Monthly Archives: June 2016

North Korean ‘Scud-ER’ missile can reach US naval base in Japan, says report

IHS Janes

Iranian air defence to cover Gulf


Shenyang J-11 Multirole Fighter Aircraft, China

Shenyang J-11, or Jian-11, is a Chinese multirole fighter aircraft manufactured by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation (SAC). It is a licensed-built variant of the Sukhoi Su-27SK (Nato code name: Flanker) fighter. The J-11 is operated by the People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).

The PLA is now operating or developing no less than eight distinct variants or derivatives of the Russian developed Flanker fighter, and in 2012 was reported to be negotiating access to the Su-35S, which constitutes a ninth variant.

This is greater diversity in variants of the Flanker than the diversity of the Russian Federation armed forces which operate the Su-27S Flanker B, Su-27UB Flanker C, Su-27M/Su-35 Flanker E, Su-27MUB/Su-35UB Flanker E, Su-27K/Su-33 Flanker D and in 2012, the Su-35S.

The common perception, reinforced by Russian media disinformation, is that Chinese Flankers are either Russian sourced, or exact clones of Russian variants. This is not correct, as the only Chinese built Flankers identical to Russian aircraft were the 100 licence built J-11A Flanker B aircraft, identical to Russian supplied Su-27SK Flanker B.

While the first indigenous variant, the J-11B, uses the basic Su-27SK Flanker B airframe, it was mostly unique systems, many different from the Russian systems in the Su-27SK.

The dual seat J-11BS is a fusion of the J-11B and Su-27UBK designs. Source

Sukhoi and SAC signed a $2.5bn contract for the co-production of 200 Su-27SK fighters as the J-11 in February 1996. As part of this contract, Sukhoi was responsible for supplying components to assemble the aircraft at SAC.



The Su-27 (Nato designation Flanker) is the front-line fighter aircraft designed by the Sukhoi Design Bureau and manufactured by Irkut Corporation. The export version is the Su-27SK.

The aircraft is equipped to operate autonomously in combat over hostile territory, in escort of deep-penetration strike aircraft and in the suppression of enemy airfields. The aircraft provides general air defence in cooperation with ground and airborne control stations. A naval variant with folding wings, the Su-33, exists.

Su-27SK cockpit


Su-27 entered production in 1982 and is in service with Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, Uzbekistan and Vietnam, and is built under license in China as the F-11. A variant, the Su-30MK, has been sold to India with licensed local production. Source

Helmet-mounted sight (HMS) Image

The Su-27 is a highly-agile aircraft that can outmanoeuvre most of Western 4th-generation fighters. The outstanding aerodynamic performance of the aircraft, combined with its beyond-visual-range (BVR) capability, unique infrared search and tracking (IRST) system and helmet-mounted sight (HMS), the R-27 and R-73 air-to-air missiles (AAM), the wingtip-mounted electronic countermeasure (ECM) pods, and the 1,400 km combat radius without refuelling, gave the PLAAF the edge over most of its rivals air forces in Asia.

Photo by Chen Qingshun

The fighter is a large twin-engine aircraft with twin air intakes and twin tails. A tail beam between the engine nozzles contains equipment, fuel tank and the brake-chute casing. The powerplant consists of two Lyulka Engine Design Bureau (NPO Saturn) AL-31F turbofan engines, each rated at 17,857lb (79.43kN) dry and 27,557lb st (122.58kN) with afterburning. The aircraft only use internal fuel tank and does not carry auxiliary tanks, leaving valuable hard point spaces to carry extra weapons.

AL-31F turbofan engine

The Su-27s in service with the PLAAF are equipped with the NIIP Tikhomirov N001E Myech coherent pulse-Doppler radar with track-while-scan and ‘look-down/shoot-down’ capability. The radar has a maximum search range of 240 km; a target engagement range of 80—100 km in the forward hemisphere and 40 km in the rear hemisphere for a fighter-sized target. The radar has the capacity to search, detect and track up to 10 aerial targets with automatic threat assessment and prioritisation, and engage two simultaneously.

Tikhomirov NIIP N001 radar

The NIIP N001 was the first radar to be fitted to mass production Su-27 and Su-27S Flankers, during the 1980s. It uses a twisted Cassegrainian antenna arrangement borrowed from the MiG-29’s N019 multimode radar. Variants of the N001 remain in production, despite its much inferior performance compared to the N011 series and its later derivatives.

The 1980s N001 is the first radar to be fitted to production Flankers. Initially developed with the aim of outperforming the APG-63 in the F-15A/C the developmental design, using a planar array antenna, not perform to expectation and the design was significantly revised, using components from the MiG-29’s N019 multimode radar. The antenna arrangement is a much more conventional 1.1 metre diameter twisted Cassegrainian scaled from the N019 but still exploiting the large radome volume to effect.

The N001 was during the early 1990s superceded in Russian Air Force production by the N011 planar array design used in the Su-27M. It remained in production for export Su-27SK aircraft delivered to China, Vietnam and other global clientèle’s.

A series of incremental upgrades have been performed on the N001, primarily to improve reliability and provide additional modes. The N001V/N001VE have improved digital processing, with a Russian Baguette  BCVM-486-6 processor, compatibility with the R-77 / RVV-AE Adder BVR missile, and a range of air to surface modes to support multirole operations and air to surface and anti-shipping munitions. The relationship between the N001VE/VEP is not unlike that between the APG-63 on the F-15C and APG-70 on the strike oriented F-15E. Source


Additional detection and tracking capabilities are provided by the aircraft’s infrared search and track system and helmet-mounted target designator. The OEPS-27 electro-optic system consists of the OLS-27 IRST sensor collimated with a laser rangefinder. The OLS-27 sensor is placed forward of the cockpit canopy in the centre.

The system acquires and tracks aerial targets by their thermal signatures. The range of the electro-optical system is 40—100 km, depending on the aspect angle presented by the target. For better close air combat performance, the pilot is assisted by a RLPK-27 helmet-mounted sight (HMS). The HMS and the laser range finder of the IRST can also be used to visually acquire and determine coordinates of air and surface targets.

OLS-27 / Izdeliye 36Sh Specification

A combined IRST/LR device for the Su-27, similar to the MiG-29’s KOLS but more sophisticated, using a cooled, broader waveband, sensor. Tracking rate is over 25deg/sec. 50km range in pursuit engagement, 15km head-on. The laser rangefinder operates between 300-3000m for air targets, 300-5000m for ground targets.

Search limits are ±60deg azimuth, +60/-15° in elevation. Three different FOVs are used, 60° by 10°, 20° by 5°, and  3° by 3°.  Detection range is up to 50km, whilst the laser ranger is effective from 300-3000m. Azimuth tracking is accurate to 5 secs, whilst range data is accurate to 3-10m. Targets are displayed on the same CRT display as the radar. Weighs 174kg.

OLS-27K for Su-33 featured new algorithms and better processor. It allegedly tracked targets in pursuit mode by their IR signature at 90 km during tests. Source

The SEI-31 integrated indication system provides flight, navigation and sighting data on the ILS-31 head-up display (HUD) and CRT. The EW self-defence system provides warning to the crew when illuminated by enemy radar and employs both passive and active countermeasures. The aircraft is equipped with the SPO-15 Beryoza radar warning receiver (RWR) and APP-50 IR decoy dispenser. Chaff dispensers are placed in the tail section between the engine nozzles. In addition, the aircraft can carry the Sorbtsiya active jamming ECM pods on its wingtips.

Beryoza / SPO-15 / L006

downloadHybrid analogue/digital radar warning receiver. Sucessor to the Sirena-3M. Specifications were agreed upon in 1969, project was launched in 1970. Entered service in the late 70s.

SPO-15 is comprised of the following components:

forward azimuth antennae
control centre
cockpit indicator station
HF converters
elevation angle antennae
Power supply
Long range antennae


The outer yellow lights represent the azimuth angle of the most threatening target. The light will remain lit for 8-12 seconds, so a scan rate less than this will result in a permanently lit light. The inner green dots show all other targets. The lights will indicate the approximate direction. If the emitter lies in a direction between two lights both adjacent lights will light up. The six lights across the bottom represents 6 target types which will show the radar type of the most threatening target. The inner ring of yellow indicators light up successively to show the strength of the received signal. As well as the visual indicator, a low pitched sound with similar characteristics to the detected radar signal will be given.

If the hostile radar switches to tracking (STT) the red circle will flash and a continuous high pitched audio tone will sound.

When a SAM launch is detected a continuous variable pitch sound will be given.

The Beryoza is claimed to be capable of detecting enemy airborne radars at 120% of the distance within which the enemy fighter can launch a missile.

Radars operating in TWS mode cannot be distinguished from search mode.

The priority target is simply detirmined by target type- one type is always considered more dangerous than another, regardless of signal strength or other factors.

Bands covered: 4.45-10.35GHz
Direction finding: ±10° (front)
Bandwidth capability: 20Khz
Weight: 25kg


APP-50 IR decoy dispenser


The APP-50 passive jamming automatic units (decoy dispensers) are designed to protect aircraft from engagement in flight by airborne missile systems and air defence missile/artillery systems by dispensing radar/IR interference rounds. The dispensers are installed onboard aircraft, and can be controlled manually (from the control panel) or automatically. The APP-50 dispensers can be delivered in two variants: APP-50P for autonomous operation; APP-50A for integration into onboard electronic support systems. The dispenser can launch rounds (up to three types) in continuous, salvo, combined and emergency modes. Launch time intervals, number of salvos and number of rounds in one salvo (from 1 to 4) are set by operator or by the electronic support system.

Developer and manufacturer: Gorizont JSC


 Launch altitude envelope, m  0 – 30, 000
 Launch time intervals, sec  0,1 – 8,0
 Round types  PRP-50, PPI-50
 Caliber, mm  50
 Number of rounds  24
 Dispenser weight (loaded), kg  53 – 56,5
 Launch modes  continuous, salvo, by series


Sorbtsiya active jamming ECM pods on its wingtip

Newer Flankers carry the podded wingtip mounted KNIRTI SPS-171 / L005S Sorbtsiya-S mid/high band defensive jammer (ECM), this system being an evolution of a jammer developed for the Backfire C. The Sorbtsiya-S, unlike most Western jamming pods, is designed to operate in pairs and uses forward and aft looking steerable wideband phased arrays to maximise jamming effect, a similar arrangement to the Eurofighter Typhoon EWSP package. It is worth observing that the Sorbtsiya is clearly built to provide cross-eye jamming modes against monopulse threats, and the wideband mainlobe steering capability provided by the phased array permits best possible utilisation of available jamming power. A graded dielectric lens is employed. Russian contractors have been recently using Digital RF Memory (DRFM) technology, which is of the same generation as the US IDECM EWSP, and competing Israeli systems. Source

The fixed weapon includes a GSh-301 30mm cannon fitted internally with 150 rounds of ammunition. The aircraft has ten external hardpoints (2 tandem under the fuselage centre-line; 2 under the air ducts; 4 under the wings; 2 on the wingtips) to carry up to 8,000 kg weapon payload. For visual-range air-to-air combat, the aircraft is equipped with the Vympel R-73 (NATO reporting name: AA-11 Archer) IR-homing short-range AAM. For BVR combat the aircraft is equipped with the R-27 (NATO reporting name: AA-10 Alamo) semi-active radar-homing medium-range AAM, in both long and short burn variants.

GSh-301 30mm cannon

The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30 (ГШ-30) is a family of autocannons used on certain Russian military aircraft.

The GSh-30-1 (also known as “GSh-301”) is the standard cannon armament of most modern Russian fighters including the Yak-141 Freestyle, MiG-29 Fulcrum, Su-27 Flanker and its’ various derivatives. The GSh-30-2 is carried by the Sukhoi Su-25 Frogfoot ground attack plane and in external gun pods. The GSh-30-2K is a modified version with 2400mm long water-cooled barrels and variable rate of fire. It is used on a fixed mounting on Mi-24P Hind-F helicopters.

Photo by Zhang Shu

Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1

  • Caliber: 30x165mm
  • Operaton: Gast principle
  • Length: 1978mm
  • Weight (complete): 46 kg
  • Rate of fire: 1500–1800 rpm
  • Muzzle velocity: 860 m/s
  • Projectile weight: 386-404 g (13.6-14.25 oz)
  • Mounting platforms: Yakovlev Yak-141 “Freestyle”, Mikoyan MiG-29 “Fulcrum”, Sukhoi Su-27 “Flanker” (and derivatives), Sukhoi Su-34 “Fullback”


Vympel R-73 (NATO reporting name: AA-11 Archer)

Photo by Tang Jun


Currently the R-73 is the best Russian short range air-to-air missile. Apart from an exceptional maneverability, this missile is also directly connected to the pilot’s helmet, which allows engagement of targets lateral to the aircraft, which cannot be engaged by missiles with a traditional system of targeting and guidance. The R-73A, an earlier variant of this missile, has a 30 km range, while the most recent R-73M can hit targets at a distance of 40 km.


The R-73 short-range, close-combat standardized missile was developed in the Vympel Machine Building Design Bureau, and became operational in 1984. The R-73 is included in the weapon complex of MiG-23MLD, MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters and their modifications and also of Mi-24, Mi-28 and Ka-50 helicopters. It also can be employed in flying craft which do not have sophisticated aiming systems.

The missile is used for engaging modern and future fighters, attack aircraft, bombers, helicopters, drones and cruise missiles, including those executing a maneuver with a g-force up to 12. It permits the platform to intercept a target from any direction, under any weather conditions, day or night, in the presence of natural interference and deliberate jamming. It realizes the “fire and forget” principle.

The missile design features a canard aerodynamic configuration: control surfaces are positioned ahead of the wing at a distance from the center of mass. The airframe consists of modular compartments accommodating the homing head, aerodynamic control surface drive system, autopilot, proximity fuze, warhead, engine, gas-dynamic control system and aileron drive system. The lifting surfaces have a small aspect ratio. Strakes are mounted ahead of the aerodynamic control surfaces.

The combined aero-gas-dynamic control gives the R-73 highly maneuverable flight characteristics. During flight, yaw and pitch are controlled by four aerodynamic control surfaces connected in pairs and by just as many gas-dynamic spoilers (fins) installed at the nozzle end of the engine. Control with engine not operating is provided by aerodynamic control surfaces. Roll stabilization of the missile is maintained with the help of four mechanically interconnected ailerons mounted on the wings. Drives of all missile controls are gas, powered from a solid-propellant gas generator.

The passive infrared homing head supports target lock-on before launch. Guidance to the predicted position is by the proportional navigation method. The missile’s combat equipment consists of an active proximity (radar or laser) fuze and impact fuze and a continuous-rod warhead.

The engine operates on high-impulse solid propellant and has a high-tensile steel case. Russia’s Vympel weapons designers have developed a one-of-a-kind air-to-air missile, which NATO has dubbed as AA-11, for use on foreign fighter planes. Techically and militarily the new missile, meant for quick-action dogfights, leave its foreign analogues far behind. Vympel experts have also made it possible for the new missile to be easily installed on all available types of aircraft. The AA-11 can also be used on older planes which will now be able to effectively handle the US’ highly maneuverable F-15 and F-16 jets. The AA-11 missile is based on all-new components, use new high-energy solid fuel and an advanced guidance and control system which has made it possible to minimize their size. Their exceptionally high accuracy is ensured by the missile’s main secret, the so-called transverse control engine, which rules out misses during the final approach trajectory. The transverse control engine is still without parallel in the world.

Photo by Tang Jun

Russia has offered the export-version R-7EE air-to-air missile system for sale so that it can be fitted to foreign-made fighter aircraft. Developed by the Vympel state-sector engineering and design bureau, the R-7EE is designed for close-quarters aerial combat. Vympel specialists have developed a way of ensuring that the missile system can be fitted to virtually any type of aircraft. It can be fitted to older aircraft, which feature heavily in third-world countries’ air forces.

Contractor Vympel
Date Deployed 1980s
Range 20 km (R-73M1)  30 km (R-73M2) 40 km
Speed Mach 2.5
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance All aspect Infrared
Warhead 7.4 kg HE expanding rod warhead
Launch Weight 105 kg (R-73M1)  115 kg (R-73M2)
Length 2.9 m
Diameter 170 mm
Fin Span 0.51 m
Platforms Su-27, Su-33, Su-34, Su-35, Su-37, MiG-29, MiG-31, MiG-33, Yak-141, Ka-50, Ka-52

Data Images sourced from the net

R-27 (NATO reporting name: AA-10 Alamo)

Photo by Tang Jun

Medium-range missiles R-27 (e), designed to intercept and destroy aircraft and helicopters of all types of unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles in a dogfight at medium and long distances, with individual and group actions carrier aircraft, day and night, in simple and adverse weather conditions, from any direction, against the background of the earth and the sea, with active information, firing and maneuvering countering enemy.

Up to 6 x R-27R SARH air-to-air missiles

27R SARH air-to-air missiles – Image

Available in several versions, differing use of two types of homing – semi-active radar (PARGS) and heat – and two types of propulsion systems – with standard and increased installed power. Modifications PARGS are designated R-27R and R-27ER, with TGS – R-27T, R-27ET, with propulsion of increased energy available – R-27ER and R-27ET.

Main material rocket design titanium alloy, a steel motor housing .

For the suspension to the carrier aircraft and launch weight of both modifications missiles used the same launchers rail and catapult type.

2 x R-27ET IR air-to-air missiles extended range

R-27ET IR air-to-air missiles extended range – Image

The rail trigger APU-470 is used for the deployment of missiles under the wings of the aircraft, and the ejection device AKU-470 for the deployment of missiles under the fuselage and under the wings.



In a typical interception mission, the aircraft carries four R-73 and six R-27 missiles. Alternatively, the aircraft could carry two R-73 missiles, six R-27 missiles, and two KNIRTI SPS-171/L005 Sorbtsiya active jamming electronic countermeasures (ECM) pods on the wing-tips for self-defence.

High explosive general purpose bombs FAB-100, FAB-250, FAB-500

High explosive general purpose bombs FAB-100, FAB-250, FAB-500 –

Concrete piercing bombs BetAB-500

Concrete piercing bombs BetAB-500 – Image

Cluster munitions RBK-250, RBK-500, KMGU

Cluster munitions RBK-250, RBK-500, KMGU – Image

Rockets S-8, S-13, S-25

Rockets S-8, S-13, S-25 – Image

Illumination bomb SAB-100

Illumination bomb SAB-100  – Image

One shortcoming of the basic variant Su-27 is its lack of air-to-ground weapon options. The aircraft was originally designed as an air-superiority fighter, with ground attack as a secondary role. The aircraft cannot carry any precision-guided weapons, and relies on low-drag free-fall bombs and unguided rocket launchers for ground attack, which exposes the expensive fighter to enemy air defence fire power in combat.

Imports of the Su-27

High-level negotiations between Beijing and Moscow over a possible fighter deal began in 1990. Soviet pilots demonstrated the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29 Fulcrum and Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker fighters in Beijing in March 1991. After careful evaluations, China signed the contract for 26 Su-27 fighters, including 20 in the single-seat Su-27SK (‘Flanker-B’) variant and 6 in the two-seat Su-27UBK (‘Flanker-C’) variant. The delivery of these aircraft was completed by 1992, making China the first non-CIS country to operate the fighter. These aircraft were initially operated by the PLAAF 3rd Aviation Division / 7th Fighter Regiment at Wuhu Airbase, Anhui Province. Along with the aircraft, the PLAAF also received unknown numbers of the R-27 medium-range AAM and the R-73 short-range AAM.


Su-27UBK (‘Flanker-C’) variant

After showing interest in acquiring a second batch in 1993, China ordered 22 examples (16 Su-27SKs and 6 Su-27UBKs) in 1995 in a deal worth about US$710 million. In reporting to the United Nations, both China and Russia confirmed that the transfer of 22 aircraft took place in 1996. A Russian source noted that China requested special modifications for its aircraft, which included strengthened landing gear to enable the aircraft to carry its designed fuel load and enable its intended 1,400 km combat radius. These aircraft are operated by an aviation regiment organic to the PLAAF 2nd Aviation Division at Suixi Airbase, Guangdong Province.

In 1995, China expressed interest in a licensed co-production of the Su-27. In 1996, Sukhoi Company (JSC) and SAC entered into a contract worth US$2.5 billion for the co-production of 200 Su-27 fighters as the J-11. Under the terms of the agreement, Sukhoi/KnAAPO would supply the aircraft in kit form to be assembled in SAC. Russia was also responsible for supplying China with the avionics suite and AL-31F turbofan engines for the J-11 production.

The J-11 production appeared to be limited to the single-seat Su-27SK Flanker-B variant only. A lack of comparable training aircraft forced the PLAAF to order the third batch of 28 Su-27s, all in the two-seat UBK fighter-trainer variant. The delivery of these aircraft took place in 2002 and they were initially deployed by the PLAAF 33rd Aviation Division at Baishiduo Airbase, Chongqing.

The PLAAF-operated Su-27 was first seen in action in 1996, when Chinese state television images showed the aircraft flying in four-plane formation and firing rockets at ground targets during a PLA exercise near the Taiwan Strait. In summer 1999, Suixi-based Su-27s flew round-trip missions over the Taiwan Strait during the PLA joint exercises. However, it took probably a decade for the PLAAF to become really proficient in operating the aircraft. At least five examples were reportedly destroyed during a typhoon in 1998, with more lost in flight training accidents over the years.

A number of reasons may have contributed to the stop of the J-11 production. Firstly, the co-production agreement did not include the transfer of avionics and engine technologies, and the Chinese-built J-11 would have to continue relying on the Russian supply of these systems. Secondly, the Russian-made fire-control system on the J-11 is not compatible with the Chinese missiles. As a result, the PLAAF had to import additional R-27 (AA-10) MRAAM and R-73 (AA-11) SRAAM from Russia to support the operations of its J-11s. Thirdly, as a single mission air superiority fighter, the Su-27SK/J-11 could only perform secondary attack missions, and only with “dumb” munitions that include a range of free-fall bombs and unguided rockets.

Sukhoi Company JSC actively marketed its Su-27SKM to the PRC in 2003. The Su-27SKM was a modernised multi-role variant derived from the Su-27SK, but with an improved Zhuk-27 (or N001VEP on the later variant) fire-control radar, and an upgraded cockpit featuring multifunctional displays similar to that of the Su-30MK. However, the aircraft was rejected by the PLAAF in favour of an ‘indigenised’ variant of the J-11. Source

Development of the Shenyang J-11

The first aircraft assembled in Shenyang was flight tested in December 1998. Full-scale production was delayed because of technical issues.

About 100 aircraft were manufactured by 2003. Production ceased subsequently, as the basic J-11 variant did not meet the PLAAF requirements.

J-11 was later upgraded with Russian assistance which features two color MFDs in the cockpit replacing the old monochrome radar scope. One normally serves as a digital moving map display (coupled with GPS). The aircraft can also fire the newly acquired R-27RE1 SARH AAM with an extended range of 66km. This variant (dubbed J-11A?) first flew in December 1999. Recent images indicated that J-11A can also fire the actively guided R-77, suggesting an improved fire-control system with new software and hardware. This may have been the result of assistance from Ukraine or Belarus. A further upgraded variant dubbed J-11B was developed as well (see below). The first phase production concluded by the end of 2006 after a total of 105 J-11s were produced in 4 batches. The production has been switched to J-11B in the subsequent phase.Recent images (November 2014) indicated that some (S/N 20x5x, 11x3x) have been upgraded with two UV band MAWS antennas behind the cockpit plus two on the vertical tailfins to provide coverage for both forward and rear hemispheres. Source

Sukhoi offered its Su-27SKM fighter to China in 2003. It was a modernised multirole variant based on the Su-27SK. The PLAAF rejected the aircraft in favour of a domestic variant of the J-11.

SAC unveiled a mock-up J-11B aircraft in 2002. It is an upgraded multirole variant of the J-11. The company delivered the first test aircraft to the China Flight Test Establishment (CFTE) for evaluation in 2006.

J-11 HUD in it’s sights at an exercise between the People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF)

Design of the multirole fighter aircraft

Designed based on the Su-27SK, the airframe of J-11 is made of titanium and aluminium alloys. The fuselage section integrates the cockpit, radar sections and avionics bay. The basic J-11 version incorporates Russian-made components. The indigenously built J-11B uses the same airframe and is equipped with Chinese-built avionics and weapon systems.

The J-11 has a length of 21.9m, wingspan of 14.7m and a height of 5.9m. The wing area of the aircraft is 62m². The aircraft has a maximum take-off weight of 33,000kg.


J-11B –

SAC unveiled its intension to develop an ‘indigenised’ version of the J-11 by unveiling a J-11 mock-up carrying various Chinese air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles in mid-2002. Russian sources also confirmed that SAC was developing an unlicensed copy of the Su-27 without Russian-supplied kits and systems. The aircraft, which was designated J-11B, entered operational service with the PLAAF in 2007 and the PLA Naval Air Force in 2010.

The J-11B was based on the Su-27/J-11 airframe, but incorporated with Chinese-made engines and systems. Its improvements include:

  • The Chinese Type 1493 multifunctional pulse-Doppler fire-control radar, reportedly capable of tracking 6—8 targets and engaging 4 of them simultaneously;
  • An indigenous digital flight-control system;
  • A Chinese copy of the Russian OEPS-27 electro-optic search and tracking system;
  • A strap-down INS/GPS navigation system;
  • A ‘glass’ cockpit featuring four colour multifunctional displays (MFD) and a wide-angle holographic head-up display (HUD);
  • A missile approach warning system (MAWS), with two sensors installed on both sides of the tail boom to provide coverage for the rear hemisphere;


The aircraft is armed with the Chinese-made PL-8 IR-homing SRAAM and PL-12 active radar-homing MRAAM. While the Su-27/-30 and R-77 (AA-12 Adder) combination could only offer a two-target engagement capability, successful integration of the PL-12 on the J-11B would likely provide a genuine multi-target engagement capability.

PL-8 IR-homing SRAAM (Python 3)

It has been rumored for a long time that Israel sold the Python-3 technology to China in the 80s, although this was never publicly acknowledged by either side. The result is PL-8 (K/AKK-8?), an all-aspect IR-guided AAM distinguished by its unique swept tail stabilizing fins and a large warhead (11kg). Several variants were developed,including the original PL-8, the improved PL-8A (with more domestic components) and the latest PL-8B. PL-8B was first discovered in mid-2005 featuring a PL-9 style all-aspect InSb seeker and a programmable digital processor, which offer a wider off-boresight angle. Its range has been increased to 20km. The missile is also compatible with Chinese made HMS. Since then this version has replaced PL-8/8A. PL-8B has been seen carried by J-7D/E/G, J-8D/H/F, J-10/A/B, J-11B, JL-9 and JH-7A replacing the old PL-2B/PL-5B. Currently the missile is the primary dogfight weapon in PLAAF’s arsenal until the new PL-10 enters the service (see below). Source

PL-12/SD-10 active radar-homing MRAAM

The PL-12 is claimed to have an operational ceiling of at least 21 km, with a maximum effective range of 100 km and a minimum engagement range of 1,000 m. The missile has a 38+ g manoeuvering limit and, according to CATIC, it has been tested for a 100-hour captive ‘live flight’ life. According to Chinese claims, PL-12 is more capable than the American AIM-120 A/B, but slightly inferior than the AIM-120C. Source

PL-12 (K/AKK-12?) was under development at LETRI/607 Institute since early 90s. The missile was expected to be in the same class as AIM-120A/B and its active seeker may have evolved from the earlier AMR-1 design (R-129? based on Russian 9B-1348 seeker & datalink for R-77). Its tailfins appear to have fin tips as well as the leading edges of the fin root cropped. These specially designed tailfins are believed to possess lower drag for greater speed and higher torque for better maneuverability. Two datalink antennas can be seen next to the nozzle for mid-course correction. Several dielectric strips are seen along the middle warhead section which house the radio proximity fuse. PL-12 completed its development test in December 2004 and was certified in 2005. Its export version is called SD-10 (SD-10A as the improved version) and was first revealed to the public during the 2002 Zhuhai Airshow. Currently it is in the service with J-8F, J-10, J-11B, J-15 and Su-30MK2. In addition SD-10A is being carried by JF-17 currently in service with PAF. Some specifications of SD-10: length 3,850mm, diameter 203mm, wing span 674mm, weight 180kg, max g-load 38g, max speed 4M, range 60-70km. Recently produced PL-12 is expected to feature an improved seeker with new digital processor and SINS. The improved PL-12 (PL-12A?) is thought to be comparable to American AIM-120C4. It was reported in November 2010 that PL-12 may feature an active/passive dual mode seeker in order to achieve greater ECCM capability and kill probability. Source


The J-11B is also expected to have enhanced air-to-surface attack capabilities with the indigenous precision-guided ammunitions such as LT-2 laser-guided bomb, the LS-6 precision-guided glide bomb, the YJ-91 (Kh-31P) anti-radiation missile, and the KD-88 air-to-surface missile.

SAC has developed the WS-10A ‘Taihang’ turbofan engine, which is believed to be similar to the Russian AL-31F in both technology and performance. The first WS-10A-powered J-11B made its maiden flight in 2004. However, the engine has reportedly suffered from serious design flaws after entering service in 2007, causing delay in the J-11B production. The issues with the WS-10A engine were reportedly resolved later and new batches of the J-11B are now fitted with Chinese engines.


The two-seat fighter-trainer variant of the J-11 was designated J-11BS. The aircraft is generally similar to the Su-27UBK (‘Flanker-C’), but fitted with Chinese engines, avionics, and weapon suite.



Shenyang J-11 cockpit and avionics

The glass cockpit of J-11 accommodates a single pilot. It is equipped with colour multifunctional displays (MFDs), a head-up display (HUD), helmet-mounted sight (HMS) and an indigenous digital flight-control system.

Pilot of J-11 with HMS

The avionics suite integrates an IFF system interrogator, attitude and heading reference system, automatic direction finder, electro-optic search and tracking system, INS/GPS navigation system, fire control radar and indigenous multifunctional pulse-Doppler radar. The onboard automatic monitoring system includes an early warning system, flight information recording system and emergency situation warning equipment.

Armament and weapons on the Chinese aircraft by Wan Quan

The aircraft is armed with a 30mm GSh-30-1 cannon. The ten hard points provided on the aircraft are capable of carrying wide range of missiles, including PL-12 radar-guided air-to-air missile, PL-9 short-range, infrared-homing air-to-air missile (AAM), PL-8 air-to-air missile, Vympel R-77 medium range air-to-air missile, Vympel R-27 medium-to-long-range air-to-air missile and Vympel R-73 short-range air-to-air missile.

Luoyang PL-9

The PL-9 was introduced during the 1990s, and is a separate evolution of the PL-5 series, with capabilities similar to the AIM-9L/M (image © 2009, Zhenguan Studio)

PL-9 IR-guided missile was first developed in the late 80s based on PL-8/Python-3 technology and is for export only. It has an all-aspect InSb seeker and a radio fuse. Its range is 500m minimum and 16km maximum. Speed is Mach 3.5 and load is 40g. Its forward control fins look similar to those of AIM-9L (double delta). The latest variant of PL-9 is called PL-9C with improved multi-band IR seeker and a new programmable digital processor giving it a greater IRCCM capability and higher killing probability. Its range is also increased to 20km. Source

The PL-12 carries a high explosive fragmentation warhead for a maximum range of 100km. The aircraft also carries an unguided rocket launcher and free-fall cluster bombs.

Countermeasures, engines and performance

The electronic countermeasures equipment aboard the J-11 include radar warning receiver, chaff and flare dispensing system and radio jamming transmitter.

The J-11 is powered by two Lyulka AL-31F or FWS-10A Taihang turbofan engines. Each engine is capable of developing a dry thrust of 75.22kN / 89.17kN and afterburner thrust of 123kN / 132kN.



Contractor (Su-27SK) KnAAPO at Komsomolsk-na-Amur
(Su-27 UBK) IAPO at Irkusk
(J-11/B/BS) Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Variant Su-27SK ‘Flanker-B’: single-seat fighter;
Su-27UBK ‘Flanker-C’: two-seat fighter-trainer;
J-11: Chinese-assembled licensed copy of the Su-27SK;
J-11B: unlicensed copy of the Su-27SK, with Chinese weapon, engine and avionics;
J-11BS: two-seat fighter-trainer version of the J-11B;
Power plant Su-27: 2 x Lyulka-Saturn AL-31F turbofan, each rated at 75.22 kN (7,670 kgf, 16,910 lbf) dry and 122.6 kN (12,500 kgf, 27,560 lbf) with afterburning;
J-11: 2 x SAC WS-10A Taihang turbofan
In-flight refuelling no
Length 21.94m
Wingspan 14.70m
Height (Su-27SK/J-11) 5.92m; (Su-27UBK/J-11BS) 6.36m
Weight empty: (Su-27SK) 16,380kg (36,115 lb); (Su-27UBK) 17,500kg (38,580 lb)
normal T/O: (Su-27SK) 23,140kg (51,015 lb); (Su-27UBK) 24,140kg (53,220 lb)
max T/O: (Su-27SK) 33,000kg (72,750 lb); (Su-27UBK) 30,450kg (67,130 lb)
fuel: (Internal) 9,400kg (20,725 lb)
weapon load: 4,000kg (8,820 lb) normal load; 8,000kg (17,640 lb) maximum allowable load
Speed at altitude:
(Su-27SK) 2,500km/h (1,555 mph) at 11,000m (36,090 ft), Mach 2.35
(Su-27UBK) 2,150km/h (1,335 mph) at 11,000m (36,090 ft), Mach 2.0
at sea level: 1,400km/h (870 mph), Mach 1.14
Service ceiling (Su-27SK) 19,000m (60,700 ft); (Su-27UBK) 17,500m (57,400 ft)
Range typical range: 2,800km (1,510 nm); ferry range: (Su-27SK) 3,720km (2,010 nm), (Su-27UBK) 3,000km (1,620 nm)
Armament one internal GSh-30-1 30mm cannon with 150 rounds; 10 external hardpoints; R-27 (AA-10) semi-active radar-homing MRAAM; R-73 (AA-11) IR-homing SRAAM; 250kg/500kg low-drag general-purpose bombs; Unguided rocket launcher pods;
Radar NIIP Tikhomirov N001E Myech coherent pulse Doppler radar; OEPS-27 electro-optic system;
Crew one (Su-27SK/J-11/J-11B); two (Su-27UBK/J-11BS)


Zhuhai Air Show 2014 : WS-10 engine is now fully operational and matured: HERE

The FWS-10A TaiHang turbofan engine was unveiled during the 6th Zhuhai Air Show in 2006. The engine is believed to be similar to the Russian-made AL-31F turbofan engine in terms of technology and performance.

The aircraft can fly at a maximum altitude of 19,000m. It has a rate of climb of 300m/s.

The J-11 has a maximum speed of Mach 2.35 and a range of 3,530km. The maximum flight speed at sea level without external weapons and stores is 1,400km/h.

Main material source

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image by Photo by Yang Pan

Updated Feb 04, 2021

Visual identification first (above: Imported Su27SK—middle: SAC’s J11 —-below: J11B..)

1. the Painting Theme is different…Ex. Su27/J11 has a “Gray” head, and J11B has a “Black” one
2. the Wing tip pylons…J11B’s Pylons is for PL8B SRAAM with a much larger wingspan which makes the pylons a bit thicker. Source


Chinese Air Force finds the secret of aircrafts’ one minute slower in taking off – Falcon Strike 2015

Thailand’s pilots before China’s J-11 fighters

“Liberation Army Daily” reported recently that during a joint military exercise between Chinese Air Force and a foreign air force in an overseas place, Chinese pilots were very confused that China’s aircrafts were always one minute slower than foreign aircrafts in taking off, as the runway is the same and the aircrafts have similar performance.

After times of observation, contrast and analysis, the truth came out: Chinese fighter jets always take the outer lane in turning off, while foreign fighters always take the inner lane.

China’s J-11 vs Thailand’s JAS 39 Gripen in drill

Chinese pilots felt wronged and shocked, as they were taught to turn off in that way, and thus took it as a standard. But such detail could determine success of failure of a war, and they were totally unaware of it.

The daily called on PLA to exercise like fighting a battle, and to fight a battle like exercising. Xi had required Chinese army to train under circumstances close to actual combats in 2013.

China and Thailand just held a joint air exercise at a Thai air base from November 12th to 30th. China sent J-11 fighters and Thailand used its latest version of JAS-39C/D Gripen fighters. China also sent J-10 Bayi (August 1) Aerobatics Team to the air base in Thailand. Source

J-11A fighters from China attend joint drill in Thailand: Here


Outcome of China and Thailand First Strike Falcon Joint Military Exercise: Here

Thailand Gripens and Chinese PLAAF J-11 joint exercises 2

RTAF Saab Gripen C/D: Details

Other Chinese joint excercises

An unexpected military cooperative exercise between China and Turkey has caught the eye of Washington-based analysts. The two air forces were involved in a joint air exercise in the central Anatolian province of Konya, the first such exercise involving the air forces of China (People’s Liberation Army Air Force – PLAAF) and NATO member Turkey. Part of the significance is that the PLAAF recently demonstrated major advances in long-range strike during their own “Peace Mission 2010.”

The latest joint exercise, “Anatolian Eagle,” in the past has been conducted jointly with the U.S. Air Force, other NATO air forces and the Israeli Air Force.

Ankara’s Zama newspaper reported that Turkish F-16s and Chinese Su-27s staged a mock dogfight. Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao plans a visit to Turkey next month where several agreements on economic and cultural cooperation are expected to be signed. Chinese aircraft, including the JF-17 export fighter, stopped in Turkey to refuel on the way to last summer’s Farnborough air show. Source

During air sino-pakistanais “Shaheen VI” a J – 11b “beat” two JF-17 in a dogfight 1 vs 2: Here

New type J-11D fighter prototype equipped with new radome

Recently Chinese military fan shot a series of photos of a new type prototype of J-11 fighter, which is still covered by yellow coating, and shows obviously different radome compared to past types of J-11 series.



Observers think the new type radome proves that this prototype of J-11 fighter has used a new-type radar.

Before this, a new J-11 fighter numbered D1101 was found having line-styled missile mounts, instead of traditional trapezoidal mounts adopted by J-11 Basic and J-11B fighters. it was analyzed that such mounts are used for mounting advanced PL-10 high-mobility combat missiles, so this is a type of air-superiority fighter. Posted November 16, 2015 Source

Q-53 Radar Demonstrates Counter-UAS Capability

Passed the Test: Q-53 Radar Demonstrates Counter-UAS Capability

Passed the Test: Q-53 Radar Demonstrates Counter-UAS CapabilityMounted on a five-ton truck, the AN/TPQ-53 radar can be rapidly deployed, automatically leveled and remotely operated with a laptop computer or from the fully equipped climate-controlled command vehicle. Photo courtesy Lockheed Martin.

SYRACUSE, N.Y., June 27, 2016 – The Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) AN/TPQ-53 counterfire radar recently demonstrated its ability to identify and track unmanned aerial systems and pass that information to a command and control node, a key capability as the battlespace rapidly becomes more crowded with emerging air threats.

“The demonstration showed that the Q-53 radar can provide soldiers in combat real time awareness of air threats,” said Rick Herodes, Q-53 program director, Lockheed Martin. “The inherent flexibility of the Q-53’s active electronically scanned array (AESA) hardware architecture allows us to constantly evolve the Q-53’s software to deal with emerging threats. This demonstration provided further verification that the Q-53 enables the warfighter to stay ahead of changing global threats.”

The demonstration was part of the U.S. Army’s Maneuver and Fires Integration Experiment (MFIX) at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. The annual MFIX exercise brings together military, industry and academia to assess solutions to future warfighting needs in a live environment.

In the demonstration, the Q-53 radar showed it can be readily adapted to provide both air surveillance and counter fire target acquisition in one tactical sensor.  The radar identified and tracked several unmanned aerial systems and provided data to Forward Area Air Defense Command and Control. Simultaneously, the Q-53 radar performed its original mission by providing accurate targeting data on rockets, artillery and mortars, providing a multimission radar (MMR) capability.

The solid-state phased array radar system detects, classifies, tracks and determines the location of enemy indirect fire in either 360- or 90-degree modes.

Lockheed Martin is manufacturing multiple Q-53 radars per month. Since Lockheed Martin won the development contract for the Q-53 radar in 2007, the company has won five additional contracts for a total of more than 100 radars and delivered more than 60 systems to the U.S. Army. The Army is expected to award a full-rate production contract this year bringing the system total to more than 170.

Work on the Q-53 radars is performed at Lockheed Martin facilities in Syracuse and Owego, New York, Moorestown, New Jersey, and Clearwater, Florida.

For additional information, visit our website:

Original post


AN/TPQ-53 counterfire target acquisition radar

The AN/TPQ-53 is a counterfire target acquisition radar designed and manufactured by the U.S. Company Lockheed Martin. The U.S. Army changed the designation of the Enhanced AN / TPQ-36 (EQ-36) radar to the AN/TPQ-53 (Q-53) radar in September 2011.

The Q-53 is also IFPC (Indirect Fire Protection Capability) compatible in countering rocket, artillery, and mortar attacks. Compared to currently deployed systems, the new, battle-tested Q-53 offers enhanced performance, including greater mobility, increased reliability and supportability, a lower life-cycle cost, reduced crew size, and the ability to track targets in a full-spectrum environment, a vital capability on today’s battlefield.

Since 2010, the Lockheed Martin AN/TPQ-53 (Q-53) counterfire target acquisition radar has been successfully deployed in combat in Iraq and Afghanistan providing U.S. Army soldiers with enhanced protection from indirect fire. In October 2013, the US DSCA announces Singapore’s export request for up to 6 AN/TPQ-53(V) Counterfire Target Acquisition Radar Systems (CTARS) with 120 degree sector scan capability, along with generators, power units, a simulator, a live fire exercise, tool and test equipment, spare and repair parts, repair & return services, software support, support equipment, publications and technical documentation, communication support equipment, personnel training, and other forms of US Government and contractor support. The estimated cost is up to $179 million.


The radar is mounted at the rear of a 5-ton FMTV 6×6 truck chassis. The Q-53 is a mobile radar system designed to detect, classify, and track projectiles fired from mortar, artillery, and rocket systems using a 90-degree or continuous 360-degree sector search. The radar provides target location of threat indirect fire systems with sufficient accuracy for effective counterfire.

AN/TPQ-53 Q-53 counterfire target acquisition radar system technical data sheet specifications information description intelligence identification pictures photos images video information US U.S. Army United States American Lockheed Martin defence industry military technology

Mounted on its M1083 5-ton FMTV prime mover, the Q-53 can be rapidly deployed and integrated into the tactical battlefield with heavy, medium and light forces. FMTV truck enhances tactical mobility and is strategically deployable in C-5, C-17, and C-130 military transport aircraft. The 5-ton FMTV is powered by 6-cylinder Caterpillar diesel engine coupled to an Allison automatic transmission.

M1083 5-ton FMTV prime mover

An AN/TPQ-53 radar system is actually made up of 2 vehicles. One FMTV truck is the Mission Essential Group, containing the radar antenna and the power generator. The second FMTV truck carries the Sustainment Group, with a climate controlled operations shelter and backup power generator. Automation and built-in test sensors means that only 4 soldiers can operate the system, with an emplacement time of 5 minutes and a displacement time of just 2 minutes.

Counterfire target acquisition radar a
Country users
United States, Singapore
Designer Company
Lockheed Martin 
Armor cab, power generator
2 + 2 soldiers
Radar detection range
– 20 km on 360° search mode – 60 km on 90° search mode
Weight Truck
8,889 kg
Speed truck
89 km/h
Range truck
480 km
Dimensions truck
Lenght: 6.93 m; Width: 2.43 m; Height: 2.84 m


US destroyer came dangerously close to Russian warship in Mediterranean — defense ministry

June 28, 14:51

The US warship approached Russia’s Yaroslav Mudry frigate in the Mediterranean Sea on June 17

The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Gravely in the Atlantic Ocean (archive)The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Gravely in the Atlantic Ocean (archive) © EPA/MC3 TAMARA VAUGHN / US NAVY / HANDOUT

MOSCOW, June 28. /TASS/. The US guided missile destroyer Gravely moved dangerously close to the Russian warship Yaroslav Mudry in the Mediterranean Sea on June 17, violating the international rules for preventing collisions at sea, Russia’s Defense Ministry said on Tuesday.

“On June 17, the US guided missile destroyer Gravely came within a dangerously close distance of 60-70 meters from the Russian warship along the left side and crossed the sailing route of the frigate Yaroslav Mudry at a dangerous distance of 180 meters from the ship’s bow,” the Defense Ministry said.

“The Russian warship was sailing in international waters, maintaining constant course and speed, and was not making any dangerous maneuver towards the US ship,” the ministry added.

The US destroyer’s crew violated the international rules for preventing collisions at sea (IRPCS-71) and also point 1, clause 3 of the 1972 Russian-US Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas. Pursuant to this point, “In all cases ships operating in proximity to each other … shall remain well clear to avoid risk of collision,” the Russian Defense Ministry said.

“In particular, the US sailors ignored rule 13 [“Overtaking”], which prescribes that any vessel overtaking any other “shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken” and rule 15 [“Crossing Situation”], which clearly defines that “when two power-driven vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way and shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other vessel,” the ministry’s press office said.

The US destroyer’s crew also violated point 1, clause 3 of the 1972 Russian-US Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas. Pursuant to this point, “In all cases ships operating in proximity to each other … shall remain well clear to avoid risk of collision,” the Russian Defense Ministry said.

“It should be noted that the US Department of Defense has been persistently accusing Russian pilots and sailors of the lack of professionalism. However, this incident related to the dangerous maneuver of the guided missile destroyer Gravely shows that US Navy sailors allow themselves forgetting about the fundamental principles of navigation security and giving no thought about the consequences this dangerous maneuvering may cause in the areas of intensive shipping,” the Russian Defense Ministry said.


US caught red handed having a double personality disorder they are doing what they accuse the Chinese of doing in the SC Sea!

The US propaganda says the move is justified because the Russian frigate was shadowing the US ship!  So such actions justify this aggressive behavior from USA? 

DARPA revives turbine-ramjet concept for hypersonics


A turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion system to enable routine hypersonic flight by a vehicle that can take-off and land from a runway is back on the agenda at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) after a five-year hiatus.

The experimenting agency has set a “proposers day” on 13-14 July for potential bidders of the Advanced Full Range Engine (AFRE) programme, which is scheduled to launch as a new-start effort in Fiscal 2017.

Combining a turbine engine with a ramjet in the same vehicle has been a dream for the aerospace industry since the early 1950s, when the US Air Force proposed adapting Republic’s concept for the XF-103 fighter with a ramjet to intercept Soviet bombers at speeds up to Mach 5.

But TBCC concepts are limited by a propulsion gap between the Mach 2.5 top speed of a turbine engine and the Mach 3-3.5 minimum speed for a ramjet engine.

In 2009, DARPA attempted to bridge that gap with a high-speed turbine and a low-speed ramjet under the Mode Transition (MoTr) programme, but the project was cancelled two years later. By 2013, Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works organisation appeared to lobby for a revival of the research effort by releasing a concept for a Mach 6.0-capable SR-72 for high-speed surveillance missions, which was based on a similar TBCC propulsion system.

The AFRE programme now seeks to pick up where MoTr left off, leading to a ground demonstration of a fully integrated propulsion system capable of taking-off from a runway and accelerating beyond Mach 5. The system will include an off-the-shelf turbine engine and a dual mode ramjet/scramjet capable of operating with subsonic or supersonic airflows. Both engines share a common inlet and exhaust nozzle, but transition from turbine to ramjet power at a certain speed over Mach 2.5.

“This won’t be the first time that ambitious engineers will attempt to combine turbine and ramjet technologies. But with recent advances in manufacturing methods, modeling, and other disciplines, we believe this potentially groundbreaking achievement may finally be within reach,” says Christopher Clay, DARPA programme manager.

The programme could benefit from other recent experiments, including the Boeing X-51 Waverider programme funded by the Air Force Research Laboratory. The X-51 completed the first flight tests of a ramjet powered by hydrocarbon fuel, which also served as a coolant. The X-51, however, required a disposable rocket — a booster stage from the Army Tactical Missile Systems (ATACMS) — to accelerate to Mach 4.0, where the ramjet took over.

Original post


Republic XF-103

The Republic XF-103 was an American project to develop a powerful missile armed interceptor aircraft capable of destroying Soviet bombers while flying at speeds as high as Mach 3 (2,300 mph; 3,700 km/h). Despite a prolonged development, it never progressed past the mockup stage.


Mach 3 performance in the 1950s was very difficult to achieve. Jet engines work by compressing the incoming air then mixing it with fuel and igniting the mixture, with the resulting expansion of gases producing thrust. The compressors generally can ingest air only at subsonic speeds. To operate supersonically, aircraft use advanced intakes to slow the speed of the supersonic air to a usable figure. The energy lost in this process heats the air, which means the engine has to operate at ever-higher temperatures in order to provide net thrust. The limiting factor in this process is the temperature of the materials in the engines, in particular, the turbine blades just behind the combustion chambers. Using materials available at the time, speeds much beyond Mach 2.5 were extremely difficult to achieve.

The solution to this problem is the removal of the turbine. The ramjet engine consists mostly of a large tube, and is relatively easy to air-cool by forcing extra air around the engine. Experimental ramjet aircraft of the era, like the Lockheed X-7, were reaching speeds as high as Mach 4. There are numerous problems with the ramjet engine, however. Fuel economy, or thrust specific fuel consumption in aircraft terms, is extremely poor. This makes general operations like flying from one airbase to another expensive propositions. More problematic is the fact that ramjets rely on forward speed to compress the incoming air, and only start to operate efficiently above Mach 1.


Specifications (XF-103, as designed)

General characteristics



  • 36 2.75 in (70 mm) FFAR rockets




Boeing X-51

The WaveRider destroys targets by simply crashing into them at hypersonic speeds. But the technology in this remarkable missile may have wider applications, including ultrafast planes and new space vehicles. Designed by Boeing and Pratt & Whitney for the Air Force Research Laboratory, the X-51 uses just one moving part—the fuel pump—to hit Mach 5, or 3600 mph.

Rocket booster The X-51 is carried to 45,000 ft. by a B-52 bomber or a fighter jet, then released. A rear-mounted Army Tactical Missile Systems rocket kicks in to propel the 1600-pound missile to Mach 4.5 and 100,000 ft. The rocket then drops away and the X-51’s engine takes over.
Internal inlet The missile’s sharp nose funnels shock waves produced at hypersonic speeds into a rectangular opening on the craft’s belly. The shock waves compress the air, eliminating mechanical parts that normally do this.
Isolator This component adjusts airflow—which can reach 2500 pounds per square foot—to a stable pressure for the combustor. Slowing airflow increases drag on the vehicle, but allows for more complete combustion.
Combustor Thrust is created when the compressed air mixes with a mist of JP-7 jet fuel and is ignited. Because hypersonic speeds generate sustained temperatures of up to 4500 degrees, the propellant also acts as a coolant—and prevents the X-51’s engine walls from melting.
Airflow PM consulted NASA to estimate the fluid dynamics for external airflow around the nose, engine, stabilizers and tail of an X-51 traveling at Mach 5. The rear contour illustrates the engine exhaust plume shape.


Lifted Embargo Not Leading Vietnam to Rush into Buying

Department of Defense & Industry Daily News

Jun 28, 2016 00:55 UTC by Defense Industry Daily staff

While the lifting of the US arms embargo on Vietnam may have led some to believe there would be an immediate rush to purchase US hardware, Hanoi seems more interested in acquiring weaponry from Japan instead. Kawasaki Heavy Industries’s P-3C maritime patrol aircraft, a license built version of the Lockheed Martin P-3 Orion, is currently being swapped out for the newer indigenous P-1 and offers a cheaper alternative to getting them second-hand from Lockheed Martin. Another advantage Vietnam hopes to tap into is Japan’s expertise in operating the P-3. The JMSDF has deployed its P-3s to Danang, Vietnam for exercises, and the Vietnamese have experience working with Japanese crew.


Guess it’s hard to trust your former enemy

Vietnam eyes secondhand Japanese defense gear

ATSUSHI TOMIYAMA, Nikkei staff writer

A Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force P-3C anti-submarine patrol aircraft.

HANOI — Vietnam is looking to beef up its defense capabilities, particularly now that the U.S. has fully lifted its arms embargo against the country.

It is especially keen to enhance its air patrols to counter China, which has been building military facilities on artificial islands in the South China Sea. The problem is the hefty price tag of U.S. gear. As an alternative, Vietnam is apparently looking to buy cheaper secondhand aircraft from Japan’s Maritime Self-Defense Force.  

More than a bargain

Vietnam has long wanted anti-submarine aircraft and many analysts thought Vietnam would move quickly to purchase one from the U.S. once the arms embargo was lifted. But Japan has also emerged as a potential supplier. According to a Japanese official, the Vietnamese navy informally asked in the spring to buy retired MSDF P-3C anti-submarine aircraft.

The P-3C patrol plane is a derivative of the P-3 Orion, a surveillance plane made by Lockheed Martin of the U.S. Japan’s Kawasaki Heavy Industries is licensed to build the aircraft, which has broad search capabilities and is good at detecting submarines. The MSDF is said to own about 80 of the planes.

Vietnam frets about China’s underwater threat. Beijing is estimated to have at least 70 submarines. The Southeast Asian country has purchased six Kilo-class submarines from Russia since 2015. But that is far from enough to counter China. An improved air patrol fleet is essential to its anti-submarine capabilities.

Reuters reports that Vietnam is expected to ask Lockheed Martin to for pricing and availability data on four to six older U.S. Navy P-3 Orions in the next few months. A brand-new P-3 would probably go for at least $80 million, which would keep Vietnam from buying more than one at a time.

But money is not the only reason why Vietnam is turning to Japan. First, Japan will have more P-3C aircraft available. The MSDF has been replacing the propeller-driven planes with the cutting-edge P-1 jet since 2013. Also, Vietnam hopes to get training along with the planes. P-3C pilots must be able to distinguish enemy submarines from other craft by the sound of their screws, for instance. The MSDF is considered to be one of the most sophisticated operators of the aircraft in the world. Vietnam appears to think it would be easier to learn from Japan, with which it has political and economic ties.

In addition, Vietnam apparently hopes to hone its skills through joint exercises with the MSDF. Japanese P-3Cs have been visiting Danang, in central Vietnam, for several years. This year, the two sides are scheduled to hold joint search and rescue drills. For the MSDF, the exercise is an opportunity to show off its humanitarian work. For Vietnam, it could provide advance training with the P-3C.

In late May, after meeting with visiting U.S. President Barack Obama, Tran Dai Quang, his Vietnamese counterpart, welcomed the complete lifting of the 41-year-old arms embargo, which dates to the end of the Vietnam War. “Both countries have completely normalized relations,” Tran said at a joint news conference with Obama after their meeting.

The lifting of the restrictions will encourage Vietnam to allow U.S. Navy ships to call at Cam Ranh Bay, a strategic port in the south of the country. The U.S. is eager to get access to the strategic port. The first U.S. Navy destroyer is expected to call in the autumn or later, something that China is bound to notice.

Soothing China

China remains one of Vietnam’s most important neighbors. It is the country’s second-largest trade partner in value terms, accounting for 20% of the total, and the Communist Party of Vietnam is modeled after its Chinese counterpart.

Vietnamese Defense Minister Ngo Xuan Lich skipped the June 3 annual forum known as  the Shangri-La Dialogue on Asian security in Singapore. Instead he sent his deputy, Nguyen Chi Vinh, to the conference. Ngo may have been trying to avoid annoying China, which is sparring with the U.S. over Beijing’s military buildup in the South China Sea.

For now, Hanoi is at pains to avoid provoking China by putting on military muscle too quickly, or siding openly with the U.S.

Related post:

Interview: Vietnam, South Korea may buy Lockheed planes amid Chinese buildup

Vietnam May Request F-16s, P-3 Orions From US – Details of P-3

S-3 Viking Sale to Seoul May Entice Other Buyers – Details of S3

Search for Royal Thai Air Force UH-1H lost since 25/06/16

พีเจ:พลร่มกู้ภัย กองทัพอากาศ

สภาพอากาศบนยอดเขาชะเมา ขณะบินค้นหา ฮ.กองทัพอากาศที่สูญหาย (26-06-59)

The weather on the mountain top chamaoensis while flying search for lost UH-1H. The Air Force Lost UH-1H (26-06-59)

The Nation iSnap

Published on Jun 27, 2016

Latest update of the helicopter that had disappeared from the radar on 25/06/2016 mentioned that the searchers allegedly smelt gasoline. But the rescue teams had to retreat from a monsoon storm before they could get any closer. The search would begin again tomorrow.

Wreck of chopper, bodies of three crewmen found


national June 29, 2016 01:00


THE DEFENCE Ministry has said it plans to purchase new helicopters, following the latest chopper crash that killed a crew of three at Khao Chamao Khao Wong National Park.

The bodies of the three crew-members were found yesterday amid the wreckage of an old Air Force UH-1H Huey about 500 metres north of an Air Force radar station on the mountain slope in Chanthaburi. The bodies were retrieved from the crash site and transported by aircraft to Don Mueang Airport for funerals.
The three crewmembers were Squadron Leader Pasit Techasen, Flight Lt Alongkorn Chankrachan and Flight Sgt 1st Class Visut Putthraksa. There were all rewarded with promotions, insignia and compensation for their families.
Heads of the Army and Air Force sent their condolences to families of the officers killed in the crash.
General Prawit Wongsuwan, Deputy Prime Minister and Defence Minister, expressed his sympathy to families of the crew and said the Air Force had plan to buy new helicopters to replace the old ones.
“The helicopter that crashed was a UH-1H Huey, which we have used for around 40 years but given the long period on duty, there must be replacements for our air squadron,” Prawit said.
So, he said the Army would put this plan to Cabinet, before a deal can start, the plan must pass consideration first.
“There are always protests about corruption, every time the Army plans to buy weapons. Indeed, when we purchase new arms, we do it on state-to-state trade and there is no corruption in our arm dealing process,” he ensured.
Directorate of Air Operations Control commander ACM Sutthipong Inseeyong said the search teams had found the remains of two helicopter pilots and one mechanic, along with the helicopter debris in the middle of dense forest 500 metres north the Air Force radar station.
Sutthipong said the area had been sealed off and the bodies were carried down the
mountain and transferred to Don Mueang by air.
Royal Thai Air Force spokesperson Phongsak Semachai said the Air Force would host funerals for all three men. With the loss of these valuable men, Air Force Commander-in-Chief Alongkorn Chankrachang had expressed condolences to their families. He would
promote them, and compensate their families.
Squadron Leader Pasit would be made an Air Marshall and his family would receive Bt3 million in compensation. Flight Lt Alongkorn would be made a Group Captain and his family will receive Bt2.5 million. Flight Sgt 1st Class Visut would be made an Air Vice Marshall and his family will get Bt2.76 million. They will also get an insignia to honour their death on duty.
The crash happened on Saturday afternoon, when the helicopter disappeared from radar screens during a supply mission. Rough terrain and heavy rain had slowed the search mission until yesterday morning. For more pics Source

UH-1H “Huey” Helicopter

Vietnam UH-1H “Huey” Helicopter

From 1965 to 1973, the Bell UH-1, officially named “Iroquois” was the most common utility helicopter used in Vietnam. The “Huey” nickname stuck thanks to her early “HU-1” designation (it was later redesignated to UH-1 with the normalization of 1962). This particular helicopter is a “Slick”, used for troop carrying. It is not fitted with external weapons to save weight and is only armed with the M60s used by the door gunners. These aircraft operated in the hostile environment of Vietnam for almost a decade.

This Huey served in the 25th Infantry Division in Vietnam, performing troop insertions and extractions, medical evacuations, helicopter crew recoveries, smoke, sniffer psyops, and firefly missions. Based at Cu Chi, it survived multiple small arms attacks and one RPG strike. It was returned to service in 2011 to operate as a “Thank You” to Vietnam War Veterans and has completed over 180 missions since then.

Many Vietnam Veterans describe the UH-1 “Huey” helicopter as the “sound of our war”. Vietnam Helicopter Pilots Association records show that 7,013 Hueys survived in the Vietnam War, totaling 7,531,955 flight hours. Over 90,000 patients were airlifted (over half of them Americans). The average time between field wound to hospitalization was less than one hour. During the Korean and World War II wars this time was measured primarily in days, not hours. The utilization of helicopters dramatically increased warfare survival rates.


Primary Armament:

Typical armament included two M-60D machine guns on fixed door mounts manned by the Crew Chief on the left and a Door Gunner on the right. The M-60D is a 7.62mm NATO caliber weapon with a cyclic rate of fire of 600 to 700 rounds per minute. The large cans below the M-60’s held roughly 2,000 rounds of linked 7.62mm ammunition and were a typical field modification replacing the authorized can which held 500 rounds.

Secondary Armament:

Each Crew Chief and Door Gunner also carried a secondary weapon, usually an M-16 rifle but sometimes more exotic types. Because pilots were not issued M-16’s, they often carried other unauthorized weapons slung over their armored seats for personal protection. Crew Chiefs and Door Gunners always carried colored smoke grenades, often as you see them here on the seat posts. These were used to mark targets for the Gunships when receiving hostile fire or to mark landing zones (LZ’s).

Body Armor

All aircrew were issued body armor, jokingly referred to as “chicken plates”. If a Crew Chief or Door Gunner chose not to wear it, the chicken plate was often stowed under his seat for protection from enemy weapons fire from below.


Lycoming T53L13
Engine Rating
1400 SHP
Main Rotor
2 Blade Semi-Rigid 48′ Diameter 21″ Chord
Tail Rotor
2 Blade Semi-Rigid 8′ 6″ Diameter 8.4″ Chord
Internal Fuel
209 Gallon Capacity
Maximum Gross Weight
9500 Lbs
Empty Weight
5210 Lbs
Typical Payload
2200 Lbs (in addition to fuel and crew of 4)
Maximum Cruise Speed
120 Knots
Maximum Endurance
2.4 Hours
Cabin Volume
220 Cu.Ft.
External Cargo Capacity
4000 Lbs
Fuselage Length
41′ 11″
Height to Top of Rotor
11′ 9″
Width at Stabilizer Bar
9′ 13/32″
Climate Tolerance
65 Degrees F to + 65 Degrees F


Project 22160 Class Patrol Ships

JSC Zelenodolsk plant is building six patrol ships of the Project 22160 class that is named after A. M. Gorky and intended for use by the Russian Navy’s Black Sea Fleet command. The vessels are designed by Russian ship designing firm JSC Severnoye Design Bureau.

The vessels are primarily intended for duties such as patrol, monitoring and protection in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and territorial waters of Russia in open and closed seas. It can also be used to offer protection for ships in transit, water areas as well as naval bases against enemy attack in wartime.

Other missions of the patrol ship are search and rescue, assistance to disaster victims, environmental monitoring, and combat smuggling and piracy activities.

Construction details of Project 22160 class patrol ships

Keel for the lead ship in the Project 22160 class, designated Vasily Bykov, was laid in February 2014 and is expected to be commissioned into the Russian Navy in 2017.

Dmitry Rogachev – Максим

Construction on the second patrol ship in the series, named Dmitry Rogachev, began in July 2014. Keel laying ceremony of the third ship, designated Pavel Derzhavin, was held in February 2016.

Deliveries of all six vessels are expected for completion by 2020.

Project 22160



Shipyard named after A.M.Gorky, Zelenodolsk

Yard №
Laid Down
Vasily Bykov
Dmitriy Rogachev
Pavel Derzhavin
plan 2020
under construction, Zaliv Shipyard, Kerch
Sergey Kotov
plan 2021
under construction, Zaliv Shipyard, Kerch
Viktor Velikyy
plan 2022
under construction
Nikolay Sipyagin
plan 2023
under construction


Project 22160 class design and features


Featuring modular design, the Project 22160-class patrol ship is 94m-long, 14-m-wide, and 3.4m- high, has a standard displacement of 4,550t, and can accommodate up to 80 personnel.


Vasily Bykov – Новости на Первом Канале


Vasily Bykov – Новости на Первом Канале


Vasily Bykov – Новости на Первом Канале

The vessel is equipped with a telescopic hangar and helicopter deck with facilities at the aft to facilitate take-off, landing and maintenance of one 12t rescue helicopter such as Kamov Kа-27 PS. An inflatable boat can be carried for patrol and transportation tasks.

Vasily Bykov –

Vasily Bykov –


Vasily Bykov – Russian Navy


Телеканал Звезда


Project 02800 assault landing boat


Project 02800 assault boats are suitable for high-speed naval operations and delivery of assault groups on shore. It can also provide fire support for marines and conduct patrol operations.

The boat has shallow draft and armored shell, and can reach a speed of 75kph, with excellent maneuverability. It can operate both on the open sea and near the coast.

Among its key advantages are stealth and on-board capability. The 10-meter long, 3.6-meter wide boat can hold 12 military personnel, which it is able to put ashore in the blink of an eye.

It was first presented by St. Petersburg’s Ferrumland factory at the International Maritime Defense Show (IMDS-2017) in July. Source


Телеканал Звезда

General characteristics – Project 02800

Displacement (tons):
Standard: 6,5
Full load: 10
Dimensions (m):
Length: 10
Beam: 3,6
Speed (knots): 40
Autonomy (days): 1
Propulsion: 2×420 hp diesels, 2 pump-jets
Complement: 2+10


Russian corvettes will have complexes with two drones


Russian patrol ships of project 22160 will equip drones to search for submarines, survey ships and shorelines, and to provide targeting, according to Izvestiya. In the future, uavs can be used to solve impact problems. According to the defense ministry currently modular unmanned systems preparing for the tests. All equipment, including the operator, can fit in one or two standard containers that can be installed on the deck of the corvette. “The complex includes two unmanned helicopters bpv-500, constructed according to the coaxial scheme. Maximum take-off mass of the uav is 500 kg, body length less than 5 m and payload up to 150 kg. The machine can stay aloft for up to five and a half hours and to operate up to 320 km from the carrier”, – the newspaper writes with reference to the military. Coaxial circuit provides a drone high precision hovering and makes them less sensitive to gusts of wind. It is clarified that for the collection of information used optical-electronic system and airborne radar. Source

Russia’s Radar MMS BPV-500 unmanned helicopter


Russia-based Radar MMS released further details of its BPV-500 vertical-takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned aircraft system (UAS) at the MAKS 2017 airshow in Zhukovsky near Moscow.

Radar MMS representative Sergey Prokofiev told Jane’s that the BPV-500 is designed to operate from land and naval vessels, and is intended to fill a range of mission sets.

“The BPV-500 has been designed in accordance with global VTOL UAS development tendencies. Military bodies and law enforcement agencies can use the vehicle to conduct search-and-rescue [SAR], patrol, and counter-insurgency [COIN] missions,” he said.

A complete UAS consists of a single BPV-500 air vehicle, ground control elements that feature two work stations, communications equipment, and a set of payloads for the aircraft. The control stations can be fitted on board naval vessels or integrated on ground vehicles.

Prokofiev explained that the air vehicle is based on a Rotor-Flight helicopter and utilises only Russian-built components. Source


Ambient temperature, ºС -30 … + 50
Relative humidity of environment at 35 ºС <98
Wind speed near the ground, m / s <12
Intensity of precipitation in the form of rain and snow, mm / h <5


Take-off weight, kg 500
Weight of payload equipment, kg 180
Diameter of the main rotor, m 6.2
Duration of flight, h 8
The radius of action of the BPW, km 500
Cruising speed of horizontal flight, km / h 180
Vertical lift speed, m / s 7.0
Dynamic ceiling, m 4000
Dimensions of the HPV (Length / Width / Height), m 6.1 / 1.9 / 2.85
Equipped with a BPV: an internal combustion engine with a silencer, fuel-gasoline A-95; power supply of equipment-battery
Navigation systems: Onboard inertial navigation system; Satellite navigation (GPS, GLONASS)
Головной патрульный корабль проекта 22160 Василий Быков -2 (1)

Vasily Bykov –

Armament of Project 22160

The Project 22160-class is armed with one 57mm А-220М naval artillery weapon on the bow of the main deck. With a rate of fire of 300rpm, the gun is designed to defeat air, surface and coastal targets. Two 14.5mm heavy machine guns are mounted on the bridge deck.

Redut and Pantsir-M anti-aircraft complexes

Project 20386 corvettes and project 22160 patrol ships will receive container Redut and Pantsir-M anti-aircraft complexes. The Defense Ministry has decided to create a container anti-aircraft complexes and has already formulated tactical and technical requirements for them, according to Izvestia, with reference to the Main Committee of the Russian Navy. Source

57mm А-220М naval artillery weapon


Vasily Bykov –

This 57-mm automatic rapid-fire naval gun is an upgraded version of А-220 naval gun. It has successfully passed extended trials and is recommended for service introduction.

А-220М is a multipurpose system designed to engage air, surface and coastal targets. It may be installed on surface ships with the displacement of 250 ton and more such as missile boats of 205/ 20970 projects and others.

The gun operates at the ambient temperature from -40° С to +50° С provided the ship’s speed is below 45 knots.


Vasily Bykov – Russian MoD

The naval gun consists of:

– an automatic gun unit comprising a barrel and a breech with a wedge breechblock and a cradle. Integrated with the cradle, there are a cross-feed mechanism, a rammer, a trigger, an empty case extractor, recoil and counterrecoil brakes and a barrel-cooling system;
– a carriage with an artillery unit, an ammunition feed mechanism and quick electrohydraulic actuators with gun laying systems and hydraulics;
– a magazine with a double-lead screw for ammunition storage and feed. The magazine is attached to the collector in the bottom part of the carriage;
– a cupola made of aluminium alloy;
– a fire control panel interfacing the artillery mount with any fire control system that provides total laying angles;
– an automatic command and control system.


А-220М gun fires case ammunitions developed for S-60 with 53-UOR-281U HE projectiles.

There are 400 rounds in the magazine; the rest munitions can be stored in special racks under the deck. The munitions are fed from the magazine by the feed screw through a transferring mechanism to the collector connected with the vertical elevator. From the elevator receiver the munitions are transferred to the harp transporter of the gun unit. Coming to the last position on the transporter, the ammunition descends to the ramming line. Then the round is rammed and fired.

The feeding mechanisms of the gun oscillating mass are recoil-operated. The transfer of rounds from the magazine to the oscillating mass receiver is power-driven. Empty cases are ejected into the gun under-turret area. Ammunitions are reloaded to the magazine between firing activities.


Vasily Bykov – Россия. Кубань

The gun’s Automatic Command and Control System provides the means of control required for the gun preparation for combat operation and firing as well as continuous diagnostics of the gun system and status data transferring. It also allows the operators training without activating the main gun mechanisms.

The power is supplied to the gun from the ship’s electric system:
– power equipment – 3-phase, 380 V, 50 Hz;
– switching, alarm and fire circuits – 27 V DC.

Consumed power = 14 kW. The cooling system uses sea water under pressure 5.5 – 8.0 kgf/cm², the flow-rate = 5.3 ltr/s. Source

2 x 14.5mm heavy machine guns



Vasily Bykov – Телеканал Звезда

14.5 mm marine pedestal machine-gun mount (14.5 mm MTPU) is intended for fight against lightly armoured surface, coast and air targets. It is mounted on decks of war boats and ensures defeat of surface and coast targets at the distances of up to 2000 m at the height of up to 1500 m.

Cartridges with armour-piercing-incendiary bullet B-32, armour-piercing-tracer bullet BZT and incendiary of instant action MDZ are used for firing at surface, coast and air targets.

Technical Characteristics
Weapon machine-gun KPVT
Machine-gun calibre, mm 14.5
Rate of fire, shot/min, not less 450
Mass of a mount with a machine-gun (without ammunition and SPT&A),kg 350
Overall dimensions (with the height
of foundation from the deck 100 mm), mm:
Angle of elevation guidance, degrees -15 to +60
Angle of traverse guidance, degrees ±180
Direction of a machine-gun feed right
Method of guidance manual
Crew, persons 1


The ship is also equipped with two DP-65 grenade launchers and one Gibka air defence missile turret mount, armed with eight Igla man-portable air defence systems. It is optionally offered with one Club-N integrated missile system as well as one Shtil-1 air defence system with two 3S90E.1 modular launchers.

1 x Gibka air defence missile



The Gibka turret mount for Igla-type MANPADS is designed to assist aiming and remote-controlled launching of Igla surface-to-air missiles used to defend surface ships, displacing 200 and more tonnes at a very short close-in range against enemy anti-ship missiles, aircraft and helicopters in the conditions of background clutter and enemy jamming.



– shipborne missile launch turret that mounts an optronic receiver unit, a rotary support unit, and Strelets commonised launch modules, with two missiles in each. One turret mount can accommodate from two to four launch modules with a total ammunition load varying from four to eight missiles respectively;

– control module is an operator’s workstation with a monitor, a control panel, and a computer;

– power supply system.


Standard shipborne facilities are used to search for and acquire aerial targets. The target data is fed from them into the Gibka system, and its operator completes the search, locks on, and tracks targets. Igla SAMs are aimed and launched at a target by the operator from the control panel. Igla/Igla-S fire-and-forget missiles have optical passive seekers with IR jamming signal discriminators to guide them to the target. Source

1 Shtil-1 Air Defense System with two 3S90E.1 modular launchers


The weight of the missile is 581 kg, including the 62 kg blast fragmentation warhead initiated by a dual-mode radar proximity fuze. Dimensions of the hull are 5.18 m length; 0.36 m maximum diameter. Range is 2.5–32 km in a 3S90M “Shtil-1” naval missile system. Altitude of targets from 15 m up to 15 km (and from 10 m to 10 km against other missiles). 9M317ME missiles can be fired at 2-second intervals, while its reaction (readiness) time is up to 10 s.

9M317ME missile


Club-N integrated missile system


by selena3D


High-performance submarine-based Club-S and ship-based Club-N integrated missile systems are designed to engage surface ships and submarines in conditions of intensive enemy fire and electronic countermeasures. Both systems employ unified combat assets – two types of anti-ship cruise missiles and an anti-submarine ballistic missile. Club-N missile system features standardized launch units and transport-launch containers.


Integrated missile systems include:

  • 3M-54E anti-ship cruise missile (Club-S) comprises a booster, low-altitude subsonic sustainer, and a separable supersonic warhead. 3M-54TE ASM (Club-N) features a TLC to ensure vertical launch;
  • 3M-54E1 ASM (Club-S) comprises a booster and a low-altitude subsonic sustainer. 3M-54TE1 ASM (Club-N) differs from 3M-54E1 only by having a TLC;
  • 3M-14E land-attack cruise missile (Club-S system) consists of a booster and a low-flying subsonic sustainer. Launched from the Club-N system this missile is designated the 3M-14TE, with the only difference being a TLC;
  • 91RE1 anti-submarine ballistic missile (Club-S) performs a controlled flight to the target area. Its separable warhead is a high-speed homing torpedo with a sonar target seeker.

91RTE2 anti-submarine ballistic missile (Club-N) differs from 91RE1 missile in size and booster design


3M-54E ASM



The SS-N-27 Sizzler or 3M-54 Klub missile is designed to destroy submarine and surface vessels, but also has the capability to engage static or slow moving ground targets. There are two modifications to this missile known to be used by the Russian military. The Klub-S for submarines and the Klub-N for surface vessels. The difference between the two modifications being the design of the missile launchers and transport containers. The Sizzler has a max range of 300 km, travelling 10-15 m above the surface at high subsonic speeds. Perhaps the most effective feature of the Sizzler is during its third solid-fuel stage where it accelerates to supersonic speeds; increasing the difficulty associated with missile defense intercept. Another advantage is the Sizzler’s size, just under 2000 kg, which allows it to be deployed onto most naval ships in large quantities. The Sizzler’s high cruising speed during its final stage and the missile’s advanced guidance system make it an effective weapon of choice for the Russian Navy.


Kalibr launch from small missile boat Grad Slavyazhsk –


Russian/NATO Designation 3M-54 Klub/SS-N-27 Sizzler
Variants 3M-54E, 3M-54E1, 3M-14E, 91RE1, 91RE2
Mobility and Role Submarine and Ship Launched Anti-Ship Cruise Missile
Designer/Producer Novator Experimental Design Bureau
Range 220-300 km
Warhead Type and Weight Conventional 1920 kg; Reported Nuclear
MIRV and Yield No MIRV/450 kg
Guidance System/Accuracy Inertial; TERCOM; GPS; DSMAC /reported 3m CEP
Cruise Altitude 10-15 m
Stages/Propellant 3/Solid
IOC/Retirement 1987/Still Active
Status/Number of Units Operational/Unknown
Launch Vehicles Sub-Surface Ships – Kilo, Lada, Akula, Yasen, Borei class submarines;Surface Ships – Admiral Gorshkov, Admiral Grigorovich, Gepard, Gremyashchy, second batch of Steregushchy, and Buyan-M class ships

Containers and Transport Erector Launchers





Russia’s Kalibr cruise missiles are believed to be the land-attack version the Klub family cruise missiles, yet, not much is currently known about these variations. The 3M-14TKalibr-NK is a land-attack cruise missile carried by Russia’s surface vessels. Reports put its max range at 1,500 – 2,500 km. In October and November 2015, Russia launched a salvo of Kalibr missiles from the Caspian Sea at ISIS targets inside Syria. The Kalibr-NK cruise missiles were launched from a Russian Gepard-class frigate and Buyan-M-class corvettes and travelled 1,500 km to reach their targets. It has been reported it is capable of carrying a 450 kg conventional or (reported) nuclear warhead.

The missile is believed to fly 64 ft above the sea and 164 ft above the ground at speeds up to 965 km/hour. It is believed to be guided, using GPS and terminal-phase active radar seekers to achieve a reported three m CEP. The 3M-14K Kalibr-PL is similar to the 3M-14T except that is launched from a submarine. This variant was reported to have been launched from an improved Kilo-class submarine in the Mediterranean to strike targets inside Syria in December 2015. Russia plans to equip most of its submarines and surface ships with the respective versions of the Klub anti-ship and Kalibr land-attack cruise missiles. This will include ships in Russia’s Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Northern, and Pacific Fleets. Novator Design Bureau, the designers of the Klub launch system, have developed a shipping container version of the launcher, capable of holding up to four missiles. This shipping container version allows the cruise missile to be forward deployed on ships, trucks, and trains without detection.



Russian/NATO Designation 3M-14 Kalibr/SS-N-30A
Variants 3M-14T Kalibr-NK; 3M-14K Kalibr-PL
Mobility and Role Sea Launched Strategic and Tactical Land-Attack Cruise Missile
Designer/Producer Novator Design Bureau
Range 1,500-2,500 km
Warhead Type and Weight Conventional -450 kg; Reported Nuclear
MIRV and Yield 1 x Unknown
Guidance System/Accuracy Inertial; TERCOM; GPS; Terminal-Phase Active Radar Seeker/Reported 3 m CEP
Cruise Altitude 20 m over sea; 50 m over ground
Stages/Propellant 2/1st liquid-fuel booster; 2nd solid-fuel turbojet engine
IOC/Retirement Oct. 2015/Unknown
Status/Number of Units Operational/Unknown
Launch Vehicles Kalibr-PL (sub-surface ships) – Kilo, Lada, Akula, Yasen, Borei class submarines; Kalibr-NK (surface ships) – Admiral Gorshkov, Admiral Grigorovich, Gepard, Gremyashchy, second batch of Steregushchy, and Buyan-M class ships


91RTE2 anti-submarine ballistic missile


The 91RTE2 Club-N is a ship-based ballistic missile designed to engage submarines using its payload which includes a small-size MPT-1UME torpedo fitted with an active homing head. It is suitable for engagements of hostile submarines located at 40 km using a built-in Inertial Navigation System (INS) to reach the target area. The 91RE1 and 91RTE2 ballistic missiles differ in size and booster design. They are expected to replace the SS-N-15 and SS-N-16 missiles in the Russian Navy.


Diameter: 533 millimeter (21.0 inch)
Length: 6.50 meter (256 inch)
Max Range: 40,000 meter (21.6 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 664 mps (2,391 kph)
Warhead: 76 kilogram (168 pound)
Weight: 1,300 kilogram (2,866 pound)


2 x DP-65 grenade launchers


It is designed for protection of ships against attacks of underwater combat swimmers at external roadstead open anchor stops and bases, for protection against attacks of underwater combat swimmers at water-development works, sea platforms and other important sea and coastal installations.

It is mounted both on the ships (sea installations) and on the coastal installations.

The system ensures single-shot and salvo fire with rocket grenades RG-55M and RGS-55.

Guidance of the system and fire control is carried out remotely or manually. Rocket grenades launching in manual control mode is carried out by the autonomous power source.



The control panel and the power source provide the possibility of simultaneous connection of one to four grenade launchers.

The system is equipped with blocking device ensuring security of loading and unloading of the grenade launcher, blocking of firing circuits in the zones forbidden for firing.

Detection of a target is performed with the sonar dipping station. When using the system with the sonar “ANAPA-ME” automatic detection of the target, guidance of the system by the sonar to the target and its tracking up to defeat is ensured.


Vasily Bykov – Телеканал Звезда

Technical Characteristics
Calibre, mm 55
Quantity of barrels 10
Angle of elevation guidance, degrees -33 to +48
Angle of traverse guidance, degrees -165 to +165
Speed of elevation guidance, degrees/s 10
Speed of traverse guidance, degrees/s 15
Range of fire, m minimum 50
maximum 500
Mass of the grenade launcher (without grenades), kg 132
Overall dimensions of the grenade launcher, mm 970×780×1820



The onboard PK-10 close-range decoy dispensing system offers protection against electro-optical guided weapons and radars. A TK-25 ship-based electronic countermeasure system is used to deceive sonar, radar and lasers.

PK-10 «Smely» Electronic CounterMeasures (ECM) system (KL-121 launcher)


Launcher – 10 trunks, two types of static installation on the deck – up trunks and at an acute angle to the horizon.
Caliber – 120 mm
shell length – 1,220 mm
Installation length – 655 mm (without shells)
installation width – 962 mm (without shells)
Installation height – 540 mm (without shells)
shell weight – 25 kg
Unit weight without rotating mechanism – 205 kg
Weight of a rotary mechanism – 336 kg
Ammunition – projectiles have the same weight and size characteristics and differ only in equipment warhead.
Application :
– MRK pr.1234
– MRK pr.1239 “Bora” (4 installed on the ship aft)
– Small artillery ships pr.21630 “Brawler”
– Dr.tipy ships

TK-25E Electronic CounterMeasures (ECM) system


The TK-25E shipborne electronic suppression system is designed to intercept emissions of airborne and shipborne target acquisition radars, weapons control radars and anti-ship missile radar seekers, to perform automatic signal classification, to determine most dangerous approaches of attacks against the ship, and to provide jamming in threat directions.

TK-25E’s configuration depends on carrier-ship type and displacement



Navigation and communications


Dmitry Rogachev – Новости на Первом Канале


Dmitry Rogachev – Новости на Первом Канале


Dmitry Rogachev – Новости на Первом Канале

Fitted atop the bridge, a Pal-N ship borne navigation radar is used to scan, detect, identify and track air or surface targets for safe manoeuvring. A Pozitiv-ME1 air / surface flat phased array search radar, also located on the top of the bridge, is designed for the detection and tracking of air and surface targets.

Pozitiv-ME1 air / surface flat phased array search radar


Vasily Bykov –

Pozitiv-ME and Pozitiv-ME1.2 3D active shipborne radars are designed to search, detect and track air and surface targets. Radars are mounted at small- and medium-displacement ships and are an integral self-contained part of multi-purpose electronic system.


Pozitiv-ME family radars perform the following tasks:

  • air/surface sea-situation surveillance;
  • search, detection and tracking of surface and air targets, including small-size, low-flying, and dive ones;
  • target detection and tracking in preselected sectors with automated mode selection depending on the ECM environment;
  • state identification of detected targets (”friend-or-foe”) by IFF equipment and built-in antennas;
  • target coordinates and motion parameters determination;
  • target classification according to trajectory parameters;
  • target threat prioritisation;
  • automatic target distribution and plan display with on-line correction possibility;
  • targeting data feed to weapons and other cooperating systems;
  • automatic operational modes selection and operability control and trouble-shooting;
  • recording of target data processing output, worked-out solutions, and interfaced system status;
  • staff training in simulated radar environment.





Vasily Bykov – Телеканал Звезда

MR-123 radar system (LASKA)



•Self-sustained acquisition and identification of radar-contrast targets in circular and sector scanning modes;
•Track-while-scan of up to four air/surface/coastal tar-gets in one-layer circular or sector surveillance mode;
•Fire control of one or two artillery gun mounts of various calibres against one aerial or two surface targets(among the tracked ones);
•Reception of designation data from ship’s surveillance radars and mono-pulse tracking of one target with firing data generation;
acquisition and lock on the attacking missile launched from the tracked target with solution of the engagement priority problem.


Laska fire control radar is designed to monitor surface/air situation and to control fire of 30mm-76mm close-range shipborne artillery systems against air/missile and small-size surface targets.
•surveillance and precision tracking radar 
•integrated laser/TV channels
•fire control system comprising display and control panel
•interfaces with artillery mounts and ship systems

Pal-N ship borne navigation radar


Vasily Bykov – Россия. Кубань

NRLS “PAL-N” is intended for the circular radar review, detection, an identification and auto maintenance of the found surface purposes with development of recommendations on a safe divergence and tactical maneuvering



A Pallada sonar system aboard the patrol ship detects and tracks divers, while a Vinyetka-EM active / passive sonar system detects the surface ships, submarines and torpedoes. The ship is also fitted with a MGK-335EM-03 sonar system on the hull.

Pallada sonar system


Vasily Bykov – Телеканал Звезда


Pallada sonar is designed for underwater detection in the active mode of combat swimmers with (and without) their delivery vehicles, from the stopped ship. The sonar is capable of classifying and tracking up to three detected targets.



  • receiving/emitting acoustic antenna
  • single-unit switchboard/receiver-amplifier
  • control console, comprising data processing and control equipment, video monitor and transceiver


The sonar provides a 360-deg underwater coverage, and its acoustic array can be dipped to a depth of up to 20 m. Electronic equipment housed in the junction box and control console serves to emit, receive and process hydroacoustic signals. All relevant data is represented on a display panel with a keyboard and a trackball. Pallada sonar is controlled by one operator. Source Rosoboronexport

Vasily Bykov –

MGK-335EM-03 sonar system (?)

sonar mgk-335m-5


Propulsion and performance of the patrol vessels


Vasily Bykov – Телеканал Звезда

The Project 22160-class is driven by CODAG (combined diesel and gas) type propulsion system with a total output power of 25,000kW. Electrical systems installed in the ship include four 300kW diesel-generators and one 100kW emergency and harbour diesel generator.

Kolomna 16D49 diesel engine


Vasily Bykov – Телеканал Звезда


Kolomensky plant sent the customer a diesel-reverse-gear unit for the main power plant of the new patrol ship

As part of the import substitution program, Kolomensky Zavod OJSC manufactured and manufactured a diesel-reverse gear unit DRRA6000 for OAO Zelenodolsky Plant named after AM Gorky to be installed on a new 22160 patrol ship Dmitry Rogachev.

The diesel-reverse gear unit DRRA6000 is designed to work on a propeller of a fixed pitch. The main ship power plant of the project includes two units – ДРРА6000 and ДРРА6000-01 (each with a capacity of 6000 hp), which are located on the left and right sides of the ship. Each unit consists of a 16D49 diesel engine built by the Kolomna plant, a reverse gear drive produced by PJSC Zvezda and a local control system from JSC Concern NPO Avrora.


Diesel-reverse gear unit DRRA6000

The patrol ship “Dmitry Rogachev” – the first serial ship of the project 22160, was laid at the Zelenodolsk plant in July 2014. The main ship of the project “Vasily Bykov” was equipped with a power plant of MAN (Germany).

A total of 6 ships of Project 22160 will be built at the Zelenodolsk Plant. All of them will replenish the Black Sea Fleet until 2020. Source

The patrol and maximum speeds of the ship are 16kt and 30kt respectively. The ship has a cruising range of 6,000mi at patrol speeds and an endurance of 60 days.

General characteristics – Project 22160

Displacement (tons):
Full load: 1965
Dimensions (m):
Length: 91,3
Beam: 4,5
Draft: 4,8
Speed (knots): 22,5
Range: 6000 nmi
Autonomy (days): 60
Propulsion: 2×6000 hp 16D49 diesels, 4×300 kW diesel-generators, 1×100 kW diesel-generator, 2 fixed pitch propellers
Armament: 1 Ka-27PS helicopter
1 high-speed assault boat Project 02800
9K338 «Igla-S» SAM system (8 9M342 missiles)
1×1 76 mm AK-176MA-01 – MR123-02/3 «Bagira» fire control system
2×1 14,5 mm MTPU-1 «Zhalo»
1×10 55 mm DP-65 grenade launcher (RG-55M, GRS-55 grenades)
2×2 45 mm DP-64 grenade launchers (SG-45, FG-45 grenades)
Electronics: TK-25E Electronic CounterMeasures (ECM) system, «Pallada» anti-saboteur sonar
PK-10 «Smely» Electronic CounterMeasures (ECM) system (KL-121 launcher)
Complement: 32+8


Main material source

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Revised Aug 6, 2019

Russia Hands Egypt Keys to Brand-New Corvette Warship

17:36 25.06.2016(updated 17:38 25.06.2016)

Russian Navy spokesman Viktor Kochemazov has confirmed that Russia delivered a R-32 missile corvette to the Egyptian Navy.

The Russian Project 1241 class R-32 missile corvette has been handed to Egypt, RIA Novosti quoted Russian Navy spokesman Viktor Kochemazov as confirming on Saturday.

The warship will help Cairo counter terrorism not only on land but also at sea, Kochemazov said, without elaborating on when the vessel was delivered to Egyptian Navy.

In August 2015, it was reported that the Egyptian Defense Ministry said that they received the R-32, equipped with the Moskit missile system.The Ministry said at the time that a group of Egyptian sailors and engineers will be sent to Russia, where they will be trained ahead of being stationed aboard the R-32.

The Project 1241 ships are a class of Soviet missile corvettes which have the NATO reporting name Tarantul.


General characteristics – Project 1241RE


Displacement (tons):
Standard: 385
Full load: 455
Dimensions (m):
Length: 56,1
Beam: 10,2
Draft: 2,2
Speed (knots): 43
Range: 2200 nmi (14 knots)
Autonomy (days): 10
Propulsion: 2×17000 hp M-15E gas turbines (5000 hp M-75 gas turbine, 12000 hp M-70 gas turbine), 2 fixed pitch propellers, 2×200 kW DGR2A-200/1500 diesel generators, 1x100kW DGR2A-100/1500 diesel generator
Armament: 2×2 KT-138E launchers (P-20M anti-ship missiles)
9K32M «Strela-2M» SAM system (9M32M missiles) or 9K34 «Strela-3» (9M36 missiles) or «Strela-3M» (Poland – 9K32M «Strela-2M»)) – 16 missiles
1×1 76 mm AK-176M (314 rounds) – MR-123 «Vympel-A» fire control system
2×6 30 mm AK-630M (2000 rounds)
Electronics: «Garpun-E» radar complex, «Kivach-2» navigation radar (Poland №434, 435) or «Pechora-1» (Poland №436, 437), «Nikhrom-RR» IFF
Complement: 37

Missile boat - Project 1241RE