Daily Archives: March 3, 2016

Norinco AF902 FCS/35 an air defense system

The AF902 FCS/35 is designed primarily to intercept and destroy aircraft, low flying cruise missiles and precision-guided missiles. It can also defeat lightly armored vehicles, surface targets and concealed ground forces. Source The Diplomat

AF902A FCS/Twin 35mm AA Gun/PTFP Ammunition Air Defense System; AF902 FCS/T35mm AA Gun/PL9C Missile Integrated Air Defence System 

Twin 35 mm AA Gun and PL-9C Missile @norinco.com

The Type 90 twin-35mm anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) is a Chinese copy of the Swiss Oerlikon GDF, one of the world’s most capable low-altitude air defence weapon systems. The weapon was designed to engage high-speed, low-flying aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and cruise missiles. A tracked self-propelled variant of this weapon has also been produced and tested but it did not enter the PLA service. The Type 90 replaced the obsolete Type 65 and type 74 twin-37mm AAA to provide field air defence for the ground forces at the division and group army level.

China imported a small number of the Oerlikon GDF twin-35mm AAA and the associated Skyguard air defence radar system from Switzerland in the 1980s. Later the weapon was produced in China locally under license as the Type 90. The Oerlikon GDF AAA system is available in three major variants: GDF-1, GDF-2 and GDF-3. It is not known exactly which model the Type 90 was based on, but it is thought to be comparable in performance to the GDF-2 developed in 1980. The Type 90 was first revealed to the public during the 1999 National Day parade held in Beijing.

AF902 Radar/Twin 35 mm AA Gun @norinco.comChinese Army PG99 35mm anti-aircraft twin-gun @armyrecognition.com

The 35mm cannon mounted on a 4-wheel cartridge has a cyclic rate of fire of 550 rounds/min. The muzzle velocity is 1,175m/s. The cannon fires high explosive incendiary rounds. It is not clear whether China has also obtained the Advanced Hit Efficiency and Destruction (AHEAD) round technology from Switzerland along with the Oerlikon 35mm gun. The AAA system carries 280 rounds for each barrel. The reloading time is 7.5 seconds. The iconic large muzzle break is missing on the later variant of the Type 90.

AF 902 Fire control search tracking radar @armyrecognition.com

The Type 90 includes a computer controlled electro-optical director for 3-dimensional target tracking in conjunction with the laser range finder. The Type 902 (Chinese copy of the Skyguard) millimetre-wave target searching radar has a detection range of 8,000m. The AAA system can work either in conjunction with the Type 902 fire control radar or autonomously. A typical battery using the Skyguard radar consists of two twin 35 mm gun platforms with a single fire control radar. In addition, the 35mm guns are also highly lethal against ground targets.

The fire-control unit used by the Type 90 was based on the improved Skyguard-II, which differs from the basic variant Skyguard in that it has two tracking systems—a Type 902 target searching radar and an electro-optical passive tracking director. The electro-optical tracking system uses high-resolution optical/infrared TV for passive tracking in clear weather. The advantage of continuing tracking without emitting radar signals increases its survivability when facing enemy anti-radiation missiles (ARMs).

Crew 5
Main weapon caliber (mm) 35
Rate of fire (rds/min) 1100
Muzzle velocity (m/s) 1175
Barrel length (calibres) 90
Traverse arc (degree) 360
Weight (kg) 8000
Max. road speed (km/h) 80


Luoyang PL-9 @ausairpower.net

PL-9 IR-guided missile was first developed in the late 80s based on PL-8/Python-3 technology and is for export only. It has an all-aspect InSb seeker and a radio fuse. Its range is 500m minimum and 16km maximum. Speed is Mach 3.5 and load is 40g. Its forward control fins look similar to those of AIM-9L (double delta). The latest variant of PL-9 is called PL-9C with improved multi-band IR seeker and a new programmable digital processor giving it a greater IRCCM capability and higher killing probability. Its range is also increased to 20km. @chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com


Soryu Class Submarines (16SS)

The Soryu Class diesel-electric submarines are being built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation for the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF). Soryu Class is an improved version of the Oyashio Class submarine.

The keel for the first submarine in the class, Soryu (SS-501), was laid down in March 2005. It was launched in December 2007 and commissioned in March 2009. Unryu (SS-502) was laid down in March 2006, launched in October 2008 and commissioned in March 2010.

Hakuryu was laid down in February 2007 and launched in October 2009 for commissioning in March 2011. The fourth and fifth submarines under construction are scheduled to be commissioned in 2012 and 2013 respectively.

Soryu Class diesel-electric submarine – Image: seaforces.org

The class is also referred to as the SS 2,900t and the 16SS project. Soryu and Unryu have been named after the World War II aircraft carriers. Soryu was one of the carriers that participated in the Pearl Harbour attack. Both submarines are home-ported at Kure and operated by Subron 5, S-flotilla-1 of the JMSDF.

Soryu Class design and features

Soryu_cutaway (1)gentleseas.blogspot.com

The Soryu Class carries a hydrodynamic design based on the Oyashio class submarine. It has a larger displacement than any other submarine class in JMSDF’s service.

Soryu Class submarine – Image: seaforces.orgOyashio class submarine – Image: seaforces.org

The hull form is made of high tensile steel and is covered with anechoic coating to reduce the reflection of acoustic waves. Interiors of the submarine boast acoustic isolation of loud components.

JS_Souryu_Class_SS_X-shape_of_the_tail_planes Kawasaki HI Kobe 2013Close-up view of the X rudder. Photo : Wikipedia 4.bp.blogspot.com

The submarine features computer-aided X control planes. The design incorporates highly automated systems.

D1 Mar 10 2016.pngImage: gentleseas.blogspot.com

Control room

BlackDragon06_zpsbaf40ceeSoryu Class submarine control room – Image: forum.lowyat.netBlackDragon07_zps6eadaa01Soryu Class submarine control room – Image: forum.lowyat.netBlackDragon08_zpsc940f3cdSoryu Class submarine control room – Image: forum.lowyat.netBlackDragon10_zps6070275fSoryu Class submarine control room – Image: forum.lowyat.net

The submarine is equipped with Stirling engines for increased propulsion performance and underwater endurance. The engine supports superior submerged operations. The high-performance sonar onboard improves surveillance capabilities. The submarine also features stealth capabilities and enhanced safety measures such as snorkel equipment.

The submarine has an overall length of 84m, beam of 9.1m and depth of 10.3m. The normal draft of the sub is 8.4m. It has a surfaced displacement of 2,950t and submerged displacement of 4,200t. The Soryu Class can complement a crew of 65 including nine officers and 56 enlisted members.

Crew cabin & rest area

BlackDragon11_zps4c81962cSoryu Class submarine crew cabin – Image: kaskus.co.idBlackDragon15_zpse1045fb5Soryu Class submarine – Image: forum.lowyat.netBlackDragon13_zpscdcc4046Soryu Class submarine – Image: kaskus.co.id

Range : Unpublished but estimated at 6100 nautical miles at 6.5knots with AIP

Operational Depth : Unpublished but estimated at 500m.

Complement : 65 ( 9 officers 56 enlisted ) 

Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com

The submarine can sail at a surfaced speed of 13kt and submerged speed of 20kt. It has a maximum range of 6,100nm at 6.5kt speed.

Weapon systems

The Soryu Class is fitted with six HU-606 533mm torpedo tubes for Type 89 torpedoes and UGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles. The Harpoon has a range of over 124km and speed of 864km/h.

BlackDragon16_zps913b4c96Soryu Class submarine torpedo room – Image: kaskus.co.id

Type 89 is a wire-guided torpedo with active and passive homing modes. It has a maximum speed of 130km/h and can engage targets within the range of 50km. The torpedo can carry a warhead of 267kg.

Type 89 wire-guided torpedo

Type 89 torpedo being loaded onto Soryu Class submarine – Image: reddit.com
Ship Class Used On Submarines
Date Of Design 1989
Date In Service 1992
Weight N/A
Overall Length N/A
Explosive Charge 589 lbs. (267 kg)
Range / Speed about 54,000 yards (49,380 m) @ 40 knots
about 42,000 yards (38,400 m) @ 55 knots
Reported maximum speed is 70 knots
Power N/A

The standard heavy submarine torpedo, roughly equivalent to the USA’s Mark 48. Formerly the GRX-2.

Source navweaps.com



In 1985 the Block 1C version of Harpoon was introduced, being designated AGM-84D, RGM-84D and UGM-84D. The Block 1C has increased range (AGM-84D maximum range is quoted to be 220 km (120 nm)) by using JP-10 instead of JP-6 jet fuel. The terminal attack mode of the xGM-84D is selectable (pop-up or sea-skimming), and the missile also has improved ECCM equipment. Ships equipped with the improved AN/SWG-1A Fire Control System can program several way-points into the flight path of the missile before launch. Using this feature, the RGM-84D will fly an indirect path to the target area, thereby concealing the position of the launching ship. As with the earlier versions, there are also ATM-84D, RTM-84D and UTM-84D training missiles. The CATM-84D is a captive-carry training missile. The CATM-84D-1s are converted older ATM-84As, and CATM-84D-2s are improved new-built missiles. Source designation-systems.net

Sensors / radars

The submarine is equipped with a ZPS-6F navigation or surface search radar. The sonar suite integrates four low frequency flank arrays, a bow-array and a towed array sonar.

Sensors : Hughs/Oki ZQQ-7B Sonar Suite with
1x Bow Array
4x Low Frequency Flank Array
1x Towed Array

Communications :

X-band High Speed Satellite Communications Device for SS-507 and later

Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com

1 x J/ZQQ-7 Bow

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
Sensors / EW:
J/ZQQ-7 Bow – Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

4 x J/ZQQ-7 Flank Array

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Passive-Only Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
Sensors / EW:
J/ZQQ-7 Flank Array – Hull Sonar, Passive-Only
Role: Hull Sonar, Passive-Only Ranging Flank Array Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

ZPS-6F surface/low-level air search radar

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 111.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Early 1980s
Properties: Pulse-only Radar
Sensors / EW:
J/ZPS-6F – Radar
Role: Radar, Surface Search & Navigation
Max Range: 111.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

J/ZQQ-7 TASS Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System

General data:
Type: TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 129.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
Sensors / EW:
J/ZQQ-7 TASS – TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System
Role: TASS, Passive-Only Thin Line Towed Array Sonar System
Max Range: 129.6 km

Source cmano-db.com




Soryu features ZLR-3-6 electronic support measures (ESM) systems. There are two 3in underwater countermeasure launcher tubes installed for launching acoustic device countermeasures (ADCs).

ZLR-3-6 electronic support measures (ESM) system

2 x 3 inch Underwater Countermeasure Launcher Tubes for acoustic device countermeasures (ADCs).
Torpedo Countermeasure System (TCM) for SS-508 and later Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com

ADC (Acoustic Device Countermeasure) MK 2


The ADC (Acoustic Device Countermeasure) MK 2 is a 3-inch diameter, expendable countermeasure device designed for launch from surface ships and submarines to counter torpedo threats. The ADC MK2 hovers vertically at a pre-selected depth, emitting an acoustic signal. The vertical depth is set prior to launch and maintained by a pressure-controlled motor driving a small, shrouded propeller in the tail of the decoy. Power for the motor and electronics is provided by a thermal battery. In the electronics section mounted below the acoustic projector section the signals are generated and amplified, while the uppermost acoustic projector section consists of ceramic transducers and impedance-matching networks. Variants include the MOD1, MOD3 and MOD4. Ultra Electronics Ocean Systems is proud to be the only manufacturer of these ADC MK2 variants for the USN and Foreign Military Sales (FMS). Source ultra-os.com (example)


screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.10.05-17-52-04Hayato Gaku YouTube

Soryu is powered by a diesel-electric propulsion system. Two Kawasaki 12V 25/25 SB-type diesel engines and four Kawasaki Kockums V4-275R Stirling engines provide a total power output of 2,900kW surfaced and 6,000kW submerged.

2 x Kawasaki 12V 25/25 SB-type diesel engines

BlackDragon14_zps05929517Soryu class submarine engine room – Image: kaskus.co.id

4 x Kockums V4-275R Stirling engines

Kockums V4-275R Stirling engines – Image: saab.com
“Soryu features ZLR-3-6 electronic support measures systems.”

Soryu is the first submarine of the JMSDF to be equipped with Stirling engines manufactured by Sweden-based Kockums.

The AIPS develops 3,900 hp surfaced and 8,000 hp submerged. Power is delivered through one shaft. Source military-today.com

Stirling is a silent and vibration-free external combustion engine. The Kockums Stirling air independent propulsion system onboard reduces the need for frequent battery charging surfaced and thus increases the submerged endurance of the submarine.


The electric propulsion motor drives a propeller through a single shaft. The submarine is also fitted with an X rudder to provide high manoeuvrability to the submarine when operating very close to the seabed. This X rudder configuration was initially developed by Kockums for the Swedish Gotland class. The propulsion system provides a maximum speed of 20kt.

Japan to equip future Soryu-class submarines with lithium-ion batteries:

Japan will likely become the first country in the world to equip diesel-electric submarines with lithium-ion batteries. GS Yuasa, a Kyoto-based developer and manufacturer of battery systems, said in a 21 February press statement that such batteries will be mounted on two Soryu-class boats currently in build for the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF).

According to Jane’s Fighting Ships , eight Soryu-class boats are currently in service with the JMSDF.

Four others are currently under construction, two of which, SS 511 and SS 512, are expected to be commissioned in 2020 and 2021 respectively, and will be fitted with lithium-ion batteries in place of lead-acid batteries and a Stirling air-independent propulsion (AIP) system. Source janes.com

Project no. Building no. Pennant no. Name/namesake Laid down Launched Commissioned Home port
S131 8116 SS-501 Sōryū (そうりゅう)
Blue Dragon
31 March 2005 5 December 2007 30 March 2009 Kure
S131[13] 8117 SS-502 Unryū (うんりゅう)
Cloud Dragon
31 March 2006 15 October 2008 25 March 2010[14] Kure
8118 SS-503 Hakuryū (はくりゅう)
White Dragon
6 February 2007 16 October 2009 14 March 2011 Kure
8119 SS-504 Kenryū (けんりゅう)
Sword Dragon, Stegosauria
31 March 2008 15 November 2010 16 March 2012 Kure
8120 SS-505 Zuiryū (ずいりゅう)
Auspicious Dragon
16 March 2009 20 October 2011 6 March 2013 Yokosuka
8121 SS-506 Kokuryū (こくりゅう)
Black Dragon
21 January 2011 31 October 2013 9 March 2015 Yokosuka
S131[13][15] 8122 SS-507 Jinryū (じんりゅう)
Benevolent Dragon
14 February 2012 8 October 2014 7 March 2016 Kure
S131[13][15][16] 8123 SS-508 Sekiryū (せきりゅう)
Red Dragon
15 March 2013 2 November 2015 13 March 2017[17] Kure
S131[18] 8124 SS-509 Seiryū (せいりゅう)
Green Dragon
22 October 2013 12 October 2016 12 March 2018 Yokosuka
S131[19] 8125 SS-510 Shōryū (しょうりゅう)
Soaring Dragon
28 January 2015 6 November 2017 (March 2019)  ?
S131[20] 8126 SS-511  ? 16 November 2015 (2018) (March 2020)  ?
S131[21] 8127 SS-512  ? 27 January 2017 (2019) (March 2021)  ?
S131[22] 8128 SS-513  ? 30 December 2017 (2020) (March 2022)  ?
S131[23] 8129 SS-514  ? (2018) (2021) (March 2023)  ?
c88af4d93de1f4f6dc47b47e7d3c6d0f5b85ca22b8f47b4b900e700db5ce984f2Image: adelaidenow.com.auImage: 4.bp.blogspot.com

Source of main material: naval-technology.com




Specifications navyrecognition.com

Source gentleseas.blogspot.com

Source Chalkley J. Hambleton

Source military-today.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image – JS Oryu (SS 511) by かこてつ

Updated Mar 20, 2018

China plans aircraft carrier battlegroups to protect offshore interests

Zhen Liu zhen.liu@scmp.com  PUBLISHED : Thursday, 03 March, 2016

Battlegroups to also be deployed in East and South China seas, admiral tells state media

The Liaoning, China's first aircraft carrier, returns to port after its first navy sea trial in Dalian in northeastern China's Liaoning province in 2012. Photo: APThe Liaoning, China’s first aircraft carrier, returns to port after its first navy sea trial in Dalian in northeastern China’s Liaoning province in 2012. Photo: AP

China is building aircraft carrier battlegroups and plans to deploy them not only in the disputed East and South China seas, but also to protect the country’s overseas ­interests.

Rear Admiral Yin Zhuo, who served as a national political adviser and sits on the navy’s advisory board on cybersecurity, told the state-run Xinhua News Agency that building aircraft carriers served to “defend China’s sovereignty of the islands and reefs, maritime rights and overseas ­interests”.

The defence ministry confirmed this year that China was building its second aircraft carrier, its first wholly home-made one.

Xinhua mentioned China’s growing interests overseas, including the increasing numbers of nationals travelling abroad and its direct investments. It also noted a need to protect overseas ethnic Chinese.

“Protecting the economic,Xinhua said since the opening up programme began in 1980s, overseas Chinese accounted for 60 per cent of total foreign direct investment in China. political status and occupational safety of overseas Chinese is paramount to safeguarding

China’s domestic economic development and its reform and opening-up,” Yin said, adding that such protection required strong naval power like aircraft carrier battlegroups.

Xinhua said since the opening up programme began in 1980s, overseas Chinese accounted for 60 per cent of total foreign direct investment in China.

The Liaoning, China’s first and so far only aircraft carrier, has conducted drills in the South China Sea on a few occasions since it was commissioned in 2012.

But so far the carrier has been used mainly for training purposes rather than playing any practical combat role.

Ni Lexiong, a Shanghai-based military analyst, said Chinese aircraft carriers were unlikely to visit the South China Sea in the near ­future.

“Sending aircraft carriers would be a strong diplomatic statement. It is a demonstration of a country’s power and strong will to use force,” said Ni.

Original post scmp.com


See related post:

China sends surface-to-air missiles to contested island in provocative move

Conflicting parties in the SC Sea and Naval power comparison – Non US

Chinese Navy Vs USN in West Pacific

Naval Power: China Building Second Aircraft Carrier

J-15 carrier-based fighters conduct training on the Liaoning

Chinese Submarine Fires 2 Nuclear JL-2 Missiles off American Coastline near Oregon

Chinese Aircraft Carrier CV 16 “Liaoning”J-15 prepare for take off from the “Liaoning”

Kuwait Eurofighter deal back on track

According to Key.Aero News

Parliament signs off purchase

Jamie Hunter – 2-Mar-2016

After a couple of false starts, reports from Kuwait indicate that the eagerly-anticipated deal for 28 Eurofighter Typhoons has been approved by the Kuwaiti Government. Reuters reported on March 1 that the government had agreed the deal. The deal was brokered by Eurofighter partner Finmeccanica, with the aircraft set be assembled at the company’s Caselle production line in Italy. The deal is for 22 single-seat Tranche 3 Eurofighters and six two-seaters, which will replace the Kuwaiti Air Force (al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Kuwaitiya) F/A-18C/D Hornets. Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornets may also be procured to operate alongside the Typhoons.

The Typhoons are expected to be delivered configured for the new Captor-E active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, plus they are expected to be equipped with the MBDA Storm Shadow stand-off cruise missile and the Meteor beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM), both of which are currently being integrated under the so-called P2E initiative.

The news that Kuwait has become a customer helps to cement Eurofighter ambitions to be a major player in the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) fighter market. Kuwait joins Saudi Arabia and Oman as Typhoon customers.



See details of Eurofighter Typhoon: HERE