Daily Archives: March 14, 2016

Raytheon AN/MPQ-65 radar

“We’re bringing Raytheon’s GaN-based AESA radar to AUSA so current and future Patriot customers, decision-makers and thought leaders can see first-hand Raytheon’s vision for the future of lower-tier air and missile defense,” said Ralph Acaba, vice president of Integrated Air and Missile Defense at Raytheon’s Integrated Defense Systems business. “This milestone confirms that Raytheon can rapidly design, build, test and deliver a GaN-based AESA radar capable of defeating all threats.”

Raytheon’s GaN-based AESA main array is a critical step on the path to a GaN-based AESA radar with full 360-degree capability.  In 2015, Raytheon demonstrated 360-degree capability with its GaN-based AESA pilot array.  The new main AESA array is a bolt-on replacement for the current antenna, measuring roughly 9′ wide x 13′ tall and oriented toward the primary threat.

“Raytheon believes the GaN-based AESA radar is the next logical upgrade to keep Patriot ahead of emerging threats,” said Tim Glaeser, vice president of Integrated Air and Missile Defense Business Development at Raytheon’s Integrated Defense Systems business.  “Patriot was designed to be continually upgraded, so in addition to AESA GaN technology, Raytheon has a robust, company-funded research and development pipeline which will ensure Patriot outpaces the evolving threat, even 20 to 30 years from now.”

Raytheon’s re-engineered Patriot radar prototype uses two key technologies – active electronically scanned array, which changes the way the radar searches the sky; and gallium nitride circuitry, which uses energy efficiently to amplify the radar’s high-power radio frequencies

Raytheon’s GaN-based AESA Patriot radar will work with future open architecture such as the Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System. It retains backwards compatibility with the current Patriot Engagement Control Station and is fully interoperable with NATO.

The current Patriot radar uses a passive electronic scanning array radar. An AESA radar changes the way the Patriot radar searches the sky. Instead of shining a powerful, single transmitter through many lenses, the new array uses many smaller transmitters, each with its own control. The result is a system that is not only more flexible, with an adjustable beam for many different missions, but also more reliable; it still works even if some of the transmitters do not. SOURCE Raytheon Company

Patriot upgrade

A pair of power-ups

The Patriot upgrade draws its power from two key technologies.

  • Active Electronically Scanned Array — This changes the way the Patriot radar searches the sky. Instead of shining a powerful, single transmitter through many lenses, the new array uses many smaller transmitters, each with its own control. The result is a system that is not only more flexible, with an adjustable beam for many different missions, but also more reliable; it still works even if some of the transmitters do not.
  • Gallium Nitride: This is the material used to build the radar’s powerful new circuits. It is a powerful semiconductor that uses energy efficiently to amplify the radar’s high-power radio frequencies. Raytheon has spent more than 15 years and $200 million pioneering gallium nitride technology, and has built gallium nitride circuits for a number of products including jammers and other radars.

Eyes all around

The full-size radar is an important step on a path toward a Patriot system that can simultaneously see all 360 degrees of the battlefield.

Raytheon has designed a 360-degree radar that fits into the current configuration of the Patriot system. It includes the main array facing front and two smaller “quarter-panel” arrays facing the rear. Early testing of the design at Raytheon’s radar range in New Hampshire has been successful.

Image @photos.prnewswire.com

The AN/MPQ-65 (PAC-3) is an operating in C-Band passive electronically scannedphased array radar mounted on M860 semi-trailers. Under the Patriot PAC-3 program the AN/MPQ-53 radar set has been replaced with the AN/MPQ-65.  Source radartutorial.eu

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 166.7 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Early 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination
Sensors / EW:
AN/MPQ-65 – (AN/MPQ-53(V) PAC-3) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air, Medium-Range
Max Range: 166.7 km

Source cmano-db.com

What makes that design possible is gallium nitride’s efficiency; with a traditional semiconductor, the same idea would require more parts and a much larger footprint. That would not only be harder to operate and maintain, but it would cost more too.

Always improving

The new array is powerful, with the potential for even greater advances, but it remains true to the Patriot legacy — and can even be integrated into any of the more than 220 already-fielded systems that are owned by 13 countries around the world.

“Those years of experience are still captured in this radar, in this system as a whole,” said Theresa Avino-Manning, who led the team that produced the radar Raytheon will bring to the AUSA symposium. “We’ve upgraded all those parts, so we could take advantage of modern technology while still living within the tried-and-true footprint and operational system of Patriot.” Source raytheon.com

Raytheon – Patriot Air & Missile Defense System Evolution


Zhuk-AE/FGA-35 modified radar with AESA (ROFAR)

The group has been developing radar and EW systems based on new technologies

(Zhuk-AE/FGA-35 modified radar with AESA)

In recent years, electronic systems all often replaced on the photon. Linked it in the first turn with a different physical nature of the photon. That same is a photon and what unique capabilities of military technology will provide a new direction – believe that radio Photonics?

Faster electron

Photonics is essentially analogue electronics, are used instead of electrons are quanta of the electromagnetic field – photons. These are the most common number of particles in the Universe, unlike electrons, do not have mass and charge. Therefore, photonic systems are not affected by external electromagnetic fields, have much better transmission range and bandwidth of the signal.

As a field of science Photonics began in 1960 with the invention of the first important technical devices using photons, laser. The very term “Photonics” began to be widely used in the 1980-ies in connection with the beginning of widespread use of optical fiber transmission. By the way, in our country the first development of such fiber optic cables engaged in the design Bureau of the cable industry, now part of KRET.

We can say that these developments have made a revolution in telecommunications in the last century and became the basis for the development of the Internet. Actually, until about 2001 Photonics was largely focused on the telecommunications.

Today “telecommunication” Photonics helps in the creation of a new direction – radio Photonics, which arose from the fusion of electronics, wave optics, microwave optoelectronics and other fields of science and industrial production.

In other words, believe that radio Photonics deals with the problems of transmission, reception and transformation of information by using electromagnetic waves of microwave range and photonic devices and systems. Believe that radio Photonics allows you to create radio frequency devices with the options that are unattainable for traditional electronics.

Modern radio apparatus moves in the optical range, and ignoring this fact often leads to very serious consequences. For example, initially in the design of information and telecommunication, service and technical networks of the super-Jumbo A380 were not included photonic network. Used aluminum cable, and its length was more than 500 km away. This has led to serious problems on Board the aircraft. For their decision required a full replacement of all cable networks on each side of which was built for the A380. The result – two years of delays and almost 5 billion euros in financial losses, and the largest Corporation narrowly escaped financial collapse.

(Zhuk-AE/FGA-35 modified radar with AESA)

Radiophony breakthrough

In microelectronics Russia, as you know, behind the Western countries. It is through technologies in the field of radio Photonics invited to compete. Today Russian scientists in the sphere of defense technologies consider it impossible to give up electrons and to pay attention to the photons which have no mass and fly faster.

According to experts, servers, operating on the principles of Photonics, decreased a hundred times compared to the current, and the data transfer rate would be increased tenfold.

Or, for example, a ground radar station. Today, this radar is a multi-storey building, but if you start to believe that radio Photonics work, then the station can be installed on a conventional truck. The efficiency and range will be exactly the same – thousands of kilometers. Several mobile and small complexes can be combined into a network, which will increase characteristics of these radars.

Believe that radio Photonics instead of electronics

Photonic technologies will significantly expand the capabilities and airborne radars. New developments in this area more than twice reduce the weight of existing antennas and radars, tenfold increase their resolution. Also radiophonic antennas will be a unique resistance to electromagnetic pulses, which occur, for example, during close lightning strikes or when solar magnetic storms.

All this will create a broadband radars that level of resolution and speed can be called radar vision. Such system is also planned in the civil sphere, for example, on high-speed trains for instant detection of obstacles on the tracks.

Photonics can also be effectively applied in housing, for example, in urban and rural heating systems. Instead of hot water energy will act photons. They will be distributed in photonic crystal fibers with a thickness of human hair, the energy of which is converted into heat with almost 100% efficiency.

Фото Виталий Кузьмин Vitaly Kuzmin MAKS-2013 pavilions halls Avionics Авионика МАКС-2013 павильоны(Zhuk-AE/FGA-35 modified radar with AESA) @vitalykuzmin.net

Laboratory of the future

In Russia radiophonie technology develops KRET. Today, the group and the Foundation for advanced studies working on a promising project “Development of active phased array-based radio Photonics” (ROPAR). The project includes the creation of a special laboratory on the basis of the Concern and the development of universal technology, which will be the basis for radar and electronic warfare systems for the new generation.

According to KRET CEO Nikolai Kolesov, the latest technology will allow in 2020 to create an effective and advanced transmitting / receiving apparatus, radar, electronic intelligence and electronic countermeasures of the new generation.

One of the main areas of work will be the creation of an active phased array (AESA) of the new generation, in which the main elements were created using the principles of radio Photonics. They will reduce the weight of the system is 1.5-3 times increase in 2-3 times the reliability and efficiency, as well as dozens of times to increase the scanning speed and resolution.

If successful, the technology will open up new opportunities for improving the “smart skin” that will be on the Russian aircraft of the latest generation, including the PAK FA. Such a system of built-in elements throughout the area of the fuselage will allow the crew to get in any time solid radar picture within a radius of 360 degrees, will provide for the operation of antenna systems in active and passive radar, raising all kinds of noise, secretive and noise-immune data transmission, communication with the ground and other aircraft, hoopsnake and more.

In addition, on the basis of new materials and elements, created on the basis of the principles of Photonics, KRET will learn the advanced technologies of high-power photodetectors and semiconductor laser modules.

KRET creates a laboratory for research in the field of photonics

Source russiadefence.net


See related post:

With new radar the PAK FA fighter can detect any stealth aircraft

Zhuk FGA35 tested on MiG-35

Below quote on the radar from AI article by Piotr Butowski

The basic radar system for the Russian Air Force MiG-35S version is the N041R mechanically scanned, slotted-array radar. The export version is fitted with the Zhuk-ME (FGM229) variant. The Zhuk-M radar is not the latest, but a perfected and more economic design. A more advanced variant – the FGA35 Zhuk-AE with active electronic scanning – has already been flight tested on the MiG-35, tests that have included the
launch of missiles.

At MAKS 2013, the Phazotron company showed another variant of the Zhuk-A radar, initially designated FGA35 (3D), with new transceiver modules made from LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramics) technology. The array is much thinner and lighter than the Zhuk-AE variant. Each module is 13mm (0.5in) deep, several times less than those used on the Zhuk-AE. The array is air-cooled (the Zhuk-AE is – liquid-cooled) while the impulse power of each module is 5W. Yuri Guskov, Phazotron’s designer general promises the handover of the new radar for evaluation on the MiG-35 in 2014.  Source forum.keypublishing.com

See details of MiG-35: HERE