Tunguska M1 Anti-Aircraft System (2K22M/SA-19 “Grison”/Tunguska-M1)

The 2K22 Tunguska (Russian: 2К22 “Тунгуска”; English: Tunguska) is a Russian tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon armed with a surface-to-air gun and missile system. It is designed to provide day and night protection for infantry and tank regiments against low-flying aircraft, helicopters, and cruise missiles in all weather conditions. Its NATO reporting name is SA-19 “Grison.

4bbc5734f1832K22 Tunguska

The GRAU index lists the “Tunguska” system as 2K22, although the army designation 9K22 is also a valid reference. A complete system or battery consists of six 2S6 combat vehicles armed with the 9M311 “Treugol’nik” (triangle) surface-to-air missile and two 2A38 30 mm cannons. These are accompanied by up to three 2F77 transloader trucks. The 2K22 is also associated with a variety of support facilities including the 2F55, 1R10 and 2V110 repair and maintenance vehicles, the MTO-AGZ workshop and the 9V921 test vehicle and others.

2F77 transloader truck

2f77m-transloading-vehicle-for-2k22m-tunguska-m2F77 transloader truck – Image @vitalykuzmin.net

These facilities provide maintenance for the 2K22 battery in the field as well as scheduled overhauls. Each system can attack six targets simultaneously (1 for each machine 2S6) limited in height of 3.5 km and a height of from -9 (gun)/-10(rocket) to +87 degrees. Minimum height of defeat 0 meters for guns and rockets to 15 meters (original 2K22).

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The 2S6 combat vehicle uses the GM-352 and later GM-352M chassis developed and produced by the Minsk Tractor Plant (MTZ) which has six road wheels with hydropneumatic suspension on each side, a drive sprocket at the rear and three return rollers. An NBC system is also integrated into the chassis, which is protected -as the entire vehicle- from small arms fire (7,62) and shell splinters by the armor, as well as an automatic fire suppression system, an automatic gear change and diagnostic capability are available with latest Tunguska-M1 which uses the new GM-5975 chassis developed and produced by MMZ. GM-5975.25 has a cruising range of 500 km and a maximum speed of 65 km per hour. It can function at a relative humidity of 98 per cent at 35 degrees C, in ambient temperatures of -50 degrees C to 50 degrees C and up to an altitude of 3,000 m. It has an ability of climb up to 35 degrees, can cross slopes of 25 degrees, 2 m width ditch, 1 m depth ford. Overall, the layout is similar to the previous ZSU-23-4 with a large central 360-degree rotating turret (designated the 2A40) containing the armament, sensors and three of the crew: the commander, gunner and radar operator. The driver sits in the front left of the hull, with a gas turbine APU to his right and the multi-fuel diesel engine in the rear of the hull.

ZSU-23-4 Shilka


Development of the ZSU-23-4 Shilka began in 1957. The first prototype was completed in 1960. After extensive trials it entered service with the Soviet Army in 1962. Production of the ZSU-23-4 commenced in 1964. It was a very successful design. The Shilka is currently in service with a number of countries worldwide.

The ZSU-23-4 Shilka is armed with quad 23-mm guns. It is a modified variant of the towed ZU-23 anti-aircraft gun. Vehicle has a rate of fire of 3 400 rounds per minute. It fires the same rounds as the ZU-23.

The Shilka is fitted with target surveillance and tracking radar and simple fire control system. Its radar has a tracking range of 6-10 km, depending on target’s altitude.

The ZSU-23-4 was involved in a number of military conflicts. It appeared that vehicle is extremely effective against ground targets

Thin armor of the ZSU-23-4 provides protection only against small arms fire and artillery shell splinters. It is fitted with NBC protection system.

Vehicle has a crew of four, including commander, gunner, radar operator and driver.

The Shilka has a tracked chassis and uses many automotive components of the SU-85 self-propelled artillery system. Vehicle is powered by the V-6P1 diesel engine, developing 280 hp. Until 1970 it was fitted with the V-6P diesel. The ZSU-23-4 is also fitted with auxiliary power unit.


Entered service 1962
Crew 4 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight 19 t
Length (gun forward) ?
Hull length 6.54 m
Width 3.13 m
Height (in combat order) 3.57 m
Main gun 4 x 23-mm
Projectile weight 0.19 kg
Maximum slant range 2 km
Maximum firing range 2.5 km
Rate of fire 3 400 rpm
Elevation range – 5 to + 85 degrees
Traverse range 360 degrees
Ammunition load
Main gun 2 000 rounds
Engine V-5P1 diesel
Engine power 280 hp
Maximum road speed 50 km/h
Range 450 km
Gradient 60%
Side slope 30%
Vertical step 1.1 m
Trench 2.8 m
Fording 1 m

Specification ZSU-23-4 military-today.com

An electromechanically scanned parabolic E-band (10 kW power) target acquisition radar is mounted on the rear top of the turret that when combined with the turret front mounted J-band (150 kW power) monopulse tracking radar forms the 1RL144 (NATO:Hot Shot) radar system, which can detect and track targets flying high as 3,500 m. Alongside the 1A26 digital computer and the 1G30 angle measurement system form the 1A27 radar complex. Tunguska-M has the 1RL144M radar with detection range 18 km and tracking range 16 km-near of the original system’s. The mechanically scanned target acquisition radar for the Tunguska-M1 offers a 360-degree field of view, a detection range of around 18 km and can detect targets flying as low as 15 m, the target acquisition radar can be stowed when in transit. Its tracking radar has a range of 16 km. A C/D-band IFF system is also fitted and designated 1RL138. The radar system is highly protected against various types of interference, and can work if there are mountains on the horizon, regardless of the background. The radar can sees due to the rotation the helicopter of screws. The system is able to fire on the move using 30 mm cannons, although it must be stationary to fire missiles. The maximum target speed can be up to 500 m/s; reaction time 6–8 seconds. Each 2S6 has all facilities for independent warfare.

HOT SHOT 1RL144 radar system

15090142ssw Tunguska-M1  HOT SHOT radar system

The earliest 2K22/2S6 Tunguska variants employed a radar package, which used a 1RL144 search radar with a singly curved cylindrical parabolic section reflector, and a Cassegrain monopulse tracking antenna. This design has been designated the Hot Shot in Western literature. It was supplemented by a 1RL138 IFF interrogator.  Russian references list no less than four variants of of the search radar as 1RL144 for the Tunguska, 1RL144M for the Tunguska M, and the 1RL144M-VA/VS. Source ausairpower.net

The SA-19 is supported by the HOT SHOT radar system, which consists of a surveillance radar with a maximum range of 18 km, and a tracking radar with a maximum range of 13 km. The semi-automatic radar to command line-of-sight engagement requires the gunner to track the target using the roof-mounted stabilized optical sight.

The integrated fire-control system of the 2S6M incorporates the following components:

  • Target acquisition radar (TAR) (1RL144), operating in the E-band, with a max. range of 20 km.
  • Target tracking radar (TTR) (1RL144M), operating in the J-band, with a max. range of 18 km.
  • IFF system (1RL138), operating in C-and D-band.
  • Direct-view Optics (DVO).
  • Fire-control computer.

The Target acquisition radar (TAR) (1RL144) antenna is mounted at the rear of the turret and is folded down when not in use. This radar provides primary search capability in addition to measurement of range and bearing. This radar can detect targets out to maximum range of approximately 20 km. It is a coherent system that has sufficient accuracy to permit its use as a range back up for fire-control purposes. The TAR emits a fan beam covering 4.50 in azimuth and 150 in elevation. The beam is pointed at a constant elevation of 7.50 to permit detection of low-altitude targets. The antenna rotates at approximately 1 r/s, which gives a rapid update of the airspace around the 2S6M. The choice of a frequency in the E-band for the TAR is an advantage since there is low attenuation in inclement weather (rain, snow, and fog) at this frequency and therefore the acquisition radar is not degraded in such conditions.

15090147vecTunguska-M1 Target acquisition radar (TAR) (1RL144) antenna

The Target tracking radar (TTR) (1RL144M) antenna is mounted at the front section of the turret and has two fundamental functions that depend on whether the guns or missiles are selected. The tracking radar constantly relays target range, elevation and bearing to the fire-control computer, and on the basis if these data the computer generated the laying commands for the weapon system. A stabilized optical sight is used as a back up tracking channel, allowing target data to be relayed to the fire-control computer. This sight is also used to calculate the deviation of a missile’s flight path from the line-of-sight, these data being automatically relayed to the fire control computer and used to generate correction signals. During a gun engagement, the TTR functions as an automatic target tracker, feeding target position data to the fire-control computer. During missile engagement, the tracking radar locks onto the target and then lays the optical sight on the target. Subsequently the gunner assumes the target-tracking function with the electro-optic sight, and the radar is used for relaying guidance commands to the SA-19 missile. The tracking radar emits pulse-position-modulated codes for missile guidance. The TTR is a two-channel monopulse design featuring an MTI processor and a digital range-tracking system. The tracking radar is generally cued with coarse range and angle data from the TAR. Alternatively, the targeting information can be passed by means of the command and control network. Source globalsecurity.org

2s6m_tunguska_9k22m_tracked_self-propelled_air_defence_cannon_missile_system_russia_russian_army_line_drawing_blueprint_001Image @weaponsandwarfare.files.wordpress.com

Standard equipment of the 2S6 and 2S6M includes a computerized fire control system, heating, ventilation, NBC system, an automatic fire detection and suppression system, navigational equipment, night vision aids, 1V116 intercom, external communications system with an R-173 receiver-modernized in the 2S6M for better communication with the command post- and monitoring equipment. The vehicle also has protection against the effects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.

R-173 receiver-modernized


There are two variants of Radio receiver R-173PM1:

R-173PМ1 YAG1.100.030 variant – provides operation in analog mode;

R-173PМ1 YAG1.100.030-01 – provides information reception and transmission in analog and digital modes.

Frequency range, kHz Frequency spacing, kHz

Receiver’s susceptibility, ^V:

–  while analog signal reception, not worse
–  with noisekiller turned on, not worse
–   on a digital channel with error coefficient 1×10-2, not worse

Output voltage:

–  mode intercom system, not less, V
–  terminal equipment, V

1 and 2 IF image channel receiver selectivity, and on the first IF (intermediate frequency), dB
The radio receiver has 10 preset frequencies.
Average time of shifting from one preset frequency to another not more, s

The radio receiver power supply is vehicular mains, DC, V

Consumption current under nominal voltage must not exceed, A

Dimensions of the radio receiver with shock-absorber, mm

Weight max, kg

30000 – 75999













Source spetstechnoexport.com

Can work in passive mode (day + night+all weather). The biggest maneuver of possible with an overload 35g. This allows confidently hit strongly maneuvering target.

A battery of six Tunguska can automatically receive fire control information via an encrypted radio link, this allows targets to be distributed between individual units from a Ranzhir or PPRU battery command post, which can receive target information from either AWACS or early warning radar or in the case of the PPRU its own radar equipment.


  • 2K22: Original system, with 9M311, 9M311K (3M87) or 9M311-1 missiles with a range of 8 km. Some of these early versions of the “Tunguska” system were known as “Treugol’nik” (Russian Треугольник—triangle). This system is mounted on the 2S6 integrated air defence vehicle.
  • 2K22M (1990): Main production system, with 9M311M (3M88) missiles. This integrated air defence vehicle 2S6M is based on the GM-352M chassis. 2F77M transporter-loader. 2F55-1, 1R10-1 and 2V110-1 repair and maintenance vehicles.
  • 2K22M1 (2003): Improved version with the 2S6M1 combat vehicle on a GM-5975 chassis, using the 9M311-M1 missile (range: 10 km) and with an improved fire control system. Passed state trials and entered service with the Russian armed forces on 31 July 2003.
  • 2K22M with 57E6: Complete upgrade of system with new 57E6 missile and new radar system, with detection range of 38 km and a tracking range of 30 km. Missile range is increased to 18 km.

Source wikiwand.com

Tunguska-M1 is a gun/missile system for low-level air defence. The system was designed by the KBP Instrument Design Bureau in Tula, Russia and is manufactured by the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant, Ulyanovsk, Russia. It can engage targets while stationary and on the move, using missiles for long-range targets and guns for close-in defence. It is designed for defence against both fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters and can also fire on ground targets.

Tunguska entered service with the Russian army in 1988 and has been exported to Germany, India, Peru, Morocco and Ukraine.

Tunguska-M1 low-level air defence gun / missile system

2s6m1_tunguska-m1_sam-systemTunguska-M1 – Image @wikimedia.org

Combat Vehicle 2S6 consists of the following fixed assets:

  • cannon armament includes two 30-mm 2A38 automatic with the cooling system;
  • missile, includes eight launchers with ammunition guides and 9M311 missiles in trasport-launching containers, encoder, hardware of selection coordinates; 
  • power hydraulic actuators pointing guns and SAM launchers; 
  • radar system consisting of radar target detection;
  • Radar target tracking;
  • Terrestrial radio interrogator;
  • Digital countably-solver; sighting and optical equipment with the guidance system and stabilization; measurement system of rolling and course;
  • built-in test equipment; Navigation equipment; life support systems, communications, automation and safety automatics, etc.

Source en.uos.ua

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The Tunguska-M1 vehicle carries eight 9M311-M1 surface-to-air missiles. The missile (NATO designation SA-19 Grison) has semi-automatic radar command to line-of-sight guidance, weighs 40kg with a 9kg warhead. It is 2.5m long with a diameter of 1.7m and wingspan of 2.2m. The missile’s maximum speed is 900m/s and can engage targets travelling at speeds up to 500m/s. Range is from 15 to 6,000m for ground targets and 15 to 10,000m for air targets.

8 x 9M311-M1 surface-to-air missiles

tunguska6Image @army-technology.com

A solid propellant bicaliber two-stage missile with discardable booster.

Caliber ……………………………………………………. 152/76 mm
Length …………………………………………………….. 2570 mm
Mean flight velocity
to maximum range ………………………………….
550 m/s

Source kbptula.ru

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The 9M331 missiles have a hit probability of 65%. Missiles have a blast fragmentation warhead and proximity fuses, triggered near the target.  Missiles can engage targets traveling at speeds up to 500 m/s. The Tunguska is able to fire its guns on the move, however it must be stationary to fire missiles. Source military-today.com

57e6-missile-cutaway-1sTerminal stage cutaway: 1 – proximity fuse; 2 – contact fuse; 3 – warhead; 4 – explosive filler; 5 – canard actuators; 6 – electronics module; 7 – gyro package; 9 – RF transponder beacon; 10 – optical beacon (Images via KBP, Russkaya Sila, Vestnik PVO) – Image @ausairpower.net

Two twin-barrel 30mm anti-aircraft guns are mounted on the vehicle. These guns have a maximum firing rate of 5,000 rounds per minute and a range of 3,000m against air targets. This extends to 4,000m against ground targets.

2 x 2A38M 30mm anti-aircraft guns

2 x 2A38M 30mm anti-aircraft guns.  The cannons are fired alternatively with a combined rate of fire of between 3,900 and 5,000 rounds per minute (1,950 to 2,500 rpm for each gun), and have a muzzle velocity of 960 m/s. Bursts of between 83 and 250 rounds are fired as determined by the target type, with an engagement range between 0.2 and 4.0 km and to an altitude of about 3 km. HE-T and HE-I shells are used and fitted with a A-670 time and impact fuze which includes an arming delay and self destruct mechanism. Source globalsecurity.org

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30 x 165 mm Round with HE-T Projectile


The 30 x 165 mm Round with High Explosive Tracer Projectile is intended to engage air and ground  targets.

The round is fitted with distance-armed, delayed action, self-destruct fuze.

The ammunition is safe in transport, storage and handling and ensures the reliable performance of the gun systems in all weather conditions.

The automatic guns 2A42, 2A38, 2A72 and modifications are mounted on the following carriers:

  • Infantry Fighting Vehicles BMP-2, BMP-3, BMD-2, BMD-3, BTR-80A and  their modifications
  • Reconnaissance Vehicle “RIS”
  • Air-Defence Complex “Tunguska”
  • Attack Helicopters Ka-50 and Mi-28 and modifications


Caliber: 30 x 165 mm
Fuze Arming Distance: 20  to 100 m
Self-destruction Time: 7.5  to 14.5 sec
Operational Temperature Range: -50 to +50°C
Shelf Life: 15 years


Projectile: High Explosive Tracer
Fuze: A-670M
Explosive filling: A-IX-2 (RDX)
Propellant: 6/7 P-5BPfl
Cartridge case: steel
Primer: KV-30, KV-3-1


Muzzle Velocity: 950 – 970 m/s
Probable Deviation: 5 m/s
Average Pmax: 3600 kgf/cm2


Length of Round (max): 292 mm
Weight of Round: 0.826 kg
Weight of Projectile: 0.385 kg
Propellant Charge Mass: 0.122 kg
Burning Time of Tracer: not less than 10 sec

Source arcus-bg.com

30 x 165 mm Round with HE-I Projectile


The 30 x 165 mm Round with High Explosive Incendiary Projectile is intended to engage air and ground  targets.

The round is fitted with distance-armed, delayed action, self-destruct fuze.

The ammunition is safe in transport, storage and handling and ensures the reliable performance of the gun systems in all weather conditions.

The automatic guns 2A42, 2A38, 2A72 and modifications are mounted on the following carriers:

  • Infantry Fighting Vehicles BMP-2, BMP-3, BMD-2, BMD-3, BTR-80A and  their modifications
  • Reconnaissance Vehicle “RIS”
  • Air-Defence Complex “Tunguska”
  • Attack Helicopters Ka-50 and Mi-28 and modifications


Caliber: 30 x 165 mm
Fuze Arming Distance: 20  to 100 m
Self-destruction Time: 7.5  to 14.5 sec
Operational Temperature Range: -50 to +50°C
Shelf Life: 15 years


Projectile: High Explosive Incendiary
Fuze: A-670M
Explosive filling: A-IX-2 (RDX)
Propellant: 6/7 P-5BPfl
Cartridge case: steel
Primer: KV-30, KV-3-1


Muzzle Velocity: 950 – 970 m/s
Probable Deviation: 5 m/s
Average Pmax: 3600 kgf/cm2


Length of Round (max): 293 mm
Weight of Round: 0.833 kg
Weight of Projectile: 0.389 kg
Propellant Charge Mass: 0.123 kg

Source arcus-bg.com

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Armament …………………………………………. gun-missile
Engagement zones
SAM ………………………………………………….. 2500-10000 m
AD gun …………………………………………….. 200-4000 m
SAM ………………………………………………….. 15-3500 m
AD gun ……………………………………………… 0-3000 m
Ammunition load
SAM on launchers ……………………………. 8 pcs.
30 mm projectiles ……………………………. 1904 pcs.
Range of
target detection ………………………………… up to 18000 m
target tracking ………………………………….. up to 16000 m
Strategic coordination ……………………….. command post
centralized control
containerized SAM ……………………………. 60 kg
at launch ………………………………………….. 45 kg
WH …………………………………………………… 9 kg
Operation conditions
SAM ………………………………………………….. at short halts
AD gun ……………………………………………… stationary and
on the move

Specification data kbptula.ru

Fire control

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The system has target acquisition radar and target tracking radar, optical sight, digital computing system, tilt angle measuring system and navigation equipment. Radar detection range is 18km and tracking range is 16km.

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Digital Computer System (PCV) is designed to automate combat operation of ZSU,choosing the optimal mode of fire control system, weapons and fire regime, taking into account the range and target velocity. Source en.uos.ua

Tunguska-M1 anti-aircraft battery vehicle


The Tunguska-M1 system is mounted on a 34t tracked vehicle with multi-fuel engine. It has hydromechanical transmission, hydropneumatic suspension which allows for changing road clearance and hydraulic track-tensioning. The armoured turret has both laying and stabilisation drives and power supply. Air-conditioning, heating and filtration systems are fitted.

V-46-6-MS centrifugal turbocharged V-12

56356865_w640_h640_v466Image @ru.prom.st
Engine type 4-steps, V-form, 12-cylinder, burning several grades of fuel, liquid-cooled centrifugal turbocharged engine
Fuel-mixture formation system direct fuel injection
Engine power without input and output resistance kWt (hp) 574 (780)
Rotation frequency S-1 (R.P.M.) 33,3 (2000)
Tarque margin, % 18
Specific fuel consumption h/kWt per hour (h/hp per hour) 245 (180)
Weight, kg 980
Specific power, kWt/kg 0,59 (0,80)
Cylinder diameter, mm 150,0
Piston stroke in cylinder with master connecting rod, mm 180,0
Piston stroke in cylinder with artieulated connecting rod, mm 186,7
Operating displacement, l 38,88
Minimum temperature for reliable starting
of enginew/o warming before, °С
Limited engine operation conditions:
   – ambient temperature from -40°С up to +50°С
   – relative humidity up to 98% by 20°С
   – sea level up to 3000 m
Explosion sequence preportionate, every 60° crankshaft reversion
Balance level full dynamic balance

Source chtz-uraltrac.com

A Tunguska-M1 battery is composed of up to six vehicles and will also include a transloader as well as maintenance and training facilities.

The armoured turret has both laying and stabilisation drives and power supply. Air-conditioning, heating and filtration systems are fitted. A Tunguska-M1 battery is composed of up to six vehicles and will also include a transloader as well as maintenance and training facilities.

Main material source army-technology.com

Operators: Here

Technical data

System/Parameter  ЗРПК «Тунгуска»
Tunguska SPAAG
ЗРПК «Тунгуска-М»
Tunguska M SPAAG
ЗРПК «Тунгуска-М1»
Tunguska M1 SPAAG
Год принятия на вооружение
IOC Year
1982 1990 2004
Ракетное вооружение
Missile Armament
9М311 9М311 9М311-1М
Боекомплект, ракет
Missile Loadout
8 8 8
Артиллерийское вооружение
Gun Armament
2х2А38 (два 30-мм двухствольных автомата)
(two 30 mm twin barrel guns)
2х2А38М (два 30-мм двухствольных автомата)
(two 30 mm twin barrel guns)
2х2А38М (два 30-мм двухствольных автомата)
(two 30 mm twin barrel guns)
Боекомплект, выстрелы
Gun Ammo [rds]
1936 1936 1904
Vehicle Chassis
Гусеничное ГМ-352
Tracked GM-352
Tracked GM-352
Гусеничное ГМ-5975
Tracked GM-5975
По дальности
2500-8000 2500-8000 2500-10000
По высоте
15-3500 15-3500 15-3500
По дальности
200-4000 200-4000 200-4000
По высоте
0-3000 0-3000 0-3000
Темп стрельбы, выстр./мин/ствол
Rate of Fire/BBL
1015 1015 1250
Число одновременно поражаемых целей ракетным оружием
Concurrently Engaged Targets by Missile
1 1 1

Source ausairpower.net

2K22/2K22M Battery Components

System Qty Function/Composition Vehicle
2S6/2S6M 4-6 8 Round SPAAGM GM-352
2F77M 2-3 8 Round Missile Transporter/Transloader KamAZ-43101
9S737MK Ranzhir
1 Mobile Command Post MT-LBu
1R10-1M 1 Engineering Repair/Test Station Ural-43203-1012
2F55-1 1 Missile Preparation/Assembly Station Ural-43203-1012
2V110-1 1 Engineering Repair Station Ural-43203-1012
9V921 1 Engineering Repair/Test Station GAZ-66
ITO-APG-M1 1 Mobile Workshop ZiL-131

96K6 Pantsir S1 Hybrid Tracked SPAAGM (GM-352M1E)

1RS2/1RS2-E Shlem or SSTsR fire control system

1RS2/1RS2-E Shlem or SSTsR

This pulse Doppler radar is designated the 1RS2/1RS2-E Shlem or SSTsR (Stantsiya Slezheniya Tsel’a i Rakety – Target and Missile Tracking Station), initially designated the 1RS1 and 1RS1-E for export. Cited tracking range performance for a 2 m2 target is 30 km. Cited RMS angular errors for X-band operation are 0.3-0.8 milliradians, for Ku-band operation 0.2-0.4 milliradians, with a 5 metre range error.

The X-band component of the SSTsR is used for target tracking, and uplink of missile steering commands., the Ku-band component for target and missile beacon tracking. The system typically guides one or two missile rounds against a single target.

In 2004 the requirement for the PVO engagement radar changed, when it was expected that the program would be cancelled. A new requirement was issued to increase the number of concurrent targets to be tracked and engaged, and engagement range was increased. This likely reflects the success of the US GBU-31/32/35/38 JDAM and emergence of analogues globally, where more than two weapons would be released from an aircraft concurrently. With the GBU-39/B Small Diameter Bomb intended to be released eight at a time, the Roman and Shlem would be saturated in a single aircraft attack.


This resulted in the development of an entirely new PESA based radar, curiously designated the 1RS2-1 / 1RS2-1E, but also labelled by a Russian source as the 1RL123-E. VNIIRT has been credited with the development of this design. To date all imagery has excluded views of the PESA antenna without the protective radome, so the following description is based on recent public disclosures and is yet to be validated:

  • Operating centre wavelength claimed by KBP to be “8 mm in the K-band” – antenna geometry suggests 15 mm (20 GHz) to 18 mm (16.7 GHz);
  • Beamsteering angles of up to ±45° of arc;
  • Mechanical PESA boresight steering in elevation between -5° and 82°;
  • Track while scan of nine separate targets;
  • 90% probability of initial target acquisition within 1 second of coordinate transfer from the 2RL80 with errors of ±2.5° in azimuth, ±2.5° in elevation, ±200 m in range and ±60 metres / sec in radial velocity;
  • Tracking errors of 0.2 milliradians in azimuth, 0.3 milliradians in elevation, 5 metres in range and 2 metres / sec in velocity;
  • Ability to track airborne targets at velocities between 10 to 1,100 metres / sec;
  • Ability to capture 4 missiles after launch;
  • Ability to track 3 to 4 outbound missiles at velocities between 30 to 2,100 metres / sec;
  • Detection range of 24 km against a 2.0 m2 RCS airborne target; 21 km against a 1 m2RCS airborne target; 16 km against a 0.5 m2 RCS airborne target; 10 km against a 0.1 m2 RCS airborne target; 7 km against a 0.03 m2 RCS airborne target;

High countermeasures resistance is claimed for the 1RS2-1 and 2RL80, but not detailed beyond the standard descriptions found in brochures.

The primary antenna is used for target and missile tracking, it is supplemented by a command link antenna which is part of the APKNR (Apparatura Peredachi Komand i Naprovadzaniya Raket) subsystem for datalink control of the missiles. Source ausairpower.net

Image: ausairpower.net

The system can conduct fire at two targets at the same time and attack up to 12 targets within a minute. The system’s effective range for missiles is 20 kilometers and the maximum altitude is eight kilometers, and for artillery shells up to three and four kilometers respectively.

Optical Sensors


Early variants of the Tunguska series introduced an electroptical tracker to provide silent angle tracking in jamming environments. The electro-optical tracking system includes a longwave (8 – 14 μm band) thermal imager for target acquisition and tracking, and a dual band short (3 – 5 μm) / midwave  (0.6 -1.1. μm) IR tracker for angular measurement of the missile beacon.


In the Pantsir S1 the AOP (Avtonomniy Opticheskiy Post) is cued by the radar system, and provides angle tracking of the target and missiles. The cited system specifications are [1][2]:

  • Azimuth coverage of ± 90 °;
  • Elevation coverage from -5 ° to 82°;
  • Angular tracking rate of 100° / sec;
  • Angular acceleration of 170° / sec;
  • French Sagem MATIS LR midwave thermal imager with WFOV of 4.17° x 6.25°, and NFOV of 0.87° x 1.3°, with a 0.05 mrad angular track error;
  • Acquisition performance: F-16 at 17 to 26 km; AGM-88 HARM at 13 to 15 km; cruise missiles at 11 to 14 km, and glidebombs at ~10 km;

Source ausairpower.net

TTX IR finder ZUR:
the spectral sensitivity range – 0,77-0,91 m

wide field narrow field
Angular field of view – Horizontal -2.5 .. + 2.5 ° -0.4 .. + 0.4 °
Angular field of view – Vertical -1.0 .. + 4.0 ° -0.3 .. + 0.6 °
Accurate determination of coordinates of the laser transponder ZUR 2 mrad 0.05 mrad

Translated by google – Source militaryrussia.ru

The probability of destroying the target is 0.6 to 0.8 depending on its type and obstacles. The time of response is 5-6 seconds.



Using a digital data link system up to six Pantsir-S1 combat vehicle can operate in various modes.

  • Stand alone combat operation: All the combat sequence from detecting a target to its engagement is fulfilled by a single Pantsir-S1 combat vehicle without employing other assets.
  • Operation within a battery (“master-slave”): One Pantsir-S1 operates both as combat vehicle and as “master” command post. 3 to 5 Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles acting as “slave” receive target designation data from the “master” and subsequently fulfil all the combat operation stages.
  • Operation within a command post: The command post sends target designations to the Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles and subsequently fulfill the designation order.
  • Operation within a battery with command post and early warning radar: The command post receives air situation picture from a connected early warning radar and sends target designations to the Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles and subsequently fulfil the designation order.

Source wow.com

The most recent variants of the system displayed have included components of the radar suites developed for the 96K6 Pantsir S1 / SA-22, specifically the 2RL80 S-band phased array acquisition radar and 1RS2/1RS2-E Shlem or SSTsR (Stantsiya Slezheniya Tsel’a i Rakety – Target and Missile Tracking Station) engagement radar.

pantsir001The modernised 2S6M1 Tunguska M1 employs a planar array search radar, and a distinctive radome for the engagement radar component Air Power Australia WebsiteCrew stations in the recent Pantsir S1E hosted on the GM-352 chassis (image © Miroslav Gyűrösi) – Image @ausairpower.net

Source ausairpower.net

Pantsir-S2 mobile air defense system: Here

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