The B-1B Lancer was developed by Rockwell International, now Boeing Defense And Space Group, and is the US Air Force long-range strategic bomber. The B-1B has the largest internal payload of any current bomber. The B-1B became operational in 1986. In July 2001, the US Department of Defense announced plans to cut its B-1B inventory from 92 to 67 as a cost-saving measure. The first aircraft was withdrawn from service in August 2002. Following Operation Iraqi Freedom, it was decided that there should be 67 aircraft in the fleet.
The remaining fleet operates from Dyess AFB, Texas (38 aircraft) and Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota (29 aircraft). The B-1B is expected to in be service until 2025. In May 2010, Boeing B-1 bomber has completed its 25th Anniversary of operations at Dyess US Air Force Base.
The low radar cross section, variable-geometry wings, modern avionics, and afterburning engines enable the B-1 to carry the largest payload strike and offers long range, maneuverability, high speed and survivability.
In March 2008, the B-1B became the first aircraft to fly at supersonic speed using synthetic fuel. The fuel was a 50/50 blend of conventional JP-8 petroleum and a synthetic fuel derived from natural gas using the Fischer-Tropsch process. The flight was part of an ongoing USAF programme to certify the alternative fuel for all USAF aircraft.
B-1B Lancer upgrade programme
In February 2009 Boeing received a $45m contract from the US Air Force to upgrade avionics software on the B-1 heavy bomber. The contract ensures that B-1 crews are well equipped to meet its ever-expanding role.
Boeing has recently upgraded the B-1 aircraft with a fully integrated data link (FIDL) and the upgraded aircraft took its maiden flight in July 2009. The upgrades included cockpit modifications, new processors, colour displays and communications architecture, enhancing B-1 crews’ situational awareness and communications capability and Ethernet network.
The FIDL system reduces the workload of the crew by automatically retasking the weapons system. Boeing Integrated Defense Sytems is expecting a contract in November 2010 from the USAF to installing FIDL systems in its B-1 fleet.
B1 Electronic System Bay
A Sustainment Block Program (SBP) was unveiled in 2003. The program includes upgrading the nation’s 67 B-1B long-range heavy bombers fleet with advanced software avionics every year.
In December 2007, a $45m contract was awarded to Boeing, by the USAF, for improving the B-1B bomber’s avionics software as part of the SBP. The contract enabled work to start on the Sustainment Block SB14. SB 14 underwent flight test at Edwards Air Force Base, California and was delivered in 2011.
A $28m contract of Phase 1, which included hardware and software development, was completed in April 2009.
B-1 bomber Sustainment Block SB 16 upgrades
The USAF has also awarded an $84m contract to Boeing in October 2009, under the SBP, for upgrading the Sustainment Block SB 16 of B-1 bomber fleet with state of the art avionics software.
The upgrades encompass changes to navigation, weapon delivery, radar, electrical multiplexing, communication/navigation management system software, controls and displays. The design and development of the SB 16 is yet to begin.
The USAF awarded a $23m contract to Boeing in November 2009 to upgrade the B-1 Laptop Controlled Targeting Pod software of Phase 2 development. The upgrade will allow the targeting system of B-1 to identify both stationary and moving targets.
Integration of the sniper pod with the aircraft’s software which will deliver single-moving-target kill capability using the Guided Bomb Unit-54 (GBU-54) Laser Joint Direct Attack Munition (Laser JDAM) will be completed as part of Phase 2.
A Boeing B-1 bomber aircraft successfully completed the Phase I of flight tests in December 2009 following an upgrade with fully integrated data link (FIDL). The upgrade replaced 25-year-old avionics processing, displays and keyboards.
Flight testing of the B-1 Lancer started in June 2010 following an upgrade using new digital avionics for the aft cockpit and a line-of-sight Link 16 data link. The Link 16 data link was tested by sending and receiving text messages, and receiving virtual mission assignment data such as target coordinates for a weapon. Three flight tests were executed in June 2010 under B-1 programme and additional flight tests ran until January 2011.
The aircraft is operated by four crew: pilot, co-pilot, defensive systems operator (DSO) and offensive systems operator (OSO).
The DSO station is equipped with the interface for AIL Systems, Inc’s ALQ-161 defensive avionics system and a Honeywell multifunction display linked to the aircraft’s offensive avionics system (OAS). The OSO station is equipped with two Honeywell multifunction displays linked to the OAS.
Rockwell Collins received a contract in February 2004 to upgrade the displays to 5in×7in colour multifunction displays using active matrix liquid crystal (AMLCD) technology.
B-1B missile and bomb payloads
The B-1B is no longer armed with nuclear weapons but is capable of carrying the AGM-86B air launch cruise missile (ALCM) and the AGM-69 short-range attack missile. (Boeing AGM-131 SRAM II replaced the AGM-69)
AGM-86B-C Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM)
AGM-86B-C air launch cruise missile (ALCM)
|First flight||August 1979|
|Air Force designation||AGM-86B/C|
|Length||20 feet 10 inches|
|Gross weight||3,200 pounds|
|Range||More than 1,500 miles|
|Power||600-pound-thrust F-107-WR-101 turbofan engine|
|Armament||Nuclear (AGM-86B) or conventional (AGM-86C) warhead|
Boeing AGM-131 SRAM II
The SRAM II (Short-Range Attack Missile) was intended as a replacement for the AGM-69 SRAM, but it was not produced in quantity.
In 1977, the USAF planned to develop an upgrade of the SRAM for the forthcoming B-1A bomber as AGM-69B SRAM B. When the B-1A was cancelled in 1978, the AGM-69B was dropped, too. After the resurrection of the B-1 program (as B-1B) in 1981, it was decided to develop an entirely new weapon, the SRAM II. In 1986, Boeing was finally awarded a development contract for the AGM-131A SRAM II. The AGM-131A was planned to have only about 2/3 the size of an AGM-69A, so that 36 missiles could be carried by the B-1B, as compared to 24 AGM-69As. One new feature of SRAM II was a lighter, simpler, and more reliable rocket motor by Thiokol for increased range. The SRAM II also used a new W-89 thermonuclear warhead, which was much safer to operate than the W-69 of the AGM-69. Initial Operational Capability for the AGM-131A was planned for 1993, but after flight tests in the late 1980s, the program was cancelled in 1991. Stated reasons include technical (difficulties with the rocket motor) and political (nuclear arms reduction) ones.
The AGM-131B SRAM-T (SRAM-Tactical) was a version intended for use by the F-15E Eagle tactical strike aircraft. The SRAM-T reached the flight-test stage, but was eventually cancelled, too.
Note: Data given by several sources show slight variations. Figures given below may therefore be inaccurate!
Data for AGM-131A (except where noted):
|Length||3.18 m (10 ft 5 in)|
|Diameter||39 cm (15.3 in)|
|Weight||900 kg (2000 lb)|
|Range||400 km (250 miles)|
|Propulsion||Thiokol solid-fueled rocket|
|Warhead||W-89 thermonuclear (200 kT)
AGM-131B: W-91 thermonuclear (10 kT, 100 kT)
The aircraft has three internal weapon bays and six external hardpoints under the fuselage. The maximum internal weapons payload is 75,000lb and maximum external weapons payload is 59,000lbs.
GBU-54 Laser Joint Direct Attack Munitions
The B-1B weapons payload is: 24 GBU-31 joint direct attack munition (JDAM) at one time or a combination of 24 mk84 2,000lb general purpose bombs, eight mk65 naval mines, 84 mk82 500lb general purpose bombs, 84 mk62 500lb naval mines, 30 CBU-87, -89, -97 cluster munitions, 30 CBU-103, -104, -105 wind-corrected munitions dispensor (WCMD), 24 AGM-158 joint air to surface stand-off missiles (JASSM) or 12 AGM-154 joint stand-off weapons (JSOW).
24 mk84 2,000lb general purpose bombs
84 mk82 500lb general purpose bombs
mk82 500lb general purpose bombs
30 CBU-87, -89, -97 cluster munitions
CBU-87, -89, -97 cluster munitions
30 CBU-103, -104, -105 wind-corrected munitions dispensor
CBU-103, -104, -105 wind-corrected munitions dispensor (WCMD)
The Boeing JDAM uses global positioning system / inertial navigation guidance for delivery of the 1,000lb mk83, 1,000lb BLU-110, 2,000lb mk84 and 2,000lb BLU-109. It has a range up to 15 miles and strike precision within 13m.
Boeing JDAM 1,000lb mk83, 1,000lb BLU-110, 2,000lb mk84 and 2,000lb BLU-109
The Lockheed Martin JASSM is a long-range precision standoff cruise missile with digital jam-resistant global positioning system (GPS) / inertial navigation guidance and infrared seeker.
JASSM weighs 1,020kg (2,250lb) and has a range over 370km (200nm) and a dual-mode penetrator and blast fragmentation warhead.
JASSM-ER has a range of 926km (500nm). The B-1B successfully launched the first JASSM-ER missile in June 2006.
JASSM / JASSM ER (AGM-158A/B)
The JASSM (Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile) is a conventional, stealthy, air-launched ground attack cruise missile designed for the U.S. Air Force and international partners. An extended range version, AGM-158B JASSM-ER, was developed alongside the standard variant, and went into service in 2014.
JASSM At A Glance
Originated From: United States
Possessed By: United States, Australia, Finland, Poland
Class: Cruise Missile
Length: 4.27 m
Wingspan: 2.4 m
Launch Weight: 1,021 kg
Warhead: 450 kg WDU-42/B penetrator
Propulsion: Turbojet (AGM-158A), Turbofan (AGM-158B)
Range: 370 km (AGM-158A), 1,000 km (AGM-158B)
In Service: 2009-Present
JASSM utilizes a low-observable airframe designed to defeat various targets, to include enemy air defenses. The missile’s low-profile airframe is particularly important given the proliferation of sophisticated air defenses such as the S-300 (and newer variants). The JASSM-ER will eventually incorporate a weapons data link (WDL) into the missile allowing for course corrections after launch.2This is a critical upgrade for road-mobile and maritime targets.
The missile is fitted to the B-1B Lancer, B-2 Spirit, B-52H Stratofortress, F-15E Strike Eagle, F-16C/D, F/A-18C/D, and possibly the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. The B-1B is considered the starting point platform, and can carry 24 missiles, and is currently the only one equipped with JASSM-ER. The B-2 can carry up to 16 missiles and the B-52H can carry 12 internally on rotary launchers. Fighter aircraft can carry one or two missiles under each wing. The F-35, if certified to carry the JASSM, would have to carry the weapon externally, because the missile would not fit in the main internal weapon bays the aircraft boasts.
The standard variant has a range of 370 km, whereas the JASSM-ER has a range of approximately 1,000 km. Their airframes are identical, so the weapons cannot be distinguished merely by appearance. The primary differences lie in a larger internal fuel tank, and a more efficient turbofan engine. The airframe itself can be described as angular, similar to the Taurus KEPD 350, although more rounded and fluid. When the missile is carried by aircraft, the fins and wings are folded, and then unfolded by small explosive charges after released.
The Raytheon JSOW AGM-154A carries BLU-97 combined effects bomblets and is in full-rate production. The blast / fragmentation unitary variant AGM-154A-1 which incorporates the 500lb BLU-111 (mk82) is under development.
The AGM-154B carries BLU-108 sensor fused weapon (SFW) submunitions and has completed engineering and manufacturing development (E&MD).
AGM-154C (JSOW-C) entered full-rate production in February 2005. It incorporates an uncooled imaging infrared (IIR) terminal seeker and tracker and has a BROACH dual-stage blast / fragmentation and/or penetrator warhead, developed by BAE Systems. JSOW has an unpowered range of 22km (12nm) low-altitude launch, 130km (70nm) high-altitude launch and a powered range of up to 325km (175nm).
Stealthy AGM-154C JSOW glide bombs
The AGM-154A (Formerly Advanced Interdiction Weapon System) is intended to provide a low cost, highly lethal glide weapon with a standoff capability. JSOW family of kinematically efficient, air-to-surface glide weapons, in the 1,000-lb class, provides standoff capabilities from 15 nautical miles (low altitude launch) to 40 nautical miles (high altitude launch). The JSOW will be used against a variety of land and sea targets and will operate from ranges outside enemy point defenses. The JSOW is a launch and leave weapon that employs a tightly coupled Global Positioning System (GPS)/Inertial Navigation System (INS), and is capable of day/night and adverse weather operations.
The JSOW uses inertial and global positioning system for midcourse navigation and imaging infra-red and datalink for terminal homing. The JSOW is just over 13 feet in length and weighs between 1000-1500 pounds. Extra flexibility has been engineered into the AGM-154A by its modular design, which allows several different submunitions, unitary warheads, or non-lethal payloads to be carried. The JSOW will be delivered in three variants, each of which uses a common air vehicle, or truck, while substituting various payloads.
AGM-154A (Baseline JSOW) The warhead of the AGM-154A consists of 145 BLU-97/B submunitions. Each bomblet is designed for multi-target in one payload. The bomblets have a shaped charge for armor defeat capability, a fragmenting case for material destruction, and a zirconium ring for incendiary effects.
AGM-154B (Anti-Armor) The warhead for the AGM-154B is the BLU-108/B from the Air Force’s Sensor Fuzed Weapon (SFW) program. The JSOW will carry six BLU-108/B submunitions. Each submunition releases four projectiles (total of 24 per weapons) that use infrared sensors to detect targets. Upon detection, the projectile detonates, creating an explosively formed, shaped charge capable of penetrating reinforced armor targets.
AGM-154B – Image: media.defenceindustrydaily.com
AGM-154C (Unitary Variant) The AGM-154C will use a combination of an Imaging Infrared (IIR) terminal seeker and a two-way data link to achieve point target accuracy through aimpoint refinement and man-in-the-loop guidance. The AGM-154C will carry the BLU-111/B variant of the MK-82, 500- pound general purpose bomb, equipped with the FMU-152 Joint Programmable Fuze (JPF) and is designed to attack point targets. Source fas.org
84 500-pound Mk-62 Quick Strike naval mines
Mk 62 was approved for service use in 1980. As of about 1986, plans called for procurement of 39,804 Mk 70/71 TDDs, plus 8000 Mk 57 and 2500 Mk 58. Actual TDD procurement: Mk 57: 1575 in FY83 and 1753 in FY84. Mk 58: 75 in FY84, 165 in FY85, 400 in FY87, 300 each in FY88 and FY89.
These weapons use 2 alternative target-detection devices (TDDs): Mk 57 (magnetic-seismic) and Mk 58 (magnetic-seismic-pressure). Presumably, seismic is, in effect, an acoustic sensor using sound as transmitted through the sea floor rather than directly through the water. These units are to be replaced by new Mk 70 and Mk 71 TDDs.
The QUICKSTRIKE Service Mine Mk 62 is an explosive-loaded (H-6 fill) bottom mine operationally planted by personnel flying B-52H Stratofortress, F/A-18A/D Hornet, F-14A/D Tomcat, B-1B Lancer, B-2A Spirit, or P-3C Orion aircraft. This mine is currently being flight tested on the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet with carriage approval expected in the near future.
This 500-pound mine consists of a thick-walled general purpose (GP) Bomb Mk 82 incorporating an Arming Device Mk 32, and a Fin Mk 15, Fin BSU-86/B, or Tail Section Mk 16. The mine uses a Target Detection Device (TDD) Mk 57 (magnetic and seismic sensors) to detect stimuli generated by enemy vessels. The mine case is painted either olive drab or gray (new color).
Six OAs exist for the QS Service Mine Mk 62. For OAs 02 and 03, a Fin Mk 15 is fitted. A Fin BSU-86/B is used for OA-09. A Tail Section Mk 16 is used for OA-06 (F/A-18), OA-12 (B-1B), or OA-13 (B-2A).
U.S. sailors load the MK 62 Quick Strike mine aboard a P-3C Orion aircraft before a mine-laying exercise. Photo by JOC Joseph Krypel, USNR, courtesy of Tom Watson
The QUICKSTRIKE Laying Mine Mk 62 is a recoverable, inert-loaded mine identical in size and weight to its Service mine counterpart. It is designed solely for training aviation personnel flying B-52H, F/A-18A/D, B-1B, B-2A, or P-3C aircraft in the techniques of carrying mines and planting minefields.
This mine consists of an inert-loaded GP Bomb Mk 82 incorporating an inert-loaded Arming Device Mk 32 and an operational Fin Mk 15, Fin BSU-86/B, or Tail Section Mk 16. For MMS Mk 5 recovery with either fin, a marine mammal recovery attachment and spacer is installed in the rear fuse well. For Tail Sections Mk 16, a special grabber mechanism mates with the tail’s access holes when MMS Mk 5 recovery is used. The mine case is painted either white with orange stripes or orange with white stripes.
Six OAs exist for the QS Laying Mine Mk 62. For OAs 02K and 03K, a Fin Mk 15 is fitted. A Fin BSU-86/B is used for OA-09K. A Tail Section Mk 16 is used for OA-06K (F/A-18), OA-12K (B-1B), or OA-13K (B-2A). Source hartshorn.us
8 2,000-pound Mk-65 Quick Strike naval mines
The QUICKSTRIKE Service Mine Mk 65 is an explosive-loaded mine for operational planting by aviation personnel flying B-52H Stratofortress, F/A-18A/D Hornet, B-1B Lancer, and P-3C Orion aircraft. This mine is currently being flight tested on the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet with carriage approval expected in the near future. It was designed as a mine from the outset, using a thin-walled mine-type case filled with a PBXN-103 explosive mix vice the thicker bomb-type cases used by QUICKSTRIKE Mines Mk 62 and 63 filled with explosive mix H-6. The mine uses either a Target Detection Device (TDD) Mk 57 (magnetic and seismic sensors) or a TDD Mk 58 (magnetic, seismic, and pressure sensors) to detect stimuli generated by enemy vessels.
Mk 65 prior to loading Photo courtesy of Tom Watson
This mine weighs approximately 2,260 pounds, consisting of a mine case, nose fairing, and a Tail Section Mk 7. Its case is a steel cylinder 93 inches long and 21 inches in diameter at its largest point. A 16-inch portion of the aft end of the case tapers from 21 inches to 17.5 inches in diameter, at which point the tail is attached. The mine’s case is painted olive drab. Source hartshorn.us
B-1B aircraft were fitted with the AN/AAQ-33 Lockheed Martin Sniper ATP advanced targeting pod in June 2008. Sniper includes a mid-wave FLIR (forward-looking infrared), dual mode laser, CCD-TV, laser spot tracker and IR marker. Sniper gives the B-1B the capability for self- identification of targets and bomb damage assessment. The first series of flight tests with the new pod took place in February 2007. The B-1B equipped with the Sniper ATP made its first operational deployment in August 2008 in support of Operation Enduring Freedom.
AN/AAQ-33 Lockheed Martin Sniper ATP advanced targeting pod
Sniper pods provide improved long-range target detection/identification and continuous stabilized surveillance for all missions, including close air support of ground forces. The Sniper pod enables aircrews to detect and identify weapon caches and individuals carrying armaments, all outside jet noise ranges. Superior imagery, a video datalink and J-series-weapons-quality coordinates provided by the Sniper pod enable rapid target decisions and keep aircrews out of threat ranges.
High resolution imagery for non-traditional intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (NTISR) enables the Sniper pod to play a major role in Air Force operations in theater, providing top cover for ground forces, as well as increasing the safety of civilian populations.
The Sniper pod is combat proven on U.S. Air Force and international F-15E, F-16 (all blocks), B-1, A-10C, Harrier GR7/9 and CF-18 aircraft. Lockheed Martin is also in the final stages of integrating the Sniper pod on the B-52. The pod’s plug-and-play capability facilitates moving the pod across platforms without changing software.
Sniper pods include a high definition mid-wave forward looking infrared (FLIR), dual-mode laser, HDTV, laser spot tracker, laser marker, video data link, and a digital data recorder. Advanced image processing algorithms, combined with rock steady stabilization techniques, provide cutting-edge performance. The pod features automatic tracking and laser designation of tactical size targets via real-time imagery presented on cockpit displays. The Sniper pod is fully compatible with the latest J-series munitions for precision weapons delivery against multiple moving and fixed targets.
Advanced Targeting Pod – Sensor Enhancement (ATP-SE) design upgrades include enhanced sensors, advanced processors, and automated NTISR modes.
The Sniper pod’s architecture and modular design permits true two-level maintenance, eliminating costly intermediate-level support. Automated built-in test permits flightline maintainers to isolate and replace an LRU in under 20 minutes. Spares are ordered through a user-friendly website offering in-transit visibility to parts shipment.
The Sniper pod’s modular design also offers an affordable road map for modernizing and enhancing precision targeting capabilities for U.S. Air Force and coalition partner aircraft.
Primary function: positive identification, automatic tracking and laser designation, NTISR
Prime contractor: Lockheed Martin
Length: 98.2 inches (252 centimeters)
Diameter: 11.9 inches (30 centimeters)
Weight: 446 pounds (202 kilograms)
Aircraft: F-15E, F-16 Block 30/40/50, A-10, B-1
Sensors: high resolution FLIR and HDTV, dual mode laser designator, laser spot tracker and laser marker
Conventional mission upgrade programme
With the end of the Cold War, the USAF instituted the B-1B conventional mission upgrade programme.
This series of upgrades involves: Block C (completed 1997) – capability to drop cluster bombs; Block D (completed June 2001) included deployment of JDAM, new defensive system, new navigation and communications systems including the fitting of GPS to enable the dropping of satellite-guided munitions such as JDAM, and an AN/ALE-50 towed decoy system; Block E (entered service in 2005 and completed in September 2006) – capability to deploy JSOW (joint stand-off weapon), wind-compensated munitions dispenser (WCMD) and JASSM (joint air to surface stand-off missile).
AN/ALE-50 towed decoy system
AN/ALE-50 towed decoy system
The AN/ALE-50 towed decoy system was developed by Raytheon to protect multiple US military aircraft from radar-guided missiles. The ALE-50 consists of a launch controller, launcher and towed decoy. It can be used on a variety of platforms without modification. When deployed, the ALE-50’s expendable aerial decoy is towed behind the aircraft. The decoy protects the host aircraft providing a more attractive target and steering the radar-guided missile away from the aircraft and right to the decoy. ALE-50 has countered both surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles. Currently, the ALE-50 is installed on F-16s aircraft and is planned for installation on B-1B bombers and F/A-18 aircraft. The ALE-55 is a derivative of the ALE-50 would be the production decoy installed on B-1B bombers. Source deagel.com
JASSM entered service on the B-1 in May 2005. Block F – the defensive system upgrade programme (DSUP) – was terminated by the USAF.
As part of the Block E computer upgrade programme, in May 2002 a B-1B successfully targeted three different weapon types (mk84 bomb, mk82 bomb and CBU-89 cluster munitions) against three separate targets. In July 2003, the B-1B made the first JSOW drop from a long-range bomber.
The EDO Corporation AN/ALQ-161 defensive avionics suite provides jamming against early warning radars and the fire control radars of missiles and anti-air guns. The processing algorithms are installed on an IBM AP-101F digital computer. The system also incorporates Northrop Grumman jamming transmitters, Raytheon phased array antennas and a tail warning pulse Doppler radar, which gives rear-facing hemispherical coverage.
AN/ALQ-161 defensive avionics suite
AN/ALQ-161 defensive avionics suite
The AN/ALQ-161A system is an integrated RF electronic countermeasures system designed specifically for the B-1B bomber aircraft. The system is designed to detect and counter all modes of radar based weapon systems and also provides a tail warning function to detect and counter incoming missiles from the aft sector.
A countermeasure system for bomber aircraft that prioritizes and automatically reacts to threats
The system provides 360-degree simultaneous receive and jamming coverage against a large number of concurrent threats. The ECM system sorts threats by priority and reacts against them automatically while allowing for “man-in-the-loop” intervention.
The AN/ALQ-161A is a totally integrated radio frequency countermeasures system that is made up of over 108 Line-Replaceable Units, weighing over 5,000 lbs, consuming about 120 kW of power. The AN/ALQ-161A, which was initially delivered in the 1980’s, has been sustained through a series of OFP block cycle upgrades and hardware upgrades to incorporate modifications necessary to detect and counter the ever changing threat.
Harris is developing new capability for the AN/ALQ-161A to meet the future needs of the B-1B and its crew through its retirement in 2048. Source harris.com
|Type: ESM||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 222.2 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Late 1980s|
|SENSORS / EW:|
|AN/ALQ-161 [RWR] – ESM
Role: RWR, Radar Warning Receiver
Max Range: 222.2 km
IBM AP-101F digital computer
IBM produced the avionics computer used to control the Space Shuttle and a variety of other aircraft.
Adapted from writeups by NASA and Wikipedia: The AP-101 was a derivative of the 4Pi introduced by IBM in 1966. It used the basic instruction set architecture from IBM’s mainframe System/360. The AP-101 processed 480,000 instructions per second. Five AP-101s were installed aboard each shuttle. The AP-101 was also used in a broad set of US military aircraft, including the B-52 and B-1 bombers and the F-15 fighter. Source researcher.watson.ibm.com
The system’s countermeasures include dispensers for expendable decoys including chaff and flares. The defensive system upgrade programme (DSUP), which includes the AN/ALR-56 radar warner and the BAE Systems integrated defensive ECM suite (IDECM), developed for the F/A-18 fighter aircraft, is on hold but may receive funding in the future.
AN/ALR-56 radar warner
AN/ALR-56 radar warner
|SENSORS / EW:|
|AN/ALR-56M – ESM
Role: RWR, Radar Warning Receiver
Max Range: 222.2 km
The Northrop Grumman APQ-164 offensive radar system is a multi-mode radar with an electronically scanned phased array antenna, which provides high-resolution terrain mapping, velocity data, beacon modes, terrain avoidance, terrain following, position data, weather detection, rendezvous and calibration modes.
Northrop Grumman APQ-164 offensive radar system
The AN/APQ-164 radar is an advanced phased array fire control, navigation and weapon targeting radar for the B-1B aircraft. Selected line replaceable units are essentially common with the APG-68 used in the F-16 C/D.
The APQ-164 provides the B-1B with a Monopulse Ground Map (MGM) for an all weather area navigation aid. It provides a precise all-weather automatic Terrain Following (TF) and Terrain Avoidance (TA) capability for the B-1B. The APQ-164 provides the B-1B with a high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for navigation and targeting nuclear and strategic weapons in all weather conditions. The radar can be modified with a Multitarget Track (MTT) software mode for Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) deployment.
The system comprises a two axis electrically scanned phased array antenna, a radar receiver transmitter, a programmable signal processor, dual mode transmitter and a video signal processor.
Northrop Grumman Unveils the Scalable Agile Beam Radar — Global Strike for the B-1B Bomber: Here
Northrop Grumman’s SABR-GS is a full performance, multi-function, active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar for the B-1. Developed as an affordable, low risk radar retrofit solution, SABR-GS offers advanced operational capabilities and greater system reliability than the legacy passive ESA. Large synthetic aperture radar maps, advanced image processing and sensor integration provide a significant advantage in situational awareness and give the B-1 powerful new capabilities for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and targeting. Open architecture standards have been used to integrate data from other onboard sensors, enabling continued innovation and affordability for the life of the system.
As a derivative of the AN/APG-83 SABR, SABR-GS takes advantage of hardware, legacy modes and advanced operating modes proven on the F-35, F-22 and F-16 aircraft. Nearly three times the size of the F-16 SABR system, SABR-GS offers unprecedented target area detail and digital maps under all weather conditions.
Scalable Agile Beam Radar – Global Strike (SABR-GS) AESA
As the provider of the B-1’s radar for more than three decades, Northrop Grumman has a deep understanding of the aircraft and its demanding global strike mission. Maintaining the B-1’s dominance in the face of growing threats points to the need for a significant increase in capability that only active electronically scanned array (AESA) technology can provide.
See farther, faster: New capabilities for the B-1
- Faster ground searches: SABR-GS’s electronically scanned beams enable much faster ground searches, resulting in earlier and longer range target detections and tracking, a key operational need for the B-1 bomber.
- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mapping and processing: SABR-GS will provide the most detailed SAR maps ever available from a B-1 radar. Northrop Grumman’s image and video processing algorithms automatically scan entire SAR maps, precisely locating and classifying targets of interest and greatly reducing workload.
- Multiple modes: SABR-GS incorporates proven hardware and operating software modes from Northrop Grumman’s F-35 and F-22 AESA radars, as well as hosting new modes unique to the B-1. Approximately 85% of SABR-GS’s new mode software suite comes directly from the AN/APG-81 radar.
- Open architecture processing: The new SABR-GS architecture, along with the currently fielded AN/ APQ-164 Radar Reliability and Maintainability Program (RMIP) backend, uses open architecture standards to manage data from multiple sensors. These open architecture principles enable continued innovation and affordability for the life of the system. Advanced video processing allows for interleaved radar modes, moving maps and EO/IR imagery.
- Survivability: SABR includes robust and proven electronic protection to counter advanced threats.
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 185.2 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.2 km||Generation: Early 2010s|
|Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Narrow Beam Interleaved Search and Track [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Low Probability of Intercept (LPI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA)|
|SENSORS / EW:|
|AN/APG-83 SABR-GS AESA – (B-1B, LPI) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Air-to-Air & Air-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 185.2 km
Navigation and communications
The aircraft has Honeywell ASN-131 radar altimeter, Kearfott inertial navigation system, Northrop Grumman (Teledyne Ryan) APN-218 Doppler radar velocity sensor (DVS), Honeywell APN-224 radar altimeter, Rockwell Collins ARN-118 TACAN tactical air navigation system and Rockwell Collins ARN-108 instrument landing system (ILS).
Kearfott inertial navigation system
Kearfott’s INS/GPS provides high performance in a small, lightweight envelope for a wide variety of applications spanning from rotary to fixed-wing platforms, manned or unmanned. Utilizing Kearfott’s Monolithic Ring Laser Gyro (MRLG) and MOD VIIA pendulous accelerometers, the INS/GPS provides heading, attitude, velocity, and position information necessary for navigation. The INS/GPS system tightly couples the inertial sensors with an Embedded GPS Receiver (EGR) capable of providing the performance needed while operating through adverse environments. For configurations requiring PPS capability, the EGR utilizes a proven 24-channel GPS SAASM engine able to provide high accuracy measurements under extreme conditions, and provides real-time Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) and Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) per RTCA/DO-229. An SPS configuration is available for applications not requiring PPS capabilities. Primary communication consists of MIL-STD-1553B, RS-422, and/or RS-232, depending on application needs.
Minimizes weight contribution at the aircraft level
Capable of being installed in confined areas or have multiple systems on board
Increases position and altitude accuracies
Provides angular rates (Δθ) and linear accelerations (Δv) for applications requiring information at the inertial sensor level
ARN-118 TACAN Tactical Air Navigation system
TACAN is a radio navigational aid. It provides the following pieces of information:
2. Course Deviation
5. Beacon Identification Tone
Bearing – Simple enough. The system provides magnetic bearing to the station you are tuned to. This is the primary function of the sytem.
Course Deviation – This supplements the bearing by giving you a fly-to command which aids you in flying towards the selected station.
To/From – Again, going the right direction is pretty important so this makes sure you know whether you are flying away or towards your station.
Distance – This is yet another critical piece of information, giving you slant range to the station up to 390 nautical miles (200 nmi max for A/A [air-to-air]).
Beacon Identifier Tone (BIT) – This audio information consists of a morse code trail for identification of the station you are tuned to.
Reliability – The warning flag information lets you know if the system is reliable.
RT-1159 – The receiver/transmitter demodulates TACAN transmissions and also transmits distance interrogations. The R/T gives 3 major outputs: relative bearing, range and beacon audio.
MX-9577 Adaptor – The MX adaptor performs several functions with data provided by the R/T. First, it takes the bearing from the station and using an external compass input from a system such as C-12, it calculates bearing to the station. Based on the aircraft heading, the adaptor also creates course deviation and to/from information. Finally, the adaptor processes signals to generate reliability information for the HSI warning flags. Source opticfox.com
The communications suite includes ASC-19 AFSATCOM satellite communications, Rockwell Collins long range ARC-190 HF radio, Honeywell KY-58 secure voice line-of-sight encryption device, Rockwell Collins ARC-171 UHF line-of-sight communications radio system, ARR-85 secure or open line-of-sight system and APX-101A IFF (identification friend or foe).
Rockwell Collins long range ARC-190 HF radio
Frequency Range: 2-29.999 MHz
Spacing: 25 kHz
|Platforms: 190(V): AC-130H/U, B-1B, B-52H, C-130E/H, C-141B/C, C-17A, C-20B/H, C-5A/B, C-5C, C-9A, C-9C, E-4B, E-8C, EC-130E/H, EC-135C/Y, F-15A/B/C/D/E, HC-130N/P, KC-135E/R/T, LC-130H, MC-130E/H/P, MH-53J/M, NC-130H, OC-135B, RC-135S/U, RC-135V/W, T-43A, TC-135S/W, TH-53A, WC-130H/W. 190(V)8: C-130J, KC-10A|
The AN/ARC-190(V) is a solid-state HF transceiver that provides beyond-line-of-sight communications capability for various military airborne applications. The ARC-190 system is designed for use in various military airborne applications that employ probe/cap, shunt or wire antennas. It is automatically tuned in both the receive and transmit mode. Built-in test equipment (BITE) and modular construction provide for rapid fault isolation to the box and module level for quick repair. The AN/ARC-190 is the mainstay of HF communications in the U.S. Air Force having been installed in a large variety of fixed and rotary wing aircraft, such as the C-130, KC-135, C-141, C-5, C-9, KC-10, B-1, B-52, C-17, F-15, F-16, H-60 and S-2T.
The HFDL mode provides worldwide-automated data communications directly between aircraft systems and the ARINC ground network. HFDL is part of the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) and supports a wide variety of data applications. The HFDL configuration of the AN/ARC-190 consists of an RT-1341(V)8 Receiver Transmitter and a CP-2024C Automatic Communications Processor. Upgrade kits are available for both the RT and Processor to upgrade prior versions of these equipments to the HFDL configuration. Source dpdproductions.com
Rockwell Collins ARC-171 UHF line-of-sight communications radio system
Design Specifications. ARC-171 RT configurations range from 10 watts AM voice to 30/100 watts AM/ FM/ FSK/ECCM and satellite capabilities, with a MILSTAR configuration also available. The same chassis is used for all versions except for the full duplex. The desired version is obtained through simple module/card substitution. The form factor is compatible with all existing UHF radios, thus allowing simple replacement when upgrading capability. It also results in reduced maintenance costs through improved reliability. All configurations feature nuclear survivability and built-in test equipment. Each version offers self-contained cooling using an optional blower. Primary power is either 28-volt DC or 115-volt, 3-phase, 400 Hz, depending upon the power supply module selected. The ARC-171(V) provides 7,000 UHF channels in 25 kHz increments between 225.000 MHz and 339.975 MHz. A preset “guard” channel (243 MHz) is also included.
Operational Characteristics. The transceiver is controlled by means of a serial data stream and clock from the associated control unit. One control unit supplies control status data for AMonly radios. A second control unit is available for use with radios having AM/FM/ FSK/ECCM. Source forecastinternational.com
The B-1B is equipped with four 30,000lb thrust class F101-GE-102 turbofan engines from General Electric. An in-flight refuelling receptacle allows refuelling from a KC-10 or a KC-135 tanker.
F101-GE-102 turbofan engine
Manufacturer: General Electric Co.
Thrust: 30,780 pounds
Overall Pressure Ratio at Maximum Power: 26.8
Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 7
Compressor: Two spool, axial flow, single-stage fan
LP-HP Compressor Stages: 1-9
HP-LP Turbine Stages: 1-2
Length: 181 in (4.59 m)
Diameter: 55 in (140 cm)
Dry Weight: 4,400 lbs (1,996 kg)
Platforms: B-1B Lancer
The B-1 Lancer can fly at a maximum speed of 1,448km/h. Its service ceiling is 9,144m. The aircraft weighs around 86,182kg and its maximum take-off weight is 216,363kg.
Primary Function: Long-range, multi-role, heavy bomber
Contractor: Boeing, North America (formerly Rockwell International, North American Aircraft); Offensive avionics, Boeing Military Airplane; Defensive Avionics, EDO Corporation
Power plant: Four General Electric F101-GE-102 turbofan engine with afterburner
Thrust: 30,000-plus pounds with afterburner, per engine
Wingspan: 137 feet (41.8 meters) extended forward, 79 feet (24.1 meters) swept aft
Length: 146 feet (44.5 meters)
Height: 34 feet (10.4 meters)
Weight: approximately 190,000 pounds (86,183 kilograms)
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 477,000 pounds (216,634 kilograms)
Fuel Capacity: 265,274 pounds (120,326 kilograms)
Payload: 75,000 pounds (34,019 kilograms)
Speed: 900-plus mph (Mach 1.2 at sea level)
Ceiling: More than 30,000 feet (9,144 meters)
Armament: 84 500-pound Mk-82 or 24 2,000-pound Mk-84 general purpose bombs; up to 84 500-pound Mk-62 or 8 2,000-pound Mk-65 Quick Strike naval mines; 30 cluster munitions (CBU-87, -89, -97) or 30 Wind-Corrected Munitions Dispensers (CBU-103, -104, -105); up to 24 2,000-pound GBU-31 or 15 500-pound GBU-38 Joint Direct Attack Munitions; up to 24 AGM-158A Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missiles; 15 GBU-54 Laser Joint Direct Attack Munitions
Crew: Four (aircraft commander, copilot, and two combat systems officers)
Unit Cost: $317 million
Initial operating capability: October 1986
Inventory: Active force, 62 (test, 2); ANG, 0; Reserve, 0
Specification data (Current as of September 2016) af.mil
Main material source airforce-technology.com
Revised Mar 01, 2017