The Hamina Class fast attack craft were built by Aker Finnyards in Rauma, Finland for the Finnish Navy. Previously known as Rauma 2000, fast attack craft regularly patrol the Finnish coastline. Four vessels home-ported at Upinniemi are operated under Squadron 2000.
The Hamina Class fast attack craft is capable of conducting patrolling and combat missions as a missile boat. The lead vessel in class, FNS Hamina was ordered in December 1996 and commissioned in August 1998. The order for the second craft, FNS Tornio, was placed in February 2001. It was commissioned in May 2003. The third, FNS Hanko was ordered in December 2003 and commissioned in June 2005. The final ship in the class, FNS Pori, was ordered in February 2005 and commissioned in June 2006.
The Hamina has an overall length of 51m, a waterline length of 44.3m, a breadth of 8.3m and a design draft of 1.7m. Displacement of the ship is 250t and the vessel’s full complement is 23.
Hamina Class design and features
Designed specifically as a stealth ship, the Hamina Class features a round bilge aluminium mono-hull, with a superstructure made of reinforced carbon fibre composite. The shape and materials used reduce the ship’s magnetic, heat and radar signatures. Radar absorbent materials such as kevlar and balsa cover the ship’s metal structures, while its composite parts are made from radar absorbent material.
The low displacement of the Hamina enhances its manoeuvrability. These ships are equipped with water jets instead of propellers, so they operate easily in shallow waters and unconventional waterways. The Hamina Class vessels feature many surveillance and combat capabilities usually found on much larger ships.
The Hamina has the facility to exhaust gases under water, thus reducing thermal signature, or into the air which minimises sound pick-up by submarines. There are 50 nozzles fitted around the decks and upper structures that can spray seawater to cool the vessel, and clean it in case of chemical attack or radioactive fall-out. The life saving equipment includes four inflatable life rafts and one inflatable rescue boat.
Command and control system
The Hamina Class fast attack craft is equipped with TACTICOS (tactical information and command system) combat data system developed by Thales Nederland (formerly Signaal). The centralised combat management system is based on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) designs. The system integrates all sub-systems for improving the capability of the craft to simultaneously engage and defeat various types of threats.
ANCS 2000 Combat Management System (EADS)
Military operations necessitate the capability for engaging hostile surface combatants, submarines, aircraft, missiles and torpedoes for self-protection as well as for task force protection. In addition, the core tasks of the navy in the 21st century include the safeguarding of shipping lanes in national and international waters, together with the support of military operations in crisis areas and war zones. Source atlas-elektronik.com
Saab selected for Finland’s Hamina class upgrade
Saab has been selected by Patria as a major supplier for the Finnish Navy’s Squadron 2000 Mid-Life Upgrade programme, the company announced on 4 January.
The contract is worth about $118 million with deliveries set to start in 2018.
The programme includes refurbishment and upgrade of four Hamina-class fast attack craft. Saab will supply the 9LV combat management system (CMS), the 9LV fire control system including the Ceros 200 fire control director and the Trackfire remote weapon station.
The 9LV CMS is a command and control centre for surface vessels and submarines. Ceros 200 is a radar and optronic tracking fire control director designed for use on naval ships.
Saab’s TactiCall integrated communications system will also be installed to interconnect communication technologies regardless of radio band, frequency or hardware. This system is set to be contracted separately.
Saab will also supply its new lightweight torpedo to the Finnish Navy. The torpedo is a flexible, advanced anti-submarine warfare solution designed for littoral conditions. The torpedo can be launched from surface ships, aircraft and submarines in anti-submarine and anti-surface roles.
Anders Carp, SVP and head of Saab’s business area Surveillance, said: ‘9LV’s open-architecture design allows integration of Saab’s solutions as well as third-party sensors, weapons and systems. We will provide the Hamina-class vessels with a world-class naval system, further strengthening the Finnish Navy’s operational capability.’ Source shephardmedia.com
MSSR 2000 I-type system from Cassidian identification friend or foe (IFF)
The standard MSSR interrogator for the ASR-E system is the MSSR 2000 I. The Interrogator MSSR 2000 I is of modular design. The system fulfills all requirements for a European Mode S Station for elementary surveillance as well as for enhanced surveillance, ground/air data link including de-centralized control in a cluster application.
The Interrogator MSSR 2000 I includes reasonable growth capability to allow the incorporation of new modes or features in the future as a result of its modern technology.
The MSSR 2000 I operates in the following modes which conform to ICAO Annex 10 and STANAG 4193 part 1 – 4 requirements:
- Mode 1,2,3/A,C,4
- Mode S (level 4)
- Mode A/C/S All-Call
- Mode A/C only All-Call
- Mode 1,2,3/A,C mode interlace
The MSSR 2000 I can interrogate in “interlace modus”, (sequences of different modes freely programmable by the user through menu guided input)e.g. M1:M1 or A:A:C or any other desired sequence. The design of the MSSR 2000 I includes the capability to be upgraded to the new military Mode 5. Source radartutorial.eu
The latest weapon systems are integrated with the state-of-the-art command system. The vessel is armed with four RBS-15 mk3 anti-ship missiles each with a range of over 100km. The onboard Umkhonto-IR surface-to-air missile system can simultaneously engage up to eight aircraft within a 14km range. There is a Bofors 57mm gun installed for surface and aerial targets and two 12.7mm heavy machine guns are also fitted on the craft. The ship can also be fitted with mine rail to detect sea mines.
Bofors 57mm gun
BAE Systems’ 57mm Mk110 (internationally known as the Bofors’ 57Mk3) provides high survivability and tactical freedom at all levels of conflict.
In the littoral scenario the gun must have the capability to engage threats that were impossible to engage with conventional gun systems.
Survivability in such an environment requires an extremely flexible weapon system.
The 57mm Mk110 has this flexibility, which is proven by the fact that it is the deck gun of choice for the US Coast Guard’s National Security Cutter and offshore patrol cutter classes of ships, as well as for the US Navy’s LCS ships. Source baesystems.com
BAE Systems awarded 40 Mk4 Naval Gun contract for Finland
40Mk4 Naval Gun
Modern ships must be able to operate in different levels of conflict; from peacekeeping operations firing warning shots to law enforcement missions against pirates, smugglers and terrorists. In military combat, the gun is a vital part of a ship’s self-defense against hostile surface vessels, attack aircraft, anti-ship missiles and shore targets. In the littoral scenario, the gun must be able to engage threats that are impossible to address with conventional gun systems.
Survivability in such an environment requires an extremely flexible weapon system. The low weight and compact Bofors 40 Mk4 gun system with its high rate of fire and ability to switch between optimized ammunition types – including the intelligent 40mm 3P all-target ammunition – provides high survivability and tactical freedom at all levels of conflict. Source: baesystems.com
RBS-15 mk3 anti-ship missiles
The RBS15 Mk3 surface-to-surface missile (SSM) was developed jointly by Diehl BGT Defence and Saab Bofors Dynamics. It is the latest variant of the RBS15 anti-ship missile family. The RBS15 Mk3 is in service or on order with Sweden, Germany, Poland and Finland.
Developed as an upgrade of combat proven RBS15 Mk2 missile, the Mk3 was successfully test fired at an FMV (the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration) test range in October 2008. The first missile was assembled outside Sweden in Germany in December that year.
The RBS15 Mk3 is a fire-and-forget, subsonic cruise type missile launched from ships and trucks. The missile can be used for anti-ship missions and land strikes.
The forward part of the RBS15 Mk3 missile includes guidance and electronics section followed by warhead and fuel section. The rearward section consists of wings and turbojet engine and two parallel booster motors. The missile has cruciform wings that can be retracted during storage.
The missile has a length of 4.35m, fuselage diameter of 0.5m and a wing span of 1.4m. The launch and in-flight weights of the missile are 800kg and 650kg respectively. The RBS15 Mk3 can strike targets within the range of 200km, while travelling at a subsonic speed of 0.9Mach.
The missile can be equipped with an optimised heavy HE blast-fragmentation warhead. The highly efficient warhead can penetrate into the hull of any modern vessel.
TR 60-5 variable-thrust turbo-jet engine
The ship and truck-launched RBS15 Mk3 variants are launched by two booster motors. The missile is powered by TR 60-5 variable-thrust turbo-jet engine developed by Microturbo (a Safran Group company and subsidiary of Turbomeca). The TR60-5 engine incorporating a 3-stage-axial compressor delivers a thrust of 350 to 440daN. Source naval-technology.com
Umkhonto-IR surface-to-air missile system
Umkhonto (Spear) Missile is an indigenous product, designed, development and manufactured in South Africa. The design of Umkhonto was inspired by the Zulu military commander King Shaka who introduced to his warriors amongst other things, the short Spear, the cow horn formation and the element of surprise. Similarly the Umkhonto missile design includes Stealth (passive IR seeker and low smoke rocket motor) and flexibility (multi target engagement and ability to launch from any position).
The Umkhonto vertical launch Surface to Air Missile (SAM) was developed for the SA Navys Meko A200 class frigates, and has been in service since 2001. Other Navies have also acquired the Umkhonto system, this include amongst others the Finnish Navy. The missile is high-velocity and infrared homing, providing all-round defence against simultaneous attacks from missiles and aircrafts. Although, this is a surface to air missile, it is also capable of taking out stationery surface targets. The Umkhonto was designed with a 23 kg warhead for High-kill probability, unlike other SAM missile systems in its class.
- Multiple-target engagement (up to four targets)
- Ease of integration
- High kill probability (23 kg warhead)
- Countermeasure resistance
- Absence of line-of-sight limitations
- Ease of maintenance (high BIT coverage)
- All-round (360 degree) coverage (with vertical launch)
- Target is acquired and tracked by 3-D target acquisition radar
- Missile is launched and flies to a lock-on point, using an on-board inertial navigation subsystem
- IR seeker locks on and missile intercepts target under seeker control
- Continuous updating of target course from surface radar during missile flight, via a telecommand link, to enable engagement of manoeuvring targets.
- Missile length : 3 320 mm
- Missile diameter : 180 mm
- Wingspan : 500 mm
- Launch mass : 135 kg
- Canister length : 3 800 mm
- Canister maximum: 650 mm diameter
- Range : 20 000 m
- Ceiling : 8 000 m
- Maximum Mach No. : 2
- Time of flight to 8 km:18 s
Finland’s Hamina-class MLU will include torpedoes: Details
Finnish defense minister authorizes Hamina-class upgrades, torpedo system acquisition: Details
Torpedo 47 is Sweden’s new lightweight torpedo system for defense against foreign submarines. FMV has contracted Saab AB to develop, produce and integrate the system. The cooperation also includes FOI (the Swedish Defence Research Agency) and the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF).
There are major challenges in locating and attacking foreign submarines in the Baltic Sea. The factors that contribute to the difficulties are the shallow waters of the Baltic Sea, with a topography and a bottom that challenges the sonar systems. The brackish water, the complexities of the archipelago and the intensive sea traffic are further aggravating factors.
These factors set tough requirements on the torpedo’s ability to:
- Localize and identify submarines
- Navigate under water
- Communicate with the firing platform
The sensor system that will localize and identify submarines is tailor made for the environment in the Baltic Sea. Depending on the local environment the torpedo must have the ability to alter speed, navigate with high accuracy and communicate efficiently with the firing platform.
The new torpedo system is primarily intended for the Swedish submarines and Visby-class corvettes. The system in also prepared for helicopter integration. Source: fmv.se
Kongsberg to deliver ST2400 variable depth sonars for Finnish Hamina-class missile boats
Sensors and radar equipment
The ship is equipped with TRS-3D multimode acquisition radar, Raytheon ARPA navigation radar and Signal Scout I-band surface search radar. The sonar suite includes a Simrad Subsea Toadfish active high-frequency search and attack sonar, and a Sonac/PTA towed array sonar.
TRS-3D multimode acquisition radar
Depending on the activated radar mode, the detection range of the radar covers up to 200 km and the corresponding update times between 1 and 6 seconds.TRS-3D/16-ES is a fully coherent multi-mode phased array C-band radar capable of fully automatic detection, track initiation, and classification of various types of targets. Even under severe clutter conditions encountered in the littoral, it detects and tracks with a particular emphasis on small, fast and low-flying aircraft, missiles, hovering helicopters and asymmetric threats. This ensures minimal operator workload and maximises operational effectiveness.
TRS-3D/16-ES supports the full operational capabilities of several self-defence missile systems, and can serve as a stand-alone radar for the surveillance and self-defence requirements of single-radar ships operating in littoral waters, or as the self-defence radar on large frigates and multi-radar ships.
For weapon support and target assignment, TRS-3D/16-ES supplies reliable target data instantaneously. It features the high tracking accuracy to permit deployment of different types of missiles against aircraft and anti-ship missiles. Thanks to the accuracy of the gun-fire support mode, a dedicated fire control system for surface targets is not required.
TRS-3D/16-ES operating in NATO G-Band is the best compromise for long-range detection performance, short reaction times, and the required accuracy for cueing weapon systems and dedicated fire control sensors.
The lightweight primary antenna is fitted with an integrated Mode 5/S-capable IFF antenna.
TRS-3D/16-ES is able to correlate the primary and secondary radar plots/ tracks within its own radar tracker to provide even higher quality data to the combat management system.
- 3D air volume surveillance with fast target alert
- High resolution surface surveillance
- Small target detection capability
- Target designation to combat management system for AAW and AsuW
- Surface gun fire support with splash detection
- Ship-controlled helicopter approach (SCA) support
- Support of helicopter control
- High-performance ECCM functions
- High resistance to EMI/ECM
- Jammer suppression
- Suppression of environmental clutter
- Support for target classification
- IFF interrogation support
- Support of various combat management systems
- Especially designed for littoral operations avoiding blind sectors over land
- Reliable automatic track initiation and operation independent of clutter situation for surface and air targets
- Handling of 400 tracks per 360° independent of air and surface tar-get mix
- Full MTD operation for complete instrumented range in all modes
- Use of digital geographical charts and adaptive clutter maps to optimise situational awareness
- Fully automatic detection, track initiation and tracking of all sea and air targets, as well as jammer avoidance/ cancellation
- Target classification of sea targets such as small, medium and large ships, air targets such as helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft, as well as highly threatening targets such as sea skimmer missiles and high divers
- Rapid reaction time (fast alert)
- Low operator workloads
Gun Fire Support
- The dual target gun fire support mode allows the use of medium-caliber guns without the need for an electro-optical or radar tracker
- A fast 1s update rate for the detection of high-explosive projectile splashes with tailored waveforms
- Adapted signal and data processing to detect sea targets and shell splashes
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 30480 m|
|Range Max: 185.2 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.2 km||Generation: Early 1990s|
|Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)|
|SENSORS / EW:|
|TRS-3D/16ES – Radar
Role: Radar, Air & Surface Search, 3D Medium-Range
Max Range: 185.2 km
CEROS 200 radar and optronic tracking fire control director
Saab’s CEROS (Celsius Tech Radar and Optronic Site) 200 is a ship-based search and tracking radar system capable of engaging targets above supersonic speeds. The CEROS employs a variety of sensors such as infrared, electrooptical, televisual, and laser. According to a publication by Saab, CEROS is able to detect sea-skimming missiles via its patented CHASE algorithm. Saab explains that this algorithm mitigates the effect of multiparty wave interference, which is when signals are sent to a receiver by multiple sources. For example, a missile may emit a signal to a receiver, which then sends it to command and control at the same time that a signal directly from the missile reaches command and control. In this instant, the two signals would arrive with different phase shifts — think: a sine wave placed in front of another, so that there’s no exact overlap. This can result in the ghosting effect sometimes observed on television in which images appear to have a shadow duplicate on them. Source missiledefenseadvocacy.org
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 30480 m|
|Range Max: 46.3 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.2 km||Generation: Early 1990s|
|Properties: Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)|
|SENSORS / EW:|
|CEROS 200 Tracker [9LV Mk3 Basic] – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface, Short-Range
Max Range: 46.3 km
EOMS NG electro-optical multifunction system
Multifunction, EOMS NG is the sole system in its category to combine on a single unit both IRST and gun optronic fire control. Suited for all surface vessels, it is an efficient and cost effective solution for self-protection against conventional and asymmetrical threats.
Day and night, EOMS NG provides automatic 360° detection, identification, and gun/short range missile engagement of all surface and air targets, from anti-ship sea-skimming missiles to Fast Incoming Attack Craft (FIAC).
EOMS NG includes the following key features:
- Infrared Search and Track (IRST): fully passive panoramic surveillance with automatic threat detection, tracking and reporting
- Electro-Optical Director (EOD): target identification with IR and TV cameras in narrow field of view and 3D automatic tracking using laser range finder
- Interface with all major weapon systems natively supported (artillery, short range missiles)
Simrad Subsea Toadfish active high-frequency search and attack sonar
|Type: Hull Sonar, Active-Only||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 5.6 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Late 1980s|
|SENSORS / EW:|
|SS2400 Toadfish – (Norway) Hull Sonar, Active-Only
Role: Hull Sonar, Active-Only Search
Max Range: 5.6 km
Hamina Class countermeasures
The Rheinmetall MASS (multi-ammunition soft-kill system) can protect the craft from sensor-guided missiles by launching Philax chaff and infrared flare decoys. The vessel is also equipped with an Etienne Lacroix anti-threat optronic screening (ATOS) system. Electronic support measures (ESM) are provided by a MEL Matilda radar intercept.
Rheinmetall MASS (multi-ammunition soft-kill system)
The Rheinmetall MASS (multi-ammunition soft-kill system) can protect the craft from sensor-guided missiles by launching Philax chaff and infrared flare decoys.
Superior protection with MASS
Guided missiles and other projectiles pose a constant threat to civilian shipping and naval vessels alike. MASS protects ships from attacks using advanced, sensor-guided missiles on the high seas and coastal waters as well as from asymmetric, terrorist-type threats. MASS fires decoy rounds which lure incoming projectiles away from their intended target.
Fully automatic, the MASS naval countermeasure system offers significant tactical, operational and logistical advantages and can be installed onboard any vessel. Moreover, it can be integrated into any command and control system or operated in standalone mode.
The MASS system’s innovative, programmable omnispectral rounds assure protection in all relevant wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum (radar, infrared, laser, EO, UV). Numerous international test campaigns have demonstrated its effectiveness in compelling fashion.
MASS with integrated detection unit
Featuring an integrated detection unit, the “MASS ISS – Integrated Sensor Suite” represents an innovative departure in naval electronic warfare. Jointly developed by Rheinmetall Defence and Saab (Electronic Defence Systems), this new version of MASS comes with sensors capable of detecting both radar and laser threats. Source spacewar.com
Rolls-Royce waterjet propulsion
Hamina Class vessels are propelled by Rolls-Royce Kamewa 90SII waterjets powered by two MTU 16V538 TB93 diesel engines. Each engine, rated at 2,760kw, provides a maximum speed of 30kt and a range of 500nm. Auxiliary power is generated by two 270KVA +1 diesel gensets.
Designation: Fast Attack Craft – Missile
Displacement: 250 tons
Length: 51 m
Width: 8.5 m
Draft: 1.7 m
Main engines: 2 * MTU 16V 538 TB93 diesels; 6600 kW
Propulsion: 2 * Kamewa 90SII waterjets
Speed: 30+ knots
Range: 500 miles
1 * Bofors 40 mm/70 Sea Trinity (Bofors 57 mm/70 SAK Mk3 on Hanko & Tornio. Hamina will be retro-fitted))
2 * NSV 12,7 mm MGs
8-cell Denel Umkhonto-IR VLS SAM system
4 * Saab RBS-15 Mk3 SSM (2 * Sako twin-barrel 23 mm/87 (modified ZU-23-2) can be fitted instead of missiles)
4 * Saab Elma LLS-920 9-tube ASW mortars
1 rail for depth charges or mines (Sea Mine 2000)
Decoys: Philax chaff and IR flares
Smoke system: Lacroix ATOS
EMS: MEL Matilda radar intercept
Rheinmetall MASS (Multi Ammunition Soft-kill System)
Saab Ceros-200 FCS
EADS TRS-3D/16-ES multimode acquisition 3D radar
EADS ANCS 2000 combat data system
EADS MSSR 2000 I IFF
Simrad Subsea Toadfish sonar
Finnyards Sonac/PTA towed array sonar
Aker Finnyards Rauma, Finland
Main material source naval-technology.com
Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated
Main image RONI REKOMAA
Revised Jan 19, 2020