Daily Archives: November 6, 2015

AT-6B Light Attack Aircraft / Trainer, United States of America

During the Farnborough Air Show in 2006, Hawker Beechcraft formally announced plans for the next spiral development of the successful T-6 platform into the AT-6B aircraft for the net-centric battlefield.

Through the addition of open architecture avionics, state-of-the-art sensors, datalinks, cockpit and aircraft protection components and various weapons capabilities to the proven training platform, the Beechcraft AT-6B provides multimission capability on a low-cost platform. HBC showcased the AT-6 at the Royal International Air Tattoo and Farnborough International Airshow in the UK in 2010.

The multirole, multimission system is designed for net-centric intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) and light precision attack missions.

The AT-6 design allows for advanced training with weapons delivery capabilities and the ability to conduct actual operational missions with the same platform.


Model 3000
Company designation
T-6A Texan II
Standard version for the USAF, USN, and Hellenic Air Force (25).
T-6A NTA Texan II
Armed version of the T-6A for the HAF (20). T-6A NTA has the capability to carry rocket pods, gun pods, external fuel tanks, and bombs.[30]
T-6B Texan II
Upgraded version of the T-6A with a digital glass cockpit that includes a Head-Up Display (HUD), six multi-function displays (MFD) and Hands on Throttle And Stick (HOTAS),[31] used at Naval Air Station Whiting FieldNaval Air Station Corpus Christi, and United States Naval Test Pilot School.
AT-6B Wolverine
Armed version of the T-6B for primary weapons training or light attack roles. It has the same digital cockpit, but upgraded to include datalink and integrated electro-optical sensors along with several weapons configurations.[30][32] Engine power is increased to 1,600 shp (1193 kW) with the Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6-68D engine, and the structure is reinforced.[33][34][35]
T-6C Texan II
Upgraded version of the T-6B with wing hard points, primarily designated for export sales.[36]
T-6D Texan II
Version based on T-6B and C for the US Army for operational support, testing, utility, and chase plane roles.[37]
CT-156 Harvard II
Version of the T-6A for NTFC with the Canadian Forces.[13] Nearly identical to standard USAF and USN in terms of avionics, cockpit layout, and performance.

Source wikipedia.org

AT-6B programme and development

The AT-6 prototype completed its first flight in September 2009, and entered the next phase of flight testing. The second AT-6 prototype, which is powered by a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-68D engine completed its maiden flight on 5 April 2010. Each engine can produce 1,600shp (1,193kW) of power.

HBC completed the operational assessment of AT-6 aircraft at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base in Tucson, Arizona, in October 2010. The AT-6 dropped 25lb BDU-33 and 500lb BDU-50 training rounds during the testing. Pilots from the US Air Force and the Air National Guards participated in the assessment and submitted written evaluations of the aircraft’s performance.

On 19 July 2010, HBC signed a contract with US-based CAE to supply ground-based training systems for the AT-6 aircraft. CAE will design and analyse the training system and synthetic training equipment. It will also develop courseware, class room, simulator instruction and embedded aircraft simulation solutions for the AT-6.

Embraer EMB 314/A-29 Super Tucano: Details


AT-6 trainer mission roles

As well as being an initial trainer, the multirole AT-6 will be capable of performing missions including: net-centric ISR with the ability for precise geo-registration, streaming video and datalinks, light attack including combat search and rescue (CSAR), close air support, forward air control and convoy escort, homeland defence (border security), port security, counter-narcotics operations and civil missions such as disaster area reconnaissance, search and rescue and firefighting.

Cockpit of the AT-6B light attack aircraft / trainer

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.06.12-23-39-03Shephard Media

The Beechcraft AT-6 is integrated with CMC Electronics’ glass Cockpit 4000 avionics suite and has the same cockpit design as that of the T-6B. The open, flexible and redundant architecture offers an integrated approach for cockpit and weapon system management.

The avionics suite includes primary flight, engine and navigation displays, flight management systems, global positioning systems, head-up displays, navigation and mission processors, multifunction displays and control panels.

There are tandem HOTAS (hands on throttle and stick) controls fore and aft for pilot and instructor.

CMC Electronics’ glass Cockpit 4000 avionics suite



The Cockpit 4000 is a fully integrated avionics suite that provides a glass cockpit, representa¬tive of today’s front line fighters, enabling air forces throughout the world to download their training onto less expensive Basic and Advanced trainer aircraft.

System capabilities include primary flight display, integrated communications/ naviga¬tion management, steerpoint navigation, tactical situation display, engine indication and caution advisory, stores management, no-drop bombing scoring system, and a virtual Multi Mode Radar and Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) training system.


System Benefits

  • Part 23 civil certification obtained for the T-6B configuration
  • Heads up operations
  • Hands on throttle and stick operations (HOTAS)
  • Centralized cockpit management reduces pilot workload, increases mission efficiency and flight safety
  • Master Moding control concept to improve pilot task performance
  • Master Moding enables the pilot to instantly reconfigure the avionics suite to a particular state of readiness
  • Three Master Modes: Navigation (NAV), Air-to-Air (A/A) and Air-to-Ground (A/G)
  • Simulated and live weapon delivery
  • Air-to-Ground delivery modes:
    • Continuously Computed Impact Point (CCIP)
    • Continuously Computed Release Point (CCRP)
    • Dive Toss (DTOS)
  • Air-to-Air
    • Continuously Computed Impact Line (CCIL) – “Snapshot” gun sight
    • Lead Computing Optical Sight (LCOS) gun sight
    • Aim-9L A/A missile

Source esterline.com

AT-6B avionics

The AT-6B fully integrated avionics system uses two powerful mission computers to control weapons deliveries and other mission related functions. Integrated navigation and mission data is displayed on the large, 25° total field of view (TFOV) head-up display (HUD) and on three high-fidelity 5in×7in multifunction displays (MFDs).


The up-front control panel (UFCP) provides central control of navigation, air-to-air and air-to-ground master modes from the front and rear cockpits. It also supports radio communication and navigation aid management, weapon selection and programming, waypoint management and designation of markpoints.

The primary flight display (PFD) provides the controls and displays required to manage and present primary flight information to the pilots including attitude, airspeed, altitude and flight path direction.

The tactical situation display (TSD) enhances situational awareness by presenting a scalable plan view of the key elements required for terminal, en route, area and tactical navigation.

The colour digital moving map display (MAP) presents the aircraft’s relationship to the outside physical environment. It also provides key flight, navigation and tactical display of information to give the crew a high degree of situational awareness flights.

An engine instrument and crew alerting system (EICAS) provides aircraft and engine system information including status of the engine, propeller, hydraulic, fuel, trim and flap.

The avionics suite also includes a data transfer system for navigation and operation planning and a digital video recorder for mission debrief.


AT–6’s central interface control unit, which manages the graphics, communications, and other functions of the weapons systems. – aopa.org


The AT-6 Wolverine cockpit is built for today’s warfighter, integrating a digital glass cockpit and head-up display, tactical navigation, sensor display, weapons management, and weapons delivery modes.

  • A-10C Lockheed Martin Combat Mission System
  • CMC Glass Cockpit, Flight Management System, and Multi-Function Displays
  • SparrowHawk HUD with integrated navigation and weapons delivery
  • F-16 Hands-On-Throttle-And-Stick (HOTAS)
  • Martin Baker ML16LA zero-altitude/zero-airspeed ejection seat; built to accommodate
  • WAAS/LPV GPS Precision Approach System
  • Night Vision Imaging System (NVIS) compatible cockpit and exterior lighting
  • GENTEX Scorpion Helmet-Mounted Cueing System
  • Removable mass media device (RMMD), which allows for synchronized flight planning and synchronized four-ship, 3D playback
  • Integrated moving map, sensor displays and targeting system
  • Robust data links for situational awareness data link (SADL) and link-16 variable messaging format (WMF)

Source defense.txtav.com


GPS Navigation Yes
Flight Management System Yes
Precision GPS Approach (WAAS LPV) Yes
Digital Terrain Elevation Data Yes
No Drop Air to Ground Scoring Yes
Simulated Air Target Yes
Full-Motion Video (FMV) Yes
Datalink Compatability: SADL, Link 16, Variable Yes
Variable Message Format (VMF) Yes
Digital CAS Proven: BAO, Strikelink, TACP, CASS Yes
Real-time off-board FMV Sharing: ROVER, OSVRT Yes
Mission planning/debrief with removable data drive Yes

Source defense.txtav.com

Head-up display (HUD)


The HUD is critical for both navigation and mission performance. It provides the pilot with all critical flight and weapons information, enabling effective and safe aircraft control while manoeuvring.

The HUD has a large 25° total field of view (TFOV) and high symbol brightness of more than 3,000ft lamberts, for operating in bright sunlight.

The HUD is fully night vision goggle (NVG) compatible. It displays critical flight information such as the flight path marker, pitch reference, climb dive marker and climb dive ladders. Basic flight data is displayed independent of master mode selection or de-clutter level.

SparrowHawk HUD

Weight 17.25 lb/7.8 kg.
Display Color Green P-53 phosphor.
Combiner Single or dual.
Dual Combiner 80% transmissivity.
Aperture 5″
Draw Rate 135,000°/sec maximum.
Image Distortion <1%
Accuracy 0.0 to 2.0 mr.
Contrast Ratio 1.3 to 1 against 10,000 ftL ambient.
Power Consumption 60 Watts.
Reliability 3,500 Hr. MTBF.
Environmental MIL-STD-810E per MIL-5400 Class 1.
EMI MIL-STD-461D/462D.

Source esterline.com

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.06.12-23-36-56Beechcraft YouTube

US16LA Ejection Seat

The JPATS (Joint Primary Aircraft Training System) is designed to train students in basic flying skills and is common to the U.S. Air Force and Navy. Designated the US16LA, this lightweight ejection seat is designed for training aircraft, such as the T-6 Texan II.

It optimises the pilot field of view, improves comfort and pilot efficiency, and provides increased reliability and maintainability. With the Mk16 lightweight low-speed seat, ejection performance is optimised throughout the escape envelope, from zero height at zero velocity in a near level attitude through to 370 knots. It is designed to accommodate a very wide size and weight range.

The T-6 Texan II is currently operated by 7 different countries. These include Canada, Greece, Iraq, Israel, Mexico, Morocco and USA. Since the first JPATS delivery in 1997, over 1,600 seats have been delivered worldwide. A total of 11 aircrew owe their lives to the US16LA JPATS Ejection Seat.

  • Operating Ceiling: 50 000ft (15,250m)
  • Minimum height/Speed: Zero/zero in near level attitude
  • Crew boarding mass range: 62.3 to 123.0 kg
  • Crew size range: JPATS multi-variate body size cases 1 to 7
  • Maximum Speed for ejection: 370 KIAS (aircraft limit 316 KIAS)
  • Parachute type: GQ Type 5000
  • Parachute deployment: Cartridge initiated
  • Drogue parachute: 5 ft
  • Drogue deployment: Cartridge initiated and deployed
  • Harness type: Torso
  • Ejection seat operation type: Ejection guns and underseat rocket motor
  • Ejection gun: Twin
  • Ejection initiation: Handle on seat bucket initiates gas operated seat firing system
  • Automatic back-up unit: No, manual override
  • Electronic sequencer: No
  • Barostatic time-release unit: Yes + g-restrictor, cartridge initiated
  • Timers: Time delays in sequencing system
  • Seat adjustment: Up/down actuator operated 28 Vdc
  • Arm restraints: No
  • Leg restraints: Yes, two garters
  • Oxygen supply: Bottled emergency oxygen
  • Personal survival pack (PSP): Yes + automatic deployment
  • Aircrew services: Connection to emergency oxygen supply
  • Command ejection: Yes, via Interseat Sequencing System (ISS)
  • Canopy jettison: No
  • Canopy fracturing system: Yes
  • Interseat Sequencing System (ISS): Yes

Source martin-baker.com

Thales Scorpion Helmet Mounted Cueing Systems (HMCS)

Thales to supply Scorpion® helmet display

Key points

  • This is the first helmet mounted display that features colour symbology and video imaging for both daytime and nighttime missions.
  • Thales will be responsible for the viability study, testing phase, integration with test aircraft, qualification support and integration in the fleet.

Thales will also be responsible for the development and production of the specific configuration for the Spanish Air Force EF-18. The system is already operational in multiple platforms in the United States

Image – thalesvisionix.comImage – thalesvisionix.com

Scorpion® is a ‘force multiplier’ system offering full colour symbology (navigation, intelligence, combat, etc.) for both nighttime and daytime missions, in addition to target cueing in potentially degraded visual environments, therefore easily allowing target designation and allocation of points of interest with the aircraft’s sensors. Scorpion® is fully interchangeable between helmets/pilots as it is installed directly over standard helmets, allowing the total amount of equipment necessary for the fleet to be reduced, thus favouring maintenance and reducing life-cycle costs.

Sensor Video Capability – thalesvisionix.com

Thales will be responsible for the viability study, testing phase, integration with test aircraft, qualification support and integration in the fleet. Thales will also be responsible for the development and production

of the specific Scorpion® configuration for the Spanish EF-18 including ejection safety analysis. The qualification phase includes inter-operability with the IRIS-T missile and the daytime/ nighttime-imaging pod for cueing lightening targets.

Source thalesgroup.com

AT-6B communication technology

In addition to UHF / VHF / UHF and SATCOM, communication systems can include, enhanced position location and reporting system (EPLARS), joint tactical information distribution system (JTIDS) and situation awareness data link (SADL).

Weapon systems

The AT-6B is equipped with a sensor suite that can include a variety of electro-optical, infra-red, laser and hyper-spectral sensors, for example the Wescam MX-15Di. The Boeing joint helmet-mounted cueing system, in service with the USAF and the US Navy, can be fitted for targeting.

Wescam MX-15Di


Beechcraft YouTube


  • Superior imaging resolution from EO and IR cameras
  • 2 mega-pixel EO zoom and spotter cameras
  • True HD Digital Imaging (No image degradation due to compression)


  • Multi-spectral imaging blends matched images from multiple sensors – uncovering greater detail in each frame
  • Reduces operator burden and improves surveillance efficiency


  • Real-time image enhancement for EO Day, EO Night & IR enhances contrast
  • Increases stand-off range
  • Improves feature detection & recognition
  • High performance haze penetration
  • Provides up to 4x electronic zoom


  • All sensors share highest level of stabilization
  • No calibration required for LRU swapout
  • Auto align to aircraft


  • Meets the needs of new & legacy platforms through multiple Digital & Analog output formats
  • Simultaneous digital & analog outputs


  • Installed weight reduced by up to 50lbs/22kg
  • Eliminates 1 LRU
  • Reduced install and support costs


  • 24/7 EO Imaging
  • Long-range subject ID (ship names, vehicles, faces) in very low-light conditions
  • 2-3x superior resolution over IR & I2 technology
  • Available Spotter or Zoom Lens
  • Spotter focal length increased 50% for improved range performance
  • Improved visibility through haze, fog & other environmental obstacles


  • Long Range Target Illumination, Laser Pointing and Range-Finding


  • Achieves highest target location accuracy
  • AVGT marries Video and GEO-Tracking to provide robust target tracking


Source iomax.net

There are six wing-mounted hardpoints for stores. With its MIL-STD 1760 smart weapons interface, the AT-6 can be armed with a variety of weapons including 0.50 calibre machine gun pods, air-to-ground missiles like Hellfire and Maverick, AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles, munitions including Paveway II / enhanced Paveway II / Paveway IV guided bombs, joint direct attack munition (JDAM), small diameter bombs (SDB) and 2.75in rocket pods.

AT-6 Weapons Capabilities


Textron Aviation Defense

  • HMP-400 .50-Caliber Guns
  • Practice Bombs
  • Mk-81 (250 lb.) General-Purpose Bomb
  • Mk-82 (500 lb.) General-Purpose Bomb
  • GBU-12 (500 lb.) Paveway II Laser-Guided Bomb
  • GBU-38 Inertially-Aided Munition
  • GBU-58 (250 lb.) Paveway II Laser-Guided Bomb
  • GBU-49 (500 lb.) Enhanced Paveway II GPS/Laser-Guided Bomb
  • GBU-59 (250 lb.) Enhanced Paveway II GPS/Laser-Guided Bomb
  • APKWS 2.75″ Laser-Guided Rockets
  • TALON 2.75″ Laser-Guided Rockets
  • GATR 2.75″ Laser-Guided Rockets
  • AGM-114 Hellfire Laser-Guided Missiles
  • LUU-2 Illumination Flares
  • MJU-7/10 Flares

FN® HMP400 Pod


FN has developed a broad spectrum of machine gun pods designed for rotary-wing and subsonic fixed-wing combat aircraft capable of carrying the FN® M3P .50-caliber machine gun and multiple 2.75″ air-to-ground rockets with the FN® RMP variant. FN Pod Systems provide war fighters with a significant firepower advantage in every operational engagement and are in use by a number of NATO nations on both subsonic fixed and rotary-wing combat aircraft.


  • CALIBER: .50
  • MAG CAPACITY: Customer Specified
  • WEIGHT (EMPTY): 197 lb.
  • WEIGHT (LOADED): 305 lb.
  • HEIGHT: 17.1″
  • LENGTH: 76.4″
  • RATE OF FIRE: 950 – 1,100 RPM




  • CALIBER: .50
  • WEIGHT: 80.5 lb.
  • MAXIMUM RANGE: 6,500m
  • OVERALL LENGTH: 66.1” (with short standard flash hider); 70.9” (with long standard flash hider)
  • TWIST RATE: 1:15” RH



Reversible and allows feeding from the left or right side.

Design guarantees smooth movement of the ammunition belt with no risk of jamming or fouling because of aircraft maneuvers or acceleration.

FN pod featuring a 400-round ammo box and links and cases collector

Source fnamerica.com

screenshotAtUploadCC_1521429620167FN® HMP400 Pod and Enhanced Paveway II – beechcraft.com

Paveway II Laser-Guided Bomb

Related image

Enhanced Paveway II GPS/Laser-Guided Bomb

Dual Mode Plus laser-guided bomb: Details

APKWS 2.75″ Laser-Guided Rockets


The Advanced precision kill weapon system (APKWS) guidance kit transforms an unguided 2.75-inch (70 millimeter) rocket into a precision-guided rocket, giving warfighters a low-cost surgical strike capability.


The APKWS rocket redefines precision by hitting the target with pinpont accuracy and minimal collateral damage – critical for air-to-ground missions when you only have one shot. The rocket is proven in combat for five years running, and is the U.S. Government’s only program of record for 2.75-inch laser-guided rockets.

The APKWS rocket bridges the gap between unguided rockets and anti-armor munitions, consistently delivering pinpoint accuracy to soft targets at a low cost, that no other system can match.

Source baesystems.com

TALON 2.75″ Laser-Guided Rockets


The TALON® laser-guided rocket is a low-cost, digital semi-active laser guidance and control kit that’s mounted directly to the front of legacy 2.75-inch Hydra-70 unguided rockets.

The weapon integrates Raytheon’s extensive experience in digital semi-active laser technology and proven history in precision air-to-air and air-to-ground munitions development and production. Its architecture and ease of employment make the TALON rocket a low-cost, high-precision weapon for missions in urban environments, counterinsurgency and swarming boat defense.



  • The TALON laser-guided rocket was co-developed with the United Arab Emirates.
  • It’s fully compatible with existing airborne and ground laser designators.
  • Requiring no hardware or software modifications to the launcher or aircraft platform, the system can be deployed from any aircraft that fires 2.75-inch Hydra-70 unguided rockets using the standard M260/261 launchers.

Source raytheon.com

GATR 2.75″ Laser-Guided Rockets


• Semi-active laser guided rocket
• Air-to-ground or ground-to-ground applications
• 1 meter accuracy
• Day or night operations
• Advanced Insensitive Munitions (IM) Technologies
• Improved stand-off range
• Compatible with existing 70mm launchers
• Low-cost alternative to destroy soft, lightly armored and
MOUT targets.
• Increased off-axis capability

Guided Advanced Tactical Rocket GATR’s low-cost solution bridges the gap between unguided rockets and more expensive guided missile systems. With its robust, off-axis capability, GATR
provides precision-strike with a larger engagement window than current unguided 2.75” rockets.

Range: < 1km to > 8/15km (rotary wing/fixed wing envelope)
Guidance: SAL
Warhead: Multiple
Weight: 33lbs (14.9kg)
Length: Approximately 72 in (1.8m)

Source orbitalatk.com

AGM-114 Hellfire Laser-Guided Missiles


The Hellfire is a very capable anti-tank missile that will destroy any armored target. Penetration is believed to be around 1.000 mm RHA for the AGM-114K with tandem shaped HEAT warhead. A variety of warheads for use against soft targets have been developed as well. The 7 to 9 km range provides a standoff range against most anti-aircraft guns and MANPADS. Accuracy has proven to be very good.

AGM-114A Basic Hellfire: Original Hellfire with HEAT warhead, semi-active laser homing and rocket motor that produced a smoke trail.

TYPE Anti-tank missile
DIAMETER 0.178 m body, 0.33 m wingspan
LENGTH 1.63 m
WEIGHT 45.7 kg
GUIDANCE Semi-active laser guidance
WARHEAD 8 kg HEAT warhead, impact fuze
PROPULSION Single-stage solid propellant rocket motor
RANGE 1.5 km minimum, 8 km maximum

Source weaponsystems.net

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.06.12-23-38-25Shephard Media

In September 2011, Raytheon unveiled its plans to incorporate Griffin missiles on the AT-6 to provide the warfighter with persistent surveillance and low collateral damage during counterinsurgency and irregular warfare missions.

Griffin is an air and ground launched precision guided missile which enables the AT-6 to lock targets through a simple graphic user interface.

Griffin Missile System

The Griffin® missile is a multi-platform, multi-service weapon that has a proven track record for successful rapid integration on land, sea and air platforms.

It is available in two variants: Griffin A, which is an aft-eject missile and Griffin B, which is a forward-firing missile. Raytheon continues to evaluate additional upgrades to Griffin that enables the warfighter.

The Griffin missile provides the user with flexible employment options through a simple, easy-to-operate, graphical user interface. The user can select from multiple flight profile and fuzing modes. It also provides lethal effects and employs GPS-aided inertial guidance and a semi-active laser seeker for pinpoint accuracy.


Griffin variants include:


  • An aft-eject missile from a common launch tube
  • Deployed from platforms like the C-130 aircraft
  • Measures 43 inches long, weighs 34 pounds and has a low collateral damage 13-pound warhead
  • Production began in 2008


  • A forward-firing missile that uses a composite launch tube
  • Launches from rotary- and fixed-wing aircraft, ground-launch applications and maritime platforms
  • Operational on the U.S. Navy’s Cyclone-class Patrol Coastal ships
  • Measures 43 inches long, weighs 34 pounds and has a low collateral damage 13-pound warhead
  • Production began in 2010

Source raytheon.com

Self-protection systems and armour

The AT-6 is fitted with cockpit and engine armour for increased aircraft protection.

An infra-red countermeasures suite can include the AN/AAR-47 missile approach warning system and ALE-47 countermeasures dispenser system.

AN/AAR-47 missile approach warning system

images (1)

The AN/AAR-47 is an electronic warfare system designed to protect aircraft against IR guided missile threats, laser-guided / laser-aided threats and unguided munitions. Upon detection of the threat, the system will provide an audio and visual sector warning to the pilot. For IR missile threats, the system automatically initiates countermeasures by sending a command signal to the Countermeasures Dispensing Set.

Multi-Threat Detection: Missile, Laser, and Hostile Fire

Orbital ATK’s AN/AAR-47 System Offers:

• Multi-threat warning in one fully integrated system

• Low False Alarm Rate

• High Probability of Timely Warning

• Sensor pre-processing for improved performance in high clutter environments

• In service on a wide variety of fixed and rotary wing aircraft

• Proven performance & reliability in prolonged and demanding combat environments

• 15-Year Service Life

Interfaces with the following equipment:

• Radar Signal Detecting Set – AN/APR-39

• Countermeasures Dispensing Set – AN/ALE-39, AN/ALE-40, or AN/ALE-47

• Multi-Function Display cockpits

• Pilots Intercom System

Small and lightweight:

• Computer Processor (CP) is approx. 8x8x10 inches and weighs approx.16.25 lbs.

• Control Indicator (CI) is approx. 2x5x6 inches and weighs approx. 2 lbs.

• Optical Sensor Converters (OSC) are approx. 5×8 inches and weighs approx. 3.5 lbs

Source orbitalatk.com

A Hawker Beechcraft AT-6C, modified for various light attack missions, releases flares during an operational test over the Southern Arizona desert Oct. 5. It was the first time flare buckets, or aircraft survivability equipment, were mounted onto the airplane and fully integrated with the control system on board. A team of pilots and engineers certified that the airplane could separate the flares correctly while learning if the modification would have adverse effects on the airplane’s handling. The Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve Command Test Center based in Tucson, Ariz., is working with various defense contractors and pilots from across the Air Force this month to evaluate the aircraft’s suitability for an array of missions. (Air Force photo by Master Sgt. Dave Neve) 

ALE-47 countermeasures dispenser system


In response to automated warnings of radar, infrared, laser and other threats against aircraft, the AN/ALE-47 Countermeasures Dispenser System (CMDS) both assists the crew in staying aware of the threats, and managing the deployment of electronic warfare devices that operate externally to the vehicle. “Electronic”, in this context, covers enemy sensors across the electromagnetic spectrum. Electronic defense includes, as well as receivers and computers that detect and analyze threats, both countermeasures that are part of the aircraft, but also expendables that are released from it.In other words, it both acts as an electronics countermeasures suite controller and as an electronic warfare expendables dispenser. It replaces the AN/ALE-39. Alternatively, it can be controlled by other control systems, such as the AN/ALQ-213.

These expendables include radar-reflecting chaff, infrared countermeasures to confuse heat-seeking missile guidance, and disposable radar transmitters. In addition to active and passive countermeasures, expendables now include sensors for both electronic support, electronic warfare, and other intelligence functions such as chemical weapon detection using materials MASINT. In addition to the truly expendable items usually released as cartridges, a modern dispenser system will control towed decoys that lure radar- and infrared-guided missiles that avoid the other countermeasures. Source citizendium.org

Engine and performance of Hawker Beechcraft’s aircraft


Textron Aviation Defense

The aircraft uses a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-68 turboprop engine which provides a flat rated 1,100hp (820kW).

Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-68 turboprop engine


The PT6A engine family continues to advance, incorporating the latest technologies in the drive to exceed our customers’ expectations in performance, reliability, durability, fuel consumption and environmental friendliness. More than 70 PT6A models have been produced, ranging in shaft horsepower power from 500 shp to 2,000 shp. New aerodynamic and material technologies have enabled the PT6 engine to gain more power without significantly increasing in size. Other innovations have reduced emissions, increased maintenance intervals and further enhanced ease of operation with the introduction of digital electronic control to small gas turbine engines.

The novel PT6A configuration has proven a key attribute to its success: its rearward, reverse flow inlet and forward facing turbine section providing fast maintenance turn-around through on-wing hot section refurbishment in most aircraft installations. The PT6A is a two-shaft engine with a multi-stage compressor driven by a single-stage compressor turbine and an independent shaft coupling the power turbine to the propeller through an epicyclic concentric reduction gearbox.

The PT6A family of engines embodies three series of models with increasing power levels, referred to as PT6A ‘Small’, ‘Medium’ and ‘Large.’ The increased power levels are achieved through the increase of compressor air flow and increased number of power turbine stages. Most recent models enjoy the advantage of additional advanced technologies in materials, turbine cooling and aerodynamic design.

Multi- stage axial and single-stage centrifugal compressor

  • Reverse flow, radial inlet with screen for FOD (Foreign Object Damage) protection
  • Large high power PT6A models incorporate 4-stage axial and 1-stage centrifugal
  • Small and Medium PT6A models incorporate 3-stage axial and 1-stage centrifugal

Reverse flow combustor

  • Low emissions, high stability, easy starting, durable

Single-stage compressor turbine

  • Cooled vanes in some models to maintain high durability

Independent ‘free’ power turbine with shrouded blades

  • Large and Medium PT6A models incorporate 2-stage axial power turbine
  • Small PT6A models incorporate 1-stage axial power turbine
  • Forward facing output for fast hot section refurbishment

Epicyclic speed reduction gearbox

  • Enables compact installation
  • Output speed optimized for highest power and low propeller noise
  • 1,700 to 2,200 rpm output speed

Electronic engine controls on multiple PT6A models

  • Other models incorporate various control modules and over-ride features to promote ease of operation and safety of flight
PT6A ‘Small’
(A-11 to A-140)
600 to
500 to
1,900 to
21 to
21.5 61.5 to
PT6A ‘Medium’
(A-41 to A-62)
1,000 to
850 to
1,700 to
22 19.5 66 to
PT6A ‘Large’
(A-64 to A-68)
1,400 to
700 to
1,700 to
22 19.5 69 to

* Powers are approximate values at take-off. Available at sea level, standard day, static conditions, uninstalled.
** Dimensions are approximate values.
*** Equivalent Shaft Horsepower: includes estimated equivalent contribution of exhaust thrust.

Source pwc.ca

“In December 2008, the government of Iraq requested the sale of 36 AT-6B aircraft.”

The range of the aircraft is more than 1,667km.

The AT-6 can fly at a maximum speed of 585km/h. Its cruise and stall speeds are 500km/h and 185km/h respectively. The range of the aircraft varies between 1,575km and 2,779km. Its service ceiling is 7,620m (with stores) and 9,448m (clean). Its maximum take-off weight 2,948kg.

An already well-established logistics infrastructure currently supports more than 450 aircraft at six US and two international locations, with planned support continuing through to 2050.


AT-6 operators: Here


LENGTH 33 ft 4 in 10.16 m
HEIGHT 10 ft 8 in 3.25 m
WINGSPAN 34 ft 2 in 10.4 m
WING AREA 179 ft² 16.60 m²
ENGINE 1,600 shp 1,177 kW
TYPE Turboprop Turboprop
MAXIMUM LANDING WEIGHT 10,000 lb 4,536 kg
BASIC WEIGHT 5,890 lb 2,671 kg
TOTAL INTERNAL FUEL 1,200 lb 544 kg
TOTAL MAX. USABLE FUEL W/4 TANKS 2,908 lb 1,319 kg
WING LOADING (LB / FT²) EMPTY 33.0 lb / ft² 33.0 lb / ft²
WING LOADING (LB / FT²) MGTOW 56.0 lb / ft² 56.0 lb / ft²
POWER LOADING (LB / FT²) EMPTY 3.7 lb / shp 3.7 lb / shp
POWER LOADING (LB / FT²) MGTOW 6.3 lb / shp 6.3 lb / shp
MAX. LOAD 4,110 lb 1,864 kg
MAX. LANDING LOAD 4,110 lb 1,864 kg
Source beechcraft.com
Main photo US Air Force

Main material source airforce-technology.com / defense.txtav.com

Revised Jun 30, 2018

RTA Signed for Skyguard 3 Air Defense Systems

Royal Thai Army ordered Skyguard 3 to replace its old generation of the short-range air defense system at the Defense & Security 2015

Rheinmetall Defence did not give more information on how many systems the RTA procured or when it will be delivered.

Skyguard 3 is anti-aircraft fire control radar with a Skyguard system can select either a gun instead of a Oerlikon Twin Gun GDF007 or Oerlikon Revolver Gun Mk2 and can also choose a V SHORAD missile launcher.

Source TAF


Skyguard 3 Air Defense Systems


Oerlikon Twin Gun GDF007

GDF-007_Oerlikon_35mm_twin_cannon_Rheinmetall_at_AAD_2012_Africa_Aerospace_and_Defence_001Oerlikon Twin Gun GDF007

Oerlikon Revolver Gun Mk2

2013-09-28_JPW_Rheinmetall Medium Calibre Day (Mk2)Oerlikon Revolver Gun Mk2

The Skyguard air defense system can also used the Raytheon AIM-7E/AIM-7F/AIM-7M Sparrow missile. The four-round launcher is mounted on the carriage of the Oerlikon Contraves twin 35-mm GDF towed anti-aircraft gun system and the missiles are fired through the covers. Two rounds are mounted each side of the operator’s position with the illuminator antenna mounted forward and below his position.

Another missile used with the Skyguard air defense system is the Aspide. This is similar to the Skyguard/Sparrow but uses the four-round Alenia Marconi Systems Aspide launcher used in the Spada air defence system in service with Italy and Thailand. Cyprus has also bought the Skyguard/Aspide system with 12 systems in service.

Spada air defence system missile of the Thai army

5_air_defenceSpada air defence system missile of the Thai army
General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 13716 m
Range Max: 25.9 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 1970s
Properties: Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Continuous Wave Illumination
Sensors / EW:
Spada Aspide Illuminator – Radar
Role: Radar Illuminator, Short-Range
Max Range: 25.9 km

Source cmano-db.com

Generic Gun Director

General data:
Type: Visual Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Visual, 1st Generation TV Camera (1960s/1970s, TISEO)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Sensors / EW:
Generic Gun Director [TV Camera] – (1st Gen, Anti-Air & Surface) Visual
Role: Visual, Weapon Director TV Camera
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

aspide-6.001_2-900x500ASPIDE 2000

• High thrust single stage solid rocket motor
• Semi-active radar homing
Warhead & fuze
• High lethality fragmentation warhead
• Proximity fuze, independent from homing seeker, also effective at very low altitude
ECCM capability
• Compliant with predicted ECM threat

• ASPIDE 2000
Missile characteristics
• Length: 3.7 m
• Diameter: 234 mm
• Speed: High supersonic • Intercept range: in excess of 25 km

Source mbda-systems.com

A shelter based version of ADATS missile is also used with the Skyguard fire control system. which is in service with the Thai army. The ADATS missile can engage all types of low-level threats, including attack helicopters exposed at stand-off ranges at extremely low altitudes. The system has a 10km range against air or ground targets.

Shelter based version of ADATS missile of the Thai army


ADATS is a low-level short range air defence (SHORAD) system, capable of engaging both air and surface targets. It was manufactured by Oerlikon Contraves based in Zurich, Switzerland, now part of Rheinmetall Defence, and Oerlikon Aerospace in Quebec, which is now Rheinmetall Canada.

ADATS is in service as part of the Canadian Forces Low-Level Air Defence System (CF LLADS). The first system was delivered in 1988. 36 systems were delivered, ending in 1994. The Royal Thai Air Force has one shelter-based system, linked to a Skyguard fire control system.

The ADATS Missile System can be mounted on a variety of mobile platforms, such as the M113 and M3 Bradley.

For the Canadian CFLLADS, it is mounted on the M113 armoured vehicle. It is also available in a shelter-based version for fixed and in a palletised version, which can be integrated with the Oerlikon Contraves Skyshield Air Defence System.

Source resecret.wordpress.com

ADATS Missile

ADATS-MissileShelter based version of ADATS missile of the Thai army

Source wikiwand.com