Monthly Archives: March 2016

F-15E ‘Strike’ Eagle / F-15 Eagle II

The Boeing F-15E dual-role fighter is an advanced long-range interdiction fighter and tactical aircraft. The F-15E is the latest version of the Eagle, a Mach 2.5-class twin-engine fighter. More than 1,500 F-15s are in service worldwide with the US Air Force, US Air National Guard and the air forces of Israel, Japan and Saudi Arabia, including over 220 F-15E fighters.

F-15 Strike Eagle programme and development

The F-15E made its first flight in 1986. It is armed with air-to-air missiles that can be launched from beyond visual range, and has air-to-ground capability to penetrate hostile air and ground defences to deliver up to 24,000lb of precision ordnance. Since 2001, US Air Force F-15E aircraft have been almost exclusively used for close-air support.

In April 2001, Boeing received a contract for a further ten F-15E aircraft for the USAF, bringing the total to 227. The air force initially planned to purchase 392 F-15s. The first production model of the F-15E was delivered to the 405th Tactical Training Wing, Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, in April 1988. The ‘Strike Eagle’, as it was dubbed, received initial operational capability on 30 September 1989.

Boeing is upgrading the programmable armament control set and software for the delivery of precision weapons like the joint direct attack munition (JDAM), joint stand-off weapon (JSOW) and the wind-corrected munition dispenser (WCMD).

The aircraft also have improved night vision capability and three new active-matrix liquid crystal displays.

In December 2005, the Government of Singapore placed an order for 12 F-15SG aircraft. Deliveries are scheduled for mid-2009 to 2012. In October 2007, Singapore ordered an additional 12 aircraft. The first F-15SG was rolled out in November 2008. Deliveries of F-15SGs are to begin in second quarter 2009 and continue till 2012.

In August 2008, the F-15E became the first fighter to fly powered by a blend of synthetic fuel and JP-8. The USAF intends to certify its entire fleet of aircraft for flight using the blended fuel by 2011.

F-15SE Silent Eagle stealth variant

F-15 Silent Eagle – Boeing

In March 2009, Boeing unveiled the F-15 Silent Eagle (F-15SE) at St Louis, Missouri, USA.

“The F-15 Silent Eagle is designed to meet our international customers’ anticipated need for cost-effective stealth technologies, as well as for large and diverse weapons payloads,” said Boeing F-15 programme vice president, Mark Bass.

Using a modular design approach, the F-15SE possesses aerodynamic, avionic, and stealth features. Key elements of the F-15SE include aerodynamic improvements, RCS reductions, an internal weapons bay and advanced avionics enhancements.

Aerodynamic changes to the F-15SE will improve the aircraft’s aerodynamic efficiency and fighter performance by reducing overall airframe weight and drag. The RCS reduction methods are applied to the airframe for frontal aspect stealth capability thus improving mission effectiveness.

The modular internal weapons bay contributes to the overall aircraft RCS reduction package while maintaining strike capability. The enhanced avionics include an integrated active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar and digital electronic warfare system (DEWS) that provides the pilot with greater situational awareness.

The internal carriage conformal fuel tanks (CFTs) can be quickly replaced by the large payload external carriage CFTs which are optimised for increased weapons load. The innovative Silent Eagle is a balanced, affordable design solution based on the combat-proven F-15 Eagle.

Boeing F-15SE Silent Eagle: Details

The new sophisticated F-15SE internal carriage capability minimises aircraft radar signature and significantly increases pilot tactical options. It is equipped with two internal bays designed for multiple carriage configurations.

The F-15SE is capable of carrying electronic warfare, reconnaissance equipment, side-looking radar, and jamming equipment. The fighter plane’s reconfigurable capability provides enhanced combat flexibility. It is adaptable with each application reconfigurable every 30 minutes.

The elite F-15SE signature reduction methods are applied to the airframe for frontal aspect stealth capability, which ensure greater survivability in the battlefield. The F-15 family has a combat record of 101 victories and zero losses. The US Air Force’s F-15E has flown thousands of combat missions during worldwide combat operations.

F-15K Slam Eagle next-generation South Korean fighter

F-15K / Bruce Smith

In April 2002, the Republic of Korea chose the F-15K as its next-generation fighter. 40 aircraft, to be known as the ‘Slam Eagle’, have been ordered. The first flight of the F-15K took place in March 2005 and deliveries began in October 2005. The F-15K entered operational service in July 2008 and deliveries concluded in October 2008. It was confirmed in April 2008 that 21 more would be ordered in 2010, the quantity includes an additional aircraft to replace one which crashed in 2006.

The South Korean Air Force received the last shipment of new F-15K fighter in October 2008 completing its decade-long project to procure 40 of the highly manoeuvrable aircraft. US aircraft manufacturer Boeing delivered F-15ks to the South Korea’s 11th Fighter Wing in Daegu.

The F-15K is powered by General Electric F110-GE-129 engines and features a new electronic warfare suite including BAE Systems IEWS ALR-56C(V)1 radar warner, BAE Systems IDS ALE-47 countermeasures dispenser system and Northrop Grumman ALQ-135M radar jammer.

Lockheed Martin will provide the Tiger Eyes sensor suite with targeting pod (mid-wave staring array FLIR, laser and CCD TV), navigation pod (terrain following radar and mid-wave staring array FLIR) and long-range IRST (infrared search and track). Raytheon will supply the AN/APG-63(V)1 multi-mode radar. BAE Systems will provide the AN/APX-113 IFF (identification friend or foe) system. Data Link Solutions will supply the MIDS fighter datalink.

Kaiser Electronics will provide the cockpit display suite including: five flat panel colour displays (FPCD), four 6in multi-purpose displays (MPD) and wide field of view head-up display (HUD). The FCPD and MFD feature active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) technology.

F-15K Slam Eagle: Details

The Republic of Korea has ordered Raytheon AIM-120 AMRAAM and AIM-9X Sidewinder air-to-air missiles and Boeing SLAM-ER stand-off land attack missiles for the new aircraft. First flight of a SLAM-ER, which has a range of 278km (150nm), onboard an F-15E took place in February 2004. In 2010, the Republic of Korea Air Force also plans to procure AGM-158 joint air-to-surface stand-off missiles (JASSM).

Boeing SLAM-ER

F-15K / Ciaran Hickey

Primary function: Long-range, air-launched precision land and sea attack cruise missile
Contractor: The Boeing Co.
Date deployed: June 2000
Propulsion: Teledyne Turbojet (thrust is greater than 600 pounds)
Length: 172 inches (4.4 m)
Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.3 cm)
Wingspan: 7.2 feet (2.2 m)
Weight: 1,488 pounds (674.5 kg)
Speed: High subsonic
Ordnance: 500-pound Tomahawk Derivative Titanium
Guidance system: Ring Laser Gyro inertial navigation system (INS) with multi-channel GPS; infrared seeker for terminal guidance with man-in-the-Loop control data-link from the controlling aircraft. Upgraded missiles incorporate automatic target acquisition (ATA). Source


F-15X / U.S. Air Force / Ilka Cole

The latest iteration of the F-15 Eagle Mission Design Series, the F-15EX features an increased payload capacity, fly-by-wire controls, a digital cockpit, modernized sensors, radars and electronic warfare capabilities.


Edwards notes the long service life of the F-15EX airframe–20,000 flight hours. “That’s a long time, about double the service the life of an F-15C,” Edwards said. “Not only is the airframe designed to last for a long time, the F-15EX also has an ‘open mission system’ which allows the computer and avionics software to be more adaptable and more easily updated in the future. This adaptability is key, as we know that technology is continuing to accelerate.” Source

Like the F-15 Silent Eagle concept and its various sub-options that have yet to find any buyers, this new Eagle offering may not be exclusive to new-build aircraft alone and could be able to be applied to various Eagle variants to varying degrees, depending on the operator’s needs. Conformal fuel tanks can even be fitted to existing F-15C/Ds, so this type of modification may not be limited to the F-15 Strike Eagle series alone.

F-15X / U.S. Air Force / 1st Lt. Karissa Rodriguez

More air-to-air missiles is a good thing for the Eagle. As the the new AIM-120D AMRAAM comes on line and is paired along with the F-15C/D’s APG-63V3 and F-15E’s APG-82 Active Electronically Scanned Array radars, the Eagle will be able to sling missiles from about double the range they can today, depending on the engagement situation. More missiles means more tactical options when facing a robust foe, and it also means the Eagle may be able to work as an arsenal ship of sorts for stealthy F-35s and F-22s which have far less beyond-visual-range missile carrying capabilities.

Boeing F-15X

By using the F-35 and F-22’s data collected forward of an Eagle’s position, along with the Eagle’s greatly enhanced radar data, the F-15 could provide missiles on demand from many dozens of miles away. This would also allow F-35s and F-22s to work as battle managers of sorts well ahead of the Eagle’s position even after their weapons bays are empty.



In 2015, Boeing released a video that confirmed at least one of the Palmdale test aircraft (12-1003 – note the serial on the ejection seat) has been employed to trial the new Digital Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (DJHMCS) on the F-15. Boeing Test and Evaluation chief F-15 test pilot Dan ‘Dragon’ Draeger and a ‘USAF Weapons Systems Officer’ were depicted wearing the new helmets for a ‘first evaluation flight’ at Palmdale recently. The new digital JHMCS uses LED technology for ‘greater reliability and visual acuity’, according to the news release. ‘You don’t have to use high voltage in order to drive the new Light Emitting Diode display which improves maintenance reliability significantly,’ says Greg Hardy, Boeing manager, TACAIR Advanced Display Systems. ‘Couple this technology with a sharper image and improved day and night capabilities using color projected video and symbology and a better balanced helmet, and you have an advanced targeting solution that is more reliable and less fatiguing for pilots to wear.’

The DJHMCS is part of the new JHMCS II product line and it is touted as ‘an economical but significant upgrade’ that features ‘all new’ aspects of JHMCS II, but is aimed as a retrofit for existing JHMCS-capable platforms and crucially it incorporates a new night capability.

Many of these new features were planned as part of the stealthy F-15SE Silent Eagle, which failed to attract direct interest from new customers. Indeed, Silent Eagle enhancements may never be fully realized as Boeing was largely relying on customer support to bring these to reality and the loss in South Korea effectively put paid to the key stealthy improvements. The conformal weapons bays (CWBs) were, for example, part of the industrial offset with Korean industry. The CWBs had two doors and two weapon mounts, the upper, side-opening door carrying a rail launcher for an AIM-120 AMRAAM or an AIM-9-type missile, or a launcher for a single 500lb or 1,000lb bomb or two Small Diameter Bombs (SDBs). The lower door accommodated a trapeze-plus-ejector mount for an AIM-120, or for a single 500lb or 1,000lb bomb or two SDBs. The CWBs would also accommodate a small amount of fuel. Having funded an initial test period, including firing an AIM-120 from the CWB in July 2010, Boeing was ready to develop a number of the Silent Eagle options with customer support as prospective buyers came forward.

Although Seoul opted for the F-35, the Saudi deal paved the way for some of the less noticeable elements of the Silent Eagle to come to fruition, notably the advanced cockpit, DFBW, and DEWS. Various elements that have been taken up by Boeing’s export customers over the past decade are now on the table to be offered as upgrades for other existing F-15 customers — including the USAF. Indeed, Boeing is emphasizing the increased weapon carriage offered by the F-15SA as the DFBW opens up the new outer wing stations 1 and 9. However, the handling implications of these outer stations predude non-DFBW Eagles from utilizing them. Source

F-15SA (Saudi Advanced): Details

F-15SA / NickJ 1972 (flickr)


Michael Block

While F-15A/C aircraft are single-crew aircraft, F-15B/D/E have a crew of two. The F-15E is crewed by the pilot and the weapon systems officer (WSO).

The WSO is equipped with two Sperry full-color and two Kaiser single-color cathode ray tubes. The WSO can access information from the radar, electronic warfare or infrared sensors, and monitor aircraft or weapons status and possible threats. The WSO also selects targets and navigates with the aid of a moving map display, produced by an AlliedSignal remote film strip reader.

The pilot’s crew station features one full-colour and two single-colour cathode ray tubes. These are being upgraded to Rockwell Collins 5in Flat Panel Colour Displays using active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) technology. A holographic wide-field-of-view head-up display (HUD) from Kaiser provides the pilot with flight and tactical information.

US Air Force / Staff Sgt. Sean Carnes

USAF F-15s are scheduled to receive the joint helmet-mounted cueing system (JHMCS) developed by Vision Systems International. A contract for 145 systems was placed in July 2008. Deliveries are underway and are scheduled to conclude in mid-2009.




The F-15 Eagle is equipped with this version of the ACES II. It replaced an Escapac seat used in the prototypes and early aircraft. This version differs from the rest of the basic side-pull ACES II seats (A-10, F-117) in the configuration of the headrest canopy breakers, and the side-pull handles. The picture below shows the size difference between the handles on the A-10 (right) and the F-15 (left). The A-10 seats originally had no canopy breakers as in the example shown, but were later fit with a single canopy breaker. The F-117 has a metal canopy frame which precludes the use of a canopy breaker. The handles on the F-117 closely resemble the A-10 handles. Source

F-15 Eagle Losses & Ejections: Details


Tony House

The F-15E aircraft can carry payloads up to 23,000lb. The aircraft can carry up to four Lockheed Martin / Raytheon AIM-9LM infrared-guided Sidewinder air-to-air missiles, up to four Raytheon AIM-7F/M radar-guided Sparrow air-to-air missiles, or eight Raytheon AMRAAM radar-guided, medium-range air-to-air missiles.


US Air Force / Staff Sgt. Michael B. Keller

AIM-9X is the newest variant of Sidewinder. The AIM-9X has the same rocket motor and warhead as the AIM-9M. Major physical changes from previous versions of the missile include fixed forward canards, and smaller fins designed to increase flight performance. The guidance section has been redesigned and features an imaging infrared seeker. The propulsion section now incorporates a jet-vane steering system for enhanced post-launch agility. The X model is also compatible with the Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System, which is designed for ease of target acquisition and decreased aircrew workload.

General Characteristics
Primary Function:
 Air-to-air missile
Contractor: Raytheon and Loral Martin
Power Plant: Hercules and Bermite Mk 36 Mod 11
Length: 9 feet, 5 inches (2.87 meters)
Diameter: 5 inches (0.13 meters)
Finspan: 2 feet, 3/4 inches (0.63 meters)
Warhead: Annular blast fragmentation warhead
Launch Weight: 190 pounds (85.5 kilograms)
Guidance System: Solid-state, infrared homing system
Introduction Date: 1956
Unit Cost:  Variable, depending on lot, quantity and block



Michael Block

The AIM-120 advanced medium-range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM) is a new generation air-to-air missile. It has an all-weather, beyond-visual-range capability and is scheduled to be operational beyond 2000. The AMRAAM is being procured for the Air Force, U.S. Navy and America’s allies.

AMRAAM has three variants – AIM-120A/B/C — operational on U.S. Air Force F-15, F-16 and F-22 aircraft.

General Characteristics
Primary Function:
 Air-to-air tactical missile
Contractor: Hughes Aircraft Co. and Raytheon Co.
Power Plant: High performance
Length: 143.9 inches (366 centimeters)
Launch Weight: 335 pounds (150.75 kilograms)
Diameter: 7 inches (17.78 centimeters)
Wingspan: 20.7 inches (52.58 centimeters)
Range: 20+ miles (17.38+ nautical miles)
Speed: Supersonic
Guidance System: Active radar terminal/inertial midcourse
Warhead: Blast fragmentation
Unit Cost: $386,000
Date Deployed: September 1991


Ranges for these missiles are: Sidewinder: 8km; Sparrow: 45km; and AMRAAM: 50km.

The range of air-to-ground ordnance includes guided GBU-10, -12, -15 and -24 bombs, and Raytheon AGM-65 Maverick infrared-guided missiles. Maverick’s range is 25km.

The first units of GBU-15 glide bomb upgraded with Global Positioning System (GPS) guidance have been delivered for deployment on the F-15E. The Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) was cleared for carriage on the F-15E in February 2005. The aircraft will also be able to carry the Lockheed Martin AGM-158 joint air-to-surface stand-off missile.

Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)

An F-15E Strike Eagle (armed with a variety of JDAMs) peels off from a KC-135 Stratotanker from the 28th Expeditionary Air Refueling Squadron following receiving fuel, May 7, 2019 at an undisclosed location. The 28th EARS maintains a 24/7 presence in the U.S. Air Forces Central Command area of responsibility, supporting U.S. and Coalition aircraft in various operations in Iraq, Syria, and Afghanistan. (U.S. Air Force photo by Master Sergeant Russ Scalf)

AGM-158 joint air-to-surface stand-off missile

U.S. Air Force

The Lockheed Martin AGM-158 Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) is a next generation, precision guided, long range standoff cruise missile enabling the U.S. Air Force to destroy the enemy’s war sustaining capability from outside its area air defenses. JASSM is a conventionally armed low observable, subsonic cruise missile designed to destroy high-value targets. JASSM can be delivered from both fighters and bombers. The JASSM is produced in a Baseline variant (AGM-158A) as well as an extended range AGM-158B (JASSM-ER) variant.

JASSM has automatic target recognition, autonomous guidance, precision accuracy, and a J-1000 warhead optimized for penetration. These characteristics give JASSM strong capabilities against heavily defended hard targets such as aircraft shelters and underground command posts, as well as soft targets such as rail yards. JASSM’s accuracy of three meters or less reduces the number of weapons and sorties required to destroy a target. The missiles employ an Imaging InfraRed (IIR) seeker system and use GPS/INS for midcourse navigation and as a back up for terminal guidance. Missile launch can occur over a wide range of altitudes and at ranges greater than 200 nm (230 miles/370 km) for the AGM-158A Baseline missile and greater than 500 nm (575 miles/926 km) for the AGM-158B Extended Range variant.

JASSM carries the WDU-42B (J-1000), a 1000-pound class penetrating warhead with 240 pounds of AFX-757. AFX-757 is an extremely insensitive explosive developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory at Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida. The fuze is the FMU-156B employing a 150-gram PBXN-9 booster. Source

The F-15E is the first aircraft to be armed with the Boeing GBU-39 GPS-guided 113kg (250lb) small diameter bomb. Up to 12 bombs can be carried. The SDB entered Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) in April 2005 and achieved Initial Operating Capability (IOC) on the F-15E in September 2006.

Boeing GBU-39 GPS-guided small diameter bomb

U.S. Air Force

The GBU-39B Small Diameter Bomb, or SDB, is an extended range all-weather, day or night 250-pound class, guided munition. The SDB relies on the Global Positioning System to provide navigation to the target. Additionally, its small size allows increased aircraft loadout to achieve multiple kills per sortie and inherently reduces the probability of collateral damage.

The SDB system employs a smart carriage capable of carrying four 250-lb class guided air-to-surface munitions. It is capable of destroying high-priority fixed and stationary targets from Air Force fighters and bombers in internal bays or on external hard-points. SDB increases aircraft loadout, decreases the logistical footprint, decreases collateral damage, and improves aircraft sortie generation times.

The SDB provides a transformational capability to the warfighter increasing smart weapon carriage by placing up to four smart weapons per 1760 store location.

The weapon system is capable of standoff ranges in excess of 40 nautical miles. The system can be targeted and released against single or multiple targets. SDB target coordinates are loaded into the weapon before release either on the ground or in the air by the aircrew. Once the weapon is released, it relies on GPS/INS to self-navigate to the desired impact point.

General Characteristics
Primary Function: Guided air-to-surface weapon
Contractor: Boeing Co.
Range: More than 40 nautical miles (46 miles)
Guidance System: Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System
Unit cost: Approximately $40,000
Initial operational capability: October 2006



U.S. Air Force – William Lewis

Raytheon, the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy have begun SDB II™ bomb integration activities on the F-35, F/A-18E/F and F-15E aircraft.

The seeker works in three modes to provide maximum operational flexibility: millimeter wave radar to detect and track targets through weather, imaging infrared for enhanced target discrimination and semi-active laser that enables the weapon to track an airborne laser designator or one on the ground.

This powerful, integrated seeker seamlessly shares targeting information among all three modes, enabling the weapon to engage fixed or moving targets at any time of day and in all-weather conditions. The SDB II bomb’s tri-mode seeker can also peer through battlefield dust and debris, giving the warfighter a capability that’s unaffected by conditions on the ground or in the air.

The weapon can fly more than 45 miles to strike mobile targets, reducing the amount of time that aircrews’ spend in harm’s way. Its small size enables the use of fewer aircraft to take out the same number of targets as previous, larger weapons that required multiple jets. The SDB II bomb’s size has broader implications for the warfighter and taxpayers, as it means fewer attacks with less time spent flying dangerous missions.

The U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy have begun SDB II bomb integration activities on the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter and the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet aircraft. Raytheon will complete integration on the F-15E Strike Eagle in 2017. Source:

CBU-105 cluster bombs

U.S. Air Force / Staff Sgt. Chris Thornbury

Joint direct attack munition (JDAM)

U.S. Air Force / Staff Sgt. Chris Thornbury


Federation of American Scientists

The aircraft is also armed with an internal General Dynamics M-61A1 20mm Gatling gun installed in the right wing root, which can fire 4,000 or 6,000 shots a minute.

General Dynamics M-61A1 20mm Gatling gun

The M61A1 and M61A2 Gatlin guns are externally powered six-barrel 20mm Gatling gun systems that offer lightweight, highly lethal combat support for a variety of air, land and sea platforms.

The M61A1 and M61A2 increases multiple-hit probabilities when compared to single barrel guns operating at lower rates of fire. The M61A1 and M61A2 weapons provide reliability up to 10 times greater than single-barrel guns.

The M61A2 shares the same features as the M61A1, but is 20 percent lighter. The M61A2 will meet or exceed the M61A1 gun’s reliability, maintainability and supportability features. The M61A2 is available for applications where weapon system weight reduction is critical. Source


Neil Bates

The integrated avionics systems provide all-weather, around-the-clock navigation and targeting capability. The Raytheon APG-70 synthetic aperture radar displays high-quality images of ground targets. APG-70 is able to create and freeze the high-resolution ground maps during quick sweeps of the target area, lasting only seconds.

APG-70 synthetic aperture radar

This X-Band, pulse-doppler radar system is a multimode radar for both air-air and air-ground missions. As an upgrade of the AN/APG-63, the APG-70 was designed for greater reliability and easier maintenance. Gate array technology enables the APG-70 to incorporate modes not available in earlier radars while providing greatly enhanced operational capabilities in other modes. The AN/APG-70 can detect and track aircraft and small high-speed targets at distances beyond visual range down to close range, and at altitudes down to treetop level.

The radar feeds target information into the aircraft’s central computer for effective weapons delivery. For close-in dogfights, the radar automatically acquires enemy aircraft and projects this information onto the cockpit head-up display. The APG-70 is employed on late model F-15 Eagle air superiority fighter, providing the “Eyes of the Eagle”. source

Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 185.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 1990s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Track While Scan (TWS), Low Probability of Intercept (LPI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Synthetic Aperature Radar (SAR), Continuous Wave Illumination
AN/APG-70 – (F-15E, LPI) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Air-to-Air & Air-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 185.2 km


USAF F-15Es are being fitted with the upgraded Raytheon APG-63(V)3 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar which has a new transmitter, receiver, data processor and signal data converter. The first was delivered to Boeing for flight tests in September 2006.

Raytheon APG-63(V)3 (AESA) radar

Superior situational awareness is a key benefit of this all-weather, multimode radar. Other benefits include multi-role capability, long-term support, and easy future growth options. Raytheon’s F-15 radar growth plan provides a smooth transition from one product upgrade to another. The APG-63(V)1 seamlessly integrates the APG-63(V)3’s AESA components with minimal downtime. The APG-63(V)3 provides for similarly easy future transition. Source

Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 296.3 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Low Probability of Intercept (LPI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA)
AN/APG-63(V)3 AESA – (LPI) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Air-to-Air & Air-to-Surface, Long-Range
Max Range: 296.3 km


APG-82(V)1 AESA radar

Delivering next-generation capabilities

The APG-82(V)1 AESA radar is the latest radar advancement for the U.S. Air Force F-15E fleet.


The APG-82(V)1 optimizes the F-15Es multirole mission capability. In addition to its extended range and improved multi-target track and precision engagement capabilities, the APG-82(V)1 offers improvement in system reliability over the legacy F-15E APG-70 radar. This phenomenal level of reliability and maintainability will result in significant maintenance cost savings for the U.S. Air Force.


By leveraging combat-proven technologies—the APG-79 and APG-63(V)3 AESA radars flying on the F/A-18E/F, the EA-18G and the F-15C platforms—Raytheon delivers a low-risk, cost-effective and superior situational awareness and attack radar to modernize the Strike Eagle.


Aircraft equipped with the APG-82(V)1 AESA radar can simultaneously detect, identify and track multiple air and surface targets at longer ranges than ever before. The longer standoff range facilitates persistent target observation and information sharing for informed decision making. This superior battlespace awareness supports greater tactical mission capability. The result: greatly increased aircraft-aircrew effectiveness and survivability.


Raytheon’s ground-breaking AESA technology has consistently proven its exceptional performance, reliability and mission capabilities for the warfighter. Our APG-79 AESA radar design, now extended to the APG-82(V)1, is combat-proven on fielded F/A-18s, and it’s being adapted now to modernize the Strike Eagle. Source

Rob_B84 @flickr

“The new radar system does everything faster, is extremely precise and requires less maintenance,” Riley said. “It can designate air-to-air and air-to-ground simultaneously, allowing us to track enemy aircraft and identify ground targets at the same time.”

According to the Air Force’s first RMP report, the new radar system is designed to retain functionality of the old legacy radar system while providing expanded mission employment capabilities to include:

– Near simultaneous interleaving of selected air-to-air and air-to-ground functions
– Enhanced air-to-air and air-to-ground classified combat identification capabilities
– Longer range air-to-air target detection and enhanced track capabilities
– Longer range and higher resolution air-to-ground radar mapping
– Improved ground moving target track capability

“In order to maintain our combat edge in today’s challenging environment, Air Combat Command must balance resources between refurbishing our existing fleet and investing in future weapon systems,” said Gen. Mike Hostage, the commander of ACC.

The RMP replaces the F-15E’s more than 20-year-old legacy APG-70 mechanically scanned radar with an active electronically-scanned array, or AESA, system designated as the APG-82(V)1.

“The old radar system is hydraulic, has moving parts and requires three maintainers to perform repairs after every 30 flight hours,” said Master Sgt. Jennifer Schildgen, a 366th Fighter Wing avionics manager. “The new radar system is a beam scan, doesn’t have any moving parts and is projected to only require one maintainer to perform repairs after more than 2,000 flight hours.”

The modification process is managed by Boeing representatives and takes two to three months to complete for each aircraft. The tentative plan is to complete RMP for 47 aircraft from the 389th FS and 391st Fighter Squadron by 2017.

So far, the F-15E fighter aircraft has flown more than 11 hours with the new radar. Source

Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 407.4 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 2010s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Low Probability of Intercept (LPI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA)
AN/APG-82(V)1 AESA – (F-15E, LPI) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Air-to-Air & Air-to-Surface, Long-Range
Max Range: 407.4 km


LANTIRN navigation and targeting system

US Air Force

The F-15E is fitted with the Lockheed Martin LANTIRN navigation and targeting system. The LANTIRN navigation pod contains a Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) sensor, which produces video images that are projected onto the pilot’s HUD, and terrain-following radar. The LANTIRN system can be coupled to the flight control system for hands-off terrain, following at altitudes as low as 200ft. The LANTIRN targeting pod contains a tracking FLIR and laser designator.

LANTIRN Extended Range (ER) navigation and targeting pods provide today’s warfighter with enhanced range, resolution and reliability delivering multi-mission success with a low cost of ownership. LANTIRN ER allows aircrews to operate, in daylight or darkness, at mission altitudes from sea level to 40,000 feet, all with outstanding targeting performance.  LANTIRN ER, which is the latest LANTIRN production configuration, is offered as a newly fabricated pod, or as an upgrade to existing pods. Source

The FLIR imagery, for terrain following, avoidance and navigation, is generated by a wide field of view FLIR sensor, sensor, mounted in the port LANTIRN navigation pod, together with the terrain following radar (TFR). The second LANTIRN pod, starboard mounted, is termed the targeting pod. It contains a narrow field of view FLIR sensor, boresighted with a laser rangefinder/designator and importantly, in its later versions, an automatic target recogniser. Source

The FLIR imagery, for terrain following, avoidance and navigation, is generated by a wide field of view FLIR sensor, sensor, mounted in the port LANTIRN navigation pod, together with the terrain following radar (TFR). The TFR is an advanced digital system which automatically controls its power output, both in direction and time (it will build up a terrain profile in its memory, store it, switch off and turn on again only when necessary to rebuild the profile), is frequency agile and can be configured for ground mapping. The frequency agility and silent on/off operation make it very difficult to detect. The second LANTIRN pod, starboard mounted, is termed the targeting pod. It contains a narrow field of view FLIR sensor, boresighted with a laser rangefinder/designator and importantly, in its later versions, an automatic target recogniser. Source

LANTIRN stands for Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night. This system consists of two pods hung under the air intakes – the AN/AAQ-13 navigation pod under the right intake and the AN/AAQ-14 targeting pod under the left intake. Since LANTIRN pods are in use with other platforms (A-10, F-16) where they have other hanging points, adaptor units are needed to fix them on the F-15E. The adaptor units are the ADU-576/A for the navigation pod and ADU-577/A for the targeting pod. This is the only place on the F-15E for them and they cannot be exchanged. Although both of the pods are capable of working alone, most of the time they come in pair, an F-15E with only one LANTIRN pod is a rare sight. Source

Navigation Pod

Michael Block

It contains a terrain-following ( TF) radar, a forward-looking infrared ( FLIR) sensor, plus a control computer, a power supply (the pod uses power from the aircraft’s power system) and an environmental control unit.

Both the TF radar and the FLIR are aimed at allowing the F-15E to make a high speed, low altitude penetratation of enemy airspace at night and/or in adverse weather conditions. These two systems give a powerful edge to the Strike Eagle when it comes to deep interdiction missions, thus making the jet an extremely capable night flying platform.

Terrain-Following Radar

The AN/APN-237A terrain-following radar is located behind the round radome forming the forward end of the pod. It is a KU band radar manufactured by Texas Instruments. When operating, it constantly scans the terrain in front of the jet and combining it with using altitude and airspeed data, it is able to generate inputs to the autopilot to maintain its pre-set altitude thus making the jet follow the contours of the terrain totally ‘hands off’, that is without inputs from the pilot. When the autopilot is not in use the TF radar is able to generate maneuvering cues for the pilot to avoid ground obstacles.

Forward Looking Infrared

The LANTIRN navigation pod contains a fixed, wide file of view (21×28 degrees), advanced 3rd generation mid-wave (8-12 micron) forward looking infrared ( FLIR) sensor. The window of this sensor can be found directly above the TF radome.

This FLIR sensor generates an infrared image of the terrain in front of the aircraft and projects it onto the pilot’s HUD. This way the pilot is able to see the terrain in front of him through the HUD in shades of green even in total darkness or in adverse weather conditions. Seeing the terrain the pilot can easily fly at high speeds very close to the ground, thus using terrain features (mountains, valleys) to avoid enemy detection. The WSO can view the same image on one of his multi-purpose display, by calling up the HUD-repeater page. Note that the repeated FLIR image is available for the WSO regardless of whether the pilot had actually chosen to put the FLIR image on the HUD or not. Source

Targeting Pod

Michael Block

Lockheed Martin created an improved version of the pod in 1995 mainly for the Navy’s F-14 Tomcats. This pod integrated the navigation and targeting features in one unit, plus brought many improvements over the previous two-pod LANTIRN system.

The targeting pod features a data-logging module ( DLM) which communicates with the pod’s control computer to provide real-time data recording and logging. Data can be analyzed after landing by connecting a portable data terminal into the appropriate socket outside of the pod. The DLM system can be of great help for the ground crew when trying to find minor or lower-level errors.

Targeting Laser

The pod contains a laser designator/rangefinder to aid the delivery of precision guided munitions (PGM’s) plus the software necessary to automatically track the selected target regardless of the maneuvering of its host plane. The designator is a four-digit PRF coded laser which can designate for the aircraft’s own weapons and for the weapons of other aircraft as well (this latter technique is called ‘buddy-lasing’). In case of unguided (‘dumb’) bombs the laser is used to determine target range and the pod feeds this input to the aircraft’s fire control system.

To be able to follow the target within wide limits, the nose section (called NESA – Nose Equipment Support Assembly) of the targeting pod can rotate, thus giving the laser a 150 degree field of regard. When the system is not operating, the nose rotates the vulnerable sensors towards the belly of the jet, thus protecting it from elements (this is especially useful during takeoff and landing when ground debris could cause severe damages to the sensors). Source

After obtaining a radar image of the target area, the F-15E aircrew can designate targets by positioning a cursor on the radar display. The target data is transferred to the LANTIRN system for use by the tracking FLIR, which enables aiming of air-to-ground weapons from up to ten miles. Target tracking data is handed automatically to precision-guided weapons such as low-level laser-guided bombs, which can be guided to the target after release.

In August 2001, Lockheed Martin was selected to provide the Sniper XR as the new Advanced Targeting Pod for USAF F-16 and F-15E aircraft. Sniper XR (extended range) incorporates a high-resolution mid-wave FLIR, dual-mode laser, CCD TV, laser spot tracker and laser marker combined with advanced image processing algorithms.

Sniper XR Advanced Targeting Pod

Michael Block

It is safe to say that the AN/AAQ-33 Sniper XR (manufactured by Lockheed Martin Corporation) is the most advanced targeting pod in service in the world today. Based on its predecessor, the LANTIRN targeting pod, it is far superior in range (3-5 times the range of LANTIRN), resolution, stability and in many other parameters. The first time in the history of targeting pods, it allows pilots to pick out even individual enemy soldiers on the ground from outside jet noise ranges. It is highly reliable, having an MTBF value (mean time between failures) of over 600 (!) hours. Its hardware and software configuration featuring “plug-and-play” flexibility across services and multiple platforms, Sniper XR can be used on A-10, B-1, B-52, F-15E, F-16 and F-18 aircraft. Source

Operational deployment of the Sniper pod on the F-15E began in January 2005, in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

ANASQ-236 Radar Pod

Neil Bates

The AN/ASQ-236 Radar Pod contains synthetic aperture radar that provides detailed maps for surveillance, coordinate generation and bomb impact assessment purposes. It will be operational on the F-15E Strike Eagle aircraft.

The AN/ASQ-236 Radar Pod contains synthetic aperture radar that provides detailed maps for surveillance, coordinate generation and bomb impact assessment purposes. This technology provides Combat Air Forces with the ability to precisely geo-locate points of interest and conduct surveillance activities day or night, in adverse weather conditions.

Operational on the F-15E Strike Eagle aircraft, the AN/ASQ-236 pod system is externally mounted and fully integrated with the aircraft. The radar pod is a self-contained system consisting of an antenna, inertial navigation system, and environmental cooling system. The antenna is attached to a positioner plate that allows it to move about the roll axis.

The pod design also incorporates a fully automated built-in-test, or BIT, that indicates the health of the system to the operator and maintenance crews. The BIT allows fault isolation to the line-replaceable module level enabling high system availability.

Recognizing the need for an all-weather precision geo-location and reconnaissance system with the reliability and performance inherent in Active Electronically Scanned Array radars, the U.S. Air Force with Northrop Grumman embarked on a program in the late 1990s to design, fabricate, test and field a unique radar system known as the AN/ASQ-236.

Information concerning the design, development, and production of the ASQ-236 is classified to protect critical technologies and improved operational capabilities. By leveraging the technology development associated with the F-22 Raptor, the release of this new sensor will enhance all-weather precision geo-location and provide greater surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities supporting current and future operations.

General Characteristics
Primary function: Precision geo-location and non-traditional intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance
Prime Contractor: Northrop Grumman Corporation
Length: 130 inches (3.302 meters)
Diameter: 20 inches (0.508 meters)
Weight: 1, 000 pounds (454 kilograms)
Aircraft: F-15E
Date Deployed: June 2009
Inventory: Classified

Passive Active Warning and Survivability System (EPAWSS)

The EPAWSS will give current and future Eagles more survivability when operating near or in contested airspace. The system allows F-15 pilots to monitor, locate and jam enemy radars, as well as deceive them about the Eagle’s position and heading.

“The system combines multispectral sensors and countermeasures, industry-leading signal processing, microelectronics, and intelligent algorithms to deliver fully integrated radar warning, situational awareness, geo-location and self-protection capabilities,” BAE said in a press release.

The EPAWSS was developed to protect F-15C/D and F-15E Strike Eagle aircraft in USAF’s fleet, and will be standard equipment on new F-15EX models, the first of which is to be delivered to the Air Force in the next few weeks. The company has been working on EPAWSS since 2015, when it was selected for the Technology Maturation and Risk Reduction (TMRR) phase. The engineering and manufacturing development contract followed in 2016. Source

Digital Electronic Warfare Suite (DEWS) 

Electronic Warfare: Instead of the TEWS used in the Strike Eagle, the F-15SE features a digital electronic warfare system (developed by BAE Systems), dubbed as DEWS. DEWS was developed by leveraging F-22 and F-35 EW program results and replaces 4 legacy systems of the Strike Eagle. It is fully digital (hence its name) and works in close integration with wideband RF systems, including the APG-82 AESA radar, giving the jet a very sharp edge in the electronic warfare arena.

DEWS offers full quadrant detection and response control, containing aft receiving antennas on top of the tails, aft RF transmitters and antennas built in the tailbooms, forward RF transmitters and antennas built in the leading edge of the wing roots, forward receiving antennas built in the wingtips and a low band Rx knife antenna placed on the underbelly of the jet below the cockpit.

DEWS includes a digital RWR, digital jamming transmitter, ICS and an interference cancellation system. According to Boeing, the system enables the Silent Eagle to jam enemy radars while its own radar and RWR continues to operate. Source


The aircraft is equipped with an integrated internal electronic warfare suite, including: Lockheed Martin AN/ALR-56C radar warning receiver; Northrop Grumman AN/ALQ-135(V) radar jammer; and Raytheon AN/ALQ-128 EW warner. Northrop Grumman is upgrading the ALQ-135 to band 1.5 standard. It is also fitted with a BAE Systems Integrated Defense Solutions (formerly Tracor) AN/ALE-45 automatic chaff dispenser.

Flight control

Steve Cooke

The F15E is equipped with a triple-redundant BAE SYSTEMS Astronics flight control system. Using manual terrain following, navigation is possible over rough terrain at altitudes down to 200ft, at nearly 600mph, with the pilot following commands from the LANTIRN system. Automatic terrain following is accomplished through the flight control system linked to the LANTIRN navigation pod’s terrain-following radar.


A 492nd Fighter Squadron’s F-15E Strike Eagle takes off from Royal Air Force Lakenheath, England, Feb. 15, 2017. The 492nd FS trains regularly to ensure RAF Lakenheath brings unique air combat capabilities to the fight. (U.S. Air Force photo/Tech. Sgt. Matthew Plew)

F-15Es are equipped with Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 low-bypass turbofan engines, which provide 29,000lb of thrust per engine. Using the digital electronic engine control system, the pilot can accelerate from idle power to maximum afterburner within four seconds.

Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 low-bypass turbofan engines

The Pratt & Whitney F100 is a two-spool afterburning turbofan engine. The F100 has been selected by the U.S. Air Force (USAF), Navy, Air Force Reserve, Air National Guard (ANG) and 22 foreign nations for the Boeing F-15 Eagle/F-15E Strike Eagle and the Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon multi-role fighters. F100 engines power 99% of all USAF F-15 aircraft and 62% of the world’s inventory of F-16 fighters.

Michael Block

The latest model in the F100 Series, the F100-PW-229 (introduced in 1992), is an improved high-thrust improvement of the older F100-PW-220 (introduced in 1986). The F100-PW-229 incorporates proven technological innovations and generates more than 29,000 pounds of thrust with afterburner. The modular maintenance concept, coupled with a state-of-the art FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) system with improved, real-time engine monitoring and fault isolation capability, promotes the highest level of operational readiness.

The newest engine in the Pratt & Whitney 229-Series, the F100-PW-229 Engine Enhancement Package (EEP) – launched in 2004 – has raised the engine depot inspection interval from 4,300 to 6,000 Total Accumulated Cycles (TAC), effectively extending the typical depot interval from 7 to 10 years and, at the same time, providing a 30% engine life-cycle cost reduction. Furthermore, the F100-PW-229 engine is the only fighter engine funded and qualified by the U.S. Air Force to the 6,000-cycle capability.

Neil Bates

Manufacturer: Pratt & Whitney (United Technologies)
Thrust: 17,800 pounds dry thrust; 29,160 pounds with afterburner
Overall Pressure Ratio at Maximum Power: 32
Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: 7.6
Bypass Ratio: 0.36
Compressor: Two spool, axial flow, three-stage fan
LP-HP Compressor Stages: 0-10
HP-LP Turbine Stages: 2-2
Combustor Type: Annular
Length: 191 in (4.85 m)
Engine Control: FADEC
Diameter: 46.5 in (1.18 m)
Dry Weight: 3,836 lbs (1,744 kg)
Platforms: F-15E Strike EagleF-16 Fighting Falcon
Price/Unit Cost: Unknown
First Run: Unknown
First Flight: 1989


US Air Force / Staff Sgt. Taylor Harrison


General Characteristics
Primary function: Air-to-ground attack aircraft
Contractor: The Boeing Company
Power plant: Two Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-220 or 229 turbofan engines with afterburners
Thrust: 25,000 – 29,000 pounds each engine
Wingspan: 42.8 feet (13 meters)
Length: 63.8 feet (19.44 meters)
Height: 18.5 feet (5.6 meters)
Weight: 37,500 pounds ( 17,010 kilograms)
Maximum takeoff weight: 81,000 pounds (36,450 kilograms)
Fuel capacity: 35,550 pounds (three external tanks plus conformal fuel tanks)
Payload: depends upon mission
Speed: 1,875 mph (Mach 2.5 plus)
Range: 2,400 miles (3,840 kilometers) ferry range with conformal fuel tanks and three external fuel tanks
Ceiling: 60,000 feet (18,288 meters)
Armament: One 20mm multibarrel gun mounted internally with 500 rounds of ammunition. Four AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles and four AIM-120 AMRAAM or eight AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles. Any air-to-surface weapon in the Air Force inventory (nuclear and conventional)
Crew: Pilot and weapon systems officer
Unit cost: $31.1 million (fiscal year 98 constant dollars)
Initial operating capability: September 1989
Inventory: 219 total force

(Current as of April 2019)


Main material source

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image F-15EX by U.S. Air Force / Ethan Wagner

Revised Mar 30, 2021

Dong Feng 41 (DF-41 / CSS-X-20) ICBM

The Dong Feng 41 (CSS-X-10) is a road- and rail-mobile intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). The DF-41 is currently in its final testing stages and will be the next land-based ballistic missile to be deployed in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). It is estimated to have an operational range of 12,000 to 15,000 km, which would make it the longest range missile in operation. It will likely have a top speed of Mach 25 and will be capable of delivering up to 10 MIRVed warheads. It is projected to be able to strike the continental United States within 30 minutes.  Source


China will put its most powerful intercontinental ballistic missile into service as early as this year, according to a regional defence magazine.

The DF-41, which was described by Washington as the world’s longest-range missile, has entered its final test phase, according to Canada-based Kanwa Asian Defence.

With an operational range of up to 14,500km, the DF-41 would first be deployed to the advanced brigade of the People’s Liberation Army’s new Rocket Force based in Xinyang in Henan province, the report said.

From there, the missile would be able to strike the United States within half an hour by flying over the North Pole or slightly more than 30 minutes by crossing the Pacific, the report said.

But defence analysts said it was not clear if the DF-41 could break through the multilayered US missile defence system in the Asia-Pacific region.

“No one questions the longest range of the DF-41 is near 15,000km. But within just a few minutes of being launched, it might be blocked by the US’ defence system at its Guam naval base,” Professor He Qisong, a defence policy specialist at the Shanghai University of Political Science and Law, said.

The solid-fuel, road-mobile ICBM had been tested at the Wu­zhai Missile and Space Test Centre – also known as the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Centre – in Shanxi province since last summer, the Kanwa report said.

The DF-41 has been tested at least five times since July, 2014, according to the US-based Washington Free Beacon.

Earlier reports from the website said US intelligence agencies had detected that the PLA’s missile force submitted a DF-41 missile to a “canister ejection test” from a railway-mounted mobile launcher on December 5.

The test was a milestone for Chinese strategic weapons developers and showed that Beijing was moving ahead with building and deploying the DF-41 on difficult-to-locate rail cars, in addition to previously known road-mobile launchers, the website said.

Kanwa chief editor Andrei Chang said the strike rate of the DF-41 would improve further after 2020 when China completed its home-grown BeiDou navigation satellites, helping to wean the PLA off its dependence on the US’ Global Positioning System.

But He said the US might develop technology to jam the BeiDou system’s signals.

“The US has spared no effort to upgrade its missile defence system year after year,” He said. “The missile systems – so far – are just a game of threats played among the great powers.” Source:


Topol-M: Details

Minuteman III: Details




Updated Dec 22, 2018

India’s New Stealth Fighter to Get Mach 3 Super Missile?

The National Interest

Dave Majumdar March 28, 2016
India’s version of the Sukhoi T-50 PAK-FA stealth fighter will likely be armed with the Russian-Indian BrahMos supersonic cruise missile. However, the weapon—which is based-on the P-800 Oniks anti-ship missile—will have to be modified to be carried onboard the fifth-generation warplane.

“We are presenting BrahMos to many Indian public and private defense companies, from some of them we get a technical job,” Sudhir Mishra, the head of BrahMos Aerospace, told the Russian media outlet RIA Novosti.

“We presented it also to developers of the FGFA — they asked to adjust the size of the missile, so it can be placed on board the aircraft. Such work is ongoing.”

While the Indians and Russians have been having disagreements on work share and the price tag of the Fifth-Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA)—as the Indian PAK-FA is known—the addition of the BrahMos to the jet would afford New Delhi a potent new capability.

One the stealthy new aircraft has completed development, the FGFA—assuming the project materializes—would enable the Indian Air Force to penetrate into hostile airspace and strike at even the most heavily defended targets. The jet would use its stealth and speed to get into launch position and launch the BrahMos from standoff ranges.

With its Mach 3.0 speed and 180-mile range, the BrahMos missile used in combination with the PAK-FA would enable India to hit Chinese and Pakistani targets with relative impunity. A Mach 3.0-capable cruise missile is difficult to counter. According to U.S. Navy sources, the BrahMos has a particular terminal phase that makes it particularly difficult to intercept.

Dave Majumdar is the defense editor for The National Interest. You can follow him on Twitter: @davemajumdar.


See related post:

Four Countries Negotiating Purchase of Russian-Indian BrahMos Missiles

BrahMos to Boost the Strike Capacity of Indian Air Force


The Royal Thai Navy (RTN) received six Special Operations Craft – Riverine (SOC-R)

The Royal Thai Navy (RTN) received six Special Operations Craft – Riverine (SOC-R) on 18 March to replace aging Patrol Boat Riverine (PBR).

Monday, March 28, 2016

The Royal Thai Navy (RTN) received six Special Operations Craft – Riverine (SOC-R) on 18 March to replace aging Patrol Boat Riverine (PBR).

These 10m-long SOC-R boats were built by Marsun, the Thai dockyard that also built the first three M10 Mk I SOC-Rs in 2012. These latest M10 Mk II boats are designed to operate along inland waterways and in coastal areas, chiefly to support special operations.

Propulsion comes from two 420hp engines with waterjets offering maximum speeds of 40+kt. They carry five crewmen and eight troops. The heaviest possible armament consists of three .50-cal machine guns.

These new SOC-Rs of the Riverine Squadron will operate in inland and boundary waterways like the Mekong River and Golden Triangle.


Their missions are to keep the peace, prevent illegal immigration, human trafficking, drug smuggling or any actions that harm homeland security. The SOC-Rs also provide fire support in combat situations.

screenshotAtUploadCC_1519188659819 (1)

Additionally, the boats will be used in humanitarian relief missions and to protect the royal family and VIPs.

The RTN needs more than 40 SOC-Rs to replace the Riverine Squadron’s 39 aging PBRs, some of which are more than 30 years old. All will be locally built.


Written material from Asian Defence News

M10 Mk I SOC-R

New upgraded T-72B3M/B4 MBT will enter in service with Russian army

Russia is planning to modernize its 150 T-72 main battle tanks (MBT) to the T-72B3M version also called T-72B4. According to Russian military engineers, the upgraded T-72 MBT will be comparable to the more advanced T-90, but with much lower costs.

Russia is planning to modernize its 150 T-72 main battle tanks (MBT) to the T-72B3M version also called T-72B4. According to Russian military engineers, the upgraded T-72 MBT will be comparable to the more advanced T-90, but with much lower costs.T-72B3M/B4 of Russian team at The Final of International Russian army Tank Biathlon 2014

Currently, Russian armed forces use a wide range of T-72 MBT variants. The T-72 is a russian made main battle tank that entered production in 1970. It is a further development of the T-62 with some features of the T-64A (upgraded version of basic T-64) and has been further developed as the T-90.

Russia will spend 2.5 billion rubles ($37 million) to upgrade 150 T-72Bs to the advanced B3M standard, Uralvagonzavod deputy director Alexey Zharich told the Russian newspaper Izvestia.

The T-72B3M (T-72B4) will be upgraded with lot of new components including the new cannon 2A46M5 125-mm smoothbore gun as well as the new Sosna-U sighting system paired with the 1A40-4 fire-control system. The tank will also receive a new ballistic computer to increase accuracy.

Upgraded T-72B3 shown in Victory Day Parade: Here


The upgraded T-72B3 were first seen during rehearsal for the Victory Day Parade which has increased protection than the standard T-72B3 featuring new add-on explosive reactive armor package, which covers rear part of the turret. This tank is also fitted with cage armor, which covers rear parts of the hull and turret and improved side skirts.

T-72B3 at Kadamovski Range

T-72B3 column on the way to shooting range, Zapad-2017 military exercises



Independent commander’s PK PAN sight

The most notable upgrade is the stabilized, panoramic, independent commander’s PK PAN sight with integrated thermal viewer, thought to have similar specifications to the Sosna-U. This gives the tank the ability to engage targets in the “hunter-killer” mode. Source

2A46M5 125-mm smoothbore gun

2A46M5 125-mm smoothbore gun (the lower cannon)

The T-72B3M will be equipped with an independent panoramic sight for the tank’s commander, with its own thermal imaging device. (See above)

U sighting system paired with the 1A40-4 fire-control system for gunnerSosna-U installation in a T-72 tank installation in a T-72 tank installation in a T-72 tank

The tanks will also get the new Relikt explosive reactive armor. It will replace the old Kontakt-5 system and is expected to be two times more effective.

“Classic” ERA from the USSR and Russia 4S22 (Kontakt-5)

It’s good to start describing “Nozh” with a point of reference first – for example heavy reactive armor types designed in the USSR/Russia, 4S22 (Kontakt-5) and 4S23 (Relikt). The overall working principle of every classic ERA is similar – it’s based on movement of metal elements of the ERA cassette caused by an explosion of reactive elements , this inflicts side stress disrupting the cumulative jet from a HEAT round or bending (optimally breaking) of an incoming KE penetrator. This overall principle is realized by different cassette’s structure. First, let’s look how Kontakt-5 ERA provides protection for Object 188 (T-90S tank).


4S22 Kontakt-5 scheme. Dark blue – external hardened metal
plate, violet – elements preventing the explosive inserts from moving, light
green – explosive inserts, light blue – cassette’s back plate and mounting
points. The explosive inserts are shown below the scheme. All pictures belong
to the author if not stated otherwise.

Supremacy of Soviet armor?

The introduction of heavy Kontakt-5 ERA in 1987 caused a gap between the capabilities of NATO’s rounds and the armor of Soviet tanks. From theoretical point of view APFSDS and tandem HEAT warheads capable of penetrating heavy ERA were introduced in 1992-1994 thus creating an almost 6 year disproportion between the Soviet “shield” and the NATO’s “sword”. Another fact worth noting is that the basic armor of Soviet tanks was already largely immune to APFSDS rounds, majority of RPG’s and some ATGM’s warheads. A good example is the basic armor of the hull and turret of the export version of Object 478B (T-80UD from 1991) including both steel and ceramic elements it is over 620 mm RHA vs APFSDS and over700 mm RHA vs HEAT. By adding Kontakt-5 ERA the protection level is further increased – especially against HEAT warheads. Similar high protection is for T-72B model 1989 when the sum of only passive hull armor elements gives over 600 mm RHA vs APFSDS.

Presented situation was theoretically very dangerous for western AT rounds but it was lowered by few factors – rather large weak zones in the frontal armor and not thick enough coverage by ERA cassettes. In reality every tank has various weak zones which can be penetrated by older ammo. In case of T-72 family these are: gun mantled, gun mounting area, coaxial MG, turret roof, commander’s observation copula, turret ring and the lower hull glacis.

These weak zones are shown in a résumé of an article printed in the internal bulletin
of the Armored Forces of the USSR. The article states about advantages of tanks
with welded turrets in terms of better crew survivability. What’s important is
that T-72B (Object 184) was used as a reference point and its weak zones were

T-72B weak zones

The areas marked in red were considered weak zones and could be
penetrated by 3BM26 APFSDS which was introduced in 1984 and penetrates 380-410
mm RHA at 2000 m for 90 degree sloped target. The marked areas were penetrated
by this projectile from:

– driver’s hatch – 1700 m,
– turret roof – 3700 m,
– commander’s copula – 3900 m,
– gun mantled, gun mounting area and coaxial MG – 1650 m

LiveLeak-dot-com-c47_1421699338-rys3i4_1421699540Photo : Vitajin Kuzmin.
T-72B3 tank. Green – area protected by the Kontakt-5 ERA, red – “weak
zones” from the Bulletin of the Armored Forces from 1991. Except for a small
portion of the roof the areas do not cover each other almost at all. Photo : Vitajin Kuzmin. Written by : militarysta  Translated by : Bzdziuchanson

Relikt explosive reactive armor

Relikt consist of single explosive tile, sandwiched between 2 plates. At event of hit, explosive detonates and “push” plates in opposite directions. And thats all, there is no second explosive charge. IIRC NII Stali noted that there is a sort of damper layer on armor itself (between ERA main part and armor plate of a tank), to soften up a force from second (“inner”) plate hit.

New Relikt explosive reactive armor

Nozh offers slightly higher protection than Kontakt-5 against some warheads simply because K-5 module have 0.5 kg of explosives, while one block of Nozh is filled with ~2 kg of explosives. Relikt also have about same amount of explosive filler, but Nozh is mounted directly on tank armor, while Relkit is mounted at some distance, with second inner plate and damper mounted on armor plate to protect it from damage by ERA detonation. Source

Furthermore, the upgraded version will be powered with the new V-92S2F engine and deliver 1,130 hp. It will replace the old 780-hp diesel engine. The new engine is paired with an automatic transmission system and improved drivetrain to improve the tank’s mobility. Source

Modernized tank t-72B (t-72B3 with additional options). MILEX 2014

Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014

Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (вариант Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями) – Modernized tank t-72B (option t-72B3 with additional options).

V-92S2F engine 

V-92S2F engine 

V-92S2F diesel engine was specially designed for installation on the upgraded and new serial tanks T-72B3. It has a power of 1130 hp.

The V-92S2F is the result of a deep modernization of the V-92C2 engine, with which it has a high level of unification: it has the same overall dimensions and is installed in the power compartment of the main battle tank without any modifications of the hull.

But in comparison with the B-92S2, it has a more powerful crankcase, crankshaft, conrod-piston group, improved turbocharger, exhaust system and cooling system. The heads of the cylinder block are cast from a heat resistant aluminum alloy. The fuel system provides high efficiency and has a power limiting mechanism that reduces the load on the diesel engine when the temperature extremes are reached.

The beginning of the mass production of the B-92S2F diesel engine was announced in November 2017. Source

Основные новинки представленного танка заключаются в двигателе (1160 л.с. с автоматом переключения передач), новом панорамном прицеле командира с лазерным дальномером (ВОМЗ), установке телевизионной камеры заднего обзора на кормовом листе корпуса танка и ряде других усовершенствований. –  The main novelties introduced by the tank are in the engine (1160 HP with automatic gear), new panoramic Commander’s sight with laser rangefinder (VOMZ), installing rearview camera on the tank hull fitted sheet and a number of other improvements.

Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014

Решение весьма неудачное, т.к. полностью препятствует усилению бортов динамической защитой – Log an unditching beam placed on the right side (on-the-go tank) in connection with the installation of the rear view camera. The decision is very unfortunate, because it prevents the strengthening boards dynamic protection.

Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014

Установка ДЗ на башне аналогична Т-72Б3. У наводчика установлен многоканальный прицел «Сосна-У» разработанный белорусским ОАО «пеленг». Прицел не уступает уровню современных мировых аналогов. – Installation of the DMZ on the tower is similar to the t-72B3. Gunner installed multi-channel sight “Pine-u” developed by Belarusian JSC “Peleng”. The sight is not inferior to the level of modern analogues.

Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014

Установка ДЗ «Контакт-5» на ВЛД. На первом (слева) фото видна установка ДЗ, вся верхняя плита носового узла корпуса не прикрыта. Чем думали конструкторы УКБТМ при создании такой конструкции остается загадкой. На фото справа крышка для установки элементов ДЗ с установленной резиновой прокладкой. – Setting DMZ “contact-5” on VFD. The first (left) photo visible installation of the DMZ, the whole top plate bow site not covered. Than thought FEDERAL designers when creating such a construction remains a mystery.
In the photo on the right cover for RS installation with installed rubber gasket.

Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014

На фото виден панорамный прицел командира. Удивляет небрежность изготовления, которую читатели могут увидеть на фото по торчащим проводам и платам. – In the photo visible commander panoramic sight. Surprising negligence of manufacturing, which readers can see in the photo of filmmaker Theo van Gogh wire and boards.

Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014

На кормовом листе установлена видеокамера заднего обзора с открывающейся дистанционно шторкой. Можно предположить, что место выбрано крайне неудачное и объектив будет загрязнен весьма быстро. – The aft sheet rear view camera is installed with an opening shutter remotely. It can be assumed that the place chosen is extremely unfortunate and lens will dirty very quickly.
Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014
Модернизированный танк Т-72Б (Т-72Б3 с дополнительными опциями). MILEX 2014
В танке применяется новая моторно-трансмиссионная установка с двигателем мощностью 1160 л.с. и автоматом переключения передач. – In a new tank power pack with an engine capacity of 1160 HP and automatic gear shift.
Source World of tank Розыгрыши танков
Updated Sep 18, 2017


Defense Updates

Defense Updates

Published on Mar 27, 2016
















PLZ-05/PLZ-52 155mm Self-propelled tracked howitzer armoured vehicle

The PLZ-05 is a Chinese tracked self-propelled howitzer armoured vehicle designed and manufactured by the China North Industries Group Corporation (CNGC). The development of the PLZ05 reportedly began in the mid-1990s, it was a further development of the PLZ45 and the first prototype was completed in 2003.


The howitzer may have been certified in 2005~06. A model of the howitzer was first revealed by the China North Industries Group Corporation (CNGC) during the 2005 Beijing International Aviation Expo. The PLZ-05 was first revealed by the China North Industries Group Corporation (CNGC) during the 2005 Beijing International Aviation Expo. The PLZ05 155mm self-propelled howitzer entered service with the PLA around 2007, intended as a replacement for the ageing Type 83 152mm self-propelled gun-howitzer deployed at the army- and division-level to provide long-range accurate firepower.



The main armament of the PLZ-05 is composed by a 155 mm gun, with a barrel lenght of 52 or 54 calibre. A 12.7 mm machine gun is mouted to the roof of the turret as anti-aircraft protection. Four smoke grenade launchers are mounted on the turret front on each side of the main gun.


The PLZ-52 SPH adopts an advanced digital fire control system, and is also characterized by quick reaction and outstanding battlefield survivability. Its laser/fiber-optic gyro navigation system can guarantee autonomous engagement capability without a survey vehicle’s support. The computerized information integration technology improves information sharing and simplifies operation. Smart projectiles, such as GS1 155mm smart projectiles and 155mm laser-homing projectiles enable the PLZ-52 to strike accurately against various targets in the battlefield. Standard equipment of PLZ52 includes an auxiliary power unit, NBC system, explosion detection and suppression system and a fire suppression system.  Source

PLZ-05 155mm self propelled howitzers direct fire at target

IDEX 2017: PLZ52 – Chinese mobile howitzer – Jane’s

PLZ-05 / Type 05

Self-propelled howitzer with a 52 caliber barrel, 800 hp diesel engine & gross weight of 35 tonnes. It is deployed only with the People’s Liberation Army. The PLZ-05 can fire the WS-35 shell, a 40 lb (18 kg) guided munition with accuracy of 40 m (130 ft) and a max range reported to be 100 km (62 mi). It is guided using Beidou Navigation Satellite System, the Chinese version of global positioning system, and inertial guidance. Source

The PLZ05 has a longer barrel, as well as longer range of fire. Turret of the PLZ05 was enlarged and resembles that of the Russian 2S19 Msta-S. It has a semi-automatic ammunition loading system. Some sources claim, that this autoloader has been copied from the 2S19. Source



The hull and the turret of the PLZ-05 is made of high hardness armor steel, which provide a protection against small arms firing and shell splinters of the battle field.


The PLZ-05 is motorized with a Diesel engine powerpack mounted at the front of the vehicle. The torsion bar suspension is composed to each side with six rubber-tyred road wheels and two track support rollers on each side, drive sprocket at the front and idler at the rear.


The PLZ-05 is equipped with an NBC protection and automatic fire suppression system.

One 155 mm gun and one 12.7 mm machine gun.
Country user
Company Designer
NBC protection system, Nigh/Day driving vision,
5 soldiers
Protection against small arms and shell splinters.
35,000 kg
55 km/hr on raod
550 km
Lenght, ? m; Width, ? m; Height, ? m

Main material source

Operators: Here

  • People’s Liberation Army: As of 2015, at least 276 units are in service with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

Although the turret integrated into the fully-tracked chassis is very similar to the Russian 152 mm 2S19 (MSTA-S), Chinese sources have insisted that the Type 05 has been fully developed in China and is not a copy of the Russian artillery system.

PLZ-52 are deployed only with the People’s Liberation Army.

As of 2012, at least 240 units are in service with the PLA, and a break-down by units are summarized as follows:

1. Shenyang Military Region, a Total of 60.

  • 39th Group Army, 7th Artillery Brigade, 1st and 2nd Battalions, a total of 36.
  • 39th Group Army, 116th Mechanized Infantry Division, Artillery Regiment, 1st Battalion, a total of 24.

2. Beijing Military Region, a Total of 72.

  • 38th Group Army, 6th Artillery Brigade, 3rd and 4th Battalions, a total of 36.
  • 38th Group Army, 112th Mechanized Infantry Division, Artillery Regiment, 1st and 2nd Battalions, a total of 36.

3. Nanjing Military Region, a Total of 36.

  • 1st Group Army, 1st Amphibious Mechanized Infantry Division, Artillery Regiment, 1st and 2nd Battalions, a total of 36.

4. Guangzhou Military Region, a Total of 72.

  • 41st Group Army, 123rd Mechanized Infantry Division, Artillery Regiment, 2nd and 5th Battalions, a total of 36.
  • 42nd Group Army, 124th Amphibious Mechanized Infantry Division, Artillery Regiment, 1st and 2nd Battalions, a total of 36.
Updated Sep 18, 2017


*Note: There is very little info on the main gun and powerpack used as some sources say it’s an 800hp while others stipulate it as 1,000hp!

US Navy extends Orbital ATK AGM-88E production

25 March, 2016 BY: James Drew Washington DC

The US Navy has extended production of AGM-88E Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile (AARGM) multi-mode seekers, built by Orbital ATK, by three years to fiscal year 2023 with an added requirement for 556 more units.

That’s according to the Pentagon’s latest selected acquisition report, which shows an increase in planned production quantities from the 2003 objective of 1,879 units to 2,435, not including the 40 test assets. That and other changes bump up the total programme cost by $484.8 million to over $2 billion.

The missile modification was jointly developed by the USA and Italy to improve the effectiveness of legacy Raytheon AGM-88 High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) variants against fixed and relocatable enemy radar and communications sites, particularly those that would shut down to throw off incoming anti-radiation missiles. Australia also procures AGM-88Es.

Asset ImageBoeing F/A-18 Super Hornet flight tests AGM-88E – US Navy

The new seeker attaches to the existing Mach 2-capable rocket motor and warhead section, adding a passive anti-radiation homing receiver, satellite and inertial navigation system, and a millimetre wave radar for terminal guidance. It can also beam up images of the target via a satellite link just seconds before impact.

Raytheon produces an alternative modification kit for the US Air Force, known as the HARM Control Section Modification (HCSM).

The Orbital ATK AARGM is compatible with all F/A-18 models and the EA-18G Growler, plus the Panavia Tornado, F-16, EA-6B and it will be carried externally on the F-35. It went into full-rate production in 2012.

Original post


Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile (AARGM)

The Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile (AGM-88E) provides the U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps and Italian Air Force the latest and most advanced weapon system for engaging and destroying enemy air defenses and time-critical, mobile targets. AARGM is a supersonic, medium-range, air-launched tactical missile compatible with U.S. and allied strike aircraft, including all variants of the F/A-18, Tornado, EA-18G, F-16, EA-6B, and F-35 (external).

Designed to upgrade the AGM-88 High-Speed, Anti-Radiation Missile system (HARM), AARGM features an advanced, digital, anti-radiation homing sensor, millimeter wave (MMW) radar terminal seeker, precise Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) guidance, net-centric connectivity, and Weapon Impact Assessment transmit (WIA). Missile Impact Transmitter capability is available for approved customers. The missile offers extended-range engagement, as well as organic, in-cockpit emitter targeting capability and situational awareness.

New capabilities for the warfighter include:

  • Anti-radar strike with advanced signal processing and vastly improved frequency coverage, detection range and field of view
  • Time-critical, standoff strike with supersonic GPS/INS point-to-point or point-to-MMW-terminal guidance
  • Missile-impact zone control to prevent collateral damage through tightly coupled, Digital Terrain Elevation Database-aided GPS/INS
  • Counter-emitter shutdown through active MMW-radar terminal guidance
  • WIA transmission prior-to-impact for bomb damage assessment

Orbital ATK is teamed with MBDA to provide this advanced, cost-effective weapon system to U.S. and approved allied customers.


Weight 355 kilograms (783 lb)
Length 4.1 metres (13 ft)
Diameter 254 millimetres (10.0 in)
Warhead WDU-21/B blast-fragmentation in a WAU-7/B warhead section, and later WDU-37/B blast-fragmentation warhead.
Warhead weight 66 kilograms (146 lb)
FMU-111/B laser proximity fuze

Engine Thiokol SR113-TC-1 dual-thrust rocket engine
Wingspan 1.1 metres (3.6 ft)
Propellant Solid fuel
150 kilometres; 92 miles (80 nmi)[3]
Speed 2,280 km/h (1,420 mph)
Passive radar homingwith home-on-jamGPS/INS and millimeter wave active radar homingin E variant.[4] 500-20,000 MHz for AGM-88C
F/A-18F-4G, F-16Tornado IDSF-35 and others


Russia to deploy missile systems on Kuril islands: Minister

By AFP     3 hours ago in World

Russia will deploy a range of coastal missile systems on the far-eastern Kuril islands, claimed by Japan, as part of its military build-up in the region, Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu said Friday.

“The planned rearmament of contingents and military bases on Kuril islands is under way. Already this year they will get Bal and Bastion coastal missile systems as well as new-generation Eleron-3 unmanned aerial vehicles,” Shoigu said during a ministry meeting.

Russia has been investing in military infrastructure on the Kuril islands, which Japan considers its territory, over the last few years, including building new barracks for personnel.

Shoigu said at the meeting that the military is focusing on “developing military infrastructure in the Arctic and Kuril island zones.”

Relations between Moscow and Tokyo have been strained for decades because of the status of the four southernmost islands in the Kuril chain, known as the Northern Territories in Japan.

Map locating the disputed Kuril islands off eastern Russia's Kamchatka peninsulaMap locating the disputed Kuril islands off eastern Russia’s Kamchatka peninsula, AFP/File

The Russian navy’s Pacific fleet next month will embark on a three-month mission to the Kurils to explore whether the islands could serve as a naval base as well.

This year and next year Russia is set to put up more than 350 buildings for military needs on the Kuril islands of Iturup and Kunashir, called Etorofu and Kunashiri in Japan.

Some 19,000 Russians live on the remote rocky islands, which were occupied by Soviet troops in the dying days of World War II.

The two countries have never officially struck a peace treaty and the lingering tensions over the issue have hampered trade ties for decades.

Original post


Other deployments:



bastion_kaliningrad1With 300 km range can control large parts of the southern Baltic Sea, for example from Kaliningrad. If you sit on Gotland will lock even more effective, as Karlis Neretnieks raised on Newsmill last week. – Image:


Bal coastal missile systems

BAL-E Coastal Missile System with Kh-35E (3M-24E) Anti-ship Missiles

The Bal-E mobile coastal missile system is designed:

– to control straits and territorial waters;

– to protect naval bases, other coastal installations and infrastructures;

– to defend coastline in probable landing approach areas.

The missile system can conduct combat actions, providing fully autonomous after-launch missile guidance in fair and adverse weather conditions, by day and night, under enemy fire and electronic countermeasures.

The Bal-E is a mobile weapon system, based on the MAZ 7930 chassis, comprising:

– up to two self-propelled command, control and communications (C3) posts;

– up to four self-propelld launchers with the Kh-35E (3M-24E) type anti-ship missiles in transport-launch containers (eight TLCs on a standard launcher);

– up to four transport-reload vehicles intended for preparing the next salvo.

The C3 post provides target reconnaissance, designation and optimal distribution between launchers. Active and passive high-precision radar channels allow the system to implement flexible target acquisition strategies, including covert ones.

The launchers and transport-reload vehicles can be deployed in covered positions in the depth beyond the coastline. In this case neither covertness of their combat positions nor man-made and natural obstacles in the direction of fire will limit combat imployment of the system.

The system can conduct both single and salvo fire from any launcher, with the capability of receiving current information from other command posts and external reconnaissance/target disignation data sources.

A salvo can include up to 32 missiles. One such salvo can thwart a combat mission carried out by an enemy naval attack group, a landing force or a convoy.

The system can fire the next salvo in 30-40 minutes thanks to its transport-reload vehicles. Combat management of the Bal-E assets is based on digital data transmission, automated communications, message processing and ciphering with guaranteed security.

The system is equipped with night vision, navigation, survey and positioning aids enabling it to rapidly change its firing positions after completing the assigned mission, and relocate to a new combat area.

The system can be deployed in the new position within 10 minutes.

An integrated coastal defence system combining the  Bal-E CMS, offshore patrol vessels with the Uran-E ship-borne missile systems and missile-carrying combat aircraft armed with the Kh-35E (3M-24E) unified anti-ship missiles, would be able to perform diverse operational and tactical tasks at minimal costs thanks to a single missile maintenance and repair system.

The system’s structure and exact number of the C3 posts, launch and transport-reload vehicles are defined according to customer requirements. The MAZ-7930 self-propelled chassis can be replaced with other types of chssis (it can be proposed for the light-configuration Bal-E CMS with enhanced agility and off-road capacity).

The Bal-E CMS has a considerable potential for upgrading.

Employment of additional target designation assets, such as radar picket helicopters or remotely piloted aerial vehicles, allows the system to increase its target detection range and precision.

The Bal-E CMS can be equipped with passive interference systems to considerably enhance its invulnerability to enemy guided weapons in dueling situations. Other upgrading options are also considered.

Prime developer: Machine-Building Design Bureau


 Engagement range (from coastline), km  up to 120
 Fire position distance from coastline, km  up to 10
 ammunition load, msls  up to 8
 Inter-missile launch time (in salvo),sec  not more than 3
 Max speed, km/h:
 on road  60
 off road  20
 Missile launch weight, kg  about 620
 Total ammunition load, msls  up to 64
 Endurance range (without refueling), km  not less than 850


Weapon Poseidon

The design of the Kh-35
1. Radar homing. 2. Penetrating warhead. 3. System liquidation. 4. Inertial guidance system. 5. Radio altimeter. 6. Intake. 7. Fuel System. 8. Turbofan engine. 9. Managing drive. 10. Tverdotoplivnyy boosters.

Bastion coastal missile systems: Details


YJ-62 Subsonic Anti-Ship Cruise Missile

he YJ-62 cruise missile is a PLAN analogue to the anti-shipping variants of the RGM-109 Tomahawk/MRASM. The weapon has a similar general configuration to the Tomahawk family, but employs a unique fixed scoop inlet for the air breathing engine.

(images © 2009, Zhenguan Studio)

(images © 2009, Zhenguan Studio)

(images © 2009, Zhenguan Studio)

Claims for this weapon include an active radar homing seeker with a monopulse antenna, GPS/Glonass/inertial midcourse guidance, alternate turbojet and turbofan engines, and ship, sub, coastal battery and air launch configurations.


Cited specifications include  a length of 6.1/7.0 metres, launch mass of  1,140/1,350 kg,  warhead mass of 300 kg,  cruise speed of 0.9 Mach, range for turbojet variant of 280 km  /  150 NMI,  and dual mode anti-ship and coastal target capability similar to later blocks of the  Harpoon.

The YJ-62 is claimed to have been deployed on the Type 052C Luyang II destroyer. Source

Image: Chinese Military Review

China Deploys YJ-62 Subsonic Anti-Ship Cruise Missile To South China Sea’s Woody Island

By  On 03/25/16 

China has deployed a subsonic anti-ship cruise missile in South China Sea’s Woody Island amid heightened tensions in the disputed region, a report said earlier this week, citing recent imagery. Woody Island is a part of the Paracel Islands, and is largely controlled by China, but Taiwan and Vietnam have also laid claims on the islet.

The deployed Chinese anti-ship cruise missile YJ-62 has the capability to target any vessel within nearly 249 miles of the Woody Island. The image of launching YJ-62 was posted last Sunday on Chinese microblogging website Weibo, and it is consistent with photos copied from one of the many monthly Chinese military magazines that appear on Chinese military issue web pages, IHS Jane’s 360, a British publishing company that keeps records on military equipment, reported. The YJ-62 launch picture showed a radar dome, indicating that it is on Woody Island, the report added.

According to IHS Jane’s 360, the anti-ship cruise missile was likely deployed at about the same time the China’s HQ-9 surface-to-air missile system was first detected on the island in February. The YJ-62 reportedly arms the Type 052C destroyer launched in 2003.

On Thursday, Shahidan Kassim, Malaysia’s national security minister said about 100 Chinese-registered boats and vessels were detected, intruding into Malaysia’s waters near the Luconia Shoals in the South China Sea, state news agency Bernama reported. The minister added that the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency and the navy assets have been deployed to the area to examine the situation. If the Chinese ships were found to have trespassed into Malaysia’s exclusive economic zone, Kuala Lumpur would take legal action, Shahidan said, according to the news agency.

The South China Sea region has been long contested, with Brunei, China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam laying claim to various areas. Beijing has been expanding its presence in the disputed area and has built three runways on the Spratly archipelago. However, China has consistently defended its actions, saying it does not have any intentions of starting a conflict and that its aircraft facilities will maintain safety in the region.

Original post

Updated May 09, 2021