Monthly Archives: August 2016

Su-30MKI Multirole Fighter Aircraft, India

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI is a multirole combat fighter aircraft jointly developed by the Sukhoi Design Bureau and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF). Based on the Su-30 fighter aircraft, Su-30MKI is equipped with thrust vectoring control and canards.

The development of the Su-30MKI for the IAF began in 1995. Sukhoi and Irkutsk Aircraft Production Association (now known as Irkut Corporation) were initially responsible for the development and production of the aircraft respectively.

Sukhoi built two prototypes of the Su-30MKI between 1995 and 1998. The first prototype, Su-30I-1, made its first flight in July 1997. Production began at the Irkutsk plant in 2000. The first pre-production aircraft completed its maiden flight in November 2000. India signed a MoU with Russia in October 2000, to start the license production of Su-30MKIs at HAL’s plant.

Su-30MKI.jpgSu-30MKI at HAL plant – Image:

Su-30MK Advanced Flanker Su-30MKI

In general, Su-30 is a dual-seat full-system Su-27 interceptor with refueling probe, provisions for external fuel tanks, beefed up structure, improved ECM, and a slightly modified comm/oxygen interface block with the RD-36 ejection seat. The Russian home PVO variant is related to the multi-role or “MKI” export variants being sold around the world. The laser-optical locator system is advertised to include a day and night FLIR capability and is used in conjunction with the Helmet mounted sighting system. The onboard countermeasures suite includes an illumination warning system, an active jamming station, and passive dispensers for chaff and flares.

Su-27 interceptor

Su-30 is capable of performing all tactical tasks of the Su-24 “Fencer” deep interdiction tactical bomber and the Su-27 “Flanker A/B/C” air superiority fighter while having around twice the combat range and 2.5 times the combat effectiveness (Sukhoi numbers).

In the early 1990’s, the Su-30 supposedly found itself in competition with the Su-27IB side-by-side configured Flanker prototype, but there may be a lot of misinformation with these claims. The Su-30 was reported as early as January 1993 as being “in service” with the Russian Air Force and in series production at the Irkutsk Factory. At that time a modified and beefed-up dual-seat Su-27PU was being tested on long range flights, one of which went from Moscow to Komsomolsk in 15 hours and 31 minutes with air refueling.


su-30_1Su-27PU (T10PU-05) prototype – Image:

This evidently became the Su-30. Sukhoi then proposed a Su-30 to the Russian Air Force as a dual-seat command post fighter that would designate targets for accompanying aircraft, a clear add-on or replacement for the MiG-31 Foxhound fleet that was having serious maintainability problems.

The visual differences from basic Su-27(red marks) and Su-30 predecessor – Su-27UB(green marks):

  • IR sight moved to right side of canopy(1)
  • Refueling system is installed(2)
  • More advanced avionics and cockpit instruments(3)
  • Two-weel nose gear(4)
  • Trainer seat replaced by the operator equipment(5)
  • Larger tail-planes(6)


Specifications Su-30 (Su-27PU) Flanker

Powerplant: two 122.58 kN (27,550 lb st) Saturn Lyul’ka AL-31F afterburning turbofans

Dimensions: length 21.935m (72 ft 9 in) ; height 6.357m (21 ft 5 in); wing span 14.7m (48 ft)

Weights: empty 17700 kg (39,021 lb); Max Take-Off Weight 33000 kg (72,752 lb)

Performance: max level speed at high altitude Mach 2.0 or 2125 km/h (1,320 mph); at sea level 1400 km/h (870 mph); service ceiling 17,500m (57,410 ft)

Armament: one internal GSh-301 30mm cannon with 150 rounds; up to 8000 kg (17,637 lb) of ordnance carried on eight external hardpoints, including R-60, R-73, R-27, RVV-AE (R-77) AAMs, freefall and cluster bombs, unguided rockets, external fuel tanks and ECM pods. Source


The Indian Air Force formally inducted its first eight Su-30 aircraft in a ceremony at Lohegaon Air Base, near Pune, in early July. This was barely six months after the $1.8 billion contract to supply 40 aircraft was confirmed, and officially described as Su-30’s. The first batch of eight appear to be an enhanced Su-27PU variant which become the Su-30, modified again with an Indian particular navigation kit. News reports also eluded to the possibility that the InAF would return them at some later date. Another option was mentioned that over the next four years Sukhoi would upgrade these eight aircraft to full Su-30MKI status while delivering the 32 x Su-30MKIs in three batches. Deputy Sukhoi Designer Alexander Bartkovski said that the eight aircraft were shipped to India in An-124 Ruslan aircraft from the Irkutsk Aviation Production Association (IAPO) factory. Indian pilots are being trained in groups of ten at the Zhukovski Test Center.


su-30mki_14.jpgPhoto copyright Peter Steehouwer – Image:

As usual, things change, and the contract appears to have been changed to allow the new production aircraft to be delivered with canards and thrust-vectoring control (TVC) engines from the outset. The main difference being that the vectored thrust nozzle assembly would be applied to standard Lyulka-Saturn AL-31F turbofans rather than the AL-37FU’s fitted to the Su-37 prototype.

The visual differences from basic Su-27(red marks) and predecessor – Su-30MK(green marks):

  • IR sight moved to right side of canopy(1)
  • Refueling system is installed(2)
  • More advanced avionics and cockpit instruments(3)
  • Two-weel nose gear(4)
  • Trainer seat replaced by the operator equipment(5)
  • Canard foreplanes(6)
  • Larger tail-planes(7)
  • Thrust-vectoring control engines(8)


Specifications Su-30MKI Multi-Role Flanker

Powerplant: two 130 kN (29,400 lb st) Saturn Lyul’ka AL-31FP TVC afterburning turbofans

Dimensions: length 21.935m (72 ft 9 in) ; height 6.357m (21 ft 5 in); wing span 14.7m (48 ft)

Weights: empty 18400 kg (40,564 lb); Max Take-Off Weight 34000 kg (74,956 lb)

Performance: max level speed at high altitude Mach 2.0 or 2125 km/h (1,320 mph); at sea level 1400 km/h (870 mph); service ceiling 17,500m (57,410 ft)

Armament: one internal GSh-301 30mm cannon with 150 rounds; up to 8000 kg (17,637 lb) of ordnance carried on up to twelve external hardpoints, including R-60, R-73, R-27, RVV-AE (R-77) AAMs, freefall and cluster bombs, unguided rockets, external fuel tanks, guided bombs and air-to-surface missiles. Source


Su-30MKI_01.jpgThe chromed nozzle is the probe in stowed position. Here’s a close-up of an Indian Su-30MKI – Image:

Nozzle Assembly of the GPT -2E series

Nozzle assemblies of the GPT-2E (-1, -1M, -1I) type are designed to refuel combat aircraft in flight. The nozzle assemblies feature universal refueling couplings that conform both to the RF and NATO standards. This makes it possible to refuel the aircraft from the tankers equipped with the aerial-refueling pods of both domestic and foreign production.


  • Refueling coupling;
  • Engagement warning system;
  • Pneumatic drive to open refueling valves of the nozzle assembly/refueling pod drogue;
  • Output fuel pressure regulator;
  • Structural fuse of the refueling coupling;
  • Emergency retraction system for the refueling coupling.


  • Maximum refueling rate is up to 2500 l/min.

Year of development: 2006


MiG-29E, MiG-29МST, MiG-29К/КUB, Su-24, Su-30MKI and Su-35.


Sukhoi Su-27SK: Details


Su-30SM: Details

Orders and deliveries of the multirole fighter aircraft

In November 1996, India placed an order with Sukhoi for eight Su-30K fighters and 32 Su-30MKI aircraft. The aircraft, fitted with enhanced avionics, engines and weapons, were delivered in batches.

In December 2000, HAL signed a contract with Rosoboronexport for the license production of Su-30MKI aircraft. As part of the contract, HAL will produce a total of 140 Su-30MKIs in four phases to complete the programme by 2015.

The first ten Russian-made Su-30MKI aircraft were delivered to the IAF in mid-2002. The aircraft were inducted into service in September 2002. The second batch of 12 aircraft was handed over in 2003.

The first Su-30MKI assembled by HAL was rolled out in November 2004. The first batch of two aircraft was delivered to the IAF in March 2005. The IAF placed an order with HAL for 40 Su-30MKIs in 2007.

In December 2012, HAL signed a contract with the Ministry of Defence and Rosoboronexport for the production and delivery of 42 Su-30MKI aircraft, bringing the total number of orders to 222. The Indian Air Force operates more than 150 Su-30MKIs, as of January 2013.

Su-30MKI design and avionics

X14D Sukhoi Su30 MKI.jpgImage:

The Su-30MKI aircraft incorporates an aerodynamic airframe made of titanium and high intensity aluminium alloys. The twin stabilisers and horizontal tail consoles are joined to tail beams. The semi-monocoque fuselage head includes the cockpit, radar sections and the avionics bay. The section between the engine nacelles houses the equipment bay, fuel storage and the brake parachute mechanism. The aircraft has a length of 21.9m, wingspan of 14.7m and a height of 6.4m. The maximum take-off weight of Su-30MKI is 38,800kg.


The tandem glass cockpit of the Su-30MKI accommodates two pilots. The forward cockpit is equipped with an integrated avionics suite incorporating Elbit Su 967 head-up display (HUD), seven active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCD) and primary cockpit instrumentation from Thales. The HAL-built aircraft are equipped with multifunction displays (MFD) supplied by Samtel Display Systems.

Modernization of the Su-30MKI. Why India took it’s time?: Here


Russia offers India technology in which the Su-30MKI “is very close to the fifth generation.” This also applies to the power plant, and radar, and so on, Treasure said. Su-30MKI developed in Russia and is serially produced at the plant of the Indian company HAL.

Elbit Su 967 head-up display (HUD)

HUD SU-967HUD SU-967 – Image:

Samtel Display Systems

16-1424059267-samtel-1Image: oneindia.commain10

“Today over 100 sets of MFDs have been delivered by Samtel-HAL JV for induction on Su-30 MKIs are already flying. Sicne 2007, Samtel has successfully teamed up with global players such as Honeywell, Curtiss-Wright, and General Dynamics Canada and became part of their global supply chain also as to manufacture their products in India for their international customers,” Posted on February 16, 2015 by Source

images000-Su-30MKI-Fwd-Cockpit-1SFront seat pilot  – Image: ausairpower.net000-Su-30MKI-Aft-Cockpit-1S.jpgRear seat weapons officer – Image:

The aircraft integrates a fly by wire (FBW) flight control system. A large monochromatic display screen installed in the rear cockpit provides air-to-ground missile guidance. The Su-30MKI is also equipped with a N011M passive electronically scanned array radar, OLS-30 laser-optical locator system and Litening target designation pod to guide air-to-surface missile and laser guided munitions.

N011M passive electronically scanned array radar

Irkut-Su-30MKI-BARS-1.jpgNIIP N011M BARS Prototype – Image:

The forward facing NIIP NO11M Bars (Panther) is a powerful integrated radar sighting system. The N011M is a digital multi-mode dual frequency band radar (X and L Band, NATO D and I). The N011M can function both in air-to-air and air-to-land/sea mode simultaneusly while being tied into a high-precision laser-inertial / GPS navigation system. It is equipped with a modern digital weapons control system as well as anti-jamming features. The aircraft has an opto-electronic surveillance and targeting system which consists of a IR direction finder, laser rangefinder and helmet mounted sight system. The HMS allows the pilot to turn his head in a 90º field of view, lock on to a target and launch the much-feared R-73E missile. The Sura-K HMS for the Su-30MKI has been supplied by the Ukranian Arsenal Company (the same also makes the APK-9 datalink pod for the Kh-59M).

The N011M radar has been under flight testing since 1993, fitted to Su-27M (Su-35) prototype ‘712’. It employs the same level of technology as the now abandoned N014 radar which was to have equipped Mikoyan’s MFI “fifth-generation” fighter and was initiated by Tamerlan Bekirbayev. The nose of the Su-30MKI was modified (compared the Su-27) to accommodate the fixed antenna array and more avionics boxes. The first improved N011M radar for the Su-30MKI was flown on 26-Nov-2000. Note that the N011M is different from the N011 “Mech” radar: the latter is mechanical scanning and equips the No 24 Sqn aircraft.

Antenna diameter is 1m, antenna gain 36dB, the main sidelobe level is -25dB, average sideobe level is -48dB, beamwidth is 2.4 deg with 12 distinct beam shapes. The antenna weighs 100kg

N011-Bars-irkut-com.jpgN011M radar – Image:

For aircraft N011M has a 350 km search range and a maximum 200 km tracking range, and 60 km in the rear hemisphere. A MiG-21 for instance can be detected at a distance of up to 135 km. Design maximum search range for an F-16 target was 140-160km. A Bars’ earlier variant, fitted with a five-kilowatt transmitter, proved to be capable of detecting Su-27 fighters at a range of over 330 km. The radar can track 20 air targets and engage the 4 most threatening targets simultaneously (this capability was introduced in the Indian RC1 and RC2). These targets can include cruise/ballistic missiles and even motionless helicopters. For comparison, Phazotron-NIIR’s Zhuk-MS radar has a range of 150-180km against a fighter and over 300km against a warship. “We can count the number of blades in the engine of the aircraft in sight (by the NO11M) and by that determine its type,” NIIP says.

The forward hemisphere is ±90º in azimuth and ±55º in elevation (+/-45 degrees vertical and +/-70 degrees horizontal have also been reported). N011M can withstand up to 5 percent transceiver loss without significant degredation in performance.

The Su-30MKI can function as a ‘mini-AWACS’ and can act as a director or command post for other aircraft. The target co-ordinates can be transferred automatically to at least 4 other aircraft. This feature was first seen in the MiG-31 Foxhound, which is equipped with a Zaslon radar.

Radar Computers

> Facilitate automatic PRF selection of hostile targets moving at blind speeds
> Enhance tracking capability to 8 targets


> 486 main processor
> 386 Summit processor
> ARINC 429 Interface
> Dimensions 32cm x 19cm x 19cm
> Weight 14 kg each

RC1 Functions

> Interfaced to MCDP through ARINC and MIL-1553 BUS
> Interfaced to RC2 via high speed parallel Q bus
> Processes radar input and passes results to mission computer

RC2 Functions

> Interfaced to PSP
> Interfaced to various radar devices and combat computer via Q bus

Ground surveillance modes include mapping (with Doppler beam sharpening), search & track of moving targets, synthetic aperture radar and terrain avoidance. To penetrate enemy defenses, the aircraft can fly at low altitudes using the terrain following and obstacle avoidance feature. It enables the pilot to independently find his position without help from external sources (satellite navigation, etc.); detect ground targets and their AD systems; choose the best approach route to a target with continuous updates fed to the aircraft navigation systems; and provide onboard systems and armament with targeting data.

According to Sukhoi EDB the Su-30MKI is capable of performing all tactical tasks of the Su-24 Fencer deep interdiction tactical bomber and the Su-27 Flanker A/B/C air superiority fighter while having around twice the combat range and at least 2.5 times the combat effectiveness.

The N011M offers a quantum leap in technology over the earlier Russian radars. Small ground targets, like tanks, can be detected out to 40-50 km. The MiG-29, Su-27 and other fighters can be provided with a ground strike capability only if their radars can operate in the down-looking mode which generates a map of ground surface on a cockpit display (this mode is called the Mapping Mode).

N011M ensures a 20 m resolution detection of large sea targets at a distance up to 400 km, and of small size ones – at a distance of 120 km. Coupled with the air-launched Brahmos-A AShM, the Su-30MKI will become an unchallanged platform for Anti-Ship duties. The Brahmos is a result of a joint collaboration between India and Russia and is a variant of the Yakhont AShM (which has not entered service).


The existing N011M series lacks a Low Probability of Intercept capability, in part due to antenna bandwidth limits and in part due to processor limitations. This is likely to change over the coming decade, with the Irbis-E, as customers demand an ability to defeat or degrade Western ESM equipment and the technology to do this becomes more accessible.

The N012 tail warning radar has been reported to be part of the Su-30MKI suite and is offered as a retrofit to other models. Source

N011M Bars supplied to the IAF have progressively updated capabilities. Future upgradation plans include new gimbals for the antenna mount to increase the field of view to about 90-100 degrees to both sides. New software will enable a Doppler-sharpening mode and the capability to engage up to eight air targets simultaneously. Additionally the capability of the world-best PJ-10 Brahmos missile will be incorporated. The Air launched version of the missile ‘Brahmos-A’ requires modifications to the airframe due to high weight. As many as three can be carried on the MKI, but only if the weight of the missile can be reduced. Untill then a capability to carry one Brahmos and two Krypton (“mini moskit”) missiles is being worked on Source

OLS-30 laser-optical locator system



Optoelectronic sighting system includes an optical-location station and a helmet-mounted target designation system. IRSTS Su-30MK2 station, which is a combination of surveillance and tracking teplopelengator and laser rangefinder, designator, used for detection and tracking of air targets in the front and back of her hemispheres by its heat radiation, ranging laser beam to the air and ground targets, and can also be used for laser illumination of ground targets in the application of guided missiles “air-to-surface” with semi-active laser homing head. Source

OLS-30 laser-optical locator system to include a day and night FLIR capability and is used in conjunction with the helmet mounted sighting system. The OLS-30 is a combined IRST/LR device using a cooled, broader waveband, sensor. Detection range is up to 90 km, whilst the laser ranger is effective to 3.5 km. Targets are displayed on the same LCD display as the radar. Source

General data:   
Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 185.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Sensors / EW:
OLS-30 [IRST] – (Izdeliye 52Sh) Infrared
Role: IRST, Imaging Infrared Seach and Track
Max Range: 185.2 km


sukhoi-su-35-11-638.jpgImage: slideshare.netsukhoi-su-35-20-638Image: slideshare.netSu-30MK-BVR-2.jpg

What happens when the existing OLS-27/30/31 series IRST is replaced with a newer longwave Focal Plane Array device – such as a single chip QWIP device? The result will be a capability to engage opposing aircraft under clear sky conditions regardless of RCS reduction measures. While the supercruising F/A-22A can defeat such techniques by kinematics alone, fighters in the teen series performance envelope will have to contend with BVR shots using the R-27ET, R-77, R-77T and R-77M cued by the thermal imaging search and track set. Similar issues arise with the deployment of modern ESM receivers on the Su-30MK, analogous to a number of existing Western systems. The Su-30MK series can then launch long range BVR missiles such as the R-27ET, R-77T with infrared seekers, or the R-27EP and R-77P with passive radio-frequency anti-radiation seekers. If cued by such sensors or offboard sources, these weapons will permit the Su-30MK to engage the JSF despite the JSF’s good forward sector radar stealth performance (Author). Source

Rafael Litening III Advanced Airborne Targeting Pod


Litening Airborne Day/Night Navigation & Targeting Pod provides precision strike capability to every fighter aircraft.

  • reduces pilot workload during the process of targeting maintenance target
  • Sighting system of high accuracy and reliability
  • reduces operational limitations
  • simple maintenance and support
  • low maintenance cost
  • potential upgrade
  • upgrades available for aircraft with multi-mission capability
  • Adaptable on most aircraft
  • detection, recognition, identification, laser designation of targets on land or sea
  • Release accurate ammunition laser-guided enema and general purpose weapons.
  • identification of air targets beyond visual range (BRV)
  • option for data link and long-range video


The evolution of the Litening pod continued with the Litening III version, which utilized a more capable Gen III (3-5micron) FLIR, with a 640×480 digital detectors array. This system is also equipped with a target marker, which improves the coordination of ground and air forces, by designation of targets by day or night. Litening III system is also equipped with a dual-wavelength diode-pumped laser, which is compatible with training (eyesafe) and wartime operational modes. The system also employs electronic image stabilization, to provide cleaner images of targets, acquired at long standoff range.

Logistically, the integration of the pod is easy and straightforward; it can fit the centerline or E/O pod mounts available with most modern aircraft and require no structural changes in the aircraft. Pods can also be installed on different aircraft, in support of specific missions. For example, the US Reserves currently field eight pods per wing. The pod requires minimal maintenance and technical support on the flight line. It is self boresighting in flight, therefore requires no alignment prior to the mission and improved accuracy during operations.


The Israeli targeting pod was procured by 14 air forces, including the US Air Force Reserve’s and Air National Guards for their F-16 Block 25/30/32 Fighting Falcon. Other air forces operating the system include the US Marine Corps (AV-8B), Israeli air Force (F-16), Spanish and Italian Navy (AV-8B) and Spanish air force (F/A-18), German Air Force (Tornado IDS), and the Venezuela (F-16A/B). The pods were also selected for South Africa’s Grippens, India’s Mirage 2000, MiG-27 and Jaguar. The most recent inquiry for the pods came in March, for a planned procurement of F-16s by Austria. The pod is also fully integrated in the Eurofighter, F-5E, MiG-21 and other types. Testing are underway to integrate the pod with Boeing F-15I operated by the Israel Air Force.

Litening III specifications:
length: 220 cm
diameter: 406 mm
total weight: 440 lb
Operating altitude: +40,000
IR sensor: 640×480 FPA Mid-IR wavelength
Day sensor: CCDTV
Wide FOV: 18.4 x 24.1
medium FOV: 3.5×3.5
Narrow field of view: 1×1
Field of regard: +45 / -150
Roll: +/- 400
Laser: Diode pumped laser designator, dual wavelength


indian_ai_1469699905.jpgIAF Su-30MKI with Litening pod



The SURA-I Helmet-Mounted Target Designation and Indication System (HMTDIS) is the upgraded version of the production-run Sura HMTDS offering the new advantage: it displays aiming and flight information in the pilot’s field of view.

The HMTDIS receives signals from the airborne system and generates the indicative marks (symbols, alphanumeric information) displayed in the pilot’s field of view.

The type and volume of the displayed data will be specified with the Customer.

The data display field of view: 6×4°.The production-run Sura HMTDIS upgrade is fulfilled by changing a helmet unit and two boards in the electronic module.



Helmet-mounted target designation system (HMTDS) with indication (SURA-I) was developed as a modernization and improvement project of SURA HMTDS in order to increase HMTDS application efficiency in close air combat modes.

During development the data exchange protocol between HMTDS and RIF complex of Su-30MKI aircraft, HMTDS airborne units connection circuits were kept. Also the SURA HMTDS combat application identity was provided so there is no need to change the flight personnel training program.

Modernization consists in:

– improvement of helmet unit (liquid crystal matrix is used as image forming element);

– replacement of CPU and electronic block check unit.

SURA-I HMTDS order code example: «СУРА АЖИЮ.201219.002-001»

SURA-I HMTDS is designed for:

1. Determination of angular coordinates (in azimuth (У) and elevation angle (Z)) of sighting

line of visually observed object.

2. Operational aiming of guided weapons (guided missiles, cannon turrets) and surveillance

systems to visible objects by turn of the pilot’s head without changing aircraft course in aircraft

coordinate system.

3. Forming and indication of single commands and flight & navigation indication in pilot’s FOV.

SURA-I HMTDS has 5-level noise immunity degree implemented, outer parameters failures are eliminated.



The aircraft is fitted with a satellite navigation system (A-737 GPS compatible), which permits it to make flights in all weather, day and night. The navigation complex includes the high accuracy SAGEM Sigma-95 integrated global positioning system and ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system.  Source

SIGMA 95 laser gyro navigation systems


Indian aerospace giant Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) has signed a technology transfer agreement with Sagem (Safran) concerning the manufacture and maintenance in India of Sagem’s SIGMA 95 laser gyro navigation systems.

Developed by Sagem for fixed and rotary-wing combat aircraft, the SIGMA 95 is an autonomous, hybrid laser gyro inertial/GPS-Glonass* navigation system. It stands up to severe environments, and gives military aircraft a high degree of navigation precision and operational flexibility, thus supporting the success of even the most demanding missions, including in areas without GPS signals.

According to the terms of this agreement, HAL will be able to produce SIGMA 95 units for the Indian air force, and also provide “level 3” front line maintenance. Source

APK-9 datalink pod for the Kh-59M

kh59m-1Kh-59ME Ovod M / AS-18 Kazoo and APK-9 Tekon pod on Su-30MK (KnAAPO image). – Image: ausairpower.net Tekon pod –Image:

Kh-59M missile


The Kh-59 Ovod (Russian: Х-59 Овод ‘Gadfly’; AS-13 ‘Kingbolt’) is a Russian TV-guided cruise missile with a two-stage solid-fuel propulsion system and 200 km range. The Kh-59M Ovod-M (AS-18 ‘Kazoo’) is a variant with a bigger warhead and turbojet engine. It is primarily a land-attack missile but the Kh-59MK variant targets shipping.


The original Kh-59 is propelled by a solid fuel engine, and incorporates a solid fuel accelerator in the tail. The folding stabilizers are located in the front of the missile, with wings and rudder in the rear. The Kh-59 cruises at an altitude of about 7 meters above water or 100–1,000 metres (330–3,280 ft) above ground with the help of a radar altimeter. It can be launched at speeds of 600 to 1,000 km/h (370 to 620 mph) at altitudes of 0.2 to 11 kilometres (660 to 36,090 ft) and has a CEP of 2 to 3 meters. It is carried on an AKU-58-1 launch pylon.

The Kh-59ME has an external turbofan engine below the body just forward of the rear wings, but retains the powder-fuel accelerator. It also has a dual guidance system consisting of an inertial guidance system to guide it into the target area and a television system to guide it to the target itself.

The 36MT turbofan engine developed for the Kh-59M class of missiles is manufactured by NPO Saturn of Russia.

36MT turbofan engine

Design features

  • 1-stage fan
  • axial-diagonal high pressure compressor
  • annular combustor
  • 1-stage high pressure turbine
  • 1-stage low pressure turbine





Thrust at maximum rating, kgf


Maximum length, mm


Maximum diameter, mm


Weight, kg



Target coordinates are fed into the missile before launch, and the initial flight phase is conducted under inertial guidance. At a distance of 10 km from the target the television guidance system is activated. An operator aboard the aircraft visually identifies the target and locks the missile onto it.



930 kg (2,050 lb)


570 cm (220 in)


38.0 cm (15.0 in)


Cluster or shaped-charge fragmentatio

Warhead weight

320 kg (705 lb)


Kh-59: two-stage rocket

Kh-59ME: rocket then turbofan


130 cm (51.2 in)



Kh-59ME (export): 115 km (62 nmi)

Kh-59ME: 200 km (110 nmi)

Kh-59MK: 285 km (150 nmi)


Mach 0.72-0.88



inertial guidance (then TV guidance), millimeter wave active radar seeker (Kh-59MK, Kh-59MK2 land attack version)



Kh-59ME: Su-30MK

Kh-59: Su-24M, MiG-27, Su-17M3/22M4, HAL Tejas, Su-25 and Su-30


К-36D-3,5 (К-36D-3,5М) Ejection seat


Design description:

In flight, a crewmember is held in the seat with a suspension/restraint harness system. The crewmember may be restrained in the seat with the shoulder and waist restraint mechanisms. The seat features stepless height adjustment, which makes the seat occupation comfortable for work and vision.

The crewmember protection against the dynamic pressure G-loads at ejection is provided with the protective gear, windblast shield, forced restraint in the seat, seat stabilization as well as the selection of one of three operation modes for the energy source depending on the suited pilot mass. At the aircraft speed exceeding 850 km/h, the MRM steady-state mode is adjusted by the automatics depending on the acceleration.

After automatic separation of the pilot from the seat, the recovery parachute canopy is inflated providing the pilot’s safe descent. A portable survival kit, which is separated from the seat together with the pilot, supports his/her vital functions after landing or water landing, makes the pilot search easier, and the ПСН-1 life raft supports the pilot floatation on the surface of water.


The К-36D-3,5 ejection seat realizes the crewmember emergency escape within the range of equivalent airspeed (VE.) from 0 to 1300 km/h, at Mach number up to 2.5 and aircraft flight altitude from 0 to 20,000 m, including takeoff, landing run and «Н=0, V=0» mode. The seat is used with the KKO-15 set of protective gear and oxygen equipment.

The seat installation mass does not exceed 103 kg, including the survival kit.

Year of development: 2001


The К-36D-3,5 family features seat modifications for each aircraft version.

The К-36D-3,5 seats are installed in all versions of the Su-30 aircraft; the К-36D-3,5M seats are installed in the MiG-29M and seaborne МiG-29К/KUB aircraft.


Oxygen System KS – 129


The KS -129 oxygen system is designed to provide one or two pilots of the front-line aircraft with oxygen during flights at the altitudes up to 20 km. (KS -130 oxygen system is used at the altitudes up to 12 km). The oxygen source is the BKDU -130 onboard oxygen-generating system, which produces oxygen from compressed air tapped from the aircraft gas turbine compressor.

Major advantages of the bottle-free oxygen system:

  • There are no onboard oxygen bottles in the system and, correspondingly, there is no need in pre-flight charging of the system with oxygen;
  • The mission duration is not limited with the onboard oxygen reserve;
  • The system features less line maintenance man-hours than the system with the bottle oxygen source.

The KS-129 oxygen system is used onboard the MiG-29K (KUB), MiG-29UPG, MiG-35, Su-30МКМ, Su-30МКI(A), Su-35, etc. Source

Weapon systems and countermeasures

The Su-30MKI is armed with a 30mm Gsh-30-1 cannon with 150 rounds of ammunition. The aircraft features 12 hardpoints capable of carrying external stores of up to 8t. The aircraft can launch a range of air-to-surface missiles, including Kh-29L/T/TYe, Kh-31A/P, Kh-59M and Nirbhay.

GSh-301 30mm cannon

The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30 (ГШ-30) is a family of autocannons used on certain Russian military aircraft.

The GSh-30-1 (also known as “GSh-301”) is the standard cannon armament of most modern Russian fighters including the Yak-141 Freestyle, MiG-29 Fulcrum, Su-27 Flanker and its’ various derivatives. The GSh-30-2 is carried by the Sukhoi Su-25 Frogfoot ground attack plane and in external gun pods. The GSh-30-2K is a modified version with 2400mm long water-cooled barrels and variable rate of fire. It is used on a fixed mounting on Mi-24P Hind-F helicopters.

Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1

  • Caliber: 30x165mm
  • Operaton: Gast principle
  • Length: 1978mm
  • Weight (complete): 46 kg
  • Rate of fire: 1500–1800 rpm
  • Muzzle velocity: 860 m/s
  • Projectile weight: 386-404 g (13.6-14.25 oz)
  • Mounting platforms: Yakovlev Yak-141 “Freestyle”, Mikoyan MiG-29 “Fulcrum”, Sukhoi Su-27 “Flanker” (and derivatives), Sukhoi Su-34 “Fullback”

GSh-30 Data

New-generation anti-radiation missile (NGARM)

The Su-30MKI fleet of IAF will be fitted with air-launched version of BrahMos supersonic cruise missiles. The BrahMos can strike targets within the range of 290km.

BrahMos supersonic cruise missile

The BRAHMOS is a short-range supersonic cruise missile, that can carry nuclear warhead. It was jointly developed by India and Russia. The BRAHMOS Aerospace joint venture was established in 1998 and started working on the project. The acronym BRAHMOS is an abbreviation of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and Moskva of Russia. The missile was first test fired in 2001.

The BRAHMOS entered service with the Indian armed forces in 2006. This missile has been adopted by Indian Army, Navy and Air Force. Some sources report that Indian armed forces have a total requirement for about 1 000 of these missiles. This cruise missile is also being proposed for export customers from 14 countries.

The BRAHMOS is based on the Russian P-800 Oniks supersonic anti-ship cruise missile. The missile is 9 m long and has a diameter of 0.7 m. It has a two-stage propulsion system. It uses solid-fuel rocket booster for initial acceleration and liquid-fuel ramjet for sustained supersonic cruise. The booster is ejected by the airflow after it has burned out.

This missile has a range of 290-300 km. It can carry nuclear warhead, or 200-300 kg conventional warhead. The range is limited to 300 km, as Russia is a signatory of the Missile Technology Control Regime, which prohibits it from helping other countries develop missiles with ranges above 300 km.

The BRAHMOS is one of the fastest cruise missiles in the world. It travels at supersonic speed and can gain a speed of Mach 2.8 (3 430 km/h). This missile was developed primarily as an anti-ship missile, however there are also land attack versions. This cruise missile has GPS/GLONASS/GAGAN satellite guidance. It uses US, Russian or Indian navigation satellites and has a pin-point accuracy. At a maximum range it can hit a target as small as 1.5 x 1.5 m. It is a fire-and-forget type missile.

Su-30MKI with BrahMos MRCM

General data:
Type: Guided Weapon Weight: 3000 kg
Length: 8.9 m Span: 1.4 m
Diameter: 0.72 Generation: None
Properties: Home On Jam (HOJ), Terrain Following, Search Pattern, Bearing-Only Launch (BOL), Weapon – INS Navigation, Terminal Maneuver – Zig-zag, Level Cruise Flight
Targets: Surface Vessel
Sensors / EW:
Active Radar Seeker – (ASM MR, AS-21, SS-N-26) Radar
Weapon Seeker, Active Radar
Max Range: 9.3 km
Passive Radar Seeker – (AS-21, SS-N-26) ESM
Weapon Seeker, Anti-Radiation
Max Range: 18.5 km
PJ-10 Brahmos – (2012, Yakhont, ASM) Guided Weapon
Surface Max: 296.3 km.


India to conduct Test-Fire BrahMos supersonic missile’s air version in June: Here

IAF’s Su-30 MKI test-flown with BrahMos missile system: 5 reasons why it’s important for India’s defence capability: Here

brahmos-660With Today’s Successful Flight, The BrahMos Air Version Programme Now Inches Closer Towards Actual Test Firing, When A 2.5-Ton Brahmos Air-To-Ground Missile Will Be Fired From The Sukhoi-30 In The Coming Months. Posted June 25, 2016 by Source:

Su-30MKI will be able to carry BrahMos NG in a three-missile load-out by 2021: Here

India fires world’s fastest supersonic cruise missile from Russian Su-30 fighter jet: Here


India has for the first time fired a BrahMos missile from a Sukhoi Su-30 plane, with the country’s Defense Ministry claiming the air-launch a success. The missile’s developer said it “can be a game changer for any air force in the world.”

The aircraft can also carry Vympel-built R-27R, R-73 and R-77 air-to-air missiles, as well as rocket pods, KAB-500 and KAB-1500 laser-guided bombs.

R-27 (NATO reporting name: AA-10 Alamo)

Medium-range missiles R-27 (e), designed to intercept and destroy aircraft and helicopters of all types of unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles in a dogfight at medium and long distances, with individual and group actions carrier aircraft, day and night, in simple and adverse weather conditions, from any direction, against the background of the earth and the sea, with active information, firing and maneuvering countering enemy.

Up to 6 x R-27R SARH air-to-air missiles27R SARH air-to-air missiles – Image:

Available in several versions, differing use of two types of homing – semi-active radar (PARGS) and heat – and two types of propulsion systems – with standard and increased installed power. Modifications PARGS are designated R-27R and R-27ER, with TGS – R-27T, R-27ET, with propulsion of increased energy available – R-27ER and R-27ET.

Main material rocket design titanium alloy, a steel motor housing .

For the suspension to the carrier aircraft and launch weight of both modifications missiles used the same launchers rail and catapult type.

2 x R-27ET IR air-to-air missiles extended rangeR-27ET IR air-to-air missiles extended range – Image:

The rail trigger APU-470 is used for the deployment of missiles under the wings of the aircraft, and the ejection device AKU-470 for the deployment of missiles under the fuselage and under the wings.

shema_en.pngImage: artem.uaSU1Image:

Data &

Vympel R-73 (NATO reporting name: AA-11 Archer)

Up to 6 x R-73 IR air-to-air missilesImage:



Currently the R-73 is the best Russian short range air-to-air missile. Apart from an exceptional maneverability, this missile is also directly connected to the pilot’s helmet, which allows engagement of targets lateral to the aircraft, which cannot be engaged by missiles with a traditional system of targeting and guidance. The R-73A, an earlier variant of this missile, has a 30 km range, while the most recent R-73M can hit targets at a distance of 40 km.



The R-73 short-range, close-combat standardized missile was developed in the Vympel Machine Building Design Bureau, and became operational in 1984. The R-73 is included in the weapon complex of MiG-23MLD, MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters and their modifications and also of Mi-24, Mi-28 and Ka-50 helicopters. It also can be employed in flying craft which do not have sophisticated aiming systems.


The missile is used for engaging modern and future fighters, attack aircraft, bombers, helicopters, drones and cruise missiles, including those executing a maneuver with a g-force up to 12. It permits the platform to intercept a target from any direction, under any weather conditions, day or night, in the presence of natural interference and deliberate jamming. It realizes the “fire and forget” principle.


The missile design features a canard aerodynamic configuration: control surfaces are positioned ahead of the wing at a distance from the center of mass. The airframe consists of modular compartments accommodating the homing head, aerodynamic control surface drive system, autopilot, proximity fuze, warhead, engine, gas-dynamic control system and aileron drive system. The lifting surfaces have a small aspect ratio. Strakes are mounted ahead of the aerodynamic control surfaces.


The combined aero-gas-dynamic control gives the R-73 highly maneuverable flight characteristics. During flight, yaw and pitch are controlled by four aerodynamic control surfaces connected in pairs and by just as many gas-dynamic spoilers (fins) installed at the nozzle end of the engine. Control with engine not operating is provided by aerodynamic control surfaces. Roll stabilization of the missile is maintained with the help of four mechanically interconnected ailerons mounted on the wings. Drives of all missile controls are gas, powered from a solid-propellant gas generator.


The passive infrared homing head supports target lock-on before launch. Guidance to the predicted position is by the proportional navigation method. The missile’s combat equipment consists of an active proximity (radar or laser) fuze and impact fuze and a continuous-rod warhead.


The engine operates on high-impulse solid propellant and has a high-tensile steel case. Russia’s Vympel weapons designers have developed a one-of-a-kind air-to-air missile, which NATO has dubbed as AA-11, for use on foreign fighter planes. Techically and militarily the new missile, meant for quick-action dogfights, leave its foreign analogues far behind. Vympel experts have also made it possible for the new missile to be easily installed on all available types of aircraft. The AA-11 can also be used on older planes which will now be able to effectively handle the US’ highly maneuverable F-15 and F-16 jets. The AA-11 missile is based on all-new components, use new high-energy solid fuel and an advanced guidance and control system which has made it possible to minimize their size. Their exceptionally high accuracy is ensured by the missile’s main secret, the so-called transverse control engine, which rules out misses during the final approach trajectory. The transverse control engine is still without parallel in the world.


Russia has offered the export-version R-7EE air-to-air missile system for sale so that it can be fitted to foreign-made fighter aircraft. Developed by the Vympel state-sector engineering and design bureau, the R-7EE is designed for close-quarters aerial combat. Vympel specialists have developed a way of ensuring that the missile system can be fitted to virtually any type of aircraft. It can be fitted to older aircraft, which feature heavily in third-world countries’ air forces.

Contractor Vympel
Date Deployed 1980s
Range 20 km (R-73M1)  30 km (R-73M2) 40 km
Speed Mach 2.5
Propulsion One solid-propellant rocket motor
Guidance All aspect Infrared
Warhead 7.4 kg HE expanding rod warhead
Launch Weight 105 kg (R-73M1)  115 kg (R-73M2)
Length 2.9 m
Diameter 170 mm
Fin Span 0.51 m
Platforms Su-27, Su-33, Su-34, Su-35, Su-37, MiG-29, MiG-31, MiG-33, Yak-141, Ka-50, Ka-52

Data Images sourced from the net


The R-77, RVV-AE designation used for the export market and AA-12 Adder designation used by Western intelligence, is an extended medium range air-to-air missile featuring an active radar seeker to engage multiple airborne targets simultaneously. This missile was designed as the Soviet/Russian counterpart to the United States Air Force AIM-120 AMRAAM. The R-77 enables the Mig-29 and Su-27 fighter aircraft families to engage multiple airborne threats simultaneously thanks to its fire and forget capability. There are other versions fitted with infrared and passive radar seekers instead of active radar homing. Future plans call for increasing the missile range well beyond 150 kilometers.

The R-77 has been designed with innovative control surfaces which are one of the keys of its impressive performance. Once launched, the R-77 depends on an inertial navigation system with optional in-flight target position updates from the aircraft sensors. When the R-77 missile is at a distance of about 20 km its radar homing head activates leading the missile to its target.


Diameter: 200 millimeter

Length: 3.60 meter (11.8 foot)

Wingspan: 350 millimeter


Max Range: 80 kilometer (43 nautical mile)

Target’s Max Altitude: 25,000 meter

Target’s Min Altitude: 20 meter


Top Speed: 4 mach (4,782 kph)


Warhead: 30 kilogram

Weight: 175 kilogram (386 pound)

R-77 data


Kh-31P & Kh-31A


The Kh-31, AS-17 Krypton NATO-codename, is an advanced, long range, highly supersonic missile designed to withstand countermeasures effects. The Kh-31 propulsion system consists of a solid-fuel rocket engine which accelerates the missile to Mach 1.8 airspeed. Then this engine is dropped and a jet engine ignites using the missile’s within space as a combustion chamber. The missile accelerates to Mach 3+ thanks to the jet engine.


The Kh-31P has been designed to be a high performance anti-radiation missile against the most sophisticated air defense systems developed by NATO countries. It features high kill probability against radar systems that have been turned-off when attacked.

Number of Stages: 2


Diameter: 360 millimeter

Length: 4.70 meter

Wingspan: 780 millimeter


Max Range: 110 kilometer

Min Range: 15 kilometer


Top Speed: 3 mach (3,587 kph)


Warhead: 87 kilogram

Weight: 600 kilogram

Source Kh-31P


The Kh-31A is an anti-ship missile based on the proven Kh-31P missile. It features an active radar guidance system and a sea-skimming profile.

Number of Stages: 2


Diameter: 360 millimeter

Length: 4.70 meter (15.4 foot)

Wingspan: 780 millimeter


Max Range: 70 kilometer (37.8 nautical mile)

Min Range: 7.50 kilometer


Top Speed: 1,000 mps (3,601 kph)


Warhead: 94 kilogram (207 pound)

Weight: 610 kilogram

Source Kh-31A


Novator RVV-L / R-172 / K-100


The R-172, previously designated the KS-172, is a departure from the established focus of Novator, designers of the S-300V (SA-12) system’s long range SAMs. Like the R-37, the R-172 was developed as an ‘AWACS killer’. The missile employs an  active radar seeker and inertial midcourse guidance. Two configurations are known, with and without a booster pack. With the booster the missile is claimed to achieve a range of 215 NMI, without 160 NMI. Cited seeker performance is similar  to the R-37.

While the R-172 is less mature than the R-37, India has recently negotiated an arrangement to fund final development and licence produce the weapon, not unlike the extant deal to licence the Yakhont as the BrahMos. Source

Air Power Australia WebsiteImage:
Weight 748 kg (1,650 lb) (KS–172)
Length 6.01 m (19.7 ft) + 1.4 m (4.6 ft) (KS–172)
Diameter 40 cm (16 in) (KS–172)
Warhead HE fragmentation (KS–172)
Warhead weight 50 kg (110 lb)
Engine Solid-propellant tandem rocket booster (KS–172)
Wingspan 61 cm (24 in) (KS–172)
At least 200 km, possibly 300–400 km (160–210 nmi)
Flight altitude 3 m (9.8 ft)–30,000 m (98,000 ft) (KS–172)
Speed 4,000 km/h (2,500 mph; 1.1 km/s; Mach 3.3) (KS–172)
inertial navigation with midcourse guidance and terminal active radar homing (KS–172)
Su-27Su-30Su-35Su-30MKPAK FA (expected)



The Vympel Kh-29 / AS-14 Kedge is a Russian supersonic equivalent to the French AS.30 and US AGM-65 Maverick, and is primarily intended for interdiction and close air support,  maritime strike roles, and attacks on hardened concrete shelters and structures. An APU-58 or AKU-58 launcher is used, on the Su-27/30 Flanker (up to 6 rounds), the MiG-27 Flogger (2 rounds), Su-17/22 Fitter (2 rounds) and Su-24M Fencer (3 round). Multiple variants exist.


The Kh-29T (Izdeliye 64 or AS-14B) is an electro-optical variant with a daylitgh television seeker. The Kh-29TE is the export variant, the Kh-29TM an enhanced variant. The Kh-29TD is another EO variant, possibly equipped with a thermal imaging seeker.

 Launch weight for most variants is around 1,500 lb, with a 700 lb warhead being used most often. Range is usually cited at 16 nautical miles for a high altitude launch. Source

Missile weight: 680 kg
Length: 3900 mm
Diameter: 400 mm
Wingspan:  1100 mm
Minimum range*: 3 km
Maximum range: 8 – 12 km
Engine: fixed thrust solid, fuel rocket
Fuze type: impact
Guidance system: passive TV
Warhead: high-explosive penetrating
Warhead weight: 320 kg

Missile weight: 690 kg
Length: 3900 mm
Diameter: 400 mm
Wingspan:  1100 mm
Minimum range*: 3 km
Maximum range: 20 – 30 km
Engine: fixed thrust, solid fuel rocket
Fuze type: impact
Guidance system: passive TV
Warhead: high-explosive penetrating
Warhead weight: 320 kg




The Kh-29L (Izdeliye 63 or AS-14A) is a semi-active laser homing variant used in the manner of the AS.30L, with a 24N1 seeker. Source

Missile weight: 660 kg
Length: 3900 mm
Diameter: 400 mm
Wingspan:  1100 mm
Minimum range*: 3 km
Maximum range: 8 – 10 km
Height of launch: 0.2 – 5 km
Engine: fixed thrust, solid fuel rocket
Fuze type: impact
Guidance system: passive TV
Warhead: high-explosive penetrating
Warhead weight: 320 kg



KAB-500KR, KAB-500 OD

KAB-500Kr, KAB-500-OD are guided and corrected air bombs

The KAB-500Kr corrected air bomb is designed to engage stationary ground/surface small-sized hardened targets, such as reinforced concrete shelters, runways, railway and highway bridges, military industrial installations, warships, and transport vessels.

The KAB-500-OD corrected air bomb is designed to engage ground targets, such as fire emplacements, and manpower hidden in mountainous terrains.

The KAB-500Kr, KAB-500-OD corrected air bombs are fitted with TV/terrain-matching homing heads and various types of warheads. TV homers with target data processing correlation algorithm can “remember” target location and correct bomb’s flight trajectory until the impact on the target, thus realizing the “fire and forget” principle. Such homing heads can help defeat low-contrast and masked targets provided that terrain reference points and target coordinates related to them are available. The KAB-500Kr, KAB-500-OD corrected air bombs make part of weapon systems of such front-line aircraft types as Su-27, Su-30, Su-34, Su24M, MIG-29 and others.


Developer and manufacturer: State Research and Production Enterprise “Region”


KAB-500Kr KAB-500-OD
Weights: total/warhead/HE, kg 520/380/100 370/250/140
length, m 3,05 3,05
diameter, m 0,35 0,35
empennage, m 0,75 0,75
Bomb drop altitude, km 0,5-5 0,5-5
Carrier speed, km/h 550…1100 550-1100
Root mean square deviation, m 4…7 4…7
Warhead type concrete-piercing high explosive
(high explosive (fuel-air
penetrator) explosive)


______-60____ (1)KAB-500Kr, KAB-500-OD – Image:


KAB-1500Kr are guided and corrected air bombs

The KAB-1500Kr corrected air bomb is designed to engage various stationary ground/surface small-sized hardened targets, such as reinforced concrete shelters, military industrial installations, depots, and seaport terminals.

The KAB-1500Kr corrected air bombs are fitted with TV/terrain-matching homing heads and various types of warheads. TV homers with target data processing correlation algorithm can “remember” target location and correct bomb’s flight trajectory until the impact on the target, thus realizing the “fire and forget” principle. Such homing heads can help defeat low-contrast and masked targets provided that terrain reference points and target coordinates related to them are available. The KAB-1500Kr corrected air bombs make part of weapon systems of such front-line aircraft types as Su-27, Su-30, Su-34, Su24M, MIG-29 and others.


Developer and manufacturer: State Research and Production Enterprise “Region”


Weights: total/warhead/HE, kg 1,525/1,170/440
length, m 4,63
diameter, m 0,58
empennage, m 0,85 (folded)
1,3 unfolded
Bomb drop altitude, km 1-8
Carrier speed, km/h 550-1100
Root mean square deviation, m 4…7
Warhead type high explosive




The KAB-1500L, KAB-1500LG-F-E is the current production standard, is a 1,500 kg, laser-guided bomb designed to hit stationary ground and surface targets when used by the latest generation of Russian-made fighters and bombers. It is the Russian counterpart to United States Paveway II/III laser-guided bombs. Once released, the pilot or a third party must aim at the target with a laser designator in order to successfully direct the KAB bomb. The KAB-1500LG-F-E features an impact fuze with three delay modes.

The KAB-1500L bombs were deployed successfully during the Russian military campaign in Chechnya. Usually, the Su-24 Fencer and Mig-27 Flogger aircraft use this type of weapon in strike missions but can be used by the latest generation of Su-30MK multirole aircraft. The spectrum of targets to hit by this weapon include: railway and highway bridges, military and industrial facilities, ships and transport vessels, ammunition depots and railway terminals. Source


Developer and manufacturer: GNPP “Region”


KAB-1500LG-Pr-E KAB-1500LG-F-E KAB-1500LG-OD-E
Weight, kg
(total/warhead/explosive) 1525/1120/210 1525/1120/440 1450/1170/650
Dimensions, m:
length 4,28 4,28 4,24
diameter 0,58 0,58 0,58
wingspan 0,85 (retracted) 0,85 (retracted) 0,85 (retracted)
1,3 (extended) 1,3 (extended) 1,3 (extended)
Drop altitude, km 1 to 8 1 to 8 1 to 10
Aircraft drop speed, km/h 550 to 1100 550 to 1100 550 to 1100
Aiming accuracy, m 4 to 7 4 to 7 4 to 7
Warhead penetrating high explosive full air explosive
Type of blasting device contact with three contact with three direct action contact
types of delay types of delay



Unguided Projectiles

‘S-8’ 80mm unguided rockets


The S-8 system is the main caliber weapon in the class of unguided aircraft rockets and can solve a variety of aircraft missions.

The rocket is provided with a solid propellant motor with a summary thrust pulse of 5,800 N.s and operating time of 0.7 s. Progressive methods for body shaping from ready-made rolled aluminum and unique engineering solutions in terms of separate elements aimed at reducing motor manufacturing labor consumption and costs are used in its construction.

The following types of S-8 rockets are operational today:

    • S-8KOM with HEAT fragmentation warhead;
    • S-8BM with concrete-piercing (penetrating) warhead;
    • S-8-OM with illuminating warhead.

‘S-13’ type 122mm unguided aircraft rocket

The S-13 is a 122 mm calibre unguided rocket weapon developed by the Soviet Air Force for use by military aircraft. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force and some other countries.

S-13T: Tandem HEAT, range 1.1 – 4 km Combined penetration of 6 m of earth and 1 m of reinforced concrete. Velocity 500 m/s.


S-13OF: The only 122mm rocket available, this large rocket packs a blast-fragmentation warhead with some serious wallop, dealing significant damage to soft targets and lightly armored vehicles, and can even destroy a main battle tank with a direct hit. With only 5 rockets per pod, accurate delivery is key.

air_508a_007The S-13OF



The S-25 is a Russian air-to-ground rocket launched from aircraft. It is launched from the O-25 pod which can hold one rocket.

S-25-OFM for use against hardened targets

Rockets S-8, S-13, S-25Rockets S-8, S-13, S-25 – Image:

Unguided/Dumb Bombs

High explosive general purpose bombs FAB-100, FAB-250, FAB-500High explosive general purpose bombs FAB-500T – Image: digitalcombatsimulator.comConcrete piercing bombs BetAB-500Concrete piercing bombs BetAB-500 – Image: digitalcombatsimulator.comCluster munitions RBK-250, RBK-500, KMGUCluster munitions RBK-500 – Image:



Many Russian Air Force munitions also have thermobaric variants. The 80 mm (3.1 in) S-8 rocket has the S-8DM and S-8DF thermobaric variants. The S-8’s 122 mm (4.8 in) brother, the S-13, has the S-13D and S-13DF thermobaric variants. The S-13DF’s warhead weighs only 32 kg (71 lb), but its power is equivalent to 40 kg (88 lb) of TNT. The KAB-500-OD variant of the KAB-500KR has a 250 kg (550 lb) thermobaric warhead. The ODAB-500PM and ODAB-500PMV unguided bombs carry a 190 kg (420 lb) fuel-air explosive each. Source



OFAB 100-120. Fragmentation High Explosive Bomb 100-120 is intended for destruction of military field facilities and base stations, destruction of personnel in open terrain as well as in light armoured vehicles and trucks on the march or during attack within the main concentration perimeter.


Caliber, kg 100
Length, mm 1 065
Body Diameter, mm ø273
Tail fin span, mm 345
Characteristic time, s 21,10/6
Explosive weight, kg 42
Bomb weight, kg 123




OFAB 250-270. Fragmentation High Explosive Bomb 250-270 is intended for destruction of military-industrial sites, railway junctions, field facilities and personnel in open terrain as well as in light armoured vehicles and trucks on the march or during attack within the main concentration perimeter.


Caliber, kg 250
Length, mm 1 456
Body Diameter, mm ø325
Tail fin span, mm 410
Characteristic time, s 20,92/12
Explosive weight, kg 92
Bomb weight, kg 268
Distance between the two lugs, mm 250




The P50-t air practice bomb is designed to train pilots (air crews) in round-the-clock bomb delivery.


Air-to-Air Missiles Maximum Pcs
R-27R1 06
R-27P 02
R-27T1 02
R-73 06
Air-to-Surface Missiles Maximum Pcs
Kh-59ME 02
Kh-31P, Kh-31A 04
Kh-29T(TE) 06
Kh-L 06
Guided/Smart Bombs Maximum Pcs
KAB-500KR, KAB-500 OD 06
KAB-1500KR, KAB-1500L 03
Unguided Projectiles Maximum Pcs
S-8KOM, S-80M, S-8MB 04 blocks (80 pcs.)
S-13T, S-13OF 04 blocks (20 pcs.)
S-25 OFM-PU 04
Unguided/Dumb Bombs Maximum Pcs
FAB-500T 08
BETAB-500ShP 08
ODAB-500PM 08
OFAB-250-270 28
OFAB-100-120 32
P-50T 32
RBK-500 bomb clusters with PBE-D 08
Incendiary tanks 3B-500
Other Maximum Pcs
APK-9 (Datalink Pod) 01
UPAZ-1 (IFR Pod) 01
Elta EL/L-8222 (RF Jammer) 01(?)

Weapons load data


The Su-30MKI is fitted with a tarang radar warning receiver (RWR) indigenously developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). The aircraft also integrates chaff / flare dispensers and active jammers.

The RWR system is an indigenous product developed by DRDO called Tranquil (Tarang Mk2). Tarang is already deployed in IAF MiG-21 Bison and MiG-27ML fighters. Phase-I and Phase-II aircraft have SPO-32 (L-150) Pastel radar-warning receivers and no RF jammers. Latest aircraft are compatible with the Elta EL/M-8222 EW pod and so are the older Su-30MK/Ks.

Elta EL/M-8222 EW pod


Main Features

  • Autonomous threat environment handling using an integrated ESM receiver: interception, analysis, identification, sorting and initiation of appropriate jamming techniques.
  • Lightweight (100 Kg), low drag (19 cm. X 24 cm.) and small dimensions (length: 2.40 meter).
  • The pod is also certified for installation on Air-to-Air missile (sidewinder equivalent) weapon stations.
  • The Pod is certified to operate in full aircraft flight envelopes (G Loads and Velocities).
  • Versatile fighter aircraft configurations of weapons and fuel tanks are available due to the flexible pod installation (weapon stations) options.
  • Low Life Cycle Cost (LCC): Cost-effective, easy maintenance, high reliability and availability, minimal ILS requirements.
  • Power-managed jamming regime in time, frequency and direction.
  • Effective jamming capabilities: High RF sensitivity, High ERP and wide technique repertoire.
  • Enhanced and user-friendly mission debriefing capabilities: all mission events and data are recorded and debriefed using PC-based replay equipment.


DARE’s High Band Jammer (HBJ) pod

img20170215083209DARE’s High Band Jammer (HBJ) pod – Image:

DARE’s High Band Jammer (HBJ) pod begins dummy carriage trials in six months on an IAF Su-30MKI, with full integration within the year. By 2019, DARE has committed to seeing the pod become fully operational with the IAF’s Flanker fleet.

Significantly, the HBJ pod will be a fully indigenous one. A DARE scientist explains that the HBJ pod currently has three major systems: the integrated EW suite, the active array phased transmit-receive unit and the cooling system. While the first two have been rapidly developed in-house, the complex cooling system is in process, with DARE sourcing an Israeli system for the moment. The team says they’ll have a fully functional Indian cooling system on the HBJ pod before full integration trials by the end of the year.

Better still, the HBJ pod, the scientists tell Livefist, will spawn a family of EW sensors and systems for platforms like the LCA Tejas, MiG-29 and any other fighter the IAF chooses to operate.

The Indian Air Force, which has embraced the wares from DARE more than kit from most other DRDO labs is expectedly thrilled. An IAF Su-30MKI pilot at the show confirmed that the HBJ pod was a ‘very promising system’ and that ‘more than anything, it is our own in-house development, so I don’t have to run to the Russians if something doesn’t work’.

A DARE scientist associated with the project tells a familiar story: Russia’s unwillingness to share codes (or its insistence on an additional commercial understanding) that could have helped manage the interfacing issues between the SAP-518 pod and Indian RWR better and faster. Source 

SIVA IMR radar targetting pod

c4r1urxxuaal_swSIVA targeting pod – Image:

In simple terms, the SIVA IMR pod is something similar to the ELTA Systems-developed ELM-2060P radar targetting pod, and it will be used for location of static ground targets/installations. The fact that the DRDO’s PJ-10 Project Office is the nodal agency for developing the IMR pod indicates that this pod will be used in conjunction with the BrahMos-NG (previously known as BrahMos-Mini) air-launched supersonic cruise missile.

siva-imr-podSIVA targeting pod – Image:

Systems integration and flight qualification of both the BrahMos-NG and SIVA IMR pod will be jointly undertaken by the Indian Air Force’s Bengaluru-based Aircraft & Systems Testing Establishment, HAL’s Nashik Division, BrahMos Aerospace and IRKUT Corp, which is the sole IPR owner of all operating software source-codes used by the Su-30MKI. Service-induction of this weapon system is not expected before 2020.

The existing SIVA HADF pods is used primarily for real-time detection and location of hostile ground-based air-defence radars, with the targetting cues then being uploaded into the Kh-3P anti-radiation missile’s on-board mission computer. This very same pod will in future also be used in conjunction with the DRDO-developed NG-ARM.  Source

Digital RWR


UPAZ-1 (IFR Pod)

000-Su-27K-AAR-3SImage: ausairpower.net000-Su-27K-AAR-2S.jpgImage:

Sukhoi Su-30MKI engine

1373993525553640293.JPGIAF Su-30MKI – Image:

The Su-30MKI is powered by two Al-31FP turbojet engines. Each engine generates a full afterburn thrust of 12,500kgf. The power plant, equipped with thrust vector control, provides a maximum speed of Mach 1.9 in horizontal flight and a rate of climb of 300m/s.

Modernized Su-30MKI to be fitted with Su-35 Engines: Here

117S (AL-41F1S) turbofan engines

Saturn AL-31F 117SIzdeliye (Product) 117S (AL-41F1S) turbofan engines thrust output is estimated at 142 kN (31,900 lbf)

On February 19, 2008 the Su-35 aircraft powered with 117S engines successfully performed its first test flight. The specified engine performances were proved during rigorous bench and flight tests. Russian Ministry of Defence is the launch customer for Su-35.


The 117S engine thrust has been increased by 16% (up to 14500 kgf) compared to the base AL-31FP engine, the ultimate life has been increased twice (up to 4 000 hours), keeping the same weight and overall dimensions. Such high parameters are attained thanks to application of:
• new high-tech LP compressor with increased air consumption and efficiency
• high efficiency turbine with increased reliability and improved blade cooling system
• new digital engine control system integrated to aircraft flight control system

Specification (H=0, M=0, MCA)

Maximum afterburning thrust, kgf 14 500
Combat mode thrust:
• full afterburning thrust, kgf
• maximum dry thrust, kgf
14 000
8 800
Ultimate service life, h 4 000


Al-31FP turbojet engine


The Saturn AL-31 is a family of military turbofan engines. It was developed by Lyulka, now NPO Saturn, of Soviet Union, originally for the Sukhoi Su-27 air superiority fighter. It produces a total thrust of 123 kN (27,600 lb) with afterburning in the AL-31F, 137 kN (30,800 lb) in the AL-31FM (AL-35F) and 142 kN (32,000 lb) in the AL-37FU variants. Currently it powers all Su-27 derivatives and the Chengdu J-10 multirole jet fighter which has been developed in China.

The AL-31FP and AL-37FU variants have thrust vectoring. The former is used in the Su-30MKI export version of the Su-30 for India & Sukhoi Su-30MKM for Malaysia . The AL-37FU can deflect its nozzle to a maximum of ±15° at a rate of 30°/sec. The vectoring nozzle is utilized primarily in the pitch plane. The Al-31FP is built in India by HAL at the Koraput facility under a deep technology transfer agreement.


It has a reputation for having a tremendous tolerance to severely disturbed air flow. In the twin-engined Su-27, the engines are interchangeable between left and right. The Mean Time Between Overhaul (MTBO) for the AL-31F is given at 1000 hours with a full-life span of 3000 hours. Some reports suggested that Russia was offering AL-31F to Iran to re-engine its F-14 Tomcat air fleet in the late 1990s.

The Su-30MKI is powered by the Al-31FP (P for povorotnoye meaning “movable”), which is a development of the Al-37FU (seen in the Su-37 Terminator).

AL-31FP which is designed by the Lyulka Engine Design Bureau (NPO Saturn) is also different from Al-31F (by the same company). The Al-31F is the ‘baseline’ powerplant found in most Su-27 and its variants, and perhaps in the China’s J-10 in the future and lacks TVC. The AL-31FP was only 110Kg heavier and 0.4 m longer than the AL-31F, while the thrust remains the same. Planes equipped with AL-31F can be upgraded to AL-31FP later on without any changes in the airframe. It is being produced now at the Saturn manufacturing facility at Ufa, Russia.

The Al-37FU (FU stands for forsazh-upravlaemoye-sopo or “afterburning-articulating/steerable-nozzle”) basically added 2D Thrust Vectoring Control (TVC) Nozzles to the Al-31F. 2D TVC means that the Nozzles can be directed/pointed in 2 axis or directions – up or down. TVC obviuosly makes an aircraft much more maneuverable. Al-31FP builds on the Al-37FU with the capability to vector in 2 planes i.e. thrust can be directed side-ways also. The nozzles of the MKI are capable of deflecting 32 degrees in the horizontal plane and 15 degrees in the vertical plane. This is done by angling them inwards by 15 degrees inwards, which produces a cork-screw effect and thus enhancing the turning capability of the aircraft.


The TVC nozzles will be made of titanium to reduce the nozzle’s weight and can deflect together or differentially to achieve the desired thrust vector for a particular maneuver. The engine designers are also working to reduce the infrared signature for thrust settings below afterburner.

Also, the 2-nozzles can be vectored un-symmetrically, i.e. each nozzle can point at different directions independent from the other nozzle and thus multiplying the effect.The aircraft is capable of near-zero speed airspeed at high angles of attack and super dynamic aerobatics in negative speeds up to 200 km/h.

10_nozzleShows port nozzle of Su30MKI. its white! not black as many of us would expect! note long spine b/n nozzles – Image:

TVC allows the MKI for example, to rapidly loose speed and turn in any direction and fire its weapons. The complete range of maneuveres possible in the MKI are impossible on any other combat fighter in production. “We even made a corkscrew spin a controllable manoeuvre – the pilot can leave it at any moment by a single motion of the stick that engages thrust-vectoring and aerodynamic surfaces,” says Sukhoi’s earlier general designer Mikhail Simonov.

Two AL-31FP by-pass thrust-vectoring turbojet reheated engines (25000 kgf full afterburning thrust) ensure a 2M horizontal flight speed (a 1350 km/h ground-level speed) and a rate of climb of 230 m/s. The Mean Time Between Overhaul (MTBO) for the AL-31FP is given at 1,000 hours with a full-life span of 3,000 hours. The titanium nozzle has a MTBO of 500 Hrs.

The Al-31FP improves upon the Al-37FU in two ways:

  • Firstly, the Al-37FU cannot vector thrust in 2 planes unlike the Al-31FP.
  • Secondly, the nozzle drive connection is effected now from the aircraft fuel system and not from the aircraft’s hydraulic system. The change-over to the fuel system, to control swiveling nozzles, enhances the dependability of the aircraft and its survivability in air combat.
11_nozzleintShows the interoir of the Al31F nozzle. funny russians, they put a red light in there, right in the middle! note color on the insides – Image:


Data from


Type: Two-shaft afterburning turbofan

Length: 4,990 millimetres (196 in)

Diameter: 905 millimetres (35.6 in) inlet; 1,280 millimetres (50 in) maximum external

Dry weight: 1,570 kilograms (3,460 lb)


Compressor: 4 fan and 9 compressor stages

Combustors: annular

Turbine: 2 single-staged turbines


Maximum thrust:

74.5 kilonewtons (16,700 lbf) military thrust

122.58 kilonewtons (27,560 lbf) with afterburner

Overall pressure ratio: 23

Bypass ratio: 0.59:1

Turbine inlet temperature: 1685 K (1,412 °C (2,574 °F))

Fuel consumption: 2.0 Kg/daN·h

Specific fuel consumption:

Military thrust: 0.67 lb/(lbf·h)

Full afterburner: 1.92 lb/(lbf·h)

Thrust-to-weight ratio: 4.77:1 (dry), 7.87:1 (afterburning)


HAL Caught fitting 18 brand new Sukhoi 30 MKI with already-used and secondhand engines: Here


In a startling saga of compromises made on the safety and capability of India’s frontline fighter aircraft besides posing danger to the life of pilots, it has come to light that at least 18 of brand new Sukhoi 30 MKI had been fitted with already-used and secondhand engines.

HAL’s Sukhoi Engine Division hands over 50th AL31FP engine to IAF: Here


“The AL31FP engine powers the Su30 MKI and has been manufactured from the raw material stage by HAL. All the components, including heavy forgings, are manufactured at HAL,” said T Suvarna Raju, CMD.


UMPO starts the delivery of 920 AL-31FP engines to India

UMPO starts the delivery of 920 AL-31FP engines via Rosoboronexport to India. It is the largest contract signed with a foreign customer during post-Soviet era, the enterprise’s press-service reports.

“Under the conditions of general contract on launching the licensed production of Su-30MKI aircraft and AL-31FP engines in India signed in 2000, the Indian party had a right to purchase a number of additional kits for AL-31FP engines as an option”, – UMPO reminded.

The abovementioned option was exercised in October 2012. Following the agreement signed the deliveries will be continued over the next ten years and the first batch of kits will be delivered to India in the first quarter of 2013, UMPO noted. Posted on Friday March 15, 2013 by Russian Aviaton

The aircraft has a maximum unrefuelled flight range of 3,000km. The in-flight refuelling system of Su-30MKI provides a maximum range of 8,000km with two refuellings.


Indian Air Force Su-30MKI

  • Indian Air Force – 200 Su-30MKIs in service in August 2014 with 272 planned by 2018.

Main material source

Updated Sep 11, 2018

That sinking feeling: is the flattop finished?


29 Aug 2016

The nuclear-powered aircraft carrier has been the ultimate symbol of American power and prestige for decades. These vessels are both incredibly capable and incredibly expensive. However, the combination of the proliferation of long range anti-access/area denial (A2AD) weapons systems and the decreased range of the US Navy Carrier Air Wings (CAW) has called into question the future utility of the US Navy’s carrier fleet, at least in a major war.

Power projection requires access to and control of the area of operations to be effective. A2AD strategies are designed to prevent or hinder access, and ensure that an adversary can’t assert control over the area of operations even if they gain access. The continuing development of accurate long range anti-ship ballistic missiles (ASBMs), anti-ship cruise missiles, and advanced surface-to-air missile systems is increasingly allowing major military powers to create A2AD ‘bubbles’ or ‘bastions’ that place surface ships and aircraft at significant risk should they enter the area. China’s two ‘carrier killer’ ASBMs, the DF-21D and DF-26, are good examples of this. The DF-21D has an estimated range of 900 nautical miles (1,700km) while the DF-26’s range is estimated to be between 1,800-2,500 nautical miles (3,000-4,000km).

It’s not just adversarial developments that have raised doubts about the future of the American aircraft carrier. The range and diversity of CAWS has steadily declined since end of the Cold War and USN’s deep strike capability along with it. The current CAW on the Nimitz-class contains 62 aircraft—centred on the F/A-18 Hornet and F/A-18E/F Super Hornet—with an average range of just 496 nautical miles (918km). The F-35C, the future centrepiece of CAWs, is only marginally better in the range department (630 nautical miles or 1,166km) but has a smaller payload.

Those numbers show that there’s an increasingly big mismatch between the range at which US carriers can strike their targets and the range at which the carriers themselves can be attacked. That mismatch makes the ‘airfield at sea’ role that US carriers have played for the past few decades much more dangerous.

An obvious answer for keeping carriers relevant in light of these developments is increasing the range of the CAW. Aircraft with the range necessary to do deep strike missions launched from beyond the range of the enemy’s A2AD capabilities is vital to the continued survival of the carrier. Outfitting the F-35C with external or conformal fuel tanksis one option, albeit an imperfect one—adding these tanks can alter the aircraft’s radar cross section and potentially make it more detectable. Adding long range unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to the CAW is another option. The MQ-25A Stingray is just the tip of the iceberg in this regard, offering a long range aerial refuelling system that can refuel the F-35C in contested territory, expanding the F-35C’s deep strike potential. Developing a long range strike UAV is a logical next step in giving the aircraft carrier the reach and punch it needs to survive in this new threat environment.

But perhaps it’s time for the US Navy to rethink what aircraft carriers are used for. Given developments in missile technology, one potential role for an aircraft carrier is to launch long range stealthy ISR UAVs that provide real-time targeting data for cruise missile strikes from submarines, ships, or land-based aircraft. A2AD ‘bubbles’ require a vast network of maritime reconnaissance platforms—including satellites—to build the necessary ‘kill chains’ to be effective. By facilitating attacks on reconnaissance networks, a carrier strike group could help degrade an A2AD ‘bubble’ to a level where the risk of entering and conducting attacks using its own strike aircraft is deemed acceptable.

There’s also the opportunity cost; given the immense cost of one Ford-class aircraft carrier,some have argued that the money is better spent elsewhere in the fleet. Bryan McGrath has done some excellent work evaluating these proposals (pgs. 85-90) and his conclusions cast some doubt on their feasibility. He concludes that transitioning to a larger fleet of smaller nuclear-powered carriers would sacrifice significant capability but offer little in the way of savings.

A large fleet of smaller conventionally powered carriers would save a lot of money, but in exchange for a dramatic drop in capability. A no-carrier fleet would require sacrifices to one of the Navy’s three operational states: presence, deterrence, or warfighting. Those choices would have considerable impacts on the US’ ability to project power and its alliances. At some point decisions will have to made about whether the resources invested to allow carriers to operate at the long ranges dictated by enemy A2AD ‘bubbles’ is translated into tangible operational benefits.

The challenges threatening the future of the US Navy’s aircraft carriers may be insurmountable and they may cause the carrier to go the way of the

SAMP/T Aster 30 Mamba Surface-to-air defense missile system


ASTER 30 SAMP/T is the 21st century’s main, mobile anti-aircraft defence weapon for theatre protection. It protects sensitive sites and deployed forces against missile threats (TBM, stand off, cruise missiles, ARM) and aircraft, replacing all existing medium range ground-to-air systems.

Aster 30 interceptor

mbda-aster-30Aster 30 interceptor – Image

The ASTER 30 SAMP/T system is designed to meet medium and long range air defence needs (force projection, protection of high-value areas and area protection). It can operate in stand alone mode or can be integrated in a co-ordinated network.

ASTER is a two-stage missile, a concept which leads to maximum effectiveness of the interceptor stage. The solid propellant booster ensures the optimum shaping of the missile’s trajectory in the direction of the target and separates a few seconds after the vertical launch. Up to its mid-course, the weapon is inertially guided, using refreshed target data transmitted by the engagement module through the multi-function radar. During the homing phase, guidance is achieved by an electromagnetic active seeker providing a highly accurate capability in all weathers.

Arabel multi-function radar





Turkey is in talks with the Italian-French consortium Eurosam to purchase the SAMP/T Aster 30, a long-range missile defense system, Daily Sabah has learned from government sources.

Despite speculation about Turkey’s possible purchase of a Russian S-400 missile system following the recent Russian-Turkish rapprochement, Turkey is edging toward purchasing a missile defense system produced by Eurosam. According to information obtained by Daily Sabah, Turkey’s military procurement agency, the undersecretariat for the Defense Industry (SSM) and National Defense Ministry have been continuing negotiations with Eurosam to purchase the SAMP/T Aster 30, which is already in use in several NATO member countries. Sources indicated that if the ongoing talks reach maturity, the main procurement is going to address the country’s urgent security needs via a short-term bridge solution and technology transfer and co-production will be considered as the long-term solution. In November 2015, Turkey canceled its $3.4 billion long-range missile defense system contract process, which was provisionally awarded to China in 2013 to produce its own indigenous system. Thereafter it was announced that two state-owned firms – Aselsan and Roketsan – were commissioned by the government to provide a future missile defense system.

Turkish defense companies Aselsan and Roketsan started a program to indigenously develop and produce short- and medium-altitude air defense systems in 2007, and in 2013 they completed the test launch of its first domestically developed and manufactured low-altitude air defense missile, Hisar-A, and set to work on Hisar-O, the medium-altitude system. However Turkey is still not yet capable of producing long-range missile systems. Defense industry sources said the designing, developing and producing stages of the indigenous system could take up to 10 years while underlining that the procurement of the SAMP/T Aster 30 system does not mean that Turkey has given up its desire to produce an indigenous system. In the meantime after the cancellation of the deal, Turkey was invited to the same bidders to cooperate with Turkish companies for the development of the system. A senior Eurosam official who spoke to Daily Sabah under condition of anonymity said that they are in favor of joint production and technology transfer as well as industrial partnership with Turkish defense industry firms in the case of long term cooperation.

The SAMP/T Aster 30 system uses a network of sophisticated radars and sensors – including 3D phased array radar – enabling it to be highly effective against all types of air threats. The system can intercept missiles with a 600 kilometer range and it can operate in standalone mode or can be integrated in a coordinated network such as NATO missiles defense system.

Original post

Video of Turkish tank being destroyed by SDF/YPG ATGM in Jarablus countryside. Syria

Northrop F-20 Tigershark

The Northrop F-20 Tigershark (initially F-5G) was a privately financed light fighter, designed and built by Northrop. Its development began in 1975 as a further evolution of Northrop’s F-5E Tiger II, featuring a new engine that greatly improved overall performance, and a modern avionics suite including a powerful and flexible radar. Compared with the F-5E, the F-20 was much faster, gained beyond-visual-range air-to-air capability, and had a full suite of air-to-ground modes capable of firing most U.S. weapons. With these improved capabilities, the F-20 became competitive with contemporary fighter designs such as the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, but was much less expensive to purchase and operate.


Much of the F-20’s development was carried out under a US Department of Defense (DoD) project called “FX”. FX sought to develop fighters that would be capable in combat with the latest Soviet aircraft, but excluding sensitive front-line technologies used by the United States Air Force’s own aircraft. FX was a product of the Carter administration’s military export policies, which aimed to provide foreign nations with high quality equipment without the risk of US front-line technology falling into Soviet hands. Northrop had high hopes for the F-20 in the international market, but policy changes following Ronald Reagan’s election meant the F-20 had to compete for sales against aircraft like the F-16, the USAF’s latest fighter design. The development program was abandoned in 1986 after three prototypes had been built and a fourth partially completed.


“F-20 Tigershark The Greatest Fighter Never Made” Here



“From an armchair generals perspective there is no reason this shouldn’t be in service all around their globe. Why a small air force would need something as complex as the F-16 seems absurd. Add in the fact that the F-5 was used as the aggressor aircraft for the US aircraft to train its front line fighters how to dogfight and it gets even more confusing.  Until the F-22 and F-35 came along there was nothing that could out maneuver a F-5 or F-20.   This was a future that was never meant to be.” Source – “F-20 Tigershark The Greatest Fighter Never Made” posted By Fodder, on May 24th, 2012 (Link above)



The primary design change between the earlier F-5E and the F-5G was the use of a single General Electric F404 engine that was originally designed for the F/A-18 Hornet. The new engine provided 60% more thrust compared to the combined output of the F-5E’s paired General Electric J85s. This improved the aircraft’s thrust-to-weight ratio to 1.13 from 1.0. The new engine gave speed of over Mach 2.0, a ceiling over 55,000 ft (16,800 m), an initial climb rate of 52,800 ft per minute (16,100m/min).

General Electric F404 engine


F404, augmented turbofan with low bypass ratio, was developed in min 70’s on the base of J101-GE-100’s core. Performance and reliability of F404 made a new standard for modern jet engines of wide range of military jets – starting with low-altitude strike planes and ending with hi-altitude interceptors. War proved engines accumulated more than 8 millon flight hours in service of US Navy, US Marine Corps, USAF and airforces of Australia, Canada, Finland, Kuwait, Malaysia, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and others.

Construction (F404-GE-400):

  • 3-stage fan with variable vanes of first stator
  • 7-stage compressor with variable inlet guide vanes and vanes of first and second stator stage, airbleed is up to 7,25%
  • annular combustion chamber
  • 1-stage high-pressure turbine (air cooled)
  • 1-stage low-pressure turbine (air cooled)
  • afterburner chamber
  • convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle
  • control system: hydromechanical, electronical
  • lubrication system uses MIL-L-5624 or MIL-L-7808 oil, consumption is 0,4 liters per hour

F404 uses standard MIL-5624, JP-4, JP-5 or JP-8 fuel.



The first engine of F404 family, the F404-GE-400, was originaly proposed for naval F/A-18, and became one of the best and most widespread engines of that era. Modern materials, simplified diagnostics, well positioned access points and modular construction ensures high lifetime and low operation cost. Modular construction with six modules simplifies replacement of damaged parts and shortens maintenance time (e.g. on aircraft carrier). Visual inspection of interior parts can be accomplished via 13 entry points. The engine needs no special test and fine-tuning after reparation of it’s core. Naval usage required corrosion proof components.

Pilots appreciate a free thrust handling, fast RPM response on acceleration or deceleration and smooth maximal thrust to afterburner transition. Engine is in service since 1981, production name is LM1600. Beside the F/A-18 of A, B, C and D version, the engine was used also on F-5G, experimental X-29 and X-31A. It’s said that the F404 was one of the possibilities to power the French Rafale. Unaugmented variant of -400 was one of the competitior for upgrade of A-6E planes.

F404-GE-402EPE (Enhanced Performance Engine)

This variant has higher thrust and lower specific fuel consumption, which were archived by using the newest technologies and materials when designing the turbine and afterburner section. Of course with no negative influence on lifetime of this parts. Engine is being installed to F/A-18C/D since October 1982 and improves combat capabilities of this aircraft.


Probably based on -400 and intended for F-5G (F-20A) fighters.


Derivate of -400 without afterburner. Singapore with cooperation with GE replaced J65 engines of their A-4 Skyhawk motory J65 for F404-GE-100Ds and so made gave born to a new A-4S Super Skyhawk version. New engine gives the plane a higher airspeed, better acceleration and maneuverability and lowers the fuel burn. F404-GE-100D is for it’s single-engine usage equipped with extra safety features to prevent malfunctions during the flight.


F1D2 is unaugmented derivate of basic -400, is used by two-engine stealth planes F-117A. The interesting thing is exhaust gas cooler which comprises of a flat nozzle 20 cm high and 165 cm wide.


Used to power prototyped of indian light combat plane LCA. Production planes will have indian engines GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri


Next developement stage of F404, this time based on -402. Engine was developed by GE and KAI (Korean Aerospace Industries). The engine has safety features (for single-engine use) and FADEC. It should power light combat plane T-50 / A-50 developed in cooperation of KAI and LM (Lockheed Martin). Engine ought to be first tested in 2001, first flight of new plane were to be conducted in 2002 and production of engine had to start in 2005.


The RM12 engine was developed by GE Aircraft Engines and Volvo Aero Corporation to power Swedish JAS-39 Gripen fighter. RM12, specially designed for single-engine use has a few different characteristic compared to it’ father F404-GE-400. First of all the fan has been strengthen to sustain a hit of 0.5 kg bird, the airflow was highten by 10% and the turbine was made of modern materials to stand higher temperatures. All of this increased the overall performance by 10-20%. Engine has FADEC with hydromachanical backup and backup ignition system. The RM12 has fast power setting response, unlimited number of power cycles, smooth to-afterburner transition and is very reliable. .

Type -100 -100D -102 -F1D1 -400 -402 RM12
Weight kg 826 1035 785 991 1035 1055
Length cm 226 391 211 391 391 391
Maximal diameter cm 89 89 89 89 89 89
Inlet diameter cm 79 79 79 79 79 79
Bypass ratio  0,34 0,27 0,31
Fan pressure ratio x 3,9
Overall pressure ratio x 25 26  25  25  26  27
Airflow kg/s 64 66 64 64,2 66,5 69
Temperature – max turbine inlet  °C  1348 1444
– max turbine outlet   °C  797  869
Thrust – maximal (SLS) kp 4990 4763 4808 5420 5507
– with afterburner (SLS) kp 7711 není 8030 není 7257 8030 8210
SFC – maximal thrust (SLS) kg/kN/h 81,6 82,6 87,0 84,0
  – afterburner (SLS) kg/kN/h 188,6 177,4 181,5

Engine data

The wing profile remained the same as the F-5E, but had modified leading edge extensions (LEX), which improved the maximum lift coefficient of the wing by about 12% with an increase in wing area of only 1.6%. The original aircraft was fairly sluggish in pitch, so the horizontal stabilizer was increased in size by 30% and a new dual-channel fly-by-wire control system was added. Destabilizing the aircraft in pitch and modifying the LEX improved the instantaneous turn rate by 7% to 20°/sec. Sustained turn rate at Mach 0.8 and 15,000 ft (4,572 m) rose to 11.5°/sec, which compared well with the F-16’s 12.8°/sec. Supersonic turn rates were 47% higher than those of the F-5E.

F-20 Leading edge extensions (LEX)

The F-20 would also make greater usage of composite materials in its construction. During its development, several areas using metal were re-designed to use fiberglass, and there were numerous upgrades to various mechanical parts.

The F-20’s avionics suite was all-new and greatly improved over the earlier designs. The General Electric AN/APG-67 multi-mode radar was the heart of the sensor suite, offering a wide range of air-to-air and air-to-ground modes.

AN/APG-67 multi-mode radar


Technical Description


The F-20A avionics system incorporated the highly reliable General Electric AN/APG-67(V) radar, designed for a 200 hour MTBF. It was an X – band, pulse – doppler, digital, multimode radar, using low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) in the look up mode, medium PRF in the look down mode, and high PRF for velocity search.

The detection range of the AN/APG-67(V) permitted the F-20A to detect most adversary aircraft before the F-20A, with its low radar cross section, was detected by the adversary.


  • Modular design
  • X band coherent pulse doppler
  • Digital, multimode
  • Low, medium. and high PRF

    • AIR TO AIR
      • Look up, look down range while search
      • Velocity search
      • Single target track
      • Air combat modes with automatic acquisition
      • Track while scan*
      • Ground map/doppler beam sharpened map
      • Display freeze mode
      • Ranging
      • Moving target indication*
      • Moving target track*
      • Beacon track (option)*
    • AIR TO SEA
      • Sea surface search (SEA 1)
      • Sea moving target indication (SEA 2)*
      • Sea moving target track*

    • Range: 80 nmi (maximum displayed)
    • Angular coverage: 160 degree cone
    • Map resolution: 45 feet at 5.0 nmi
    • Beamwidth: 3.7 degrees azimuth, 5.4 degrees elevation
    • Air to ground range accuracy: 50 feet or 0.5 percent of range
    • Air target detection (fighter size target) –Look up–47 nmi –Look down–38 nmi
    • Sea target detection (patrol boat size target) –Sea 1–47 nmi –Sea 2–40 nmi

    • Antenna: 16.7 by 26.2 inches
    • Power: 2340 VA
    • Weight: 270 pounds
    • Volume: 3.1 cubic feet
    • Reliability: 200 hours MTBF

AN/APG-67(V) radar data


The F-5’s electro-mechanical navigation system was replaced with an all-electronic version based on a ring laser gyroscope. Time from power-on to being able to launch was greatly reduced as a result, to about 22 seconds, and Northrop boasted the aircraft had the shortest scramble time of any contemporary aircraft. The cockpit of the F-5 was completely re-worked with a large heads-up display (HUD) and two monochrome multi-function displays set high on the control panel, and the addition of a complete hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) control system. Many of the avionics promised to have reliability beyond that of any competing aircraft then in service.


Northrop Grumman

The F-20 would have been able to utilize most of the common weapons in U.S.’s inventory, including the entire range of Mark 80 series bombs, the AGM-65 Maverick air-to-ground missile, and the AIM-9 Sidewinder and AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missiles. Like the earlier F-5s, the test F-20s were equipped with two M39 cannon mounted in the nose. Production F-20s may have substituted two Ford Aerospace Tigerclaw cannons instead of the M39s; while the Tigerclaw was based on the M39, it was lighter and had a higher rate of fire than the M39A2.

M39A2 cannon


Manufactured by Pontiac Motors Division of General Motors, Pontiac, Mi. – The M39A2 is a gas-operated, revolver-type, air-cooled automatic gun which fires electric primed ammunition from a metallic linked-belt.


Ammunition may be fed into the gun from either the left or right side. Weapon is distinguished by a 5-chamber drum which revolves about an axis, parallel to the gun bore.

M39A3 and M39A2(Feeder assembly)


M39A3 and M39A2(Feeder assembly) – The feeder assembly makes it possible for connected bullets to get out of the feeder road run to the drum and separates the link to enable it to move into the Road of Discharge. It also makes it possible for an empty cartridge to be driven out of the Cartridge Chamber and removed through a burned shot, and it follows thelinear motion of the gunshot and makes itself ready for the next shot. Source

Weapon fires the 20-mm cartridge at the index drum position of the 6 o’clock chamber. 9-groove rifling; right-hand gain twist. Muzzle velocity with API and HEI ammunition is 8300 fps. Cyclic rate of fire approximately 750 rpm. Maximum range is 5,750 yards. Weapon has an overall length of 72 1/4″, a barrel length of 53 1/2″ and weighs approximately 179 lbs. Source


AIM-9 Sidewinder

Northrop Grumman

The AIM-9 has a cylindrical body with a roll-stabilizing rear wing/rolleron assembly. Also, it has detachable, double-delta control surfaces behind the nose that improve the missile’s maneuverability. Both rollerons and control surfaces are in a cross-like arrangement.

The missile’s main components are an infrared homing guidance section, an active optical target detector, a high-explosive warhead, and a rocket motor.

The infrared guidance head enables the missile to home on target aircraft engine exhaust. An infrared unit costs less than other types of guidance systems, and can be used in day/night and electronic countermeasures conditions. The infrared seeker also permits the pilot to launch the missile, then leave the area or take evasive action while the missile guides itself to the target.

Primary Function Air-to-air missile
Contractor Naval Weapons Center
Power Plant Hercules and Bermite Mk 36 Mod 71, 8 solid-propellant rocket motor
Thrust Classified
Speed Supersonic Mach 2.5
Range 10 to 18 miles depending on altitude
Length 9 feet, 5 inches (2.87 meters)
Diameter 5 inches (0.13 meters)
Finspan 2 feet, 3/4 inches (0.63 meters)
Warhead Annular blast fragmentation warhead
25 lbs high explosive for AIM-9H
20.8 lbs high explosive for AIM-9L/M
Launch Weight 190 pounds (85.5 kilograms)
Guidance System Solid-state, infrared homing system
Introduction Date 1956

AIM-9 data

AIM-7 Sparrow


The AIM-7 Sparrow is a radar-guided, air-to-air missile with a high-explosive warhead. The versatile Sparrow has all-weather, all-altitude operational capability and can attack high-performance aircraft and missiles from any direction. The AIM/RIM-7 series is a semiactive, air-to-air, boost-glide missile, designed to be either rail or ejection launched. Semiactive, continuous wave, homing radar, and hydraulically-operated control surfaces direct and stabilize the missile on a proportional navigational course to the target. Propulsion for the missile is provided by a solid propellant rocket motor.

The Sparrow missile is a supersonic, medium-range, aerial-intercept missile that guides on Radio Frequency (RF) energy. Sparrow incorporates Electronic Counter-Countermeasure (ECCM) capabilities, also known as Electronic Protection (EP), to defeat countermeasures such as jamming. The Sparrow began as project Hotshot in 1946, and became operational in late 1953. Experience during the Vietnam war demonstrated it to be virtually useless against manuvering targets. A special AIM-7E-2 dogfight version was produced to overcome these shortcomings. Current configurations of the Sparrow missile include four air-launched variants, AIM-7M F1 Build, AIM-7M H Build, AIM-7P Block I, and AIM-7P Block II, and as many ship-launched variants, RIM-7M F1 Build, RIM-7M H Build, RIM-7P Block I, and RIM-7P Block II.

Each new version has resulted in substantial improvement in missile performance. The AIM/RIM-7E reduced minimum range restrictions and provided dogfight capabilities. The RIM-7H incorporates rapid run-up capabilities, providing improvements over previous versions. The AIM-7F incorporates solid state circuitry and modular design, an improved warhead, and a boost-sustain rocket motor. The AIM/RIM-7R is most recent configuration and adds a dual mode radio frequency/infrared (RF/IR) seeker capability.

Northrop Grumman

Primary Function Air-to-air guided missile
Contractor Raytheon Co.
Power Plant Hercules MK-58 solid-propellant rocket motor
Thrust Classified
Speed Classified
Range approximately 30 nm
Length 12 feet (3.64 meters)
Diameter 8 inches (0.20 meters)
Wingspan 3 feet, 4 inches (1 meter)
Warhead Annular blast fragmentation warhead
88 lbs high explosive for AIM-9H
Launch Weight Approximately 500 pounds (225 kilograms)
Guidance System Raytheon semiactive on either continuous wave or pulsed Doppler radar energy
Date Deployed 1976
Aircraft Platforms Navy: F-14 and F/A-18;
Air Force: F-4, F-15, and F-16;
Marine Corps: F-4 and F/A-18

AIM-7 Sparrow data

AGM-65 Maverick

The AGM-65 Maverick is a tactical, air-to-surface guided missile designed for close air support, interdiction and defense suppression mission. It provides stand-off capability and high probability of strike against a wide range of tactical targets, including armor, air defenses, ships, transportation equipment and fuel storage facilities. Maverick was used during Operation Desert Storm and, according to the Air Force, hit 85 percent of its targets.

The Maverick has a cylindrical body, and either a rounded glass nose for electro-optical imaging, or a zinc sulfide nose for imaging infrared. It has long-chord delta wings and tail control surfaces mounted close to the trailing edge of the wing of the aircraft using it. The warhead is in the missile’s center section. A cone-shaped warhead, one of two types carried by the Maverick missile, is fired by a contact fuse in the nose. The other is a delayed-fuse penetrator, a heavyweight warhead that penetrates the target with its kinetic energy before firing. The latter is very effective against large, hard targets. The propulsion system for both types is a solid-rocket motor behind the warhead.

The Maverick variants include electro-optical/television (A and B), imaging infrared (D, F, and G), or laser guidance (E). The Air Force developed the Maverick, and the Navy procured the imaging infrared and the laser guided versions. The AGM-65 has two types of warheads, one with a contact fuse in the nose, the other a heavyweight warhead with a delayed fuse, which penetrates the target with its kinetic energy before firing. The latter is very effective against large, hard targets. The propulsion system for both types is a solid-rocket motor behind the warhead.


Primary Function: Air-to-surface guided missile
Contractors: Hughes Aircraft Co., Raytheon Co.
Power Plant: Thiokol TX-481 solid-propellant rocket motor
Autopilot Proportional Navigation
Stabilizer Wings/Flippers
Propulsion Boost Sustain
Variant AGM-65A/B AGM-65D AGM-65G AGM-65E AGM-65F
Service Air Force Marine Corps Navy
Launch Weight: 462 lbs

(207.90 kg)

485 lbs

(218.25 kg)

670 lbs

(301.50 kg)

630 lbs

(286 kg)

670 lbs

(301.50 kg)

Diameter: 1 foot (30.48 centimeters)
Wingspan: 2 feet, 4 inches (71.12 centimeters)
Range: 17+ miles (12 nautical miles/27 km)
Speed: 1150 km/h
Guidance System: electro-optical television imaging infrared Laser infrared homing
Warhead: 125 pounds

(56.25 kilograms)

cone shaped

300 pounds

(135 kilograms)

delayed-fuse penetrator, heavyweight

125 pounds

(56.25 kilograms)

cone shaped

300 pounds

(135 kilograms)

delayed-fuse penetrator, heavyweight

Explosive 86 lbs. Comp B 80 lbs. PBX(AF)-108
Fuse Contact FMU-135/B
COSTS Air Force




Date Deployed: August 1972 February 1986 1989
Aircraft: A-10, F-15E and F-16 F/A-18 F/A-18 and AV-8B

AGM-65 Maverick data

US Airforce

The F-20 did, however, have several problems inherent to its small size. The low-mounted wing meant that there was limited ground clearance, and the position of the landing gear meant loads had to be positioned towards the outer ends of the wings. This limited hard point weights to 1,000 lb (454 kg). A single hard point under the fuselage could carry more, a single Mk 84 2,000 lbs bomb or up to five Mk 82 500 lbs bombs. Additionally, although the wing profiling improved lift at higher angles of attack (AoA) while maneuvering, it did not improve cruise lift performance at normal AoA. This did not present a problem in the fighter role, but did severely reduce its payload/range figures compared to similar aircraft like the F-16.

Mk 82 500 lbs bombs

Northrop Grumman


Matra rocket pods with 18 × SNEB 68 mm rockets each



Matra Type 155 rocket launcher — Widely produced, this was a reusable device manufactured completely from metal with a fluted nose cone through which the RPs were fired. Loaded with 18 SNEB 68mm rockets, it can be pre-programmed on the ground to fire in shots or in one single ripple salvo as the Type 116M.

SNEB rocket projectile

The caliber of 68 mm was preferred by the French over other international designs of 57 mm, 70 mm, or 80 mm. The SNEB rocket projectile is propelled by a single rocket motor, and, depending on the warhead loadout on the launchers, it can be used against armoured fighting vehicles, bunkers, or soft targets. Source



GPU-5/A 30mm Gatling Gun Pod

The GPU-5/A 30mm Gatling gun pod incorporates the four-barrel 30mm GAU-13/A Gatling gun and linear linkless ammunition feed system. It is the world’s only 30mm gun pod that fires armor-piercing GAU-8/A ammunition. This ammunition is capable of stopping amphibious vehicle assaults and destroying a wide range of armored mobile and fixed targets at extended ranges.

The GPU-5/A can be installed on the wing or body centerline stations of a variety of tactical aircraft. It has low recoil loads, is lightweight and contains its own power. The pod’s linear linkless feed system contains two layers of ammunition carriers surrounding the gun, which helps conserve space and weight. Each carrier captures and fully controls ammunition at all times. The GPU-5/A contains enough ammunition for five two-second bursts at 2,400 shots per minute.

Gun Type GAU-13/A, four-barrel, 30mm Gatling gun
Weight Loaded Empty 1,905 pounds (866 kg)

1,373 pounds (624 kg)

Ammunition 30mm GAU-8/A (API, HE, TP)
Ammunition capacity 353 rounds
Rate of fire 2,400 shots per minute
Dispersion 6 milliradians diameter, 80 percent circle
Drive system Self-contained pneumatic (two loads per charge)
Feed system Linear linkless, double-ended


CBU-24/49/52/58 cluster bomb munitions


Offered as a low-cost option, the F-20 was significantly more expensive than the F-5E, but much less expensive than other designs like the $30 million F-15 Eagle, or $15 million F-16 Fighting Falcon. The F-20 was projected to consume 53% less fuel, require 52% less maintenance manpower, had 63% lower operating and maintenance costs and had four times the reliability of average front-line designs of the era. The F-20 also offer the ability to fire the beyond-visual-range AIM-7 Sparrow missile, a capability that the F-16 lacked at that time, and did not gain until the Block 15 ADF version in February 1989.

US Air force

Aircraft disposition

 The remaining F-20 is on display at the California Science Center in Los Angeles.

Specifications (F-20)


Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image by DoD

Updated Oct 29, 2021


KamAZ-53949 Mine resistant ambush protected vehicle

The KamAZ-53949 is a Russian mine resistant ambush protected vehicle (MRAP). It is nicknamed the Taifunionok. This vehicle was developed by KamAZ as a private venture to meet a possible Russian Army requirement. Development commenced somewhere in 2010. This mine resistant vehicle was first publicly revealed in 2013. Testing of this vehicle is planned to be completed in 2015. However in 2014 it has been reported that this vehicle will not be produced for the Russian armed forces, due to sanctions imposed on Russia. The KamAZ-53949 uses a large number of Western components. Also KamAZ company announced that it will no longer produce military vehicles. So the future of this machine is uncertain.

   This vehicle was designed to carry troops to the frontline in the areas, where a mine threat is high. It can be also used as a command post vehicle.

   This mine protected vehicle has a crew of two and accommodates 8 troops. Vehicle has a payload capacity of 2,000 kg. The KamAZ-53949 has four side doors, plus a door at the rear. Also there are roof hatches for observation, firing and emergency exit. The KamAZ-53949 can carry various military cargo, and can also tow trailers and artillery pieces.

   Armored hull of this vehicle was developed by Plasan Sasa of Israel. Ballistic protection is modular and can be tailored to suit mission requirement. Add-on ceramic armor can be bolted for a higher level of protection. With maximum armor vehicle provides all-round protection against NATO 7.62×51 mm armor-piercing rounds. It has a V-shaped hull for protection against mine blasts. It withstands explosions equivalent to 10 kg of TNT under any wheel and 8 kg of TNT anywhere under the hull.

   The KamAZ-53949 can be fitted with various remotely-controlled weapon stations. It can be armed with various weapons, including a 14.5-mm heavy machine gun.

KAMAZ is testing new mine resistant ambush protected vehicle MRAP for Russian Airborne troops.

Russia`s KAMAZ (a subsidiary of the Rostec state corporation) company is testing a mine-resistant ambush-protected (MRAP) vehicles for the Airborne Forces (Russian acronym: VDV, Vozdushno-Desantnie Voyska), according to a source in the indigenous defense industry.

“At present, the Special Vehicles Plant (a subsidiary of KAMAZ) is conducting the trials of the newest KAMAZ-53949/K4386 4×4 wheeled MRAP car intended for the VDV troops. The vehicle will have been tested by the year-end. We suppose that the service will bring the cars into service in early 2017,” the source said.

He added that the vehicle is intended for the Special Forces of VDV. “The 4×4 wheeled car has a combat weight of 14 t (including a payload of 3 t), an operational range of 1,200 km, and a maximum road speed of 105 km/h. It is powered by a multifuel diesel engine (350 h.p.) coupled with an automatic transmission developed by the Russian defense industry. The basic variant of KAMAZ-53949/K4386 is not equipped with weapon. However, the MRAP vehicle can be armed with various remote controlled weapon stations (RCWWS), for instance, 6S21 developed by the Burevestnik scientific-research institute (a subsidiary of the Uralvagonzavod/UVZ scientific-research corporation) or MBDU developed by the Kalashnikov Group (a subsidiary of the Rostec state corporation). The vehicle is supposed to receive even 30mm automatic cannon,” the source said.



Base version


Version 02


Version 03


Remote-controlled turret 6S21 developed in JSC “Central Research Institute” Petrel “.” The forum “Engineering Technologies 2014” corporation “NPK” Uralvagonzavod “presented to the public turret 6S21 in two versions. It can fire from 7,62- and 12.7-mm machine guns. Target detection and battlefield surveillance carried out by means of television and Thermal imaging devices.

Purpose UT 6S21:

Armament armored and other special purpose vehicles with the purpose of the following tasks: – exploration opponent, battlefield surveillance and detection through thermal imaging, and television purposes sight channels; – fire damage by a 7.62mm or 12.7mm machine gun single and multiple moving and fixed targets with short stops, descent and afloat.



Combat module:

– gun with the system of ammunition

– the cradle to the mechanism of remote arming gun

– drive mechanisms for vertical and horizontal guidance

– the basis

– turntable

– stops the vertical and horizontal guidance

– sight (MTD / MTTD)

Operator, located inside the machine body:

– digital panel gunner – gunner control



Gunner Panel:

– high-quality display of video from sight HD-SDI output format (SMPTE292V) or GOST 7845 – ballistic computer with automatic calculation with the elaboration of aiming angles and amendments

– interaction with MIS machines interfaces the CAN 2.0 We do, the RS485, the Ethernet

– Diagnosis elements 6S21


Tele-thermal sight “MTTD” horizontal version


– detection of targets by day and night, including in difficult climatic conditions at a distance of 5000 m

– digital precision aiming;

– measurement of the target range;

– the transfer of video on HD- Protocol . SDI

Control unit:

– drives the management guidance (BH, GN)

– sensor management (ammo count, encoders VN and GN)

– powered battle module electrical

– power elektroosnascheniya gun

– working areas of fire ban


Remote Gunner:

– quality management module combat arms

– high-precision digital signal processing and integration into the OMS combat the CAN protocol module


FEATURES execution type UT 6S21

• 01 – the possibility of rapid disassembly and dismantling

• 03 – loading ammunition inside the machine without logging out


Posted 23 Июля, 2016 года © A.V.Karpenko 2013-2015 / AVKarpenko 2013-2015 Source

Main technical data

6S21 RCWS version 00,01 02 03
Machine-gun: caliber/index 12.7mm Kord MG 7,62mm PKTM tank MG
Ammunitions in one belt, ready to fire, pcs up to 200 up to 500 up to 320
Max weight with a machine-gun(w/o ammunitions), kg 230 200 185
Elevation / Traverse, deg -5(15)* to 75 / 360
Elevation / Traverse aiming speed, deg/sec 0,03 to 40 (60)* / 0,03 to 40 (60)*
Weapon stabilizer no (installation is possible)*
Remote cocking yes, multiple
Sight unit CAM/(CAM1*) CAM1(CAM*)
Hydro-pneumatic cleaning of the sightshield glass no no (installation is possible)*
Dimensions (max), mm:– height

– width


(w/o ammo box)


(w/o ammunition feed chute)

Diameter of seat flange, mm 500 750
Power consumption, kW– nominal up to 0.8

– short-time overload mode

up to 0.8up to 2,4

*- optional CAM – TV camera + Laser Range-finder (LRF) CAM1 – TV / IR camera + Laser Range-finder (LRF)


   Vehicle is powered by a Cummins 6ISBe 350 turbocharged diesel engine, developing 350 hp. It is mated to a 6-speed Allison automatic transmission. Engine compartment of this vehicle is only lightly armored. Vehicle has an Irish Timoney independent suspension. Vehicle is fitted with a central tyre inflation system and run-flat tyres.

Cummins 6 ISBe 350


Model Cylinders Capacity


Max Power

kW     hp

Max Torque


ISBe 6 6.7 268 360 1100


   KamAZ was planning to develop another version of this mine protected vehicle, that could carry a crew of two, 4 dismounts, and various equipment at the rear.

Entered service ?
Crew 2 men
Personnel 8 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight 12 t
Length 6.37 m
Width 2.45 m
Height 3.32 m
Machine guns ?
Engine Cummins 6ISBe 350 diesel
Engine power 350 hp
Maximum road speed 105 km/h
Range 1 200 km
Gradient 60%
Side slope 30%
Vertical step ~ 0.5 m
Trench ~ 0.5 m
Fording 1.9 m

Main material source

Anzac Class Frigate, Australia

In November 1989, the Australian / New Zealand frigate building project contracted Australian shipbuilders Tenix Defence Systems to construct ten Anzac Class frigates; eight for Australia and two for New Zealand. The first frigate for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), HMAS Anzac, was commissioned in May 1996.

The other hulls are: HMAS Arunta (FFH 151), commissioned December 1998; HMAS Warramunga (FFH 152), March 2001; HMAS Stuart (FFH 153), August 2002; HMAS Parramatta (FFH 154), October 2003; HMAS Ballarat (FFH 155), June 2004; HMAS Toowoomba (FFH 156), October 2005; HMAS Perth (FFH 157), August 2006. The two frigates for New Zealand, HMNZS Te Kaha (F77) and Te Mana (F111), were commissioned in July1997 and December 1999.

103exhdHMAS Parramatta (FFH 154) – Image

Following is a list of FFH frigates currently commissioned in the Royal Australian Navy.

Name Pennant Commissioned Commanding Officer
HMAS Anzac (III) FFH 150 18 May 1996 Commander Michael Devine
HMAS Arunta (II) FFH 151 12 December 1998 Commander Cameron Steil
HMAS Ballarat (II) FFH 155 26 June 2004 Commander Paul Johnson
HMAS Parramatta (IV) FFH 154 4 October 2003 Commander Simon Howard
HMAS Perth (III) FFH 157 26 August 2006
HMAS Stuart (III) FFH 153 17 August 2002 Commander Chris Leece
HMAS Toowoomba (II) FFH 156 10 October 2005 Commander Stuart Watters
HMAS Warramunga (II) FFH 152 31 March 2001 Commander Dugald Clelland


Anzac Class frigate construction and development

Tenix Defence Systems (now part of BAE Systems Australia) is the prime contractor, with responsibility for design and systems integration of the ship; subcontractor Blohm + Voss Australia provides the platform design and combat system integration; and Saab Systems Australia provides electronic integration and combat system design.

Before upgrade

F152_001.jpgc834bcee-6d24-4696-a681-5c1595b306eeOriginal.jpgHMAS Warramunga (FFH 152) 

The 3,600t frigates were built at Tenix’s Williamstown yard in Victoria, Australia. The design is based on the Blohm + Voss Meko 200 modular design which utilises a basic hull and construction concept to provide flexibility in the choice of command and control, weapons, equipment and sensors.

After upgrade

SHIP_FFG_Upgraded_ANZAC_Concept_lgHMAS Anzac (FFH 150)

In March 2003, HMAS Anzac was deployed in support of coalition forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Both of the New Zealand frigates were deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom.

In February 2010, a major upgrade to the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) frigate Te Kaha was completed. In December 2010, The RNZN frigate Te Mana returned to service after a seven-month refit programme. Both frigates were fitted with new diesel engines for improved performance and reduced fuel costs.

First RAN Anzac-class frigate begins mid-life capability assurance programme: Details


AMCAP forms the major work element within an eight-year AUD2 billion (USD1.52 billion) Warship Asset Management Agreement signed in April 2016 under which BAE Systems Australia, Saab Australia, Naval Ship Management, and the Australian government will jointly support the 3,600-tonne Anzac-class frigates for the remainder of their naval service.

$148 million radar upgrade for Anzac Class Frigates: Here


Minister for Defence Industry, the Hon Christopher Pyne MP, today congratulated world leading Australian company CEA Technologies for winning a contract to upgrade the capabilities of the Royal Australian Navy’s Anzac class frigates.

Minister Pyne visited CEA Technologies today at PACIFIC 2017 and said the contract valued at $148 million would see the production of new air search radar, known as the CEAFAR2-L, for the Anzac class frigates. The contract is part of the larger program that will modify the ships and integrate the radars that has a total value of over $400 million.

Saab extends Anzac FFH sustainment contract

Command and control

sddefaultHMAS Perth (FFH 157) Bridge (See video at bottom)

The Anzac’s combat data system is built around the Saab Systems 9LV 453 mk3 combat management system, with link 11 and SHF satellite commmunications. The 9LV mk3E is fitted in the last vessel for the RAN. MILSATCOM communications system has been installed in HMAS Warramunga and subsequent vessels, which facilitates joint exercises with US and allied navies.

HMAS-Anzac-Docks-in-Valletta-Malta.jpgHMAS Anzac – Image

Weapons control is managed by the Saab Systems 9LV 453 optronic director with Saab Systems J-band radar. Raytheon CW mk73 is the fire control system for the Sea Sparrow missile. This has been replaced with the CEA Technologies I/J-band solid-state continuous-wave illuminator transmitter (SSCWI) on Warramunga and will be fitted to all Anzac vessels.

CEA Technologies I/J-band solid-state continuous-wave illuminator transmitter (SSCWI)



CEA SSCWI is a solid state transmitter, suitable for use with semi-active homing surface to air missiles including Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM). Available in high and medium power versions for ships of varying sizes, the SSCWI’s core solid state technology and hardware control interface provides.

  • control
  • functionality
  • enhanced performance
  • equipment size reduction
  • improved maintainability and reliability.


Anzac weapons


The Anzac is armed with one eight-cell mk41 vertical launching system for Nato Sea Sparrow surface-to-air missiles. Sea Sparrow is a semi-active radar missile with a range of 14.5km.

Mk41 VLS


The MK 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) is the worldwide standard in shipborne missile launching systems. Under the guidance of the US Navy, Martin Marietta performs the design, development, production, and field support that make the battle-proven VLS the most advanced shipborne missile launching system in the world. The Mk 41 VLS simultaneously supports multiple warfighting capabilities, including antiair warfare, antisubmarine warfare, ship self-defense, strike warfare, and antisurface warfare.

The Vertical Launching System (VLS) Mk 41 is a canister launching system which provides a rapid-fire launch capability against hostile threats. The missile launcher consists of a single eight-cell missile module, capable of launching SEASPARROW missiles used against hostile aircraft, missiles and surface units. Primary units of the VLS are two Launch Control Units, one 8-Cell Module, one 8-Cell System Module, a Remote Launch Enable Panel and a Status Panel.


The Launch Control Units receive launch orders from the Multi-Function Computer Plant (MFCP). In response to the orders, the Launch Control Units select and issue prelaunch and launch commands to the selected missile in the VLS launcher. During normal VLS operations, each Launch Control Unit controls half of the Launch Sequencers in the launcher. Either Launch Control Unit can be ordered by the MFCP where one Launch Control Unit is offline and the other Launch Control Unit assumes control of all Launch Sequencers in the launcher.


The 8-Cell Module consists of an upright structure that provides vertical storage space for eight missile canisters. A deck and hatch assembly at the top of the module protects the missile canisters during storage and the hatches open to permit missile launches. The plenum and uptake structure capture and vent missile exhaust gases vertically up through the module to the atmosphere through the uptake hatch. Electronic equipment mounted on the 8-Cell Module monitors the stored missile canisters and the module components and assists in launching the missiles.

20110403195422_3 “quad pack” launcher (Mk-41 VLS)

Sea Sparrow has been replaced by the evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM) in HMAS Warramunga, Stuart and Parramatta, increasing the capacity from eight to 32 missiles, and the weapon system was declared operational on these vessels in June 2004. ESSM will be retrofitted in the first two Australian ships. HMAS Warramunga was the first vessel in the world to be fitted with the ESSM.

Evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM)


RIM-162 ESSM was developed by the U.S. Navy in cooperation with an international consortium of other NATO partners plus Australia. ESSM is a short-range, semi-active homing missile that makes flight corrections via radar and midcourse data uplinks. The missile provides reliable ship self-defense capability against agile, high-speed, low-altitude anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs), low velocity air threats (LVATs), such as helicopters, and high-speed, maneuverable surface threats. ESSM is integrated with a variety of U.S. and international launchers and combat systems across more than 10 different navies.

ESSM has an 8-inch diameter forebody that tapers to a 10-inch diameter rocket motor. The forebody includes a guidance section uses a radome-protected antenna for semi-active homing and attaches to an improved warhead section. A high-thrust, solid-propellant 10-inch diameter rocket motor provides high thrust for maneuverability with tail control via a Thrust Vector Controller (TVC).

ESSM’s effective tracking performance and agile kinematics result from S- and X-band midcourse uplinks, high average velocity and tail control, increased firepower through a vertical “quad pack” launcher (Mk-41 VLS), and greater lethality with a warhead designed for defeating hardened ASCMs.


ESSM is a cooperative effort among 10 of 12 NATO Sea Sparrow nations governed by a Production Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and multinational work-share arrangement. In addition to the United States, ESSM Consortium Members include Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Turkey.


The first production ESSM was delivered in late 2002 to the U.S. Navy by Raytheon Missile Systems (RMS) and has been in full operational use in the U.S. since 2004. ESSM is fired from the Mk-29 trainable launcher, Mk-41 Vertical Launch System (VLS), Mk-57 VLS (DDG 1000), Mk-48 Guided Missile VLS (Canadian, Greece, Japan), and Mk-56 Dual Pack ESSM Launching System (Danish Navy) configurations by the U.S. Navy, NATO, and other Foreign Military Sales (FMS) customers. ESSM interfaces with the Aegis (DDG 51 and CG 47 classes), NSSMS (LHD and CVN classes), Ship Self-Defense System (LHA-6 and future CVN classes), Total Ship Computing Environment (DDG 1000), ANZAC (Royal Australian Navy), Dutch Configuration (various European Navies), FLEXFIRE (Danish Navy), and APAR (various European Navies) combat systems.

General Characteristics:
Primary Function: Surface-To-Air and Surface-To-Surface radar-guided missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems, Tuscson, Ariz.
Date Deployed: 2004
Unit Cost: $787000 – $972000 depending on configuration
Propulsion: NAMMO-Raufoss, Alliant (solid fuel rocket)
Length: 12 feet (3,64 meters)
Diameter: 8 inches (20,3 cm) – 10 inches (25,4 cm)
Weight: 622 pounds (280 kilograms)
Speed: Mach 4+
Range: more than 27 nmi (more than 50 km)
Guidance System: Raytheon semi-active on continuous wave or interrupted continuous wave illumination
Warhead: Annular blast fragmentation warhead, 90 pounds (40,5 kg)

RIM-162 ESSM data Source


ESSM has been developed by Raytheon with an international cooperative of ten Nato countries and is designed to counter high-speed anti-ship missiles. It has the same semi-active radar guidance and warhead as the Seasparrow but has a new rocket motor and tail control to provide increased speed, range and manoeuvrability. ESSM was passed for full-rate production by the US Navy in April 2004.

Capacity to launch eight Boeing Harpoon block II anti-ship missiles has been added under project SEA 1348 Phase 3A. First vessel to receive the Harpoon launcher was Warramunga in December 2004. Seven vessels have received the modification and the eighth, Perth, was completed in September 2008. Harpoon Block II missiles have new inertial / GPS (global positioning system) guidance for precision targeting.


Harpoon block II anti-ship missile


The Harpoon missile provides the Navy and the Air Force with a common missile for air, ship, and submarine launches. The weapon system uses mid-course guidance with a radar seeker to attack surface ships. Its low-level, sea-skimming cruise trajectory, active radar guidance and warhead design assure high survivability and effectiveness. The Harpoon missile and its launch control equipment provide the warfighter capability to interdict ships at ranges well beyond those of other aircraft.

The Harpoon missile was designed to sink warships in an open-ocean environment. Other weapons (such as the Standard and Tomahawk missiles) can be used against ships, but Harpoon and Penguin are the only missiles used by the United States military with anti-ship warfare as the primary mission. Once targeting information is obtained and sent to the Harpoon missile, it is fired. Once fired, the missile flys to the target location, turns on its seeker, locates the target and strikes it without further action from the firing platform. This allows the firing platform to engage other threats instead of concentrating on one at a time.

The Guidance Section consists of an active radar seeker and radome, Missile Guidance Unit (MGU), radar altimeter and antennas, and power converter. The MGU consists of a three-axis attitude reference assembly (ARA) and a digital computer/power supply (DC/PS). Prior to launch, the DC/PS is initialized with data by the Command Launch System. After launch, the DC/PS uses the missile acceleration data from the ARA and altitude data from the radar altimeter to maintain the missile on the programmed flight profile. After seeker target acquisition, the DC/PS uses seeker data to guide the missile to the target.

The Warhead Section consists of a target-penetrating, load-carrying steel structure containing 215 pounds of high explosive (DESTEX) and a safe-and-arm/contact fuze assembly. The safe-and-arm/contact fuze assembly ensures the warhead will not explode until after the missile is launched. It is designed to explode the warhead after impacting the target. The warhead section can be replaced by an exercise section which transmits missile performance data for collection and analysis.

The Sustainer Section consists of a fuel tank with JP-10 fuel, air inlet duct, and a jet engine. This provides the thrust to power the missile during sustained flight. The Sustainer Section has four fixed fins which provide lift.The Control Section consists of four electromechanical actuators which use signals from the Guidance Section to turn four fins which control missile motion.

The Booster Section consists of a solid fuel rocket and arming and firing device. Surface and submarine platforms use a booster to launch Harpoon and propel it to a speed at which sustained flight can be achieved. The Booster Section separates from the missile before sustained flight begins.

The Harpoon Block II is an upgrade program to improve the baseline capabilities to attack targets in congested littoral environments. The upgrade is based on the current Harpoon. Harpoon Block II will provide accurate long-range guidance for coastal, littoral and blue water ship targets by incorporating the low cost integrated Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) from the Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) program currently under development by Boeing. GPS antennae and software from Boeing’s Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM) and SLAM Expanded Response (SLAM ER) will be integrated into the guidance section. The improved littoral capabilities will enable Harpoon Block II to impact a designated GPS target point. The existing 500 pound blast warhead will deliver lethal firepower against targets which include coastal anti-surface missile sites and ships in port. For the anti-ship mission, the GPS/INS provides improved missile guidance to the target area. The accurate navigation solution allows target ship discrimination from a nearby land mass using shoreline data provided by the launch platform. These Block II improvements will maintain Harpoon’s high hit probability while offering a 90% improvement in the separation distance between the hostile threat and local shorelines. Harpoon Block II will be capable of deployment from all platforms which currently have the Harpoon Missile system by using existing command and launch equipment. A growth path is envisioned for integration with the Vertical Launch System and modern integrated weapon control systems. With initiation of engineering and manufacturing development in 1998, initial operational capability for Block II will be available by 2001. Source


Diameter: 340 millimeter

Length: 4.63 meter (15.2 foot)

Wingspan: 910 millimeter


Max Range: 124 kilometer (67 nautical mile)


Top Speed: 237 mps (853 kph)


Thrust: 660 pound

Warhead: 224 kilogram (494 pound)

Weight: 691 kilogram (1,523 pound)

Harpoon Block II missile specification


The main gun is a BAE Systems Land & Armaments (formerly United Defense) 127mm mk45 mod 2 gun, which can fire at a rate of 20 rounds a minute to a range of over 20km.

127mm mk45 mod 2 gun


The 127mm Mk 45 is a naval gun turret of US origin. It was developed in the 1960’s by United Defense as a lighter alternative to the earlier Mk 42 turret. The Mk 45 is the smallest 127mm gun turret in the world and can be considered a direct competitor to the Italian 127mm Compatto. The Mk 45 is a lighter and easier to install design while the Compatto has a higher rate of fire and has more ammunition ready to fire. Both guns use the same US standard 127mm ammunition.

The Mk 45 is a single gun turret which is armed with the 127mm Mk 19 gun which was derived from the earlier Mk 18 that was used in the older Mk 42 turret. The Mk 45 is an unmanned turret with an automatic loader and a 20 round magazine below deck. Additional rounds are stored elsewhere in the ship and fed into the magazine using a feed chute. The gun is controlled using consoles below deck or in the command center. The latest development are a longer barrel and extended range guided munition (ERGM), the latter program was cancelled while the new barrel is in production.

The Mk 45 fires 127mm shells for use against shore targets, naval vessels and aircraft. The gun has a rate of fire of 16 to 20 rounds per minute. The maximum range is 23 km versus surface targets and the anti-aircraft range is quoted as 15 km. The latest Mk 45 design with longer barrel has a longer range and higher rate of fire. The ERGM round has a range of 117 km but was never fielded. Depending on the ship design the total ammunition load ranges between 475 and 680 rounds

The Mk 45 turret can be easily distinguished from the earlier Mk 42 turret by its shape and longer ordnance. The Mk 45 is one of the smallest 127mm gun turrets. The Mk 45 guns with original 54-caliber barrel can be identified by their round turret shapes since the Mod 4 uses an angled one.
Mk 45 Mod 0: Original production model with mechanical fuze setter and two piece barrel.
Mk 45 Mod 1: Improved Mod 0 with automatic fuze setter and unitary barrel.
Mk 45 Mod 2: Export version of US Navy Mod 1.

Type Naval gun turret
Armament 127mm 54-caliber, 808 m/s muzzle velocity, 8.000 round barrel life
Rate of fire 16 to 20 rpm
Ammunition 20 rounds in loading system, single feed chute
Range 23 km vs surface targets, 15 km vs aircraft
Traverse -170 to +170°, 30°/s
Elevation -15 to +65°, 20°/s
Dimensions ?
Weight 24.1 t empty
Crew 3 or 6
Fire control ?

127mm mk45 mod 2 gun data

6021160619_5c1fec3055_b.jpgHMAS PERTH [III]’s 5-inch/54 cal. Mk45 Mod 2 rapid fire gun turret – Photo Kookaburra.

The SEA 1348 Phase 3C project installed the Petrel Mine and Obstacle Avoidance Sonar (MOAS) system in all of the ANZAC Ships by September 2008. The HMAS Perth was installed with these capabilities on schedule.

Two triple 324mm mk32 torpedo tubes for mk46 anti-submarine torpedoes are fitted. Mk46 is an active / passive torpedo with a range of 11km. In 2004, the RAN ordered the Eurotorp MU90 advanced lightweight torpedo, which has been fitted to all Anzac frigates. MU90 is 3m long, weighs 300kg and has a range of more than 10km. HMAS Toowoomba, the first vessel to be fitted with the new torpedo, completed a first test firing of the MU90 in June 2008.

324mm mk32 torpedo tube


12.75 inch (324mm) Mark 32 Surface Vessel Torpedo Tubes (Mk 32 SVTT):

Mk-32 / Mod. 5, 7, 14, 15 (3 tubes) – for Mk-44, Mk-46 torpedoes
Mk-32 / Mod. 17, 19 (3 tubes) – for Mk-46, Mk-50, Mk-54 LHT torpedoes
Mk-32 / Mod. 9 (2 tubes) – for Mk-44, Mk-46 torpedoes
Mk-32 / Mod. 11 (1 tube) – for Mk-44, Mk-46 torpedoes

Mk-32 SVTT can be modified to use other 12.75″ torpedoes (such as EuroTorp MU90 / Eurotorp A244S LWT / BAE Systems Stingray)


Eurotorp MU90 advanced lightweight torpedo

The MU90/IMPACT Advanced Lightweight Torpedo is the leader of the 3rd generation of LWTs. Designed and built with the most advanced technology, the weapon is of fire-and-forget type conceived to cope with any-task any-environment capability requirements and meet the ASW operational needs of the 21st century.

The weapon has been designed to counter any type of nuclear or conventional submarine, acoustically coated, deep and fast-evasive, deploying active or passive anti-torpedo effectors



Main Dynamic Features
Linearly Variable speed …………………… 29 to >> 50 kts**
Range …………………… >10,000 m at max. speed**
> 23,000m at min. speed**
Minimum depth for launching …………………… < 25 m
Max. operating depth …………………… >> 1000 m**
Agility and manoeuvrability ……………………. Extreme
Diameter (NATO Standard) …………………… 323,7 mm
Length …………………… 2850 mm
Weight …………………… 304 kg
Main Acoustic Features
Operational bandwidth …………………… >>10KHz
Acoustic coverage …………………… 120°H x 70°V
Simultaneous targets …………………… Up to 10
Main Counter-Counter Measures
Stationary target detection capability
Decoy classification
Anti-Jammer tactics

(**) = real value classified


475769_10151079568187083_77213116_oHMAS Perth (FFH 157)


The frigate is equipped with Thales Defence Sceptre A radar warner. Decoy systems consist of SLQ-25A towed torpedo decoys and mk36 launchers, initially for Sea Gnat decoys but now used to launch BAE Systems Australia Nulka anti-missile hovering offboard decoy, which provides protection against radio frequency seeker anti-ship missiles.

SLQ-25A towed torpedo decoys

SLQ-25 7 Jan 2014.jpg.scale.LARGE.jpgImage

The AN/SLQ-25A/C is a digitally controlled modular electro-acoustic softkill countermeasure decoy system that employs an underwater towed body acoustic projector deployed from the ship’s stern on a fiber optic tow cable to defend ships against wake-homing, acoustic homing, and wire-guided enemy torpedoes.

The AN/SLQ-25 is deployed on U.S. and allied surface warships, and consists of the TB-14A towed decoy device and a shipboard signal generator. The decoy emits signals to draw incoming torpedoes away from their intended targets.

TB-14A towed decoy device


The AN/SLQ-25 towed decoy emits simulated ship noise like the sounds of propellers and engines in attempts to defeat a torpedo’s passive sonar.

The AN/SLQ-25A uses a fiber optic tow cable and winch, and includes extensive use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The AN/SLQ-25C is an upgrade to the AN/SLQ-25A, and includes new countermeasure modes and a longer tow cable.


Mk36 launchers

625x465_6778052_2940486_1459318009The BAE Systems Mark 36 Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Countermeasures Chaff and Decoy Launching System (abbreviated as SRBOC or “Super-arboc”) is a short-range mortar that launches chaff or infrared decoys from naval vessels to foil anti-ship missiles. Each launcher has three tubes set at a 45-degree angle, and three tubes set at a 60 degree angle, providing an effective spread of decoys and countermeasures to defeat radio frequency emitting missiles. The SRBOC can also be fitted with the TORCH infrared “flare” decoy system. A typical ship’s load is 20 to 35 rounds per launcher.


Nulka anti-missile hovering offboard decoy


Nulka is an active, off-board, ship-launched decoy developed in cooperation with Australia to counter a wide spectrum of present and future radar-guided anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs).


The Nulka decoy employs a broadband radio frequency repeater mounted atop a hovering rocket platform. After launch, the Nulka decoy radiates a large, ship-like radar cross-section while flying a trajectory that seduces and decoys incoming ASCMs away from their intended targets. Australia developed the hovering rocket, launcher, and launcher interface unit. The U.S. Navy developed the electronic payload and fire control system.

The existing Mk 36 Decoy Launching System (DLS) has been modified to support Nulka decoys, resulting in the Mk 53 DLS. Nulka has been developed under a U.S. Australian cooperation. It is been used on board U.S. and Australian surface warships since 1999.



Air search is by Raytheon SPS-49(V)8 ANZ radar, operating at C/D band, and air / surface search by Sabb Microwave Systems (formerly Ericsson) Sea Giraffe G/H-band radar. The I-band navigation radar is the Atlas Electronik 9600 ARPA.

Raytheon SPS-49(V)8 ANZ radar


The AN/SPS-49 long range 2-dimensional air surveillance radar used for early target detection. The long-range AN/SPS-49 radar operates in the presence of clutter, chaff, and electronic counter-measures to detect, identify, and control low-radar-cross-section threats traveling at supersonic speeds. AN/SPS-49 provides the front-end element for successful target identification, designation, and engagement with either long range (SM-1 or SM-2) missiles and/or short range local defense missiles. A key feature of the most recent version of the radar, the SPS-49A(V)1 is single-scan radial velocity estimation of all targets allowing faster promotion to firm track and improved maneuver detection. This is done using unique signal processing techniques originated and tested by the Radar Division of NRL using 6.1 and 6.2 Office of Naval Research (ONR) funds.

The AN/SPS-49(V) radar is a narrow beam, very long range, 2D air search radar that primarily supports the AAW mission in surface ships. The radar is used to provide long range air surveillance regardless of severe clutter and jamming environments. Collateral functions include air traffic control, air intercept control, and antisubmarine aircraft control. It also provides a reliable backup to the three-dimensional (3D) weapon system designation radar.

 Band                    L
     Frequency Band:         850 to 942 MHz
                             three selectable 30MHz bands
                             48 discrete frequencies
     Transmitting Power:     360 kW peak
                             280 kW specified peak power
                             12-13 kW average power
     Antenna Parameters:
                             Parabolic Reflector stabilized for roll and pitch 
                             7.3m/24 ft wide, 4.3m/14.2 ft high 
          Rotating Clearance 8.7m/28.4 ft diameter
          Beamwidths:        3.3�-3.3� azimuth 
                             11� elevation
          Cosec2          to 30�, csc2 to 20� elev 
          Gain               28.5 dB 
          Scan rate          6 or 12 rpm 
          Line-of-sight mechanical stabilization to � 25 deg roll 
          IFF antenna (AS-2188) mounted on boom 

     Range                   250 nm
     Minimum Range :         0.5 nmi 
     Frequency Selection:    Fixed or frequency agile 
     Range Accuracy:         0.03 nmi 
     Azimuth Accuracy:       0.5 deg
     PRF                     280, 800, 1000 pps
     Pulse width             125 microsecond

The AN/SPS-49(V) radar operates in the frequency range of 850 – 942 MHZ. In the long range mode, the AN/SPS-49 can detect small fighter aircraft at ranges in excess of 225 nautical miles. Its narrow beamwidth substantially improves resistance to jamming. The addition of coherent side lobe canceller (CSLC) capability in some AN/SPS-49(V) radars also provides additional resistance to jamming/interference by cancelling the jamming/interference signals. The moving target indicator (MTI) capability incorporated in the AN/SPS-49(V) radar enhances target detection of low-flying high speed targets through the cancellation of ground/sea return (clutter), weather and similar stationary targets. In 12 RPM mode operation, this radar is effective for the detection of hostile low flying and “pop-up” targets. Features of this set include:

  • Solid state technology with modular construction used throughout the radar, with the exception of the klystron power amplifier and high power modulator tubes
  • Digital processing techniques used extensively in the automatic target detection modification
  • Performance monitors, automatic fault detectors, and built-in-test equipment, and automatic on line self test features



Thales Underwater Systems Pacific Spherion B hull-mounted sonar is fitted. Spherion B is a medium frequency, active search and attack sonar. A Kariwara towed array sonar may be fitted.

Spherion B hull-mounted sonar


Multi-mode Operation: Active omni, sectorial, TRDT or directional (search light) transmission modes. Up to 30° of beam tilt during transmission allows for optimum configuration based on performance of the day calculations. Concurrent passive or listening only detection and tracking.

■ Performance Optimised for all Operating Conditions: Continuous 3D electronic array stabilisation and a comprehensive choice of beamforming, pulse type, pulse length and gain configurations. Built in system configuration support allows for performance optimisation in all deep and shallow waters operations.

■ Pulse Length and Bandwidth: Stabilised transmission and reception permits the use of long (4 sec) pulses for long range detection. Wideband active transmissions deliver good shallow water and obstacle avoidance performance. Three octave passive bandwidth for covert surveillance and torpedo detection.

■ Concurrent Processing: Parallel CW active, FM active and passive processing chains providing simultaneous ASW surveillance and protection from attack by torpedo. Full passive surveillance capability in listening only mode.

■ Automatic Detection and Tracking: In active and passive. Up to 100 active and 12 Automatically Initiated passive tracks maintained. The last 8 pings of active track data and 10 minutes of passive history can be displayed.

■ Torpedo Warning: Panoramic listening for early detection and a neural net classification scheme designed to give the Command confidence in detection, a low false alarm rate and the maximum reaction time for countermeasures.

■ Obstacle Avoidance: The capability to detect mine-like objects in the near-surface region of the water column.

■ Performance of the Day (POD): Operator assistance in the selection of the best system configuration is provided by a POD prediction facility that is based on sound velocity profile and local environmental data.

■ On Board Trainer: Fully integrated simulation capability for operator training in harbour and at sea. At sea training scenarios can be overlaid over real sea data for the maximum training authenticity.

Technical Characteristics

Centre Frequencies (kHz): 5.5, 6.5, 7.5

Pulse Lengths (ms): 60, 120, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000

Transmission Modes: OMNI, MOA ±60 about ship’s head

Pulse Types: LPFM, CW, COMBO (FM & CW) FM

Pulse Bandwidths: 500, 2000 Hz

Range Scales (km): 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 32, 64

Stabilisation/Tilt: +20° / -30°

Concurrent Rx Channels: 2 x Active, 1 x

Passive CW Doppler Band: ±30 kts


Sonar (hull mounted) Thales Underwater Systems Spherion B (Supplemented by TUS Petrel MOAS) Specification data

In December 2003, Thales Underwater Systems Pty Ltd was awarded a contract to supply the Petrel mine and obstacle avoidance sonar for the Anzac. Installation was completed in HMAS Arunta in September 2005. The final ship to be fitted, HMAS Perth, was complete by the end of 2008.

Petrel Mine and Obstacle Avoidance Sonar (MOAS) system


MOAS provides high detection performances and ensures that the submarine is always in a safe environment to maneuver.

  • Mine & obstacle detection and localization
    Safe shallow waters navigation.
    Mine fields avoidance.
  • Detection of surface obstacles
    Highly important for submarine safety when surfacing.
  • Bottom mapping for 3D Navigation
    Real-time visualization of seabed (Nav 3D), localization & tracking of contacts.
  • Short range submarines detection
    Management of short range situation with very quiet submarines.


Bandwidth 36 to 72 KHz
Range coverage 1Km approx.
Range accuracy better than 0.5 m at 1 km*
Bearing accuracy 1.5° at 54 KHz ahead of submarine
Bearing coverage ≤ 90°
Elevation coverage Sector of 24°, 12° or 6° Steerable elevation coverage

In August 2008, Kelvin Hughes was awarded a contract to supply the SharpEye navigation and tactical surface surveillance radar for the upgrade of the Anzac frigates.

Kelvin Hughes SharpEyeTM I-Band



SharpEye™ I-Band and E/F-band (X & S-band) radar technology meets the detection challenges of navies, coastguards and border agencies through a clever combination of radar techniques designed to provide the best performance in all conditions, whilst also providing the flexibility to be optimised for specific detection needs.

Solid state radar ensures extremely high reliability and low through life cost:

  • No magnetron – minimal routine maintenance requirements
  • No fault-finding training required
  • Line replaceable unit – does not require radar trained technician to replace
  • Low Mean Time To Repair (MTTR)
  • Upmast transceiver solution – no waveguide to compromise citadel integrity – easy to retrofit – reduced signal loss.

SharpEye™ transmits a low power patented pulse sequence, which enables short, medium and long range radar returns to be detected simultaneously, allowing the radar operator to maintain situational awareness regardless of the range scale setting of the radar display. Other users of the radar can select their own radar display range scale. A low peak transmission power (less than 300W) equivalent to a 25kW magnetron reduces the probability of intercept by ESM systems.

Doppler processing of radar returns provides coherent information concerning a target’s velocity (radial) and enable the detection of very small and slow moving objects and targets with a low RCS (Radar Cross Section) and through a series of electronic filters is able to distinguish between the targets of interest and sea, rain and land clutter.

SharpEye™ I-Band (X-Band) transmitters are the first in their class to employ Gallium Nitride GaN power transistor technology. The significant performance benefits of GaN transistors have been harnessed to directly improve the performance of the radar.

Other differentiating technologies include Moving Target Detection (MTD) providing enhanced clutter suppression at the Doppler processing stage and pulse compression of the return signal, enabling a low transmit power, providing efficient use of the radar and reducing the probability of detection by ESM equipment. Other Doppler radars may employ less advanced techniques such as Moving Target Indication (MTI), which does not take full advantage of the radial velocity information.

sharpeye-transceiver.jpgSharpEye Transceiver – Image

Customisable waveforms can be configured for specific threats and to track specific targets such UAVs, drones and helicopters. SharpEye™ is a truly multipurpose naval radar transceiver:

  • Navigation
  • Surface search
  • Helicopter control and recovery (no need for helicopter transponders, even over land)
  • Camera slew to cue
  • Bi-directional links to combat management system
  • Uniform transmission on all ranges so that multiple users on different range scales all see the optimum picture
  • Frequency diversity, user selectable frequencies to ensure interoperability


naval-tactical-radar-display.jpgNaval Tactical Radar Display – Image
keyboard-trackpad.jpgKeyboard and Trackpad – Image

Compliant with the latest IMO radar performance standards and complete with Tactical functionality, Enhanced Target Detection (ETD) mode, twin PPI and an intuitive HCI, the SharpEye™ naval tactical radar display brings the processing advantages of the SharpEye™ radar transceiver to life.

The state of the art LED widescreen display is available in 22″ and 26″ sizes and is an easy to install console display with an integrated 5thgeneration Mil-Spec processor and 64bit operating system and can be easily integrated into any bridge, CIC or operations room.

The integrated radar display is part of a fully redundant networked system, is type approved (MSC192/79 / IEC 62388 ED2) and provides enhanced collision avoidance and situational awareness features such as dual PPI (Part Position Indicator), collision warning, spy scope and Enhanced Target Detection (ETD) mode.

The display provides a platform for ARPA radar, Chart Radar and Electronic Chart System (ECS) display options. With 100’s of features and benefits the radar display software categorizes these into the tactical features menu, navigation features and navigation modes. The software is easily controlled with an ergonomic trackerball, keyboard and on screen prompts to assist the user providing:

  • Ease of operation
  • Multifunctionality enables sharing of information across workstations
  • The open architecture enables serial and digital interfaces
  • Twin PPI enables the user to build a complex picture on one PPI while leaving the other clear for collision avoidance
  • ETD mode provides a clearer picture and uses colour to differentiate between moving and stationary targets
  • ETD also helps the user to detect targets before they are strong enough to be tracked

Tactical functionality with the naval radar operator in mind (please see the Naval Radar brochure for a full listing):

  • Manual Rate Aided Track Facility (MRATS) and Synthetic Target
  • Operator Track Labelling and Target Identification
  • Sector Transmission / Single Scan
  • Sector Screens and Plan Cordon
  • ESM Bearings (Electronic Support Measures)
  • Anti-submarine Warfare – FOC, Running Torpedo (Dogbox), Plan Cordons
  • Navplans / Blind Pilotage
  • Helo Path

Modes covering the full suite of navigation features include (please see the Naval Radar brochure for a full listing):

  • Radar
  • Chart Radar
  • ECS (Radar Interlay option)
  • ETD (Enhanced Target Detection)
  • Imaging Camera
  • Simulation
Operating Frequency 9.2 – 9.5 GHz 2.9 – 3.1 GHz
Frequency Diversity (FD) Optional No
Frequency Channels Non FD 12 / FD 10 8
Peak Power Up to 300W Up to 200W
Average RF Power 39W 20W
Output Power Transistor Type GaN GaAs
Duty Ratio Up to 13% Up to 10%
Pulse Compression Ratio Up to 1000:1 Up to 1000:1
Signal Processor Doppler Processing Doppler Processing
Clutter Discrimination Up to 16 filters Up to 32 filters
Clutter Suppression Automatic Automatic
Minimum Range ≤40m ≤40m
Instrumented Ranges 24nm and 48nm 24nm and 48nm
PRF 2300Hz 2300Hz
1180Hz 1180Hz
Pulse Lengths 0.1μS – 100μS 0.1μS – 100μS
Reliability Up to 150,000 hrs MTBF Up to 150,000 hrs MTBF
Power Modes High and low power modes High and low power modes
Antenna (standard) 2.5m low profile 3.9m low profile
Horizontal ≤0.95° – 3dB ≤2.0° – 3dB
Vertical -26° -26°
Polarisation Horizontal Horizontal
Antenna Gain >31dB 28dB
Upmast System Weight (inc. standard antenna)
Colour Light Grey – RAL7001 Light Grey – RAL7001


Anzac Class frigate upgrade programme


120721-N-LP801-295 PACIFIC OCEAN (July 21, 2012) – An S-70B Seahawk helicopter approaches the Royal Australian Navy Anzac-class frigate HMAS Perth (FFH 157) while conducting a vertical replenishment with the Military Sealift Command fleet replenishment oiler USNS Yukon (T-AO 202) during Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2012. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Raul Moreno Jr./Released)

In December 2003, the Australian Department of Defence announced a project to upgrade the Anzac Class anti-ship missile defences (ASMD). The contract for the first phase was signed in May 2005 with the ANZAC alliance between Tenix Defence (now BAE Systems), Saab and the Department of Defence. A previous programme, the ANZAC warfighting improvement programme, was cancelled in 1999.

The first phase of the ASMD programme includes the upgrade of the command and control system to the Saab 9LV Mk 3E and installation of: Sagem Vampir NG infrared search and track (IRST) system for detection and tracking of low-level aircraft and anti-ship missiles; CEA Technologies CEAFAR 3D E/F band, fixed active phased array radar for improved fire control against anti-ship missiles which replaces the Saab Sea Giraffe; and CEA Technologies CEAMOUNT active phased array radar system to provide mid-course guidance and terminal illumination for the evolved Sea Sparrow missile.

Saab 9LV Mk 3E


The full suite of Saab’s Combat Management System (CMS)  and integrated fire control solutions in configurations for every type of Coast Guard and naval vessel, is on offer for the Royal Thai Navy

The latest generation of Saab 9LV solutions is built on operationally proven modules and fielded in the major combatants of navies such as the Royal Australian Navy, the Swedish Navy and many others. Building on the experience in over 230 warship installations, the CMS offering from Saab is the open architecture, flexible and extensible, 9LV family.

This offer is applicable to all types of vessels from patrol vessels, corvettes, frigates and aircraft carriers. Source


Saab’s 9LV 453 Mk 3E. These enhancements include:

+ New 30-inch widescreen operator consoles, with large touch input displays operating commercial Microsoft(r) operating systems,

+ a completely redesigned operations room layout with 10 consoles to improve management and coordination of operations,

+ large screen displays on the bulkheads showing intelligence, CCTV and status information,

+ redundant Gigabit LANs for greater data capacity,

+ new operator modes for fighter control, and

+ ulitisation of advanced control modes for the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missiles.


Sagem Vampir NG infrared search and track (IRST) system


The VAMPIR NG is a cost effective third generation infrared search and track system (IRST) developed by Sagem Defense Securite for naval applications ranging from frigates to aircraft carriers. This passive surveillance and tracking system features very long-range, blue sea and littoral operation modes, suitability against symmetric and asymmetric threats, and long range identification. In littoral surveillance it provides high elevation coverage from -20 to +45 degrees and very low false alarm rate. The VAMPIR NG 3-5 micrometers thermal imager is mounted on a 3-axis gyrostabilized mount and delivers high resolution video with optical image stabilization.

The VAMPIR NG can be integrated with the ship’s combat system providing surveillance and warning against a wide range of targets such as sea-skimming missiles and small high speed craft. Besides, the thermal imager can serve as helicopter landing aid, and to help control the movements of landing craft. The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) selected the VAMPIR NG for its ANZAC-class frigates in 2005 and Canberra-class amphibious assault ships and Hobart-class destroyers in October and December 2008 respectively.


CEAFAR 3D E/F band

anzac (1).pngThe new sensors installed after the upgrade to form the integrated sensors mast. Note the exhaust funnel just behind the mast. Source


CEAFAR is an active phased array radar with a unique microwave tile-based design. The combination of the microwave tile and the Digital Beam Forming (DBF) backend provides a modular, programmable and scalable solution. The radar is configurable to meet operational, physical and cost requirements for both military and civil applications.

Features Include:

  • scalable in size and power to meet a broad range of applications, suitable from ‘Corvettes to Cruisers’
  • full 3D multifunction capabilities
  • advanced classification capabilities
  • optimised for littoral and open ocean
  • evolves to meet changing requirements
  • very high reliability, no in-mission maintenance.


CEAMOUNT active phased array radar system


This is an active phased array solution providing target illumination and missile up-link for semi-active homing missiles.

The system uses MMIC technology to provide a high-power, light-weight phased array illuminator. CEAMOUNT is available mounted on an agile director or in fixed face configurations.

Features Include:

  • X-band active phased array illuminator;
  • trainable or fixed face configuration;
  • very high operational availability and reliability;
  • electronic beam steering;
  • significant capability growth for upgraded systems;
  • services multiple target / multiple axis engagements
  • global application for ship-self defence systems;
  • capable of supporting multiple channels of fire;
  • supports all X-band guidance modes;
  • maximises missile/combat capabilities;
  • no in-mission maintenance;
  • high levels of redundancy.



CEAFAR and CEAMOUNT together provide a scalable and modular solution for anti-ship missile defence.

  • scalable in size and power to meet a broad range of applications, suitable from ‘Corvettes to Cruisers’
  • advanced anti-ship missile defence capability
  • scalable to support short and long range needs
  • high level of performance in littoral and open ocean environments
  • rapid response to multiple simultaneous and stressing threats
  • adaptable to changing operational requirements
  • simultaneous 3D Volume and Surface Surveillance
  • very high reliability
  • affordability.



Initially, the ASMD capability is being fitted in a single ship, HMAS Perth, prior to other Anzac vessels being modified. HMAS Perth began fitting out in January 2010. Initial operational capability for the ASMD started in 2011, followed by an operational evaluation period of 12 months.

In April 2009, Saab signed a continuation funding contract for progress of SEA 1448 phase 2 project of the Anzac frigates in Australia. The project will cost $840m. Under the project, Saab will integrate CEA Technologies radar and new navigation radars into the HMAS Perth. The funding for the lead ship was approved by the government and the project commenced in January 2010. This upgrade replaced the Saab Microwave Systems Sea Giraffe G/H-band radar. The contract also includes additional funding for implementation of an improved operations room design with additional air warfare capabilities of the ship.

Saab Systems, Defence Material Organisation and Tenix (now a part of BAE Systems) signed a three-way partnerhsip contract for enhancement and maintenance of the frigates in April 2007. This contract would replace the Anzac ship alliance that handled capability generation and the in-service support contract that handled capability sustainment. The contractual scope includes nine years of support with provision for extension for six more years.

Under the SEA 1448 phases 2A and 2B ASMD project, the team completed the final reviews for the mk3E combat management system in August 2008; received the first phased array radar faces and control equipment in June 2009; and completed HMAS Perth’s new FWD and AFT masts.

Further upgrades are scheduled under the joint project 2089 phase 2A (tactical information exchange domain) and Project SEA 1442 phase 4 (maritime communications modernisation).


CEAFAR2-L is from the CEAFAR2 high power PAR program that was developed in 2013. CEA’s technology matures within the framework of local key industry capacity programs. The CEAFAR2 radar is built on the previous generation CEAFAR S/X Band Radar Kit. The CEAFAR S/X-band radar is currently equipped with an Anzac-class frigate and is replaced in the ANZAC Anti-ship Missile Defense (ASMD) upgrade for project SEA 1448 Phase 2B. CEAFAR2 will focus on developing and demonstrating high-power gallium nitride (GaN) technology in the S, X and L bands.

The second generation CEAFAR phased array radar (PAR), which will replace the AN/SPS-49 (the second generation CEAFAR phased array radar) V).



Each ship is designed to accommodate, operate and maintain its own helicopter. The RAN is using its Sikorsky Seahawk S-70B2s initially but ordered 11 Kaman SH-2G Super Seasprite helicopters.

Sikorsky Seahawk S-70B2


Powerplant and fuel system

Number of Engines 2
Engine Type T700-GE401C
Maximum Take Off 3,426 shp 2,554 kw
OEI Shaft horsepower (30 sec) 1,911 shp 1,425 kw


Maximum Gross Weight 21,884 lbs 9,926  kg
Maximum Cruise Speed 146 kts 270 km/h
*HIGE Ceiling 15,989 ft 4,873 m
*HOGE Ceiling 11,222 ft 3,420 m
*AEO Service Ceiling 11,864 ft 3,616 m


Cabin Length 10.8 ft 3.2 m
Cabin Width 6.1 ft 1.8 m
Cabin Height 4.4 ft 1.3 m
Cabin Area 65 ft2 6.0 m2
Cabin Volume 299 ft3 8.5 m3

* At nominal take-off gross weight



Deliveries began in 2001 and the SH-2G(A) received provisional acceptance into service in October 2003.

The helicopters were grounded in May 2006, after problems with the flight control system and ITAS software. A review of the programme was initiated in May 2006 and, in May 2007, the RAN decided to continue with the project rather than pursue alternatives.

However in March 2008, the RAN finally announced the cancellation of the programme. The helicopters were returned to Kaman for possible sale.

SH-2G(A): Details


The RNZN ordered five SH-2Gs, two for the Anzac frigates. Deliveries completed in March 2003 and all five have entered service. These are armed with the Raytheon Maverick missile.


It is driven by a CODOG (combined diesel or gas) turbine system; one GE LM 2,500 gas turbine rated at 33,600hp with a power turbine speed of 3,600rpm; two MTU 12V 1163 TB83 diesels each rated at 4,828hp at 1,200rpm, twin shaft with controllable-pitch propellers.

GE LM 2,500 gas turbine


The LM2500 marine gas turbine is a simple-cycle, two-shaft, high-performance engine. Derived from GE’s CF6-6 aircraft engines, the LM2500 consists of a gas generator, a power turbine, attached fuel and lube oil pumps, a fuel control and speed governing system, associated inlet and exhaust sections, lube and scavenge systems as well as controls and devices for starting and monitoring engine operation.

The LM2500 is GE’s most widely-applied gas turbine, used by 33 navies worldwide. Possible applications for the LM2500 include patrol boats, corvettes, frigates, destroyers, cruisers, cargo/auxiliary ships and aircraft carriers. The LM2500 is also available as a military generator set.



Output 33,600 shp (25,060 kW)
SFC .373 lb/shp-hr (227 g/kW-hr)
Heat rate 6,860 Btu/shp-hr
9,200 Btu/kWs-hr
9,705 kJ/kWs-hr
Exhaust gas flow 155 lb/sec (70.5 kg/sec)
Exhaust gas temperature 1,051°F (566°C)
Power turbine speed 3600 rpm
Average performance, 60 Hertz, 59°F, sea level, 60% relative humidity, no inlet/exhaust losses


MTU 12V 1163 TB83 diesel


Propulsion: CODOG – 1 x 30,000shp GE LM2500 gas turbine; 2 x 8,500hp MTU 12V1163 Diesels; twin shafts; Bird Johnson controllable pitch propellers; 4 x 650kW diesel generators


Multilink capability

Saab Systems is also to develop a multilink capability for the Anzac Class frigates. The A$43m five-year contractual work, the joint project 2089 phase 2A, began on 24 March 2009. It will provide Nato link 16 and variable message format (VMF) for enhancing the existing Nato link 11. Key technologies to be used in this project include tactical data link systems, digital communication systems, and combat management systems. Northman Grumman mission systems will provide the data link processor. Design activities for the project have already begun.

Nato link 16

milsoftlink (1)


Role Long-range frigate capable of air defence, surface and undersea warfare, surveillance, reconnaissance and interdiction.
FFH 150
International Callsign
United We Stand
Home Port
Laid Down
5 November 1993
16 September 1994
18 May 1996
Dimensions & Displacement
Displacement 3,600 tonnes
Length 118 metres
Beam 14.8 metres
Draught 4.5 metres
Speed 27 knots
Range 6,000 nautical miles
Crew 177
  • 1 x General Electric LM2500 gas turbine engine
  • 2 x MTU 12V 1163 diesels driving two controllable pitch propellers
  • Mk 41 vertical launch system with Evolved Sea Sparrow missiles
  • Harpoon anti-ship missiles
  • 5 inch Mk45 Mod 2 automatic rapid fire gun
  • 4 x 50 calibre (12.7mm) machine guns
Torpedoes 2 x Mk32 Mod 5 triple mounted torpedo tubes
Physical Countermeasures
  • Loral Hycor SRBOC decoy launchers
  • BAE Nulka decoy launchers
  • SLQ-25C torpedo countermeasures
Electronic Countermeasures
  • JEDS 3701 electronic support measures
  • Telefunken PST-1720 comms intercept
  • Raytheon SPS-49(V)8 ANZ
  • CEAFAR Active Phased Array Radar
  • Kelvin Hughes Sharp Eye Navigation Radar
  • CEAMOUNT Illuminators
  • Saab Systems Ceros 200 Fire Control Director
  • Cossor AIMS Mk XII IFF
  • Thomson Sintra Spherion Sonar
  • Thales UMS 5424 Petrel Mine and Obstacle Avoidance Sonar
Combat Data Systems Saab Systems 9LV453 Mk3E
Electro-optic Systems
  • Saab Systems Ceros 200
  • Vampir NG infra-red search and track system
Helicopters 1 x MH-60R Seahawk
Inherited Battle Honours
Battle Honours
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Specification data

Main material source

Updated Apr 25, 2018

Kornet-D/EM Anti-Tank Weapon System

Kornet-D is a Russian ATGM platform based on the GAZ-2975. It employs 9M133M Kornet-M missiles in both Tandem-HEAT or thermobaric warhead variants.

It is capable of launching a salvo of two missiles less than a second apart, either at a single target or at two different targets simultaneously. The two-missile salvo is intended to either defeat active protection systems or to ensure a single tank’s destruction in the absence of an active protection system. The Kornet-D is capable of a “fire-and-forget” capability through the automatic tracking system, which tracks and guides each missile to their assigned targets without an operator’s aid. The operator may switch targets or override missile guidance during the missile’s flight. Source

Russia Tests Advanced New 21st Century Anti-Tank Weapon System – Kornet-EM

12:47 20.08.2016(updated 12:56 20.08.2016)

Another test stage of the advanced Russian multi-purpose anti-tank guided missile system Kornet-EM has been successfully completed, according to the newspaper Izvestia.

The Russian Defense Ministry has wrapped up a stage of tests of the new multi-purpose anti-tank guided missile system Kornet-EM, which is capable of effectively engaging both ground and air targets, including difficult-to-detect-and-defeat helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles, the newspaper Izvestia reported, referring to a source in the Ministry.

Developed by the Tula Instrument Design Bureau, the Kornet-EM is designed to protect the S-400 missile system from enemy saboteurs, armored vehicles and drones during route marches.

“The test stage was successfully completed, and the Tula system coped with all the tasks. We plan to wrap up the remaining test stages in the near future so that the Kornet-EM can be put into service,” the source said.

Izvestia also quoted a spokesperson for the holding High-Precision Systems holding as saying that the Russian Aerospace Forces’ command had heaped praise on the Kornet-EM for taking part in a simulated military operation during a phase of Army Games earlier this month.


The Kornet-EM anti-tank missile system © PHOTO: TOPWAR.RU

The Kornet-EM system, mounted on the Tigr armored vehicle’s chassis, was presented for the first time during the Victory Day Parade on Moscow’s Red Square on May 9, 2015. The difference between the latest model and ordinary armored vehicles can only be seen when two launchers with eight missiles, hidden in protective containers, rise from the vehicle’s body.


The Kornet-EM anti-tank missile system © PHOTO: TOPWAR.RU

In an interview with Izvestia, Dmitry Kornev, an editor of the website Militaryrussia, described the principle behind the Kornet-EM’s operating process as “quite simple”. According to him, as the system’s launcher directs a laser beam at the target, the missile’s target seeking device ‘sees’ it and hits the target, following the laser beam.

“The missile launcher is equipped not only with an infrared thermal imaging camera, but also with an automatic target tracking system, which independently keeps the target in the laser beam until it will be destroyed,” he said.

Kornev added that due to its very high speed and the precision of the Kornet-EM’s laser illumination system, as well as a Kornet-EM missile moving at a speed of more than 320 meters per second, the Kornet-EM is capable of destroying not only a tank, but also high-speed combat helicopters and drones, which are characterized by high maneuverability.

“The Kornet-EM’s technical ideology is simple enough and pertains to a very ‘smart’ launcher and a ‘stupid’ but powerful and high-speed missile. This solution is characteristic of the scientific school of Academician Arkady Shipunov, founder of the Tula Instrument Design Bureau,” he said.

He was echoed by Andrey Frolov, chief editor of Eksport Vooruzheny (Arms Export) journal, who was quoted by Izvestia as saying that the Kornet-EM’s armament includes a spate of rockets with anti-armor, explosive and thermobaric warheads, something that he said will help the Kornet-EM cope with a wide range of tasks.

Isvesuia also recalled that export versions of the Russian anti-tank missile systems of the previous generation have already taken part in the hostilities.

Earlier, the Yemeni TV channel Al-Masirah showed several videos of the Yemeni Armed Forces’ attacks on Saudi military positions.

During the attacks, a Russian anti-tank system destroyed several military vehicles, including an M1A2 Abrams, touted as one of the most protected tanks in the world.

Original port



Is designed to engage existing and future combat tanks protected by explosive reactive armor, light armored vehicles, fortifications, surface low-speed air targets (helicopters, UAVs, assault aircrafts) by day and at night in adverse weather conditions as well as in optical and radio jamming environment.

Basic Performances

Firing range
min ……………………………………………. 150 m
max …………………………………………… 10000 m
Armor penetration

capability behind ERA …………………

1100-1300 mm
ТNT equivalent

for HE warhead …………………………..

at least 7 kg
Guidance system ………………………. automatic,

laser beam riding

Jamming immunity ……………………. high
Number of targets

exposed to simultaneous

salvo firing …………………………………..

2 pcs.
Ammunition load ………………………… 16 pcs.
including ready-to-fire ………………… 8 pcs.

Vitaly V. Kuzmin

Advantages and Operating Features

Targets engagement in automatic mode reduces psychophysical stress of operators, requirements to their skills as well as reduces their training period.


Simultaneous salvo firing at two targets greatly increases rate of fire and firing effectiveness of the system.

Firing by two missiles in one beam to engage extra dangerous targets including those protected by ERA.


Vitaly V. Kuzmin

Two times (up to 10 km) as compared to Kornet E ATGW increase of firing range and guidance accuracy increases up to 5 times.

Wider possibilities for ATGW thanks to engagement of small-size air targets (helicopters, UAVs, assault aircrafts).

Vitaly V. Kuzmin

Kornet EM system can be installed on wide range of carriers with small loading capacity (1 pc AL 0.8-1.0 t; 2 pcs AL 1.2 -1.5 t).

System provides firing by all missiles of Kornet E family.

Automatic launcher


Automatic launcher with installed 4 (four) ready-to-fire guided missiles has TV/thermal imaging sight with TV high resolution cameras and 3-rd generation thermal imager, built-in laser rangefinder and laser guidance channel as well as target autotracker with laying drives.

  1. Guided missiles in container.
  2. TV/thermal imaging sight.
  3. Integrated guidance system with target autotracker.
  4. Guides with four GMs installed.
  5. Stand with elevation and azimuth laying drives.
  6. Lifting/Rising mechanism.

Basic Characteristics

Laying angles
on azimuth ………………………………. ±180 deg
on elevation …………………………….. from -5 to +45 deg
Fields of view (FOV)
TV channel
with wide FOV …………………………. 4х4 deg
with narrow FOV ……………………… 1х1 deg
rangefinder channel ……………….. 15х20 deg
TIS channel
with wide FOV ………………………….. 5.9х7.3 deg
with narrow FOV ………………………. 1.9х2.4 deg
Measured ranges ………………………. 200-15000 m
RMS error for 10 km …………………… 0.3 m
Module weight ……………………………. 75.2 kg

9М133М-2 antitank guided missile


Flight range ……………………………………………………. 150-8000 m
Armor penetration ………………………………………….. 1100-1300 mm
Max flying speed …………………………………………….. 300 m/sec
Weight with the container ……………………………….. 31 kg
Container length …………………………………………….. 1210 mm

9М133FМ-2 guided missile


Flight range ………………………………………………….. 150-8000 m
TNT equivalent …………………………………………….. 10 kg
Max flying speed ………………………………………….. 300 m/sec
Weight with the container …………………………….. 31 kg
Container length …………………………………………… 1210 mm

9М133FМ-3 guided missile


Flight range …………………………………………………… 150-10000 m
TNT equivalent ……………………………………………… 7 kg
Max flying speed …………………………………………… 320 m/sec
Weight with the container ……………………………… 33 kg
Container length ……………………………………………. 1210 mm

Training aids


Operators are being trained in basic operation skills using indoor computer-based simulator which looks like weapon operator’s working station with monitor. The training missions set in simulator provide self-training and registration of training results.

Source KBP High Precision Weapons

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Updated April 04, 2020

Kongsberg’s Naval Strike Missile (NSM)

The stealth design of the NSM allows the anti-ship missile to penetrate into shipboard defences. The NSM is effectively used in littoral and open sea environments. The airframe design and the high thrust-to-weight ratio enhance the manoeuvrability of the missile.

The missile has a length of 3.96m. It can carry a 125kg HE fragmentation warhead for a maximum range of more than 185km. The launch weight of the missile is 407kg. The NSM based Coastal Defence System (CDS) includes a fire distribution centre (FDC), sea surveillance and tracking radar and an NSM launcher fire unit.

The NSM can be fired from a range of platforms against a variety of targets. The passive homing missile travels in sea-skimming mode and can make advanced terminal manoeuvres in the terminal phase, to survive enemy air defences.

The missile, using GPS-aided mid-course guidance with a dual-band imaging infrared (IIR) seeker, detects and discriminates the targets. Autonomous target recognition (ATR) of the seeker ensures accurate detection and striking of sea or land based targets. A programmable fuse is used to detonate the missile’s warhead.

Propulsion of Kongsberg Defence Systems’ NSM

The NSM is launched into the air by a solid rocket booster which is jettisoned upon ignition. The Microturbo TRI-40 turbojet engine propels the missile towards its target with high subsonic speed.


General characteristics

  • Type: Single Spool Turbojet
  • Length: 680 mm
  • Diameter: 280 mm
  • Dry weight: 44 kg


  • Compressor: 4 stage axial
  • Combustors: Annular
  • Turbine: Single-stage
  • Fuel type: JP8, JP10


The Microturbo TRI-40 is a small turbojet engine developed for use in cruise missiles and small unmanned aerial vehicles in the 2.2 – 3.6 kN thrust class.

Microturbo TRI-40 Source


The TRI-40 is a single spool turbojet engine consisting of a four-stage axial compressor, annular smokeless combustor and a single-stage turbine. It delivers a maximum thrust of 2.5-3.3kN. The engine can be run on JP8 or JP10 fuel.


Technical source


Tupolev Tu-22M/22M3/22M3M Strategic Bomber

The Tupolev Tu-22M (also known as Backfire) is a long-range strategic and maritime strike bomber developed by Tupolev for the Soviet Air Force. The aircraft is currently in service with the Russian Air Force and Russian Naval Aviation.

The Tu-22M was based on the design of the Tu-22 aircraft. The first Tu-22M-0 prototype completed its maiden flight in August 1969. The Tu-22M-1 first flew in July 1971 and the Tu-22M was first deployed in combat missions in Afghanistan between 1987 and 1989. The Tu-22M3 was used by Russia for combat operations in Chechnya in 1995.

The aircraft is primarily used to conduct nuclear strike and conventional attack operations. It can also be deployed in anti-ship and maritime reconnaissance missions.

Tupolev Tu-22M variants


The earliest pre-production aircraft produced was the Tu-22M0. Its production was limited to small numbers due to inadequate performance. It was followed by the Tu-22M1 pilot-production aircraft for the Soviet Naval Aviation.

Production on the first major production version, Tu-22M2 began in 1972. It was equipped with extended wings and a redesigned fuselage, twin engines and a new undercarriage.

The Tu-22M3 was introduced with upgraded features to overcome the shortfalls of its predecessor. The aircraft completed its first flight in June 1977 and was inducted into the inventory in 1983. Some of the Tu-22Ms were also modified to Tu-22MR and Tu-22ME standard.

Tu-22M3M Backfire C (Tu-26)

Tu_22M3M_big.pngThe Tu-22M3M is a modernized version of the Tu-22M3. There’s only one prototype yet, which undertakes tests now, with frame number RF-94145, made last year (2012). Image:

It’s equipped with an advanced electronic system SVP-24-22 (similar to the one of Su-24 airplane), which was developed by the JSC “Gefest and T”. It provides automatic guidance to the target and if necessary recalculates the parameters of the attack during flight. It has also the capability to guide a group of planes to the target from various directions and can land the aircraft of its own, if the weather conditions are bad. This system has significantly improved the navigation and targeting from a long distance, without having to approach the target and once the rocket is fired, it is very difficult to be locked and destroyed.


Mutli-function LCD displays

The SNRS-24 is an advanced navigation system developed to provide better guidance to the crew especially in combat situations and is a part of the SVP-24-22 system.

Among others it provides:

Satellite navigation through GLONASS and GPS.

Coordination correction of the field during flight (KENS).

Data exchanging through SV-24/22.

It has the capability to reconfigure the flight parameters in case of any failure or change in the original flight plan, or the target engaging.

BFI – Graphical on monitor, data representation of the flight parameters. (Gathering of information through a multi-channel system for the SV-24 on-board computer and transforming them to symbolic and graphical representation on LCD monitors.)

UVV-MP-22 – Input/Output module UVV-MP-22 (UVV-S & UVV F)

TBN-K-2 – Data storage system TBN-K-2, for the collection and registration of information that are collected from the target-navigation system. Source

30 Tu-22M3 to be upgraded to Tu-22M3M

In 2012, the range of airborne and ground equipment SVP-24-22 to be erected in four distant supersonic missile-bomber Tu-22M3. This was stated by Director General of “Hephaestus and T” Alexander Panin, in an interview to ITAR-TASS. This company is the creator of the modification of the complex SVP-24 which already quite successfully operated on the modernization of Russian Sukhoi Su-24.

With all of this emphasizes that the installation of SVP-24-22 provides separate applets and will be implemented regardless of the plans for the modernization of the deepest, which are subject to 30 missile carriers Tu-22M3. The new complex SVP-24-22 allows you to more effectively perform combat tasks and navigation also achieve improved accuracy hell aircraft systems failure. In addition, the complex provides a clear set of military aircraft to land in bad weather and with no land kursoglissadnyh systems. System SVP-24 avionics for all that is versatile and can be installed on many types of aircraft and helicopters of the Russian Air Force, including the bombers Tu-22M3 and Su-24M or attack helicopters Ka-52. Another advantage is its undisputed fact that this system allows to reduce ground time of preparation and control of the aircraft at 4-5. Tu-22M3, one flight hour which asks 51-man hours of engineering support, it’s pretty basic.

“30 aircraft will be quite in order to bring down one American aircraft carrier”

Sivkov Constantine, who is a physician of Military Sciences and the first vice-president of the Academy of Geopolitical problems, pointed out that the modernization implies a complete substitute for navigation, weapons control and communications, and will cost from 30% to 50% of the price of the aircraft. With all of this upgrade to version 30 aircraft Tu-22M3M do better fighting ability Park Tu-22M3 20%. According to him, the modernization of only 30 aircraft will be quite in order to bring down one South American aircraft carrier sunk with all this, a number of escort ships. While upgrading the entire fleet of bombers Tu-22M3 is permitted to raise their efficiency by 100-120% for offshore facilities and 2-3 times the action on land targets. Source

Noticeable changes on the nose – Интернет-газета «Реальное время» gun removed – UFO- END YouTube

Introducing the SVP-24

SVP stands for “специализированная вычислительная подсистема” or “special computing subsystem”.  What this system does is that it constantly compares the position of the aircraft and the target (using the GLONASS satellite navigation system), it measures the environmental parameters (pressure, humidity, windspeed, speed, angle of attack, etc.).  It can also receive additional information from datalinks from AWACs aircraft, ground stations, and other aircraft.  The SVP-24 then computes an “envelope” (speed, altitude, course) inside which the dumb bombs are automatically released exactly at the precise moment when their unguided flight will bring them right over the target (with a 3-5m accuracy).


In practical terms this means that every 30+ year old Russian “dumb” bomb can now be delivered by a 30+ year old Russian aircraft with the same precision as a brand new guided bomb delivered by a top of the line modern bomber.

Not only that, but the pilot does not even have to worry about targeting anything.  He just enters the target’s exact coordinates into his system, flies within a defined envelope and the bombs are automatically released for him.  He can place his full attention on detecting any hostiles (aircraft, missiles, AA guns).  And the best part of this all is that this system can be used in high altitude bombing runs, well over the 5000m altitude which MANPADs cannot reach.  Finally, clouds, smoke, weather conditions or time of the day play no role in this whatsoever.

Last, but not least, this is a very *cheap* solution.  Russian can now use the huge stores of ‘dumb’ bombs they have accumulated during the Cold War, they can bring an infinite supply of such bombs to Syria and every one of them will strike with phenomenal accuracy.  And since the SVP-24 is mounted on the aircraft and not the bomb, it can be reused as often as needed.

The SVP-24 has now been confirmed to be mounted on the Russian SU-24s, SU-25s, Tu-22M3 “Backfires” and the Kamov Ka-50 and Ka-52 helicopters, the venerable MiG-27 and even the L-39 trainer.  In other words, it can be deployed on practically *any* rotary or fixed wing aircraft, from big bombers to small trainers. I bet you the Mi-24s and Mi-35Ms deployed near Latakia also have them.

Here are what the various parts of the SVP-24 system look like (photo from the MAKS Air Show inZhukovsky):


The SVP-24 proves, yet again, the good engineering, especially good military engineering does not have to be expensive or flashy.  In practice the introduction of the SVP-24 in the RASF resulted in a net reduction in operating costs. Source


New data on Tu-22M3M modernization

New details have appeaed on this aircraft’s modernization. According to the data posted by alexeyvvo at, a NV-45 radar is being installed. This model, manufactured by Leninets, derives from the P-38 Novella used in Il-38N. So far there are no details on the performance. The P-38 can track detect targets at 320 kms. The cost of 4 NV-45 sets is 8.33 million $.

The installation shows that the main mission of Tu-22M3M will be ground attack/strike. A few years ago there were talks about installing a radar similar to the Su-35 and air to air missiles. Source

Ilyushin Il-38N: Details


Tupolev Tu-22M design

The Tupolev Tu-22M incorporates a long variable sweep wing fuselage design. The aircraft features a stepped cockpit and variable-geometry outer wing panels. The tail fin is swept-back and tapered with a square tip. The flats mounted on the centre of body are pointed with blunt tips and each wing includes a centre section and two outer panels. The outer wings are attached to the centre section through hinged joints.


Tu-22M3 has a length of 42.4m, maximum wing span of 34.2m, and a height of 11.05m. The empty weight and maximum takeoff weights of the aircraft are 53,500kg and 126,400kg respectively.


The semi-glass cockpit accommodates a crew of four on upward-firing ejection seats. It is equipped with dedicated panels for pilots, navigator-operator and commander, with entry provided through individual doors. The pressurised cockpit is equipped with climate control systems.

186771.jpgTu-22M3 cockpit – Image: airplane-pictures.netTu-22M3 rear cockpit – Image:

Latest cockpit upgrade

image_5012fe6420671New upgraded cockpit rear cockpit 


The aircraft is provided with hard points to carry Kh-22 stand-off missiles, Kh-15 nuclear or Kh-15P anti-radar missiles and FAB-250 or FAB-1500 free fall bombs. The wing and fuselage pylons and internal weapons bay are provided with a capacity to carry 24,000kg of weapons payload. The aircraft is also armed with a double-barrelled GSH-23 (23mm) gun in remotely controlled tail turret.

Double-barrelled GSH-23 (23mm) gun in remotely controlled tail turret


Caliber: 23×115 mm

Weight: 51 kilos. ( 52.5 GSh-23L, 60 GSh-23V water cooled variant)

Lenght : 1347 mm ( GSh-23 L 1537 mm)

Width: 169 mm

Height: 165 mm

Rate of fire: adjustable 2900 to 3400 rpm


The main armament of the Tu-22M3 is a combination of three X-22MA missiles (one under the fuselage and two under the wings). The missile is intended against naval or ground targets and the destruction of anti-air defense locations. It has a range of 140-150 km, weights 5.900 kg and travels at about 4 Mach. Besides the X-22MA missile, the aircraft can also carry the X-15 missiles for attacking naval targets with a millimeter wave length sensor for passive guidance against radars. Source

X-50 cruise missile

X-47M2 hypersonic complex Dagger will be tested on a long-range bomber Tu-22M3

Tu-22M3 confirmed to carry 4 Kinzhal hypersonic missiles

Kh-22 Kitchen (AS-4 KITCHEN)


The “Kh-22” missile (NATO codename “AS-4 Kitchen)”, part of the “K-22” weapons system, was a supersonic rocket powered weapon. It had a pencil-shaped fuselage, with twin delta wings and a cruciform tail assembly; the bottom tailfin folded sideways to provide takeoff clearance. The rocket was liquid-fueled, using storable hydrazine and nitric acid propellants, and has two rocket chambers, one for boost and one for long-range cruise.

The Kh-22 was guided by a gyroscopic INS, with a Doppler radar altimeter. The guidance system was evaluated on modified MiG-19 fighters. There were three initial variants: the “Kh-22”, an antiship variant with an active radar terminal seeker and a conventional warhead; the “Kh-22P”, a “defense suppression” variant with a passive radar homing terminal seeker and a nuclear warhead, intended to crush adversary air-defense sites; and the “Kh-22N” version for strategic attacks. The missile performed a high-altitude pop-up attack to descend on the target at Mach 2.5. It followed a “semi-ballistic” trajectory, with either a relatively shallow pop-up to medium altitudes followed by a Mach 1.2 dive towards the target, or a stratospheric pop-up followed by a Mach 2.5 dive towards the target.

Raduga began work on the Kh-22 in 1958 and it was first deployed in the mid-1960s. A Bear bomber could carry one under the centerline; it also had a pylon mounted on each wing close to the wing root, allowing it to carry two Kh-22s. Pictures exist of Bears carrying three Kh-22s but this was apparently not a practical operational load. One can be carried under the belly by the “Tu-22 Blinder” or “Tu-22M Backfire” supersonic bombers, with another possibly carried under each wing.

In the 1970s, two improved variants were introduced: the “Kh-22M”, for antiship and precision land attack, with a new HI-LO attack profile; and the “Kh-22MA”, with a LO-LO attack profile. Both variants added improved counter-countermeasures and a datalink for course corrections. The Kh-22 was obsolescent by the late 1970s but has lingered on since that time.

The Kh-22 was a bit too big for smaller bombers, and so a scaled-down variant, the “KSR-5” (NATO codename “AS-6 Kingfish)”, was built. First flight was in 1964, with introduction to service in 1969. It had a little more than two-thirds the launch weight of the Kh-22, but was otherwise so similar that it is difficult to tell the two weapons apart — the most distinctive difference is that the Kh-22 / AS-4 had a ventral fin under the belly. The general airframe configuration is the same, and like the Kh-22 the KSR-5 is powered by a liquid-fuel engine with storable propellants. Some older sources claim it used solid propulsion, but this is incorrect. Source





Even the fast KSR-5 left something to be desired. Storable rocket propellants are corrosive and highly toxic, making them difficult to handle, and the KSR-5’s range and capability were inadequate. In the 1970s, the US Navy developed the Grumman F-14 Tomcat interceptor, which featured long-range Phoenix air-to-air missiles. The Tomcat / Phoenix combination, backed up by the Grumman E-2C Hawkeye carrier-based radar early warning aircraft, presented a clear threat to Soviet bombers operating in the anti-ship role. The Hawkeye could provide long-range “eyes” for the Tomcat, which had long range and endurance, allowing it to fire a Phoenix at a Soviet bomber long before the Red aircraft got within range of a carrier group. If the bomber did manage to take a shot with a cruise missile, the Phoenix might well shoot the missile down.

The Tomcat / Phoenix / Hawkeye threat led the Soviets to develop the low-level launch versions of the Kh-22 and KSR-5 missiles, and also to work on a missile that was much harder to intercept. The Soviets were impressed enough by the Boeing SRAM that Raduga developed an equivalent, the “Kh-15 (AS-16 Kickback)”, which has almost the same external appearance as the SRAM. It was the first Soviet large ASM with solid-fuel rocket propulsion.

The Kh-15 is a simple spike of a missile with three tailfins. The resemblance to SRAM is so close that it is tempting to refer to the Kh-15 as “SRAMski”. Unlike SRAM, however, as with the other large Soviet ASMs, the Kh-15 was designed for both strategic and anti-ship attack. There are three versions: the standard Kh-15 nuclear-armed strategic variant, with inertial guidance only; a conventionally-armed anti-ship variant, the “Kh-15A”, with an active radar terminal seeker; and an antiradar variant, the “Kh-15P”, with a passive radar seeker. An export version of the Kh-15A, the “Kh-15S”, was also built. After launch, the missile climbs to the edge of space and then dives on the target steeply at Mach 5, making it very hard to hit.


Raduga began work on the Kh-15 in the late 1960s and it was accepted for service in the early 1980s. A Tu-22M Backfire bomber can carry six Kh-15s in a revolver launcher in the weapons bay, plus four more under the wings. It is also carried by the Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack bomber. Source

FAB-250 or FAB-1500 free fall bombs

The Russian term for general-purpose bomb is fugasnaya aviatsionnaya bomba (FAB) and followed by the bomb’s nominal weight in kilograms. Most Russian iron bombs have circular ring airfoils rather than the fins used by Western types.

In 1962 a new series of streamlined, low-drag bombs was introduced, designed for external carriage by fighter-bomber aircraft rather than in internal bays. They come in only two sizes, 250 kg (550 lb) and 500 kg (1,100 lb). Both bombs have a single nose fuze.


FAB-1500 free fall bombs

Both the 54 and 62 series designs remain in use. The most common of these are the FAB-100, FAB-250, FAB-500, FAB-750, and FAB-1500, roughly corresponding to the U.S. Mark 80 series. These have seen widespread service in Russia, Warsaw Pact nations, and various export countries.

Larger bombs with less streamlined shapes also remained in the Soviet arsenal, primarily for use by heavy bombers. In the Iran–Iraq War, FAB-5000 (5,000 kg/11,000 lb) and FAB-9000 (9,000 kg/20,000 lb) bombs were dropped by Iraqi Air Force Tupolev Tu-22 bombers, generally against large, fixed targets in Iran. In Afghanistan in the 1980s, Soviet Tupolev Tu-16 and Tupolev Tu-22M bombers used massive FAB-1500, FAB-3000 and FAB-9000 bombs to devastating effect during the Panjshir offensives. Source

TU-22M3 of 840 heavy bomber regiment at Novgorod_13Image:

The modernized airplanes, according to available intelligence will be armed with the next generation X-32 (Kh-32) missile, which is under development now on the basis of X-22 (Kh-22), with many improvements like the increased range (up to 1000 klm) and speed (up to 5 Mach). This missile is expected to enter service in 2020. Source

X-32 (Kh-32) missile

There is not much information on the Kh-32 but it is rumored to fly at Mach 7 and has a range of over 1,000 km.


The new weapon will be able to rise into the stratosphere to a height of up of 130,000 feet, with a nuclear or conventional 500-kilogram (1,102 lb) warhead and hit targets within a few yards.

Each long-range bomber can carry only two of these cruise missiles, each of which weighs about six tons.


Kh-32 specifications

The missile is equipped with an inertial navigation system (an autonomous system not affected by electronic warfare) and heat-seeking warheads with a radar homing head. This solution will greatly improve the accuracy of its guidance, making it independent of GPS/Glonass navigation satellite systems.

Unlike other missiles, the Kh-32 rises into the stratosphere to the height of aerospace probes, where there are no potential adversary fighters or missiles. Then it flies a distance of up to 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) before swooping down on a target.

According to an RBTH source in the defense industry, no Russian or foreign missile defense system today is able to detect the Kh-32 approaching the target: neither the domestic S-400 Triumph system nor the American MIM-104 Patriot.

“The airspeed of the Kh-32 is five times higher than its predecessor, which has been deployed since the late 1960s,” the source said. “Air and missile defense systems today cannot detect a diving warhead, which moves down at a speed of over 5,400 km/h.”


Tu-22M3 launching a Kh-32 cruise missile

Tu-22-bomb-bay-video.jpgTu-22M3 bomb bay – Image:

Now comes some data in detail: 1 Radio combat (round trip) of a bomber Tu-22M3 loaded with 24,000 kgs of bombs mission profile hi-hi-hi subsonic (cruising at high altitude throughout the profile flight) taking off from the Iranian air Force Base in Hamadan:


2nd Radio combat (round trip) of a bomber Tu-22M3 loaded with 12,000 kgs of bombs mission profile hi-hi-hi subsonic (cruising at high altitude throughout the flight profile) off from the Iranian airbase Hamadan:

tu-22m3 48 ofab 250Image:

One option would be a configuration 3rd internal load, for example, 27 pumps of 250 kgs. This does not harm the aerodynamics, as if it does load bombs on external-media and provide a radio hi-hi-hi subsonico above the 2nd option.


Translated from Spanish Source


Sensors / radars

The aircraft is fitted with PN-A/PN-AD bombing-navigation radar system, Argon-2 radar fire-control system and a TV-based backup optical bomb sight. The countermeasures are provided by a radar warning receiver, radio-frequency jammers, and updated defensive countermeasures gear.

Tu-22M3M Radar


In the autumn of 2013, the green radar complex NV-45 was again used again. In 2014, the test manufacturer allegedly handed over an improved trial specimen of this radar station. Completing the first four Tu-22M3 ( Backfire C ) aircraft from the VVS state to the Tu-22M3M level was ordered by the Russian Defense Ministry in 2016. Part of the contract was an order for four NV-45 radar complexes to be shipped to the fourth quarter the same year. The handover of the aforementioned VVS aircraft is expected in mid-2017.

NN-45 Novella-45 radar-type radar transponder radar type 1NV-1, installed at the top of the fuselage, and a Krypton ( Box Tail )PRS-4KM rear-mounted radar detectorinstalled inside the cover SOP, in the area above the firing tower. Type 1NV-1 radar serves for navigating, searching and tracking land targets and guiding missiles.  Source

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 444.5 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 1980s
Properties: Pulse-only Radar
Sensors / EW:
Down Beat [1NV-1] – (Tu-22M-3M) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Air-to-Surface, Long-Range
Max Range: 444.5 km


L-082 MAK-UL series infrared MAWS

IMG_2754-lj.jpgAir Power Australia WebsiteImage:

L-082 Mak-UL – (BKO-2 Karpaty EW Suite) Infrared
MAWS, Missile Approach Warning System
Max Range: 9.3 km


SPS-171/172 Sorbtsiya [L-005] ECM


SPS-171/172 Sorbtsiya [L-005] – (Tu-22M) ECM
DECM, Defensive ECM
Max Range: 0 km

Avtomat 2/3 – (Tu-22M-2/3) ESM

RWR, Radar Warning Receiver
Max Range: 222.2 km

Down Beat [PNA-D Rubin] – (Tu-22M-3) Radar

Radar, FCR, Air-to-Surface, Long-Range
Max Range: 444.5 km


OBP-15T optical bombsight on Tu-22M3


The ventral OBP-15T remote TV bombsight is used to target dumb bombs. The fairing for this device is well placed to fit an infrared imaging laser targeting system (RuAF). Source

General data:
Type: Visual Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 3.7 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Visual, 1st Generation TV Camera (1960s/1970s, TISEO)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Sensors / EW:
Bomb Sight [OPB-15T Groza] – (Tu-22M, Tu-160) Visual
Role: Visual, Bomb Sight
Max Range: 3.7 km


PRS-4KM fitted to Tu-22M3 tail radar

ГШ-23_в_корме_Ту-22PKS-4KM  rear radar – Image:
General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 18.5 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 1970s
Properties: Pulse-only Radar
Sensors / EW:
Fan Tail [PRS-4KM Krypton-B] – Radar
Role: TWR, Tail Warning Radar & Tail Gun Director
Max Range: 18.5 km


Engines and landing gear


“The aircraft is equipped with tricycle landing gear to support operations on unprepared runways.”

The Tu-22M3 is powered by two Kuznetsov NK-25 turbofan engines installed in the body with large air intakes and dual exhausts. Each engine produces a maximum thrust of 25,000kg and delivers an improved fuel economy.

Kuznetsov NK-25 turbofan engine


NK-6 NK-25 NK-254) NK-25 NK-25
Thrust – maximal kp 14500 3) 14800
– Full afterburner kp 25000 25000 25000
– Supersonic cruise mode kp
– Subsonic cruising mode kp
– To overcome M = 1 adj. He slept. kp
– idle kp
SFC – maximum thrust -1.h -1 0.76 0.58
– Full afterburner -1.h -1 1.95 2.1 2.08
– Supersonic cruise mode -1.h -1
– Subsonic cruising mode
Airflow kg.s -1
pass ratio 0.6 1.45
Compressibility blower
The total compression of the compressor 14.75 14 25.9
Maximum temperature before turbine C 1087 1327
The total length of the engine mm 5200 7300
The maximum diameter of the engine mm 1500 1770
diameter blowers mm 1348
Dry weight engine kg 2850 3575
The full weight of the engine kg 4275
Acceleration from idle to max. Draft with 9
Acceleration from idle to full adj. He slept. with 18
Source [Dvig] [Dvig]

Engine Specification

The aircraft is equipped with tricycle landing gear to support operations on unprepared runways. The nose gear includes backward retractable twin wheels. Each main landing gear unit consists of six wheels in a 2×3 bogie arrangement. These are retracted straight in to the fuselage. The Tu-22M2 was equipped with twin brake slides and a runway arresting hook.


Performance of the Tu-22M3

The Tu-22M3 can fly at a maximum altitude of 14,000m and the rate of climb of the aircraft is 15m/s. The aircraft has a cruise speed of 900km/h and maximum speed of 2,300km/h. The operational range of the aircraft is 7,000km.

The aircraft can be equipped with refuelling probes to allow in-flight refuelling for extended range.

TYPE Long range Bomber
POWER-PLANT Two bypass engine NK-22
Thrust, kg 2 x 22.000
Length, m 41,16
Height, m 11,15
Wing span, m
– minimum 20o 34,28
– maximum 65o 23,30
Wing area, m2
– minimum 20o 183,58
– maximum 65o 175,78
Maximum take-off, kg 126.000
Normal take-off 112.000
Maximum speed, (10.000 m), km/h 2.300
Cruising speed, (missile X-22M-Tu-22M, Tu-22M2), km/h 900
Service ceiling, m 13.000
ARMAMENT 1 x 23-mm cannon GSh-23

Warload-24.000 kg (maximum )

Tu-22M3M Specification


Main material source

Updated Jul 17, 2020

Size comparison

Tu-160-Comp-1Image: ausairpower.netTy-95MC-Side-CompImage: