilities, decreased cost and improved reliability. Embedded modules provide COMSEC and TACAN.


Through extensive use of reprogrammable components and a modular VME architecture, we’ve provided a lower cost design while also allowing for future requirements. Our terminal provides all operational modes of the Link 16 waveform, and implements all required Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS) host interfaces for both U.S. and Coalition integration. Our hardware implements Enhanced Throughput, a new capability that can increase coded data throughput from its current maximum of 115.2 kbps to over 800 kbps. Host interfaces and operational employment of this capability are still in the planning stages.

Together with Harris and European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company (EADS), ViaSat is delivering a family of combat-proven, fully qualified, and EMC-Certified Link 16 MIDS terminals to U.S. Forces and Coalition partners under contracts to the Navy MIDS International Program Office (IPO) and other commercial customers. Source

The integrated Tactical Electronic Warfare Suite (TEWS) integrates ALR-56C(V)1 early warning receiver, ALQ-135M jammer and ALE-47 Countermeasure Dispenser System (CMDS). The CMDS can launch conventional chaff and flare decoys to deceive anti-aircraft threats.

ALR-56C(V)1 early warning receiver

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 222.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 2000s
Sensors / EW:
Role: RWR, Radar Warning Receiver
Max Range: 222.2 km

ALQ-135 system

download (1)Tactical Electronic Warfare System ( TEWS) suit received modifications as well the ALQ-135 system the improved and received a new designation as ALQ-135M

The AN/ALQ-135 is an internally mounted radio frequency jammer. It provides self-protection countermeasures against radar-related threats. It is an integral port of the F-15 Tactical Electronic Warfare Suite which also includes ALR-56C warning system and ALE-45 chaff/flare dispenser.

The F-15C Eagle fighter aircraft are equipped with the ALQ-135 Band 3, Band 2 and Band 1. The F-15E Strike Eagle are protected by the ALQ-135 Band 1.5 and 3. The USAF was replacing existing ALQ-135 band 1 and 2 with new Band 1.5 jammers in the early years of the 21st century.

The improved AN/ALQ-135M was developed to protect the Republic of Korea Air Force (RoKAF) F-15K aircraft against multiple threats simultaneously. The first five production ALQ-135Ms were delivered to the Boeing Company which will install them into the F-15K aircraft.

The internally mounted ALQ-135M prioritizes and neutralizes the most imminent dangers thanks to a new processor that offers increased speed and memory enhancements compared to older ALQ-135 models. Weight was reduced by 63 percent and volume by 71 percent. In addition, sophisticated microwave power module transmitter technology helps reduce weight and boost performance. Source


ALE-47 Countermeasure Dispenser System (CMDS)

The ALE-47 is so advanced, it thinks for itself. The system uses information from integrated electronic warfare sensors such as radar warning receivers and missile warning receivers to determine the correct response to defeat infrared and radio-frequency guided missiles. The cockpit crew has complete control of their threat situation by choosing to operate in any of the four modes: automatic, semi-automatic, manual, or bypass.


  • Interchangeable with obsolete ALE-40, ALE-39, and M-130 systems
  • Simply integrates with electronic warfare systems, providing extreme versatility
  • Uses U.S. and NATO standard and new radio frequency and infrared decoys
  • Glass cockpit compatible


Boeing 737 AEW&C: Details

Engines and performance

3 F-15K at Nellis AFB, Nevada, 2008 for the Red Flag 08-4 exercise

The first 40 F-15K fighters are powered by two GE F110 turbofan engines, each developing 29,000lb of thrust per engine. The aircraft procured under Next Fighter II programme are equipped with two Pratt & Whitney F-100-PW-229 EEP engines. Each engine provides a thrust of 29,100lb.

2 x GE F-110-129 engines

Manufacturer: General Electric Co.
Thrust: F110-GE-129: 29,500 pounds; F110-GE-132: 32,000 pounds
Overall Pressure Ratio at Maximum Power: F110-GE-129: 30.7; F110-GE-132: 33.3
Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: F110-GE-129: 7.29; F110-GE-132: 7.90
Compressor: Two spool, axial flow, three-stage fan
LP-HP Compressor Stages: 0-9
HP-LP Turbine Stages: 1-2
Combustor Type: Annular
Length: 182.3 in (4.63 m)
Diameter: 46.5 in (118 cm)
Dry Weight: F110-GE-129: 3,980 lbs (1,805 kg); F110-GE-132: 4,050 lbs (1,837 kg)
Platforms: F-16 Fighting Falcon; F-14 (retired); F-15K Slam Eagle; F-15SA; F-15SG; F-2



2x Pratt & Whitney F-100-PW-229 EEP engines

aar.jpgPratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 [Graphic by Pratt & Whitney] –

Manufacturer: Pratt & Whitney (United Technologies)
Thrust: 17,800 pounds dry thrust; 29,160 pounds with afterburner
Overall Pressure Ratio at Maximum Power: 32
Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 7.6
Bypass Ratio: 0.36
Compressor: Two spool, axial flow, three-stage fan
LP-HP Compressor Stages: 0-10
HP-LP Turbine Stages: 2-2
Combustor Type: Annular
Length: 191 in (4.85 m)
Engine Control: FADEC
Diameter: 46.5 in (1.18 m)
Dry Weight: 3,836 lbs (1,744 kg)


The F-15K Slam Eagle can fly at a maximum speed of Mach 2.5. The combat radius or endurance of the aircraft is more than 1,800km. The aircraft can perform terrain-following flight at a minimum altitude of 100ft with a speed of Mach 0.93. It has a maximum gross take-off weight of 36,740kg.

Main material source

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image Gail Snyder, III

Revised Sep 07, 2017

Updated N0v 12, 2021

Mikoyan MiG-31 supersonic interceptor aircraft

A long-range supersonic interceptor aircraft, the MiG-31 Foxhound, a two-seat aircraft developed principally for the Russian and Kazakhstan Air Forces, was derived from MiG-25 Foxbat. The maiden flight of the MiG-31 took place in September 1975. Mikoyan is the designer and manufacturer of the MiG-31.

MiG-31 can work efficiently in all weather conditions while fulfilling visual flight rules (VFR) and instrument flight rules (IFR), day and night. It is equipped with state-of-the-art digital avionics. MiG-31 was the first soviet fighter aircraft to have true look-down and shoot-down capability.

Max C

Approximately 500 MiG-31 aircraft have been produced, out of which 370 were delivered to the Russian Air Force and 30 are in service with Kazakhstan Air Force. The remaining aircraft were upgraded to different variants under several upgrade programmes. Only some of the Russian MiG fleet have been upgraded to MiG-31BM standards under the upgrade programme.

Russian MiG-31 aircraft contract to Syria

In 2007, Russia’s United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) signed two contracts worth $1bn with Syria. One contract was for MiG-29M and another for MiG-31. The deliveries of MiG-29M are ongoing, but those of MiG-31 were not effective till 2009 when the UAC confirmed its plans to deliver the eight MiG-31 aircraft to Syria as part of the $1bn contract. The eight MiG-31 aircraft were ordered in a deal worth $400m signed in 2007. The order was cancelled in May 2009 due to pressure from Israel and lack of funds.

MiG-31 Foxhound development

The MiG-25 Foxbat was unable to fly at low altitudes. The installation of inefficient turbojet engines led to decrease in combat range at supersonic speeds and an increase in the speed gauge of the MiG-25 resulted in the destruction of the aircraft’s engine.

MiG-25 Foxbat

Dmitry Pichugin

The MiG-25 Foxbat is a high-performance, high-altitude interceptor. There are several versions of this aircraft: A–basic interceptor; B–reconnaissance; C–two-seat trainer; D–reconnaissance with a modified radar and E. The Foxbat A aircraft, originally designed to counter high-altitude threats, has been converted to Foxbat E, providing a limited low-altitude look-down and shoot-down capabilities somewhat comparable to the MiG-23 Flogger. The wings are high-mounted, swept-back, and tapered with square tips. The aircraft has two turbojet engines and large rectangular air intakes below the canopy and forward of the wing roots. There are dual exhaust. The fuselage is long and slender with solid, pointed nose. The aircraft is box-like from the air intakes to rear section. It has a bubble canopy. On the tail are twin, sweptback, and tapered fins with angular tips. There are flats mid- to low-mounted on fuselage, swept-back, and tapered with angular tips.


The MiG-25 was capable of exceptional performance, including a maximum speed of Mach 3.0 and a ceiling of 90,000 ft (27,000 m) although a specially modified MIG-25 in 1977 flew to an altitude of 123,524 ft (37,650 m) in 1977. Some believed that the MiG-25 was designed against the SR-71 Blackbird, made to deter, or at least threaten the high altitude, high speed aircraft. However, its maneuverability, range, and close combat potential were extremely limited. Even its tremendous speed was problematic: although the available thrust was sufficient to reach Mach 3.2, a limit of Mach 2.83 had to be imposed to prevent destruction of the engines (at these speeds the engine would start to behave like a ramjet). Even Mach 2.83 was difficult to reach without overspeeding the turbines. The limited maneuverability of the Mig-25 (Maximum acceleration, g-load, rating was just 2.2 g with full fuel tanks, with an absolute limit of 4.5 g) has often been overstated by Western observers, as under the same high performance parameters, the SR-71 has even more restrictive stress limitations.


The maximum speed ever observed for a MiG-25 was Mach 3.2 as recorded by an American radar during a flight over Israel in 1973. The Soviet pilot was conducting a reconnaissance mission over the nation when he was threatened by Israeli surface-to-air missiles. The pilot went to full afterburner and pushed the MiG-25 as fast as it would go to return to the safety of an Egyptian airfield. Though the MiG-25 survived the flight, its engines were completely destroyed and had to be replaced. Source


MiG-25PD Foxbat E Specification
Prime contractor: Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau
Country of origin: Soviet Union
NATO codename: Foxbat E
Function: High speed interceptor
Crew: 1
Year: 1964 (base version)
In-service year: 1973 (base version)
Power plant: Two Soyuz/Tumansky R-15BD-300 afterburning turbojets
Thrust: 24,640 lb. each 11,200 kg. each
Wing span: 46 ft. 14.02 m.
Length: 78 ft.2 in 23.82 m.
Height: 20 ft. 6.1 m.
Empty 44,000 lb. 20,000 kg.
Max. takeoff 80,784 lb. 36,720 kg.
Ceiling: 67,900 ft. 20,700 m.
Speed: 1,865 mph. 3000 km/h.
Range: 1,075 miles 1,730 km.
Max. external weapons load of 4,000 kg. (8,800 lb.).
Typical interceptor configuration: Four R-40 (AA-6 “Acrid”) AAMs., or two R-23 (AA-7 “Apex”) AAMs., and four R-60 (AA-8 “Aphid”) AAMs., or R-73 (AA-11 “Archer”) AAMs.
Known Variants
MiG-25BBT, MiG-25BM, MiG-25P, MiG-25PD, MiG-25PDS, MiG-25PU, MiG-25R, MiG-25RB, MiG-25RBF, MiG-25RBK, MiG-25RBS, MiG-25RBSh, MiG-25RBV, MiG-25RU, MiG-25U
Algeria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, India, Iraq, Libya, Syria, Ukraine

MiG-25 Technical data

In an effort to overcome the drawbacks of the MiG-25 Foxbat, the MiG-31 was developed to fly at low altitudes with required supersonic speeds. MiG-31 is equipped with efficient low-bypass-ratio turbofan engines, which allow an increase in combat range.


Production of MiG-31 began in 1979 and the aircraft was fully operational with the Soviet Anti-Air Defence (PVO) by 1982. The economic slowdown in the USSR has made the maintenance of its complex MiG-31 aircraft difficult for many squadrons. As a result, around 20% of the MiG-31 aircraft were removed from service. About 75% of these aircraft, however, re-entered service with the Russian Air Force in 2006 when strong economic growth returned.

MiG-31 & Develop Replacement: Here

mig-31_replacementArtist impression of a MiG-31 replacement aircraft – Image:

Russia Future PAK DP Long Range Interceptor: Here


The requirements for the new interceptor can be found on Russian websites which states the following:

… Speed newest Russian interceptor MIG-41, developed on the basis of MIG-31 should exceed Mach 4, said test pilot Anatoly Kvochur.

“This upgrade was to take place even 20 years ago. However, this did not happen, so now the requirements are increased. They are including in the (increasing) interceptor speeds of up to Mach 4-4.3 “- Kvochur said, RIA” Novosti “.

MiG-31 design

The MiG-31 has a highly aerodynamic and streamlined body to enable flying at high speeds at low altitude. The aircraft is specifically designed to track multiple targets simultaneously at high altitudes.


The MiG-31’s airframe contains various materials including welded nickel steel (49%), titanium (16%), aluminium alloy (33%) and 2% of composites. Four underwing pylons are also fitted in the fuselage of the aircraft.


The aircraft’s fuselage is designed to provide lateral rectangular and diagonal cut air intakes and features a bubble canopy with a long pointed nose.

The wings are sharpened and swept back with square tips and negative slant.


The variants of MiG-31 include MiG-31A, MiG-31B, MiG-31BS, MiG-31E, MiG-31F, MiG-31BM, MiG-31FE, MiG-31LL, MiG-31M, MiG-31D and MiG-31S.

Commercial satellite launch variants MiG-31A and MiG-31S have been used to train astronauts, to conduct research in the upper atmosphere and for space tourism by launching the aerospace rally system rocket-powered suborbital glider.

MiG-31E is an advanced version of the MiG-31 supersonic interceptor aircraft. The variant is equipped with RP-31E airborne phased array radar. It can track ten, and destroy four, targets from long distances. Under normal and adverse weather conditions, the MiG-31E has the capacity to destroy aerial targets flying at 50m to 28,000m altitude in front and rear hemispheres.

In the absence of a ground air-defence system, the MiG-31E aircraft scans airspace at width of 900km-1,000km. An infrared (IR) seeker unit installed in the variant can track targets by its heat emissions in the passive mode of a blind attack.


1_o_5Unit: unknown Serial: 903 (c/n.38401208786) MAKS’99 (Moscow Air Space Show), Moscow, 1999. Artist: © Yuriy Tepsurkayev  Source: Авиа Галерея

The two-seat supersonic MiG-31E fighter is a combat aircraft which has no analogues over the world. It is capable:
– to combat in group air fights at the distances which are inaccessible for any other fighter over the world;
– to realize the network-centric methods of controlling the combat operations in air when engaging within heterogeneous grouping of warfare means;
– to perform the long-range flight with speed of 3000km/h (M=2.83) at high altitudes.

The MiG-31E aircraft is designed for intercepting and destroying high- and low-altitude targets in forward and rear hemispheres in uplook and downlook, VMC and IMC, day and night, in the passive and active jamming environment of the enemy.

The MiG-31E aircraft is the export version of the basic MiG-31 aircraft of the Russian Air Force.

The MiG-31E fighter-interceptor basic version has become the first serially produced fighter over the world which is equipped with airborne phased array radar.

The RP-31E phased array radar has a long detection range and simultaneous tracking of 10 air targets. The airborne radio-electronic equipment and armament allows the MiG-31E aircraft to intercept air targets of any types in the whole range of flight altitudes and speeds capable for aerodynamic vehicles (including cruise missiles flying at low altitude in the relief envelope mode) with possibility of simultaneous attack of four targets with long-range missiles.


Length, m 21,62
Wing span, m 13,456
Height, m 6,456
Take-off weight (maximum), kg 46 200
Maximum airspeed, km/h:
– near ground 1500
– at high altitude 3000
Maximum M-number 2,83
Service ceiling, m 20 600
Maximum G-load 5
Service range with 4xR-33E and 2 drop tanks, km:
– without in-flight refueling 3000
– with one in-flight refueling 5400
Engines D-30F6
Take-off thrust, kgf 2х15 500
Number of external stations 6
“A-A” missiles:
– long range 4хR-3ЗE
– middle range 2хR-40TD1
– short range 4хR-60MK
Built-in air gun, 30 mm GSh-6-23M

MiG-31E data

The MiG-31M is an advanced version of MiG-31. The variant was developed by upgrading the cockpit of MiG-31 with a number of cathode ray tubes (CRT) and an increased number of missiles.


1_2_a1Unit: unknown  Serial: 057  17th produced MiG-31M. It was a first MiG-31M seen by western in 1992.  Artist: unknown  Source:

In 1984, Yakovlev Design Bureau. AI Mikoyan began work on deep modernization of MiG-31. The emergence of new aircraft (the designation MiG-31M) was due to an increase in air defense fighter requirements. Based on the development of weapons, the purpose of air defense in the new environment was to protect areas from group raids strategic bombers with cruise missiles, long-range escort fighters escorted. In addition, it required to identify ways to intercept hypersonic, transatmosfernyh and space purposes. MiG-31M features an advanced, more powerful engines D-Zof-6M (h16500 kgf) and a new control system, weapons “Barrier-M” with a FAR of 1.4 m in diameter (radome radar axis is tilted down to 3 deg. 30 min ).

Radar complex has an increased range of detection of air targets, has the ability to simultaneously track up to 24 targets and direct missiles at six of them. The armament of the MiG-31M – UR six long-range P-ZZS and R-37, flown under the conformal fuselage two three rows and four medium-range missiles RVV-AE type under the wing. Cannon installation abolished. Increased the size of the fairing, which placed an additional 300 liters of fuel, the pilot cockpit canopy visor acquired besperepletnoe glazing, reduced cab glass area, increase the area of the wing root burls. Instead retractable teplopelengator by plane set IRSTS complex with IR and laser channels (its optical head is placed in front canopy cockpit). Individual protection systems and electronic countermeasures combined in airborne defense. Maximum take-off weight of the MiG-31M has increased to 52 000 kilograms, speed and altitude characteristics have not changed.

The first flight of an experienced fighter-interceptor MiG-31M took place on December 21, 1985 (the crew – a test pilot and navigator BA Orlov test LS Popov). Built six prototypes. In April 1994, Russian President has sent a message of congratulations to the creators of the MiG-31M and its weapons systems in the success of the world’s first test defeat on air targets at ranges in excess of 300 km. Translated by google – Source

MiG-31BM is a high-speed multifunctional long-range fighter jet that can destroy both air and ground targets. The variant is equipped with upgraded avionics, hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) controls, liquid-crystal colour multifunction displays (MFDs), a powerful on-board computer system, digital data links and a phased array radar. It has the capacity to intercept 24 targets simultaneously.

MiG-31D is an anti-satellite missile developed as part of the US ASAT (anti-satellite weapons) programme in 1987. It is fitted with single large missile beneath its fuselage and a special upward-looking radar. An associated intercept fire-control system is also equipped.



MiG-31D was created as a kind of response to the US ASAT program includes the development of a special modification of the F-15, which was launched aboard a two-stage solid-fuel missile capable of destroying spacecraft in orbit. It was designed based on serial MiG-31 with the use of certain new technical solutions implemented on the modernized MiG-31M. For a given directional stability of the aircraft with the large missile on the external load at the ends of its wings were large triangular washer. Construction of the first prototype (hull number 071, ie, “product 07”, 1-car) was completed by the end of 1986, and January 17, 1987 the crew of a test pilot OKB. AI Mikoyan Aviarda Fastovtsa and shgurmana-test Leonid Popov picked it up in the first flight. A year later, it was ready and the second prototype (№072), the first to fly around April 28, 1988 Anatoly Kvochur and Leonid Popov.

By the early 90-ies. phase of flight tests had been completed, and both cars were transferred for further testing to the landfill, “Sary-Shagan” on the western shore of Lake Balkhash in Kazakhstan, where traditionally held testing of all new Soviet missile systems and air defense missile.

According to a recently published monograph “Russian Weapons missile defense: the heroic epic of the creation and defense of the triad pioneers – the creators and testers” (Moscow, 2006), “work on the preparations for the SSP system 30P6 test against low-orbit satellites” were deployed at the site even in 1985, “Until this issue PKO landfill engaged within the ABM objectives, as One of the tasks of system A-35 and A-135 are hitting low-orbit satellites. However, due to the fixed version, these systems have limited capacity and can solve the problem of the SSP as a private, within the lesion missiles to intercept long-range area, “- says in the book. “Intensive work on the deployment and testing of the system 30P6 funds were up until 1995, and generally obtained valuable results”, – concluded the authors of the monograph.

However, to complete these tests it failed: at the end of 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist, and both the MiG-31D appeared on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan became a sovereign. Two built MiG-31D have been preserved in one of the hangars airfield ground “Sary-Shagan” near Priozersk (it was his and visited in August 2003, Prime Minister of Kazakhstan Daniyal Akhmetov). Oblivion “zero Seventh” went on for almost ten years, until finally they were in demand – in the framework of a purely civil, “Ishim” commercial project. Translated by google Source

MiG-31BM to deploy anti-satellite missile: Here

Vympel 79M6 / 30P6 “Contact” missile

raketa-79m6-sleva-i-samolet-nositel-mig-31d-bort-072-na-poligone-sary-shagan-600x320The aircraft carrier MiG-31D aircraft number 072 and 79M6 missile (left) at the Sary-Shagan. Source авиару.рфraketa-79m6-kontakt-pod-mig-31d-risunok-600x298Rocket 79M6 “Contact” under the MiG-31D. Drawing. Source авиару.рф

MiG-31 aircraft conducted tactical doctrine for interception of supersonic cruise missile fire in the stratosphere – Video

MiG-31 may get further upgrade: Here


Russian Mach 10 hypersonic air-to-surface missile “Kinzhal” (Dagger) – Video

Russian Kinzhal hypersonic missile is a modified Iskander-M: Here

KH-47M2 Kinzhal nuclear-capable, Russian air-launched ballistic missile


The Kh-47M2, also nicknamed “Kinzhal” (Dagger), is a new Russian air-launched cruise missile. Some sources report that this missile is hypersonic. Since 2017 this missile was tested and evaluated by the Russian military. This missile was first publicly revealed in 2018. By 2018 only a small number of these missiles were built for trials and evaluation. In 2018 a total of 10 MiG-31K long-range multi-role fighters were fitted with these missiles and were used operationally. Currently there is little known about this missile and its capabilities. Interestingly, there is no information available on the original Kh-47 missile, rather than its improved “M2” version.



The Kinzhal resembles an air-launched version of the Iskander short-range ballistic missile. However despite similar appearance it is a completely different design. The Kh-47M2 Kinzhal is a long-range standoff weapon. Its role is to suppress hostile defenses and engage important targets. It can also engage hostile warships, such as aircraft carriers, cruisers and destroyers.



The Kinzhal missile is carried and launched by MiG-31K long-range multi-role fighters. It is planned that it will be also carried by a new Su-57 stealthy multi-role fighters. Source




The MiG-31 cockpit is equipped with digital avionics such as MFDs and liquid crystal displays (LCDs), which provide updated instrument readings and radar information.


Both front and rear sides of the cockpit are equipped with zero / zero ejection seats which allow the pilot to fly at the altitude and airspeed preferred. The pilot sits in the front seat of the cockpit while the weapon system officer (WSO) sits in the rear cockpit seat, controlling the radar operations and weapon deployment thereby decreasing the work load of the pilot and increasing the efficiency.

31bm-1Pilot31bm-2Weapon system officer (WSO)kqcxi


KD-36DM ejection seats



Max C

Four long-range Vympel R-33E air-to-air missiles are installed in the MiG-31 aircraft. The R-33 can be launched in inertial navigation mode to shoot the target at extreme range. It can be guided in semi-active radar homing (SARH) mode for initial acquisition and mid course updates. It is used for attacking large and high-speed targets such as the SR-71 Blackbird, the B-1 Lancer bomber, and the B-52 Stratofortress.

How the Mig-31 repelled the SR-71 Blackbird from Soviet skies: Here

B-1 Lancer bomber: Details

The aircraft is also equipped with four short-range R-60MK missiles and two Bisnovat R-40TD1 medium-range missiles. A six-barrel 30mm internal cannon (Ghs-6-23M) is installed above the starboard main landing gear bay of the MiG-31 aircraft. The cannon contains 800 rounds of ammunitions and can fire at a rate of over 10,000 rounds a minute.

MiG-31BM can accommodate the AA-12 Adder missile and various Russian air-to-ground missiles (AGMs) such as the AS-17 Krypton anti-radiation missile (ARM).

Armament details

The MiG-31’s main armament is four R-33 air-to-air missiles (NATO codename AA-9 ‘Amos’) carried under the belly. The R-33 is the Russian equivalent of the U.S. Navy’s AIM-54 Phoenix.

  • 1× GSh-6-23 23 mm cannon with 260 rounds.
  • Fuselage recesses for 4× R-33 (AA-9 ‘Amos’) or 6x R-37 (AA-13 ‘Arrow’) (MiG-31M/BM only).
  • 4 underwing pylons for a combination of (6 places for charging (+ 2 space to add removable fuel tanks)):
    • 6× R-37 (missile) long-range missiles (280 km).
    • (4)× R-33 (missile) long-range missiles (304 km) 2012.
    • (?)× Kh-31 long-range missiles (200 km) for high-speed target (maneuvering with overload 8G).
    • (?)× Р-33 AA-9 «Amos» (1981) 120 km, Р-33S (1999) 160 km.
    • 2 4 (superior limit) × R-40TD1 (AA-6 ‘Acrid’) medium-range missiles (P-40 (50 km, MiG-25P, 1970) 80 km(PD)(user)), height applications between 0.5 and 30 km (maneuvering with overload 4 g).
    • 4× R-60 (AA-8 ‘Aphid’)
      • 4× R-73 (AA-11 ‘Archer’) short-range IR missiles,
      • 4× R-77 (AA-12 ‘Adder’) medium-range missiles (100км) for high-speed target (maneuvering with overload 12G).
  • Some aircraft are equipped to launch the Kh-31P (AS-17 ‘Krypton’) and Kh-58 (AS-11 ‘Kilter’) anti-radiation missiles in the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) role. Anti-ship Kh-31A (up to six), missiles air-to-surface X-59 and X-29T (up to three) or X-59M (up to two units), up to six air bombs KAB-1500, or up to eight KAB-500 with a television or laser-guided. Maximum weight of the combat load is 9000 kg. Source

1 x 30mm internal cannon (Ghs-6-23M)


The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-23 (GRAU designation: 9A-620 for GSh-6-23, 9A-768 for GSh-6-23M modernized variant) is a powerful, fast-firing six-barreled 23 mm Gatling gun used by some modern Soviet/Russian military aircraft.

The GSh-6-23 uses the 23×115 Russian AM-23 round, fed via linked cartridge belt or a linkless feed system. The linkless system, adopted after problems with the belt feed, is limited to 8,500 rpm. Fire control is electrical, using a 27v DC system. The cannon has 10 pyrotechnic cocking charges, similar to those used in European gas-operated revolver cannons such as the DEFA 554 or Mauser BK-27.

The GSh-6-23 has an extremely high rate of fire, with maximum cyclic rates of 9,000 to 10,000 rounds per minute. Compared to the U.S. M61 Vulcan, the GSh-6-23 fires 50-66% more rounds per minute, has a heavier projectile, but lower muzzle velocity. The weapon is also lighter and shorter. The rapid rate of fire exhausts ammunition quickly: the MiG-31(800 rounds maximum) aircraft, for example, with 260 rounds of ammunition, would empty its magazine in less than two seconds.

WEIGHT 73-76 kg (161-167 lb)
LENGTH 1.4 m (4 ft 7 in)
HEIGHT 18 cm (7 in)
CARTRIDGE 23×115mm AM-23
BARRELS 6, Rifled
ACTION Gatling, Gas-operated
RATE OF FIRE 10,000 rpm
MUZZLE VELOCITY 715 m/s (2345 ft/s)
FEED SYSTEM Belt or linkless feed system


R-33 (AA-9 ‘Amos’) air-to-air missile

Leukhin Fedor – AviaPressPhoto

The R-33E is a long range, air-to-air missile designed to be the weapon of choice for the Mig-31 air defense aircraft against highly valuable airborne threats such as strategic bombers and high altitude aircraft. It is capable of operation into heavy jamming environments and all weather conditions. Its ranges varies according to some reports from 120 km to 160 km depending on the launch altitude and airspeed.

Once launched, the R-33 missile uses an inertial navigation and a semi-active radar system for midcourse guidance. In the terminal phase of the flight an active radar homing head is responsible for the missile guidance and target interception. The Mig-31 Foxhound is the sole aircraft enabled to use the R-33E missile.



Diameter: 380 millimeter

Length: 4.15 meter (13.6 foot)

Wingspan: 0.90 meter


Target’s Max Load Factor: 4 g


Max Range: 120 kilometer (65 nautical mile)

Target’s Max Altitude: 25,000 meter

Target’s Min Altitude: 50 meter


Target’s Max Speed: 3,000 kph (2.51 mach)

Top Speed: 4.50 mach (5,380 kph)


Warhead: 47 kilogram

Weight: 490 kilogram (1,080 pound)


R-60 (AA-8 ‘Aphid’) air-to-air missile


The Molniya (now Vympel) R-60 (NATO reporting name: AA-8’Aphid’) is a short-range lightweight infrared homing air-to-air missile designed for use by Soviet fighter aircraft. It has been widely exported, and remains in service with the CIS and many other nations.

Type Short-range air-to-air missile
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1974- present
Production history
Manufacturer Vympel
Weight 43.5 kg (96 lb)
Length 2,090 mm (6 ft 10 in)
Diameter 120 mm (4.7 in)
Warhead 3 kg (6.6 lb)
Engine solid-fuel rocket engine
Wingspan 390 mm (15 in)
kilometres (5.0 mi)
Flight altitude 20,000 m (66,000 ft)
Speed Mach 2.7
infrared homing


R-40TD1 (AA-6 ‘Acrid’) medium-range missiles air-to-air missile

R-40 (AA-6 ‘Acrid’) MVR AAM  long-range air-to-air missile Mach 4.5-5 R-40 is the largest air-to-air missile to ever enter production. Standard PVO procedure was to fire a 2-missile salvo at a target; 1 heat-seeking R-40T missile followed by a SARH R-40R, in order to avoid the possibility of the heat-seeking missile locking-on to the radar-guided missile.

R-77 extended medium range air-to-air missile


The R-77, RVV-AE designation used for the export market and AA-12 Adder designation used by Western intelligence, is an extended medium range air-to-air missile featuring an active radar seeker to engage multiple airborne targets simultaneously. This missile was designed as the Soviet/Russian counterpart to the United States Air Force AIM-120 AMRAAM. The R-77 enables the Mig-29 and Su-27 fighter aircraft families to engage multiple airborne threats simultaneously thanks to its fire and forget capability. There are other versions fitted with infrared and passive radar seekers instead of active radar homing. Future plans call for increasing the missile range well beyond 150 kilometers.

The R-77 has been designed with innovative control surfaces which are one of the keys of its impressive performance. Once launched, the R-77 depends on an inertial navigation system with optional in-flight target position updates from the aircraft sensors. When the R-77 missile is at a distance of about 20 km its radar homing head activates leading the missile to its target.


Diameter: 200 millimeter

Length: 3.60 meter (11.8 foot)

Wingspan: 350 millimeter


Max Range: 80 kilometer (43 nautical mile)

Target’s Max Altitude: 25,000 meter

Target’s Min Altitude: 20 meter


Top Speed: 4 mach (4,782 kph)


Warhead: 30 kilogram

Weight: 175 kilogram (386 pound)

R-77 data

Vympel R-37M extremely long-ranged air-to-air missile


The R-37 (Western designation: AA-13 Arrow, although sometimes AA-X-13 Arrow) is a large, fast, powerful, and extremely long-ranged Russian air-to-air missile. Vympel, a sizeable research and production company, (now part of TRV) designed and built the R-37.

The R-37 was developed to replace the R-33 (Western designation: AA-9 Amos), which was used on the MiG-31. Its main purpose is to shoot down aircraft (particularly high value AWACS—Airborne Warning And Control System—aircraft) and possibly even cruise missiles from such long range that the launch platform is safe from retaliation.

A council of ministers in the USSR started the development of the R-37 in 1983. Testing began six years later in 1989. In 1994, the K-37 (the R-37’s name in development) secured a kill and a record at the same time by hitting its target from 300 kilometers. However, in 1998, the K-37 program was dropped due to its high cost and lack of enough suitable MiG-31 launch platforms. But, in 2006, the Russian government restarted the weapon’s development as part of the MiG-31BM program. The new version is known as R-37M or RVV-BD. It is unknown if this missile has entered service yet, although according to some sources it entered production in 2014.


   The R-37M is believed to track its targets with both semi-active and active radar homing. Its radar system is the 9B-1388. The R-37M probably homes on its targets in this way: first, the launch platform detects its target and launches the R-37 towards the target’s hypothesized position. Once the R-37M comes within suitable range of the target, it activates its own radar and homes in on the target. The R-37M can also use a fire-and-forget mode where it is completely independent of its launch platform.

   The recent R-37M is a powerful and effective missile. It is much more maneuverable than its predecessor, the R-33. It can engage targets from any altitude between 15 and 25 000 meters, giving it great versatility. Its high explosive fragmentation warhead is huge—60 kilograms—and capable of critically damaging even large AWACS aircraft. It has an incredibly fast speed—Mach 6 or about 7,350 km/h, which is enough to easily catch up with every type of aircraft. Above all, it reportedly has an enormous range— of up to 200.


   Although normally called the R-37, this missile has many other names. In the West it is designated as the AA-X-13, AA-13,  Arrow, or even Andi. In Russia, it is also known as the Izdeliye 610 or RVV-BD (Raketa Vozduh-Vozduh Bolyshoy Dalnosty or English for Long-Range Air-to-Air Missile).

It appears that the R-37M will be used on two types of aircraft. The first is the MiG-31BM, an extremely fast interceptor aircraft. The second is the Su-35S, a powerful multi-role fighter.

Country of origin Russia
Entered service 2016 (?)
Missile length 4.06 m
Missile diameter 0.38 m
Fin span 1.02 m
Missile launch weight 510 kg
Warhead weight 60 kg
Warhead type Conventional
Range of fire up to 200 km
Guidance semi-active and active radar homing


Kh-31AD & Kh-31PD (AS-17 Krypton)


The Kh-31, AS-17 Krypton NATO-codename, is an advanced, long range, highly supersonic missile designed to withstand countermeasures effects. The Kh-31 propulsion system consists of a solid-fuel rocket engine which accelerates the missile to Mach 1.8 airspeed. Then this engine is dropped and a jet engine ignites using the missile’s within space as a combustion chamber. The missile accelerates to Mach 3+ thanks to the jet engine.

Kh-31AD airborne anti-ship guided missile

Kh-31AD airborne anti-ship guided missile is designed for hitting combat (assault landing) surface ships and cargo ships from the striking force (convoys) and single ships. This particular missile has a warhead power increased to 15% in compare with its prototype Kh-31A. Launch range is increased up to 120-160 km almost in two times.


 Maximum launch range
(carrier flight parameters: H=15 km, M=1.5 km), km  120 to 160
 Launch altitrudes, km  0,1 to 15
 Launch speeds (M number)  0,65 to 1,5
 Aiming system  inertial + active radio homing head
 Active radio homing head angle of sight in vertical plane, degree  +10 to -20
 Active radio homing head angle of sight in horizontal plane, degree  up to +/-27
 type  universal
 weight, kg  110
 Fuel  gasoline
 Missile start weight (maximum), kg  715
 Lengthxdiameter, m  5,340×0,360
 Weather conditions for use  any conditions at sea roughness
 up to 4-5
 Carriers  aircrafts Su-30MK (MKI, MKM, MK2),
 Su-35, Mig-29K, Mig-29KUB, Mig-35
 and etc.
 Average number of missile hits required to make enemy’s destroyer
 ineffective  2,0

Kh-31PD airborne high speed anti-radar missile

Kh-31PD airborne high speed anti-radar missile is designed to hit radars of anti-aircraft missile stations (ZRK).

Missile ground maintenance is provided by the OKA-E-1 aircraft guided weapons (AUSP) preparation system.


 Maximum launch range, km
 (carrier flight parameters H=15km, M=1,5), km  180 to 250
 Maximum launch range (H=0,1km), km  15
 Launch altitudes, km  0,1 to 15
 Launch speeds (M number)  0,65 to 1,5
 Aiming system  inertial + wide waveband range
 passive radio homing head
 Target location angle when launching, degree
 target lock being under carrier  +/-15
 target lock at the trajectory  +/-30
 type  cluster, universal
 weight  110
 Fuel  gasoline
 Missile start weight (maximum), kg  715
 Missile overall dimensions:
 lengthxdiameterxwing span, m  5,340×0,360×0,954 (1,102)
 Weather conditions  any weather conditions
 Carriers  aircraft Su-30MK (MKI, MKM, MK2),
 Su-35, Mig-29, Mig-35, Mig-29KUB and etc.


Kh-58 (AS-11 ‘Kilter’) anti-radiation missiles

Kh-58 (Izdeliye 112) – original version for the Su-24M

The Kh-58E missile is designed to engage radars making part of land-based air defence systems, air defence early warning, target designation and control systems, and other emitting targets operating in A/A’, B/B’ and C frequency bands.

The Kh-58E missile can be employed in any weather conditions (rain, snow, fog) or season, without any restrictions on geographical latitude of the launch site.


The missile is guided by a passive radar homing head and an autonomous control system.

The Kh-58E missile can be employed in weapon systems of the Su-24MK, Su-22M4, Su-25TK, MiG-25BM type combat aircraft equipped with an appropriate target designation system and airborne ejection unit for missile’s launch.

Developer and manufacturer: “Raduga” State Machine-Building Design Bureau


 Max range
 (depends on launch altitude at max speed), km  46-200
 Launch altitudes, km  0,2-20
 Launch speeds, Mach number  0,47-2,35
 Min launch range, km  8-60
 Missile launch weight, kg  650
 Warhead weight, kg  149
 Missile dimensions, m:
 length  4,8
 body diameter  0,38
 wing span  1,17



The MiG-31 can climb at a rate of 208m a second and has the capacity to fly at 3,000km/h. The ferry and combat ranges of the aircraft are 3,300km and 720km respectively. The maximum take-off weight of the aircraft is 46,200kg. The cruise range and wing loading capacities are 1,620m and 665kg/m² respectively, while the maximum g-load is 5g.


The MiG-31 aircraft is equipped with world’s first electronically scanned N007 Zaslon phased array radar. It is also known as SBI-16 Zaslon (Flash Dance) radar and operates from the rear cockpit by WSO. It can receive signals from early warning radar (EWR) and airborne warning and control systems (AWACS). Zaslon has the capacity to scan 200km distance. The radar can trap ten targets and engage four simultaneously flying in the surrounding radius of the aircraft (behind and below the aircraft).

The antenna of Zaslon is fixed and can be moved electronically. The electronic steering of the radar beam is much faster and accurate than mechanical steering. Topgun

The Zaslon radar has the capacity to search and attack various targets in air and ground using continuous and discontinuous fields of control and guidance commands despite target defensive manoeuvres, electronic counter measures (ECM) and adverse weather conditions.

N007 Zaslon phased array radar/SBI-16 Zaslon (Flash Dance) radar


Weapon control system (WCS) “Zaslon” is intended for search, detection, identification and tracking of air targets in FWD and TAIL hemispheres, in look-up and look-down modes, in the presence of jamming. WCS “Zaslon” is mounted on MiG-31aircraft and its upgrades intended for air target interception at long ranges, single and group operations, interaction with ground automatic control systems and ACS

Performance characteristics

№№ Name Characteristics
1 Weapon control system, including: WCS “Zaslon”
On-board digital computer «Baget 55.06.08»
Three-channel analog receiver B3
Phased antenna array with electronic beam scanning B1
Transmitting device B2
On-board equipment interface system
System of objective control
2 Radar type Pulse-Doppler radar
3 Pulse repetition frequency high
4 In “Air-to-Air” mode the radar provides as follows:
Simultaneous tracking 24 targets
Simultaneous attack 8 targets
Air target illumination and transmission of radio-correction commands to control semi-active missile RHH
Identification Friend-or-Foe
Operation under ECCM conditions
Coordinate measuring and attack of a jammer
Detection and tracking zone in azimuth ±60 degrees
Detection and tracking zone in elevation ±35 degrees
Detection range of an air target of bomber type (RCS=19m2, with 0.5 probability) in FWD hemisphere 200 km
Detection range of an air target of fighter type (RCS=3m2, with o.5 probability) in TAIL hemisphere 35 km
Operation range of radio-correction channel
Target detection upon its heat radiation 56 km
5 Head-up display system PPI-70B (ППИ-70В)
6 IFF system interrogator
7 Data-exchange system APD-518 (АПД-518)



Interception and destroying of air targets flying at altitudes of 50 – 28000 meters in FWD and TAIL hemispheres, including look-down mode, under heavy weather, while maneuvering and in the presence of active and passive jamming

A group of four MiG-31s is capable of exchanging data in automatic mode regarding targets being tracked within 800km-wide sector being 2000 km distant from a ground command post and transmitting target data to a ground- or air-based command post.
MiG-31 fighter is capable of homing up to three MiG-23, MiG-29, Su-27 aircraft in targets with radars of these aircraft being Off.
Weapon control system as a part of MiG-31 aircraft provides for application of R33E, RVV-AE, R-73E weapons.


RK-RLDN and APD-518 digital secure datalinks

The MiG-31 was equipped with RK-RLDN and APD-518 digital secure datalinks. The RK-RLDN datalink is for communication with ground control centers. The APD-518 datalink enables a flight of four MiG-31 to automatically exchange radar-generated data within 200 km (124 mi) from each other. It also enables other aircraft with less sophisticated avionics, such as MiG-23,25,29/Su-15,27 to be directed to targets spotted by MiG-31 (a maximum of 4 (long-range) for each MiG-31 aircraft). The A-50 AEW aircraft and MiG-31 can automatically exchange aerial and terrestrial radar target designation, as well as air defense

Corner area of simultaneous firing rockets number of goals for the MiG-31 is 18200 square degrees (for the F-14 is only 420 square meters °). long-range missiles can be induced at a target in a range of slightly less than +/- 120 degrees (F-14 only +/- 20). Source


Example above: APD-518 datalink enables a flight of four MiG-31 to automatically exchange radar-generated data within 200 km (124 mi) from each other a group of four MiG-31 interceptors is able to control an area of air space across a total length of 800 km

  • arming – 4 long-range missiles + 4 short-range/medium-range missiles (including R-77 medium-range).
  • interacting with ground-based automated digital control system (ACS «Rubezh» Operating radius of 2000 km, can control multiple groups of planes), operating modes remote aiming, semi-automated actions (coordinate support), singly, and also: to direct on the target missiles launched from the other aircraft.
  • Digital immune system provides the automatic exchange of tactical information in a group of four interceptors, remote one from another at a distance of 200 km and aiming at the target group of fighters with less-powerful avionics (in this case the aircraft performs the role of guidance point or repeater).

Norwegian F-16 versus Russian MIG-31


MiG-31 is equipped with light duty (LD) / speed and direction (SD) sensor, track while scan (TWS) radar, infrared search and track (IRST) system and radar warning receiver (RWR) system. The aircraft assigns partial power to track targets and the remaining to scan. The TWS radar system in the aircraft uses two new technologies – phased array radars and computer memory devices.

IRST sensor 8TK

irsttp88TK pod is semi-recessed under the MiG-31’s nose – Image:

Semi-retractable IRST of MiG-31. Field of view of sensor is ±60° azimuth, +6/-13° elevation. Range is about 50 km against a tail-on aspect target in military power.

The IRST sensor detects and tracks jet aircraft and helicopters that emit infrared rays, while the RWR systems detect radar systems emitting radio waves through the ground or in the air. The RWR comprises a visual display unit (VDU) in the cockpit that monitors radars by producing audible sounds.


MiG-31 supersonic aircraft is equipped with two Solovyev D-30F6 turbofan shaft engines with a take-off thrust 15,500kgf each. The dry thrust of the D-30F6 is 9,500kgf for each engine. The engine provides a maximum speed of Mach 1.23 at low altitude and increases the aircraft’s range. The fuel consumption of the MiG-31 is very high compared to other aircraft, principally due to its multiple roles.

Air intake has adjustable flaps

Телеканал Звезда

D30-F6 jet engines

3157D-30F6 – Image:

D-30F6 is military two-shaft, two-spool engine with mixed afterburner chamber for both inner and outer flow and with regulable exhaust nozzle. Engine is intended to be used on supersonic interceptors and fighter-bombers MiG-31. Soloviev’s design team from Perm started the developement in 1972. The team comprised of two companies – Aviadvigatel and Motorstroitel. The developement was finished in 1980. As can be seen from the engine’s name the engine was based on D-30 line from Il-62M and Tu-154M passenger planes. Two-spool scheme significantly lowers the specific fuel consumption on dry thrust thus significantly increases range od MiG-31 against it’s predecessor, the MiG-25. Neverthenless the engine gives the plane a good altitude-speed characteristics also – top speed 3000 km/h, operation altitude 11 to 21 km and as can be seen in some sources low level flight speed 1500 km/h. Another advantage of this scheme is lower thermal radiation inside the plane’s fuselage. Interesting thing is that this allowed to remove the 5 kg heavy silver coating of thermal shield around engines which was used on MiG-25. The D-30F6 is the first soviet two-spool engine with afterburner. It proved it’s reliability in wide range of weather conditions during it’s more than 25 years long operation service.

Laith Jobran @flickr


Construction scheme is modular, consist of 7 modules. All the modules (except for base) can be replaced during service.

  • inlet guide vanes
  • 5-stage low-pressure compressor
  • base module – separating case, 10-stage high pressure compressor (movable vanes of first stator stage, air bleed after 4th and 5th stage), tube-annular combustion chamber with 12 burners, 2-stage hight pressure turine, 2-stage low pressure turbine (both cooler by air from the compressor), rear support
  • mixer case
  • afterburner with four ring flame stabilisers
  • jet nozzle with variable cross-section
  • unit of a forward and back accessory box assembly
1255234633_fhx4fhd-lUnmounted D-30F6 engines – Image: Vitaly V. Kuzmin

Reliability of the engine is provided by protection, back-up and diagnostics systems:

  • low pressure rotor maximum speed limitation system and maximum turbine exit temperature limitation system;
  • safety system against turbine overspeed (drive of constant revolutions);
  • anti-icing system for the cowl and blades of inlet guide vanes;
  • anti-surge system.

Electronic-hydraulic system of automatic engine control is duplicated by hydraulic system ensuring safety of flight and back-up function in case of electronic system malfunction. The design of the engine provides an opportunity of the parametric control of its condition aboard of the airplane. To evaluate the condition of the air and gasflowpath parts in service, the engine design provides for the inspection of all compressor and turbine blades, and also, nozzle vanes of both high pressure turbine stages.

In case of foreign objects ingestion into the engine, the design allows to replace in service separate damaged blades of the 1-st high pressure compressor stage and the entire module of low pressure compressor

Besides the original D-30F6 for MiG-31 there were a few modifications also, among others the engine for experimental twin-engine S-37 (Su-47) prototype and high altitude subsonic twin-engine M-55 plane. In the first case the engine is sometimes designates as D-30F11, the information is not confirmed. The second case engine was unaugmented D-30V12 derivate with 9000 kp (88,2 kN) of thrust. M-55 plane took of in 1988 for the first time. The engines ran reliably in extreme conditions with air temperature of -92°C. Some other variants which probably existed only on papers were to equip 5th generation fighters. They had to have increased thrust among other improvements.


Maximal thrust (H=0, M=0, t=15°C) 9500 kp (93,16 kN)
Full afterburner thrust (H=0, M=0) 15500 kp (152 kN)
Specific fuel consupmtion on maximal thrust 0,72
Specific fuel consumption with full afterburner 1,9
Maximal turbine inlet temperature 1387 °C
Air flow 150 kg.s-1
Pressure ratio on low pressure compressor 3
Pressure ratio on high pressure compressor 7,05
Overall pressure ratio 21,15
Bypass ratio 0,57
Inlet diameter 1020 mm
Length 7040 mm
Dry mass 2416 kg
Maximal operation speed M=2,83

One source mentions yet another thrust parameter “Frontal (max)” in value of 18980 kp (186,1 kN). I’m not sure what this means exactly.

Operators: Here

Engine source

Main material source

Images are public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image Sergey Boldenkov

Revised Jan 29, 2017

Updated Mar 20, 2021

Guards missile cruiser Moskva arrived to the shore zone of Latakia for air defence of the region – Video

Guards missile cruiser Moskva arrived to the shore zone of Latakia for air defence of the region

Published on Nov 26, 2015

ГРКР «Москва» прибыл к побережью Латакии для противовоздушной обороны района

Second ASW corvette handed over to Navy by Kolkata shipyard – India

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The Times of India

Jayanta Gupta,TNN | Nov 26, 2015, 09.45 PM IST

KOLKATA: The INS Kadmatt. second in a series of four Kamorta-class Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Corvettes being built by the Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE) Ltd was handed over to the Navy in Kolkata on Thursday. This advanced weapons platform will formally be inducted into the Navy’s Eastern Fleet in the next few days. The first ship of this class, the INS Kamorta, which was commissioned into the Navy on August 23, 2014, at Visakhapatnam, is already engaged in active service with the Eastern Fleet.

GRSE chairman cum managing director Rear Admiral (retd) A K Verma, who calls the INS Kadmatta a ‘super-sophisticated’ frontline warship, handed it over to commanding officer Cdr Mahesh C Moudgil in the presence of Rear Admiral Narayan Prasad, chief staff officer (technical), Eastern Naval Command and other senior officers of the Navy and GRSE.

“It is a known fact that warships of the People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) are foraging close to Indian territorial waters in the Bay of Bengal region. PLAN submarines are detected on a routine basis close to the Ten Degree Channel that separates Andamans from the Nicobar group of islands. On an average there are four contacts every three months. This is an attempt at muscle flexing and probing India’s defences. The Chinese know that we are watching but that is only half of the job done. With ships like the INS Kamorta and INS Kadmatt on the prowl, China would also know that we have the capability to destroy in case of any mischief. India is developing her own submarine fleet but they will play a more offensive than defensive role. A submarine is not meant to protect a country’s maritime interests,” a senior naval officer said.

The Andamans has a tri-services command but no naval fleet though this has been the demand from several senior officers and strategists. For the moment, ships like the INS Kamorta and INS Kadmatt can patrol the Andamans Sea from their base at Visakhapatnam.

GRSE is building four ASW Corvettes under the Navy’s Project P-28. The basic design for these ships was developed by the Navy’s Directorate of Naval Design and the details were filled in by the in-house design department of GRSE, The INS Kadmatt is 109 metres long with a displacement of 3,200 tonnes. The ship has a maximum speed of 25 Knots, with an endurance of over 3,400 nautical miles at a speed of 18 knots. She is designed to accommodate 17 officers and 106 sailors and is armed with torpedoes and rocket launchers apart from a main gun. She also has excellent stealth features, both above and below the sea surface.

“These ships have an extremely low radiated underwater noise signature making them difficult to be detected by sonar, whilst the ‘X’ form of the hull and superstructure gives the ship a low radar cross section. The successful construction of ASW corvettes with advanced stealth features bears testimony to GRSE’s growing capabilities in building state-of-the-art naval combatants, comparable with the best in the world. The ship has also been built with over 90% indigenous content and this is a major step towards achieving self-reliance in state of the art warship design and construction.” Rear Admiral (retd) Verma said.


Copyright © 2014 Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. All rights reserved.



Kamorta-class corvettes are the Indian Navy‘s next-generation anti submarine warfare platform, built under Project 28. They are being built at Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers (GRSE), Kolkata. All the four corvettes are planned to be handed over to the Indian Navy by the year 2017.



General characteristics (Project 28)
Type: ASW Corvette
Displacement: Standard: 2800 tonnes

Full load: 3400 tonnes

Length: 109.1 m (358 ft)
Beam: 13.7 m (45 ft)
Propulsion: ·4 × Pielstick 12 PA6 STC Diesel engines

·CODADDCNS raft mounted gearbox

Speed: 25 kn (46 km/h; 29 mph)
Range: 3,500 nmi (6,500 km; 4,000 mi) at 18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph)
Complement: 106 sailors and 15 Officers
Sensors and
processing systems:
·Revati Central Acquisition Radar

·EL/M-2221 STGR fire-control radar

·BEL Shikari

·BEL RAWL02 (Signaal LW08) antenna communication grid – Gigabit Ethernet-based integrated ship borne data network, with a fibre optic cable backbone running through the vessel

·HUMSA -NG Bow Mounted Sonar

·Bomber Electronic warfare (EW) suites – BEL Sanket Mk III

Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Armament: ·1 × 76.2 mm Oto SRGM

·2 × AK-630M CIWS

·2 × RBU-6000 (IRL) anti-submarine rocket launcher

·2 × 3 Torpedo tubes

Aircraft carried: Westland Sea King Mk.42B

Source: wiki

Terror Turks cry when Russia hits back

Asian Defence News

NOVEMBER 26, 2015

Terror Turks cry when Russia hits back

The Petrodollar Poof match is just getting started.
These are warm up rounds

Chess board thinking-
The Russians are now inviting and baiting a Turkish F-16 into the range of S-400 ;).


RuAf hits Bab Hawa border crossing(Turkey-Syria)

Bab Hawa is the place where the smuggling of Syrian oil and Palmyra artifacts takes place

Japan plans to deploy hundreds of troops near disputed islands


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Japan plans to deploy hundreds of troops near disputed islands

PUBLISHED : Thursday, 26 November, 2015, 5:22pm
UPDATED : Thursday, 26 November, 2015, 5:22pm

Japanese Defence Minister Gen Nakatani. Photo: AP

Japan’s deputy defence minister met with the mayor of a southern island on Thursday to seek his support for the planned deployment of hundreds of troops in the region including nearby disputed East China Sea islands.

Vice Minister of Defence Kenji Wakamiya met in Ishigaki with Mayor Yoshitaka Nakayama to explain a plan to deploy about 500 ground troops on the island beginning in 2019, ministry officials said. The troops would be for emergency response in case of infiltration on nearby islands or for missile defence.

Ishigaki has jurisdiction over the Japanese-controlled Senkaku islands, which China also claims and calls the Diaoyu islands.

Japan has stepped up its defence readiness, especially on islands in the country’s southwestern region, amid China’s military buildup and its frequent patrols near the disputed islands. China and North Korea’s missile and nuclear weapons ambitions top Japan’s security concerns.

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s hawkish government enacted new security laws in September despite widespread criticism that they violate Japan’s war-renouncing constitution.

Japan is already constructing a base on the nearby island of Yonaguni to deploy 150 coastal monitoring troops, and plans to deploy hundreds more each on Miyako and Amamioshima islands by 2018.

Japanese coast guard statistics show that Chinese government vessels have entered Japanese-claimed territorial waters surrounding the disputed islands between four and 28 times a month, and approached those waters nearly every day since Japan nationalised some of the disputed islands in September 2012.

Relations between the nations, which have the world’s second- and third-largest economies, are also strained over their the second world war history, development of undersea gas deposits in areas near the disputed islands, and other issues.

Japan and China are to hold maritime security talks in Xiamen next month to discuss some of the outstanding issues and ways to avoid security mishaps, according to Japanese media reports.

Copyright © 2015 South China Morning Post Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved.