Tunguska M1 Anti-Aircraft System (2K22M/SA-19 “Grison”/Tunguska-M1)

The 2K22 Tunguska (Russian: 2К22 “Тунгуска”; English: Tunguska) is a Russian tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon armed with a surface-to-air gun and missile system. It is designed to provide day and night protection for infantry and tank regiments against low-flying aircraft, helicopters, and cruise missiles in all weather conditions. Its NATO reporting name is SA-19 “Grison.

4bbc5734f1832K22 Tunguska

The GRAU index lists the “Tunguska” system as 2K22, although the army designation 9K22 is also a valid reference. A complete system or battery consists of six 2S6 combat vehicles armed with the 9M311 “Treugol’nik” (triangle) surface-to-air missile and two 2A38 30 mm cannons. These are accompanied by up to three 2F77 transloader trucks. The 2K22 is also associated with a variety of support facilities including the 2F55, 1R10 and 2V110 repair and maintenance vehicles, the MTO-AGZ workshop and the 9V921 test vehicle and others.

2F77 transloader truck

2f77m-transloading-vehicle-for-2k22m-tunguska-m2F77 transloader truck – Image @vitalykuzmin.net

These facilities provide maintenance for the 2K22 battery in the field as well as scheduled overhauls. Each system can attack six targets simultaneously (1 for each machine 2S6) limited in height of 3.5 km and a height of from -9 (gun)/-10(rocket) to +87 degrees. Minimum height of defeat 0 meters for guns and rockets to 15 meters (original 2K22).

The 2S6 combat vehicle uses the GM-352 and later GM-352M chassis developed and produced by the Minsk Tractor Plant (MTZ) which has six road wheels with hydropneumatic suspension on each side, a drive sprocket at the rear and three return rollers. An NBC system is also integrated into the chassis, which is protected -as the entire vehicle- from small arms fire (7,62) and shell splinters by the armor, as well as an automatic fire suppression system, an automatic gear change and diagnostic capability are available with latest Tunguska-M1 which uses the new GM-5975 chassis developed and produced by MMZ. GM-5975.25 has a cruising range of 500 km and a maximum speed of 65 km per hour. It can function at a relative humidity of 98 per cent at 35 degrees C, in ambient temperatures of -50 degrees C to 50 degrees C and up to an altitude of 3,000 m. It has an ability of climb up to 35 degrees, can cross slopes of 25 degrees, 2 m width ditch, 1 m depth ford. Overall, the layout is similar to the previous ZSU-23-4 with a large central 360-degree rotating turret (designated the 2A40) containing the armament, sensors and three of the crew: the commander, gunner and radar operator. The driver sits in the front left of the hull, with a gas turbine APU to his right and the multi-fuel diesel engine in the rear of the hull.

ZSU-23-4 Shilka

shilka_prev01-jpg44668a83-a5a4-4df2-99fa-a57058044bbforiginal

Development of the ZSU-23-4 Shilka began in 1957. The first prototype was completed in 1960. After extensive trials it entered service with the Soviet Army in 1962. Production of the ZSU-23-4 commenced in 1964. It was a very successful design. The Shilka is currently in service with a number of countries worldwide.

   The ZSU-23-4 Shilka is armed with quad 23-mm guns. It is a modified variant of the towed ZU-23 anti-aircraft gun. Vehicle has a rate of fire of 3 400 rounds per minute. It fires the same rounds as the ZU-23.

   The Shilka is fitted with target surveillance and tracking radar and simple fire control system. Its radar has a tracking range of 6-10 km, depending on target’s altitude.

   The ZSU-23-4 was involved in a number of military conflicts. It appeared that vehicle is extremely effective against ground targets

   Thin armor of the ZSU-23-4 provides protection only against small arms fire and artillery shell splinters. It is fitted with NBC protection system.

   Vehicle has a crew of four, including commander, gunner, radar operator and driver.

   The Shilka has a tracked chassis and uses many automotive components of the SU-85 self-propelled artillery system. Vehicle is powered by the V-6P1 diesel engine, developing 280 hp. Until 1970 it was fitted with the V-6P diesel. The ZSU-23-4 is also fitted with auxiliary power unit.

zsu-23-4_shilka_line_drawing_russia_01

Entered service 1962
Crew 4 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight 19 t
Length (gun forward) ?
Hull length 6.54 m
Width 3.13 m
Height (in combat order) 3.57 m
Armament
Main gun 4 x 23-mm
Projectile weight 0.19 kg
Maximum slant range 2 km
Maximum firing range 2.5 km
Rate of fire 3 400 rpm
Elevation range – 5 to + 85 degrees
Traverse range 360 degrees
Ammunition load
Main gun 2 000 rounds
Mobility
Engine V-5P1 diesel
Engine power 280 hp
Maximum road speed 50 km/h
Range 450 km
Maneuverability
Gradient 60%
Side slope 30%
Vertical step 1.1 m
Trench 2.8 m
Fording 1 m

Specification ZSU-23-4 @military-today.com

i671019

An electromechanically scanned parabolic E-band (10 kW power) target acquisition radar is mounted on the rear top of the turret that when combined with the turret front mounted J-band (150 kW power) monopulse tracking radar forms the 1RL144 (NATO:Hot Shot) radar system, which can detect and track targets flying high as 3,500 m. Alongside the 1A26 digital computer and the 1G30 angle measurement system form the 1A27 radar complex. Tunguska-M has the 1RL144M radar with detection range 18 km and tracking range 16 km-near of the original system’s. The mechanically scanned target acquisition radar for the Tunguska-M1 offers a 360-degree field of view, a detection range of around 18 km and can detect targets flying as low as 15 m, the target acquisition radar can be stowed when in transit. Its tracking radar has a range of 16 km. A C/D-band IFF system is also fitted and designated 1RL138. The radar system is highly protected against various types of interference, and can work if there are mountains on the horizon, regardless of the background. The radar can sees due to the rotation the helicopter of screws. The system is able to fire on the move using 30 mm cannons, although it must be stationary to fire missiles. The maximum target speed can be up to 500 m/s; reaction time 6–8 seconds. Each 2S6 has all facilities for independent warfare.

HOT SHOT radar system

15090142ssw Tunguska-M1  HOT SHOT radar system

The SA-19 is supported by the HOT SHOT radar system, which consists of a surveillance radar with a maximum range of 18 km, and a tracking radar with a maximum range of 13 km. The semi-automatic radar to command line-of-sight engagement requires the gunner to track the target using the roof-mounted stabilized optical sight.

The integrated fire-control system of the 2S6M incorporates the following components:

  • Target acquisition radar (TAR) (1RL144), operating in the E-band, with a max. range of 20 km.
  • Target tracking radar (TTR) (1RL144M), operating in the J-band, with a max. range of 18 km.
  • IFF system (1RL138), operating in C-and D-band.
  • Direct-view Optics (DVO).
  • Fire-control computer.

The Target acquisition radar (TAR) (1RL144) antenna is mounted at the rear of the turret and is folded down when not in use. This radar provides primary search capability in addition to measurement of range and bearing. This radar can detect targets out to maximum range of approximately 20 km. It is a coherent system that has sufficient accuracy to permit its use as a range back up for fire-control purposes. The TAR emits a fan beam covering 4.50 in azimuth and 150 in elevation. The beam is pointed at a constant elevation of 7.50 to permit detection of low-altitude targets. The antenna rotates at approximately 1 r/s, which gives a rapid update of the airspace around the 2S6M. The choice of a frequency in the E-band for the TAR is an advantage since there is low attenuation in inclement weather (rain, snow, and fog) at this frequency and therefore the acquisition radar is not degraded in such conditions.

15090147vecTunguska-M1 Target acquisition radar (TAR) (1RL144) antenna

The Target tracking radar (TTR) (1RL144M) antenna is mounted at the front section of the turret and has two fundamental functions that depend on whether the guns or missiles are selected. The tracking radar constantly relays target range, elevation and bearing to the fire-control computer, and on the basis if these data the computer generated the laying commands for the weapon system. A stabilized optical sight is used as a back up tracking channel, allowing target data to be relayed to the fire-control computer. This sight is also used to calculate the deviation of a missile’s flight path from the line-of-sight, these data being automatically relayed to the fire control computer and used to generate correction signals. During a gun engagement, the TTR functions as an automatic target tracker, feeding target position data to the fire-control computer. During missile engagement, the tracking radar locks onto the target and then lays the optical sight on the target. Subsequently the gunner assumes the target-tracking function with the electro-optic sight, and the radar is used for relaying guidance commands to the SA-19 missile. The tracking radar emits pulse-position-modulated codes for missile guidance. The TTR is a two-channel monopulse design featuring an MTI processor and a digital range-tracking system. The tracking radar is generally cued with coarse range and angle data from the TAR. Alternatively, the targeting information can be passed by means of the command and control network. Source @globalsecurity.org

2s6m_tunguska_9k22m_tracked_self-propelled_air_defence_cannon_missile_system_russia_russian_army_line_drawing_blueprint_001Image @weaponsandwarfare.files.wordpress.com

Standard equipment of the 2S6 and 2S6M includes a computerized fire control system, heating, ventilation, NBC system, an automatic fire detection and suppression system, navigational equipment, night vision aids, 1V116 intercom, external communications system with an R-173 receiver-modernized in the 2S6M for better communication with the command post- and monitoring equipment. The vehicle also has protection against the effects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.

R-173 receiver-modernized

p6270053

There are two variants of Radio receiver R-173PM1:

R-173PМ1 YAG1.100.030 variant – provides operation in analog mode;

R-173PМ1 YAG1.100.030-01 – provides information reception and transmission in analog and digital modes.

Frequency range, kHz Frequency spacing, kHz

Receiver’s susceptibility, ^V:

–  while analog signal reception, not worse
–  with noisekiller turned on, not worse
–   on a digital channel with error coefficient 1×10-2, not worse

Output voltage:

–  mode intercom system, not less, V
–  terminal equipment, V

1 and 2 IF image channel receiver selectivity, and on the first IF (intermediate frequency), dB
The radio receiver has 10 preset frequencies.
Average time of shifting from one preset frequency to another not more, s

The radio receiver power supply is vehicular mains, DC, V

Consumption current under nominal voltage must not exceed, A

Dimensions of the radio receiver with shock-absorber, mm

Weight max, kg

30000 – 75999

1

1,5
3
2

11

(0,52±0,1)

100

 

 

3

+27(22-29)

1,2

(222х210х239)

30

Source @spetstechnoexport.com

Can work in passive mode (day + night+all weather). The biggest maneuver of possible with an overload 35g. This allows confidently hit strongly maneuvering target.

A battery of six Tunguska can automatically receive fire control information via an encrypted radio link, this allows targets to be distributed between individual units from a Ranzhir or PPRU battery command post, which can receive target information from either AWACS or early warning radar or in the case of the PPRU its own radar equipment.

Variants

  • 2K22: Original system, with 9M311, 9M311K (3M87) or 9M311-1 missiles with a range of 8 km. Some of these early versions of the “Tunguska” system were known as “Treugol’nik” (Russian Треугольник—triangle). This system is mounted on the 2S6 integrated air defence vehicle.
  • 2K22M (1990): Main production system, with 9M311M (3M88) missiles. This integrated air defence vehicle 2S6M is based on the GM-352M chassis. 2F77M transporter-loader. 2F55-1, 1R10-1 and 2V110-1 repair and maintenance vehicles.
  • 2K22M1 (2003): Improved version with the 2S6M1 combat vehicle on a GM-5975 chassis, using the 9M311-M1 missile (range: 10 km) and with an improved fire control system. Passed state trials and entered service with the Russian armed forces on 31 July 2003.
  • 2K22M with 57E6: Complete upgrade of system with new 57E6 missile and new radar system, with detection range of 38 km and a tracking range of 30 km. Missile range is increased to 18 km.

Source @wikiwand.com

2K22M with 57E6

Tunguska-M1 is a gun/missile system for low-level air defence. The system was designed by the KBP Instrument Design Bureau in Tula, Russia and is manufactured by the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant, Ulyanovsk, Russia. It can engage targets while stationary and on the move, using missiles for long-range targets and guns for close-in defence. It is designed for defence against both fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters and can also fire on ground targets.

Tunguska entered service with the Russian army in 1988 and has been exported to Germany, India, Peru, Morocco and Ukraine.

Tunguska-M1 low-level air defence gun / missile system

2s6m1_tunguska-m1_sam-systemTunguska-M1 – Image @wikimedia.org

Combat Vehicle 2S6 consists of the following fixed assets:

  • cannon armament includes two 30-mm 2A38 automatic with the cooling system; 
  • missile, includes eight launchers with ammunition guides and 9M311 missiles in trasport-launching containers, encoder, hardware of selection coordinates; 
  • power hydraulic actuators pointing guns and SAM launchers; 
  • radar system consisting of radar target detection;
  • Radar target tracking;
  • Terrestrial radio interrogator;
  • Digital countably-solver; sighting and optical equipment with the guidance system and stabilization; measurement system of rolling and course;
  • built-in test equipment; Navigation equipment; life support systems, communications, automation and safety automatics, etc.

Source @en.uos.ua

The Tunguska-M1 vehicle carries eight 9M311-M1 surface-to-air missiles. The missile (NATO designation SA-19 Grison) has semi-automatic radar command to line-of-sight guidance, weighs 40kg with a 9kg warhead. It is 2.5m long with a diameter of 1.7m and wingspan of 2.2m. The missile’s maximum speed is 900m/s and can engage targets travelling at speeds up to 500m/s. Range is from 15 to 6,000m for ground targets and 15 to 10,000m for air targets.

8 x 9M311-M1 surface-to-air missiles

tunguska6Image @army-technology.com

A solid propellant bicaliber two-stage missile with discardable booster.

Caliber ……………………………………………………. 152/76 mm
Length …………………………………………………….. 2570 mm
Mean flight velocity
to maximum range ………………………………….
550 m/s

Source @kbptula.ru

The 9M331 missiles have a hit probability of 65%. Missiles have a blast fragmentation warhead and proximity fuses, triggered near the target.  Missiles can engage targets traveling at speeds up to 500 m/s. The Tunguska is able to fire its guns on the move, however it must be stationary to fire missiles. Source @military-today.com

57e6-missile-cutaway-1sTerminal stage cutaway: 1 – proximity fuse; 2 – contact fuse; 3 – warhead; 4 – explosive filler; 5 – canard actuators; 6 – electronics module; 7 – gyro package; 9 – RF transponder beacon; 10 – optical beacon (Images via KBP, Russkaya Sila, Vestnik PVO) – Image @ausairpower.net

d20d9120b92443f216cd618a465857c6

Two twin-barrel 30mm anti-aircraft guns are mounted on the vehicle. These guns have a maximum firing rate of 5,000 rounds per minute and a range of 3,000m against air targets. This extends to 4,000m against ground targets.

2 x 2A38M 30mm anti-aircraft guns

2 x 2A38M 30mm anti-aircraft guns.  The cannons are fired alternatively with a combined rate of fire of between 3,900 and 5,000 rounds per minute (1,950 to 2,500 rpm for each gun), and have a muzzle velocity of 960 m/s. Bursts of between 83 and 250 rounds are fired as determined by the target type, with an engagement range between 0.2 and 4.0 km and to an altitude of about 3 km. HE-T and HE-I shells are used and fitted with a A-670 time and impact fuze which includes an arming delay and self destruct mechanism. Source @globalsecurity.org

30 x 165 mm Round with HE-T Projectile

he_t_projectile

The 30 x 165 mm Round with High Explosive Tracer Projectile is intended to engage air and ground  targets.

The round is fitted with distance-armed, delayed action, self-destruct fuze.

The ammunition is safe in transport, storage and handling and ensures the reliable performance of the gun systems in all weather conditions.

The automatic guns 2A42, 2A38, 2A72 and modifications are mounted on the following carriers:

  • Infantry Fighting Vehicles BMP-2, BMP-3, BMD-2, BMD-3, BTR-80A and  their modifications
  • Reconnaissance Vehicle “RIS”
  • Air-Defence Complex “Tunguska”
  • Attack Helicopters Ka-50 and Mi-28 and modifications

BASIC CHARACTERISTICS

Caliber: 30 x 165 mm
Fuze Arming Distance: 20  to 100 m
Self-destruction Time: 7.5  to 14.5 sec
Operational Temperature Range: -50 to +50°C
Shelf Life: 15 years

ELEMENTS OF ROUND

Projectile: High Explosive Tracer
Fuze: A-670M
Explosive filling: A-IX-2 (RDX)
Propellant: 6/7 P-5BPfl
Cartridge case: steel
Primer: KV-30, KV-3-1

BALLISTIC DATA

Muzzle Velocity: 950 – 970 m/s
Probable Deviation: 5 m/s
Average Pmax: 3600 kgf/cm2

TECHNICAL DATA

Length of Round (max): 292 mm
Weight of Round: 0.826 kg
Weight of Projectile: 0.385 kg
Propellant Charge Mass: 0.122 kg
Burning Time of Tracer: not less than 10 sec

Source @arcus-bg.com

30 x 165 mm Round with HE-I Projectile

1_30_hei_1

The 30 x 165 mm Round with High Explosive Incendiary Projectile is intended to engage air and ground  targets.

The round is fitted with distance-armed, delayed action, self-destruct fuze.

The ammunition is safe in transport, storage and handling and ensures the reliable performance of the gun systems in all weather conditions.

The automatic guns 2A42, 2A38, 2A72 and modifications are mounted on the following carriers:

  • Infantry Fighting Vehicles BMP-2, BMP-3, BMD-2, BMD-3, BTR-80A and  their modifications
  • Reconnaissance Vehicle “RIS”
  • Air-Defence Complex “Tunguska”
  • Attack Helicopters Ka-50 and Mi-28 and modifications

BASIC CHARACTERISTICS

Caliber: 30 x 165 mm
Fuze Arming Distance: 20  to 100 m
Self-destruction Time: 7.5  to 14.5 sec
Operational Temperature Range: -50 to +50°C
Shelf Life: 15 years

ELEMENTS OF ROUND

Projectile: High Explosive Incendiary
Fuze: A-670M
Explosive filling: A-IX-2 (RDX)
Propellant: 6/7 P-5BPfl
Cartridge case: steel
Primer: KV-30, KV-3-1

BALLISTIC DATA

Muzzle Velocity: 950 – 970 m/s
Probable Deviation: 5 m/s
Average Pmax: 3600 kgf/cm2

TECHNICAL DATA

Length of Round (max): 293 mm
Weight of Round: 0.833 kg
Weight of Projectile: 0.389 kg
Propellant Charge Mass: 0.123 kg

Source @arcus-bg.com

8f2e0a727d53d9a6899fe0c6bbdcc619

Armament …………………………………………. gun-missile
Engagement zones  
range  
SAM ………………………………………………….. 2500-10000 m
AD gun …………………………………………….. 200-4000 m
altitude  
SAM ………………………………………………….. 15-3500 m
AD gun ……………………………………………… 0-3000 m
Ammunition load  
SAM on launchers ……………………………. 8 pcs.
30 mm projectiles ……………………………. 1904 pcs.
Range of  
target detection ………………………………… up to 18000 m
target tracking ………………………………….. up to 16000 m
Strategic coordination ……………………….. command post
centralized control
Weight  
containerized SAM ……………………………. 60 kg
at launch ………………………………………….. 45 kg
WH …………………………………………………… 9 kg
Operation conditions  
SAM ………………………………………………….. at short halts
AD gun ……………………………………………… stationary and
on the move

Specification data @kbptula.ru

Fire control

wip-poder

The system has target acquisition radar and target tracking radar, optical sight, digital computing system, tilt angle measuring system and navigation equipment. Radar detection range is 18km and tracking range is 16km.

Digital Computer System (PCV) is designed to automate combat operation of ZSU,choosing the optimal mode of fire control system, weapons and fire regime, taking into account the range and target velocity. Source @en.uos.ua

Tunguska-M1 anti-aircraft battery vehicle

tqauicImage @makeagif.com

abdcb15ae582d69fb3bb46858be49c51

The Tunguska-M1 system is mounted on a 34t tracked vehicle with multi-fuel engine. It has hydromechanical transmission, hydropneumatic suspension which allows for changing road clearance and hydraulic track-tensioning. The armoured turret has both laying and stabilisation drives and power supply. Air-conditioning, heating and filtration systems are fitted.

V-46-6-MS centrifugal turbocharged V-12

56356865_w640_h640_v466Image @ru.prom.st
 
Engine type 4-steps, V-form, 12-cylinder, burning several grades of fuel, liquid-cooled centrifugal turbocharged engine
 
Fuel-mixture formation system direct fuel injection
 
Engine power without input and output resistance kWt (hp) 574 (780)
 
Rotation frequency S-1 (R.P.M.) 33,3 (2000)
 
Tarque margin, % 18
 
Specific fuel consumption h/kWt per hour (h/hp per hour) 245 (180)
 
Weight, kg 980
 
Specific power, kWt/kg 0,59 (0,80)
 
Cylinder diameter, mm 150,0
 
Piston stroke in cylinder with master connecting rod, mm 180,0
 
Piston stroke in cylinder with artieulated connecting rod, mm 186,7
 
Operating displacement, l 38,88
 
Minimum temperature for reliable starting
of enginew/o warming before, °С
-5°C
 
Limited engine operation conditions:
 
   – ambient temperature from -40°С up to +50°С
 
   – relative humidity up to 98% by 20°С
 
   – sea level up to 3000 m
 
Explosion sequence preportionate, every 60° crankshaft reversion
 
Balance level full dynamic balance

Source @chtz-uraltrac.com

A Tunguska-M1 battery is composed of up to six vehicles and will also include a transloader as well as maintenance and training facilities.

The armoured turret has both laying and stabilisation drives and power supply. Air-conditioning, heating and filtration systems are fitted. A Tunguska-M1 battery is composed of up to six vehicles and will also include a transloader as well as maintenance and training facilities.

Main material source @army-technology.com

Technical data

System/Parameter  ЗРПК «Тунгуска»
Tunguska SPAAG
ЗРПК «Тунгуска-М»
Tunguska M SPAAG
ЗРПК «Тунгуска-М1»
Tunguska M1 SPAAG
Год принятия на вооружение
IOC Year
1982 1990 2004
Ракетное вооружение
Missile Armament
9М311 9М311 9М311-1М
Боекомплект, ракет
Missile Loadout
8 8 8
Артиллерийское вооружение
Gun Armament
2х2А38 (два 30-мм двухствольных автомата)
(two 30 mm twin barrel guns)
2х2А38М (два 30-мм двухствольных автомата)
(two 30 mm twin barrel guns)
2х2А38М (два 30-мм двухствольных автомата)
(two 30 mm twin barrel guns)
Боекомплект, выстрелы
Gun Ammo [rds]
1936 1936 1904
Шасси
Vehicle Chassis
Гусеничное ГМ-352
Tracked GM-352
ГусеничноеГМ-352
Tracked GM-352
Гусеничное ГМ-5975
Tracked GM-5975
По дальности
Range
2500-8000 2500-8000 2500-10000
По высоте
Altitude
15-3500 15-3500 15-3500
По дальности
Range
200-4000 200-4000 200-4000
По высоте
Altitude
0-3000 0-3000 0-3000
Темп стрельбы, выстр./мин/ствол
Rate of Fire/BBL
1015 1015 1250
Число одновременно поражаемых целей ракетным оружием
Concurrently Engaged Targets by Missile
1 1 1

Source @ausairpower.net

2K22/2K22M Battery Components

System Qty Function/Composition Vehicle
2S6/2S6M 4-6 8 Round SPAAGM GM-352
2F77M 2-3 8 Round Missile Transporter/Transloader KamAZ-43101
9S737MK Ranzhir
PPRU-1M
1 Mobile Command Post MT-LBu
1R10-1M 1 Engineering Repair/Test Station Ural-43203-1012
2F55-1 1 Missile Preparation/Assembly Station Ural-43203-1012
2V110-1 1 Engineering Repair Station Ural-43203-1012
9V921 1 Engineering Repair/Test Station GAZ-66
ITO-APG-M1 1 Mobile Workshop ZiL-131

96K6 Pantsir S1 Hybrid Tracked SPAAGM (GM-352M1E)

209d74c538e0e82ca7aceec00adf2adc

The most recent variants of the system displayed have included components of the radar suites developed for the 96K6 Pantsir S1 / SA-22, specifically the 2RL80 S-band phased array acquisition radar and 1RS2/1RS2-E Shlem or SSTsR (Stantsiya Slezheniya Tsel’a i Rakety – Target and Missile Tracking Station) engagement radar.

pantsir001The modernised 2S6M1 Tunguska M1 employs a planar array search radar, and a distinctive radome for the engagement radar component Air Power Australia WebsiteCrew stations in the recent Pantsir S1E hosted on the GM-352 chassis (image © Miroslav Gyűrösi) – Image @ausairpower.net

Source @ausairpower.net

Pantsir-S2 mobile air defense system: Here

8d6bd2c2b1cc7dfd4475d334eb361bd1

 

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