Daily Archives: June 28, 2016

US destroyer came dangerously close to Russian warship in Mediterranean — defense ministry

June 28, 14:51

The US warship approached Russia’s Yaroslav Mudry frigate in the Mediterranean Sea on June 17

The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Gravely in the Atlantic Ocean (archive)The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Gravely in the Atlantic Ocean (archive) © EPA/MC3 TAMARA VAUGHN / US NAVY / HANDOUT

MOSCOW, June 28. /TASS/. The US guided missile destroyer Gravely moved dangerously close to the Russian warship Yaroslav Mudry in the Mediterranean Sea on June 17, violating the international rules for preventing collisions at sea, Russia’s Defense Ministry said on Tuesday.

“On June 17, the US guided missile destroyer Gravely came within a dangerously close distance of 60-70 meters from the Russian warship along the left side and crossed the sailing route of the frigate Yaroslav Mudry at a dangerous distance of 180 meters from the ship’s bow,” the Defense Ministry said.

“The Russian warship was sailing in international waters, maintaining constant course and speed, and was not making any dangerous maneuver towards the US ship,” the ministry added.

The US destroyer’s crew violated the international rules for preventing collisions at sea (IRPCS-71) and also point 1, clause 3 of the 1972 Russian-US Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas. Pursuant to this point, “In all cases ships operating in proximity to each other … shall remain well clear to avoid risk of collision,” the Russian Defense Ministry said.

“In particular, the US sailors ignored rule 13 [“Overtaking”], which prescribes that any vessel overtaking any other “shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken” and rule 15 [“Crossing Situation”], which clearly defines that “when two power-driven vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way and shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other vessel,” the ministry’s press office said.

The US destroyer’s crew also violated point 1, clause 3 of the 1972 Russian-US Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas. Pursuant to this point, “In all cases ships operating in proximity to each other … shall remain well clear to avoid risk of collision,” the Russian Defense Ministry said.

“It should be noted that the US Department of Defense has been persistently accusing Russian pilots and sailors of the lack of professionalism. However, this incident related to the dangerous maneuver of the guided missile destroyer Gravely shows that US Navy sailors allow themselves forgetting about the fundamental principles of navigation security and giving no thought about the consequences this dangerous maneuvering may cause in the areas of intensive shipping,” the Russian Defense Ministry said.

@tass.ru

****-END-****

US caught red handed having a double personality disorder they are doing what they accuse the Chinese of doing in the SC Sea!

The US propaganda says the move is justified because the Russian frigate was shadowing the US ship!  So such actions justify this aggressive behavior from USA? 

DARPA revives turbine-ramjet concept for hypersonics

27 JUNE, 2016  BY: STEPHEN TRIMBLE  WASHINGTON DC

A turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion system to enable routine hypersonic flight by a vehicle that can take-off and land from a runway is back on the agenda at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) after a five-year hiatus.

The experimenting agency has set a “proposers day” on 13-14 July for potential bidders of the Advanced Full Range Engine (AFRE) programme, which is scheduled to launch as a new-start effort in Fiscal 2017.

Combining a turbine engine with a ramjet in the same vehicle has been a dream for the aerospace industry since the early 1950s, when the US Air Force proposed adapting Republic’s concept for the XF-103 fighter with a ramjet to intercept Soviet bombers at speeds up to Mach 5.

But TBCC concepts are limited by a propulsion gap between the Mach 2.5 top speed of a turbine engine and the Mach 3-3.5 minimum speed for a ramjet engine.

In 2009, DARPA attempted to bridge that gap with a high-speed turbine and a low-speed ramjet under the Mode Transition (MoTr) programme, but the project was cancelled two years later. By 2013, Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works organisation appeared to lobby for a revival of the research effort by releasing a concept for a Mach 6.0-capable SR-72 for high-speed surveillance missions, which was based on a similar TBCC propulsion system.

The AFRE programme now seeks to pick up where MoTr left off, leading to a ground demonstration of a fully integrated propulsion system capable of taking-off from a runway and accelerating beyond Mach 5. The system will include an off-the-shelf turbine engine and a dual mode ramjet/scramjet capable of operating with subsonic or supersonic airflows. Both engines share a common inlet and exhaust nozzle, but transition from turbine to ramjet power at a certain speed over Mach 2.5.

“This won’t be the first time that ambitious engineers will attempt to combine turbine and ramjet technologies. But with recent advances in manufacturing methods, modeling, and other disciplines, we believe this potentially groundbreaking achievement may finally be within reach,” says Christopher Clay, DARPA programme manager.

The programme could benefit from other recent experiments, including the Boeing X-51 Waverider programme funded by the Air Force Research Laboratory. The X-51 completed the first flight tests of a ramjet powered by hydrocarbon fuel, which also served as a coolant. The X-51, however, required a disposable rocket — a booster stage from the Army Tactical Missile Systems (ATACMS) — to accelerate to Mach 4.0, where the ramjet took over.

Original post flightglobal.com

****-END-****

Republic XF-103

The Republic XF-103 was an American project to develop a powerful missile armed interceptor aircraft capable of destroying Soviet bombers while flying at speeds as high as Mach 3 (2,300 mph; 3,700 km/h). Despite a prolonged development, it never progressed past the mockup stage.

Propulsion

Mach 3 performance in the 1950s was very difficult to achieve. Jet engines work by compressing the incoming air then mixing it with fuel and igniting the mixture, with the resulting expansion of gases producing thrust. The compressors generally can ingest air only at subsonic speeds. To operate supersonically, aircraft use advanced intakes to slow the speed of the supersonic air to a usable figure. The energy lost in this process heats the air, which means the engine has to operate at ever-higher temperatures in order to provide net thrust. The limiting factor in this process is the temperature of the materials in the engines, in particular, the turbine blades just behind the combustion chambers. Using materials available at the time, speeds much beyond Mach 2.5 were extremely difficult to achieve.

The solution to this problem is the removal of the turbine. The ramjet engine consists mostly of a large tube, and is relatively easy to air-cool by forcing extra air around the engine. Experimental ramjet aircraft of the era, like the Lockheed X-7, were reaching speeds as high as Mach 4. There are numerous problems with the ramjet engine, however. Fuel economy, or thrust specific fuel consumption in aircraft terms, is extremely poor. This makes general operations like flying from one airbase to another expensive propositions. More problematic is the fact that ramjets rely on forward speed to compress the incoming air, and only start to operate efficiently above Mach 1.

9282486882_9bd1fffd76_b

Specifications (XF-103, as designed)

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

  • 36 2.75 in (70 mm) FFAR rockets

and

or

Data wikiwand.com

Boeing X-51

The WaveRider destroys targets by simply crashing into them at hypersonic speeds. But the technology in this remarkable missile may have wider applications, including ultrafast planes and new space vehicles. Designed by Boeing and Pratt & Whitney for the Air Force Research Laboratory, the X-51 uses just one moving part—the fuel pump—to hit Mach 5, or 3600 mph.

Rocket booster The X-51 is carried to 45,000 ft. by a B-52 bomber or a fighter jet, then released. A rear-mounted Army Tactical Missile Systems rocket kicks in to propel the 1600-pound missile to Mach 4.5 and 100,000 ft. The rocket then drops away and the X-51’s engine takes over.
Internal inlet The missile’s sharp nose funnels shock waves produced at hypersonic speeds into a rectangular opening on the craft’s belly. The shock waves compress the air, eliminating mechanical parts that normally do this.
Isolator This component adjusts airflow—which can reach 2500 pounds per square foot—to a stable pressure for the combustor. Slowing airflow increases drag on the vehicle, but allows for more complete combustion.
Combustor Thrust is created when the compressed air mixes with a mist of JP-7 jet fuel and is ignited. Because hypersonic speeds generate sustained temperatures of up to 4500 degrees, the propellant also acts as a coolant—and prevents the X-51’s engine walls from melting.
Airflow PM consulted NASA to estimate the fluid dynamics for external airflow around the nose, engine, stabilizers and tail of an X-51 traveling at Mach 5. The rear contour illustrates the engine exhaust plume shape.

Source popularmechanics.com

Lifted Embargo Not Leading Vietnam to Rush into Buying

Department of Defense & Industry Daily News

Jun 28, 2016 00:55 UTC by Defense Industry Daily staff

While the lifting of the US arms embargo on Vietnam may have led some to believe there would be an immediate rush to purchase US hardware, Hanoi seems more interested in acquiring weaponry from Japan instead. Kawasaki Heavy Industries’s P-3C maritime patrol aircraft, a license built version of the Lockheed Martin P-3 Orion, is currently being swapped out for the newer indigenous P-1 and offers a cheaper alternative to getting them second-hand from Lockheed Martin. Another advantage Vietnam hopes to tap into is Japan’s expertise in operating the P-3. The JMSDF has deployed its P-3s to Danang, Vietnam for exercises, and the Vietnamese have experience working with Japanese crew.

****-END-****

Guess it’s hard to trust your former enemy

Vietnam eyes secondhand Japanese defense gear

ATSUSHI TOMIYAMA, Nikkei staff writer

A Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force P-3C anti-submarine patrol aircraft.

HANOI — Vietnam is looking to beef up its defense capabilities, particularly now that the U.S. has fully lifted its arms embargo against the country.

It is especially keen to enhance its air patrols to counter China, which has been building military facilities on artificial islands in the South China Sea. The problem is the hefty price tag of U.S. gear. As an alternative, Vietnam is apparently looking to buy cheaper secondhand aircraft from Japan’s Maritime Self-Defense Force.  

More than a bargain

Vietnam has long wanted anti-submarine aircraft and many analysts thought Vietnam would move quickly to purchase one from the U.S. once the arms embargo was lifted. But Japan has also emerged as a potential supplier. According to a Japanese official, the Vietnamese navy informally asked in the spring to buy retired MSDF P-3C anti-submarine aircraft.

The P-3C patrol plane is a derivative of the P-3 Orion, a surveillance plane made by Lockheed Martin of the U.S. Japan’s Kawasaki Heavy Industries is licensed to build the aircraft, which has broad search capabilities and is good at detecting submarines. The MSDF is said to own about 80 of the planes.

Vietnam frets about China’s underwater threat. Beijing is estimated to have at least 70 submarines. The Southeast Asian country has purchased six Kilo-class submarines from Russia since 2015. But that is far from enough to counter China. An improved air patrol fleet is essential to its anti-submarine capabilities.

Reuters reports that Vietnam is expected to ask Lockheed Martin to for pricing and availability data on four to six older U.S. Navy P-3 Orions in the next few months. A brand-new P-3 would probably go for at least $80 million, which would keep Vietnam from buying more than one at a time.

But money is not the only reason why Vietnam is turning to Japan. First, Japan will have more P-3C aircraft available. The MSDF has been replacing the propeller-driven planes with the cutting-edge P-1 jet since 2013. Also, Vietnam hopes to get training along with the planes. P-3C pilots must be able to distinguish enemy submarines from other craft by the sound of their screws, for instance. The MSDF is considered to be one of the most sophisticated operators of the aircraft in the world. Vietnam appears to think it would be easier to learn from Japan, with which it has political and economic ties.

In addition, Vietnam apparently hopes to hone its skills through joint exercises with the MSDF. Japanese P-3Cs have been visiting Danang, in central Vietnam, for several years. This year, the two sides are scheduled to hold joint search and rescue drills. For the MSDF, the exercise is an opportunity to show off its humanitarian work. For Vietnam, it could provide advance training with the P-3C.

In late May, after meeting with visiting U.S. President Barack Obama, Tran Dai Quang, his Vietnamese counterpart, welcomed the complete lifting of the 41-year-old arms embargo, which dates to the end of the Vietnam War. “Both countries have completely normalized relations,” Tran said at a joint news conference with Obama after their meeting.

The lifting of the restrictions will encourage Vietnam to allow U.S. Navy ships to call at Cam Ranh Bay, a strategic port in the south of the country. The U.S. is eager to get access to the strategic port. The first U.S. Navy destroyer is expected to call in the autumn or later, something that China is bound to notice.

Soothing China

China remains one of Vietnam’s most important neighbors. It is the country’s second-largest trade partner in value terms, accounting for 20% of the total, and the Communist Party of Vietnam is modeled after its Chinese counterpart.

Vietnamese Defense Minister Ngo Xuan Lich skipped the June 3 annual forum known as  the Shangri-La Dialogue on Asian security in Singapore. Instead he sent his deputy, Nguyen Chi Vinh, to the conference. Ngo may have been trying to avoid annoying China, which is sparring with the U.S. over Beijing’s military buildup in the South China Sea.

For now, Hanoi is at pains to avoid provoking China by putting on military muscle too quickly, or siding openly with the U.S.

@nikkei.com

Related post:

Interview: Vietnam, South Korea may buy Lockheed planes amid Chinese buildup

Vietnam May Request F-16s, P-3 Orions From US – Details of P-3

S-3 Viking Sale to Seoul May Entice Other Buyers – Details of S3