In November 1989, the Australian / New Zealand frigate building project contracted Australian shipbuilders Tenix Defence Systems to construct ten Anzac Class frigates; eight for Australia and two for New Zealand. The first frigate for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), HMAS Anzac, was commissioned in May 1996.
The other hulls are: HMAS Arunta (FFH 151), commissioned December 1998; HMAS Warramunga (FFH 152), March 2001; HMAS Stuart (FFH 153), August 2002; HMAS Parramatta (FFH 154), October 2003; HMAS Ballarat (FFH 155), June 2004; HMAS Toowoomba (FFH 156), October 2005; HMAS Perth (FFH 157), August 2006. The two frigates for New Zealand, HMNZS Te Kaha (F77) and Te Mana (F111), were commissioned in July1997 and December 1999.
HMAS Parramatta (FFH 154) – Image @tinypic.com
Anzac Class frigate construction and development
Tenix Defence Systems (now part of BAE Systems Australia) is the prime contractor, with responsibility for design and systems integration of the ship; subcontractor Blohm + Voss Australia provides the platform design and combat system integration; and Saab Systems Australia provides electronic integration and combat system design.
HMAS Warramunga (FFH 152)
The 3,600t frigates were built at Tenix’s Williamstown yard in Victoria, Australia. The design is based on the Blohm + Voss Meko 200 modular design which utilises a basic hull and construction concept to provide flexibility in the choice of command and control, weapons, equipment and sensors.
HMAS Anzac (FFH 150)
In March 2003, HMAS Anzac was deployed in support of coalition forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Both of the New Zealand frigates were deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom.
In February 2010, a major upgrade to the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) frigate Te Kaha was completed. In December 2010, The RNZN frigate Te Mana returned to service after a seven-month refit programme. Both frigates were fitted with new diesel engines for improved performance and reduced fuel costs.
Command and control
HMAS Perth (FFH 157) Bridge (See video at bottom)
The Anzac’s combat data system is built around the Saab Systems 9LV 453 mk3 combat management system, with link 11 and SHF satellite commmunications. The 9LV mk3E is fitted in the last vessel for the RAN. MILSATCOM communications system has been installed in HMAS Warramunga and subsequent vessels, which facilitates joint exercises with US and allied navies.
HMAS Anzac – Image @navaltoday.com
Weapons control is managed by the Saab Systems 9LV 453 optronic director with Saab Systems J-band radar. Raytheon CW mk73 is the fire control system for the Sea Sparrow missile. This has been replaced with the CEA Technologies I/J-band solid-state continuous-wave illuminator transmitter (SSCWI) on Warramunga and will be fitted to all Anzac vessels.
CEA Technologies I/J-band solid-state continuous-wave illuminator transmitter (SSCWI)
CEA SOLID STATE CONTINUOUS WAVE ILLUMINATOR (SSCWI) TRANSMITTER
CEA SSCWI is a solid state transmitter, suitable for use with semi-active homing surface to air missiles including Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM). Available in high and medium power versions for ships of varying sizes, the SSCWI’s core solid state technology and hardware control interface provides.
- enhanced performance
- equipment size reduction
- improved maintainability and reliability.
The Anzac is armed with one eight-cell mk41 vertical launching system for Nato Sea Sparrow surface-to-air missiles. Sea Sparrow is a semi-active radar missile with a range of 14.5km.
The MK 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) is the worldwide standard in shipborne missile launching systems. Under the guidance of the US Navy, Martin Marietta performs the design, development, production, and field support that make the battle-proven VLS the most advanced shipborne missile launching system in the world. The Mk 41 VLS simultaneously supports multiple warfighting capabilities, including antiair warfare, antisubmarine warfare, ship self-defense, strike warfare, and antisurface warfare.
The Vertical Launching System (VLS) Mk 41 is a canister launching system which provides a rapid-fire launch capability against hostile threats. The missile launcher consists of a single eight-cell missile module, capable of launching SEASPARROW missiles used against hostile aircraft, missiles and surface units. Primary units of the VLS are two Launch Control Units, one 8-Cell Module, one 8-Cell System Module, a Remote Launch Enable Panel and a Status Panel.
The Launch Control Units receive launch orders from the Multi-Function Computer Plant (MFCP). In response to the orders, the Launch Control Units select and issue prelaunch and launch commands to the selected missile in the VLS launcher. During normal VLS operations, each Launch Control Unit controls half of the Launch Sequencers in the launcher. Either Launch Control Unit can be ordered by the MFCP where one Launch Control Unit is offline and the other Launch Control Unit assumes control of all Launch Sequencers in the launcher.
The 8-Cell Module consists of an upright structure that provides vertical storage space for eight missile canisters. A deck and hatch assembly at the top of the module protects the missile canisters during storage and the hatches open to permit missile launches. The plenum and uptake structure capture and vent missile exhaust gases vertically up through the module to the atmosphere through the uptake hatch. Electronic equipment mounted on the 8-Cell Module monitors the stored missile canisters and the module components and assists in launching the missiles.
“quad pack” launcher (Mk-41 VLS)
Sea Sparrow has been replaced by the evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM) in HMAS Warramunga, Stuart and Parramatta, increasing the capacity from eight to 32 missiles, and the weapon system was declared operational on these vessels in June 2004. ESSM will be retrofitted in the first two Australian ships. HMAS Warramunga was the first vessel in the world to be fitted with the ESSM.
Evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM)
RIM-162 ESSM was developed by the U.S. Navy in cooperation with an international consortium of other NATO partners plus Australia. ESSM is a short-range, semi-active homing missile that makes flight corrections via radar and midcourse data uplinks. The missile provides reliable ship self-defense capability against agile, high-speed, low-altitude anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs), low velocity air threats (LVATs), such as helicopters, and high-speed, maneuverable surface threats. ESSM is integrated with a variety of U.S. and international launchers and combat systems across more than 10 different navies.
ESSM has an 8-inch diameter forebody that tapers to a 10-inch diameter rocket motor. The forebody includes a guidance section uses a radome-protected antenna for semi-active homing and attaches to an improved warhead section. A high-thrust, solid-propellant 10-inch diameter rocket motor provides high thrust for maneuverability with tail control via a Thrust Vector Controller (TVC).
ESSM’s effective tracking performance and agile kinematics result from S- and X-band midcourse uplinks, high average velocity and tail control, increased firepower through a vertical “quad pack” launcher (Mk-41 VLS), and greater lethality with a warhead designed for defeating hardened ASCMs.
ESSM is a cooperative effort among 10 of 12 NATO Sea Sparrow nations governed by a Production Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and multinational work-share arrangement. In addition to the United States, ESSM Consortium Members include Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Turkey.
The first production ESSM was delivered in late 2002 to the U.S. Navy by Raytheon Missile Systems (RMS) and has been in full operational use in the U.S. since 2004. ESSM is fired from the Mk-29 trainable launcher, Mk-41 Vertical Launch System (VLS), Mk-57 VLS (DDG 1000), Mk-48 Guided Missile VLS (Canadian, Greece, Japan), and Mk-56 Dual Pack ESSM Launching System (Danish Navy) configurations by the U.S. Navy, NATO, and other Foreign Military Sales (FMS) customers. ESSM interfaces with the Aegis (DDG 51 and CG 47 classes), NSSMS (LHD and CVN classes), Ship Self-Defense System (LHA-6 and future CVN classes), Total Ship Computing Environment (DDG 1000), ANZAC (Royal Australian Navy), Dutch Configuration (various European Navies), FLEXFIRE (Danish Navy), and APAR (various European Navies) combat systems.
Primary Function: Surface-To-Air and Surface-To-Surface radar-guided missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems, Tuscson, Ariz.
Date Deployed: 2004
Unit Cost: $787000 – $972000 depending on configuration
Propulsion: NAMMO-Raufoss, Alliant (solid fuel rocket)
Length: 12 feet (3,64 meters)
Diameter: 8 inches (20,3 cm) – 10 inches (25,4 cm)
Weight: 622 pounds (280 kilograms)
Speed: Mach 4+
Range: more than 27 nmi (more than 50 km)
Guidance System: Raytheon semi-active on continuous wave or interrupted continuous wave illumination
Warhead: Annular blast fragmentation warhead, 90 pounds (40,5 kg)
RIM-162 ESSM data Source @seaforces.org
ESSM has been developed by Raytheon with an international cooperative of ten Nato countries and is designed to counter high-speed anti-ship missiles. It has the same semi-active radar guidance and warhead as the Seasparrow but has a new rocket motor and tail control to provide increased speed, range and manoeuvrability. ESSM was passed for full-rate production by the US Navy in April 2004.
Capacity to launch eight Boeing Harpoon block II anti-ship missiles has been added under project SEA 1348 Phase 3A. First vessel to receive the Harpoon launcher was Warramunga in December 2004. Seven vessels have received the modification and the eighth, Perth, was completed in September 2008. Harpoon Block II missiles have new inertial / GPS (global positioning system) guidance for precision targeting.
Harpoon block II anti-ship missile
The Harpoon missile provides the Navy and the Air Force with a common missile for air, ship, and submarine launches. The weapon system uses mid-course guidance with a radar seeker to attack surface ships. Its low-level, sea-skimming cruise trajectory, active radar guidance and warhead design assure high survivability and effectiveness. The Harpoon missile and its launch control equipment provide the warfighter capability to interdict ships at ranges well beyond those of other aircraft.
The Harpoon missile was designed to sink warships in an open-ocean environment. Other weapons (such as the Standard and Tomahawk missiles) can be used against ships, but Harpoon and Penguin are the only missiles used by the United States military with anti-ship warfare as the primary mission. Once targeting information is obtained and sent to the Harpoon missile, it is fired. Once fired, the missile flys to the target location, turns on its seeker, locates the target and strikes it without further action from the firing platform. This allows the firing platform to engage other threats instead of concentrating on one at a time.
The Guidance Section consists of an active radar seeker and radome, Missile Guidance Unit (MGU), radar altimeter and antennas, and power converter. The MGU consists of a three-axis attitude reference assembly (ARA) and a digital computer/power supply (DC/PS). Prior to launch, the DC/PS is initialized with data by the Command Launch System. After launch, the DC/PS uses the missile acceleration data from the ARA and altitude data from the radar altimeter to maintain the missile on the programmed flight profile. After seeker target acquisition, the DC/PS uses seeker data to guide the missile to the target.
The Warhead Section consists of a target-penetrating, load-carrying steel structure containing 215 pounds of high explosive (DESTEX) and a safe-and-arm/contact fuze assembly. The safe-and-arm/contact fuze assembly ensures the warhead will not explode until after the missile is launched. It is designed to explode the warhead after impacting the target. The warhead section can be replaced by an exercise section which transmits missile performance data for collection and analysis.
The Sustainer Section consists of a fuel tank with JP-10 fuel, air inlet duct, and a jet engine. This provides the thrust to power the missile during sustained flight. The Sustainer Section has four fixed fins which provide lift.The Control Section consists of four electromechanical actuators which use signals from the Guidance Section to turn four fins which control missile motion.
The Booster Section consists of a solid fuel rocket and arming and firing device. Surface and submarine platforms use a booster to launch Harpoon and propel it to a speed at which sustained flight can be achieved. The Booster Section separates from the missile before sustained flight begins.
The Harpoon Block II is an upgrade program to improve the baseline capabilities to attack targets in congested littoral environments. The upgrade is based on the current Harpoon. Harpoon Block II will provide accurate long-range guidance for coastal, littoral and blue water ship targets by incorporating the low cost integrated Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) from the Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) program currently under development by Boeing. GPS antennae and software from Boeing’s Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM) and SLAM Expanded Response (SLAM ER) will be integrated into the guidance section. The improved littoral capabilities will enable Harpoon Block II to impact a designated GPS target point. The existing 500 pound blast warhead will deliver lethal firepower against targets which include coastal anti-surface missile sites and ships in port. For the anti-ship mission, the GPS/INS provides improved missile guidance to the target area. The accurate navigation solution allows target ship discrimination from a nearby land mass using shoreline data provided by the launch platform. These Block II improvements will maintain Harpoon’s high hit probability while offering a 90% improvement in the separation distance between the hostile threat and local shorelines. Harpoon Block II will be capable of deployment from all platforms which currently have the Harpoon Missile system by using existing command and launch equipment. A growth path is envisioned for integration with the Vertical Launch System and modern integrated weapon control systems. With initiation of engineering and manufacturing development in 1998, initial operational capability for Block II will be available by 2001. Source @fas.org
Diameter: 340 millimeter
Length: 4.63 meter (15.2 foot)
Wingspan: 910 millimeter
Max Range: 124 kilometer (67 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 237 mps (853 kph)
Thrust: 660 pound
Warhead: 224 kilogram (494 pound)
Weight: 691 kilogram (1,523 pound)
Harpoon Block II missile specification @deagel.com
The main gun is a BAE Systems Land & Armaments (formerly United Defense) 127mm mk45 mod 2 gun, which can fire at a rate of 20 rounds a minute to a range of over 20km.
127mm mk45 mod 2 gun
The 127mm Mk 45 is a naval gun turret of US origin. It was developed in the 1960’s by United Defense as a lighter alternative to the earlier Mk 42 turret. The Mk 45 is the smallest 127mm gun turret in the world and can be considered a direct competitor to the Italian 127mm Compatto. The Mk 45 is a lighter and easier to install design while the Compatto has a higher rate of fire and has more ammunition ready to fire. Both guns use the same US standard 127mm ammunition.
The Mk 45 is a single gun turret which is armed with the 127mm Mk 19 gun which was derived from the earlier Mk 18 that was used in the older Mk 42 turret. The Mk 45 is an unmanned turret with an automatic loader and a 20 round magazine below deck. Additional rounds are stored elsewhere in the ship and fed into the magazine using a feed chute. The gun is controlled using consoles below deck or in the command center. The latest development are a longer barrel and extended range guided munition (ERGM), the latter program was cancelled while the new barrel is in production.
The Mk 45 fires 127mm shells for use against shore targets, naval vessels and aircraft. The gun has a rate of fire of 16 to 20 rounds per minute. The maximum range is 23 km versus surface targets and the anti-aircraft range is quoted as 15 km. The latest Mk 45 design with longer barrel has a longer range and higher rate of fire. The ERGM round has a range of 117 km but was never fielded. Depending on the ship design the total ammunition load ranges between 475 and 680 rounds
The Mk 45 turret can be easily distinguished from the earlier Mk 42 turret by its shape and longer ordnance. The Mk 45 is one of the smallest 127mm gun turrets. The Mk 45 guns with original 54-caliber barrel can be identified by their round turret shapes since the Mod 4 uses an angled one.
Mk 45 Mod 0: Original production model with mechanical fuze setter and two piece barrel.
Mk 45 Mod 1: Improved Mod 0 with automatic fuze setter and unitary barrel.
Mk 45 Mod 2: Export version of US Navy Mod 1.
|Type||Naval gun turret|
|Armament||127mm 54-caliber, 808 m/s muzzle velocity, 8.000 round barrel life|
|Rate of fire||16 to 20 rpm|
|Ammunition||20 rounds in loading system, single feed chute|
|Range||23 km vs surface targets, 15 km vs aircraft|
|Traverse||-170 to +170°, 30°/s|
|Elevation||-15 to +65°, 20°/s|
|Weight||24.1 t empty|
|Crew||3 or 6|
HMAS PERTH [III]’s 5-inch/54 cal. Mk45 Mod 2 rapid fire gun turret – Photo Kookaburra. @flickr.com
The SEA 1348 Phase 3C project installed the Petrel Mine and Obstacle Avoidance Sonar (MOAS) system in all of the ANZAC Ships by September 2008. The HMAS Perth was installed with these capabilities on schedule.
Two triple 324mm mk32 torpedo tubes for mk46 anti-submarine torpedoes are fitted. Mk46 is an active / passive torpedo with a range of 11km. In 2004, the RAN ordered the Eurotorp MU90 advanced lightweight torpedo, which has been fitted to all Anzac frigates. MU90 is 3m long, weighs 300kg and has a range of more than 10km. HMAS Toowoomba, the first vessel to be fitted with the new torpedo, completed a first test firing of the MU90 in June 2008.
324mm mk32 torpedo tube
12.75 inch (324mm) Mark 32 Surface Vessel Torpedo Tubes (Mk 32 SVTT):
Mk-32 / Mod. 5, 7, 14, 15 (3 tubes) – for Mk-44, Mk-46 torpedoes
Mk-32 / Mod. 17, 19 (3 tubes) – for Mk-46, Mk-50, Mk-54 LHT torpedoes
Mk-32 / Mod. 9 (2 tubes) – for Mk-44, Mk-46 torpedoes
Mk-32 / Mod. 11 (1 tube) – for Mk-44, Mk-46 torpedoes
Mk-32 SVTT can be modified to use other 12.75″ torpedoes (such as EuroTorp MU90 / Eurotorp A244S LWT / BAE Systems Stingray)
Eurotorp MU90 advanced lightweight torpedo
The MU90/IMPACT Advanced Lightweight Torpedo is the leader of the 3rd generation of LWTs. Designed and built with the most advanced technology, the weapon is of fire-and-forget type conceived to cope with any-task any-environment capability requirements and meet the ASW operational needs of the 21st century.
The weapon has been designed to counter any type of nuclear or conventional submarine, acoustically coated, deep and fast-evasive, deploying active or passive anti-torpedo effectors
Main Dynamic Features
|Linearly Variable speed||……………………||29 to >> 50 kts**|
|Range||……………………||>10,000 m at max. speed**
> 23,000m at min. speed**
|Minimum depth for launching||……………………||< 25 m|
|Max. operating depth||……………………||>> 1000 m**|
|Agility and manoeuvrability||…………………….||Extreme|
|Diameter (NATO Standard)||……………………||323,7 mm|
Main Acoustic Features
|Acoustic coverage||……………………||120°H x 70°V|
|Simultaneous targets||……………………||Up to 10|
Main Counter-Counter Measures
|Stationary target detection capability|
(**) = real value classified
HMAS Perth (FFH 157)
The frigate is equipped with Thales Defence Sceptre A radar warner. Decoy systems consist of SLQ-25A towed torpedo decoys and mk36 launchers, initially for Sea Gnat decoys but now used to launch BAE Systems Australia Nulka anti-missile hovering offboard decoy, which provides protection against radio frequency seeker anti-ship missiles.
SLQ-25A towed torpedo decoys
The AN/SLQ-25A/C is a digitally controlled modular electro-acoustic softkill countermeasure decoy system that employs an underwater towed body acoustic projector deployed from the ship’s stern on a fiber optic tow cable to defend ships against wake-homing, acoustic homing, and wire-guided enemy torpedoes.
The AN/SLQ-25 is deployed on U.S. and allied surface warships, and consists of the TB-14A towed decoy device and a shipboard signal generator. The decoy emits signals to draw incoming torpedoes away from their intended targets.
TB-14A towed decoy device
The AN/SLQ-25 towed decoy emits simulated ship noise like the sounds of propellers and engines in attempts to defeat a torpedo’s passive sonar.
The AN/SLQ-25A uses a fiber optic tow cable and winch, and includes extensive use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The AN/SLQ-25C is an upgrade to the AN/SLQ-25A, and includes new countermeasure modes and a longer tow cable.
The BAE Systems Mark 36 Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Countermeasures Chaff and Decoy Launching System (abbreviated as SRBOC or “Super-arboc”) is a short-range mortar that launches chaff or infrared decoys from naval vessels to foil anti-ship missiles. Each launcher has three tubes set at a 45-degree angle, and three tubes set at a 60 degree angle, providing an effective spread of decoys and countermeasures to defeat radio frequency emitting missiles. The SRBOC can also be fitted with the TORCH infrared “flare” decoy system. A typical ship’s load is 20 to 35 rounds per launcher.
Nulka anti-missile hovering offboard decoy
Nulka is an active, off-board, ship-launched decoy developed in cooperation with Australia to counter a wide spectrum of present and future radar-guided anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs).
The Nulka decoy employs a broadband radio frequency repeater mounted atop a hovering rocket platform. After launch, the Nulka decoy radiates a large, ship-like radar cross-section while flying a trajectory that seduces and decoys incoming ASCMs away from their intended targets. Australia developed the hovering rocket, launcher, and launcher interface unit. The U.S. Navy developed the electronic payload and fire control system.
The existing Mk 36 Decoy Launching System (DLS) has been modified to support Nulka decoys, resulting in the Mk 53 DLS. Nulka has been developed under a U.S. Australian cooperation. It is been used on board U.S. and Australian surface warships since 1999.
Air search is by Raytheon SPS-49(V)8 ANZ radar, operating at C/D band, and air / surface search by Sabb Microwave Systems (formerly Ericsson) Sea Giraffe G/H-band radar. The I-band navigation radar is the Atlas Electronik 9600 ARPA.
Raytheon SPS-49(V)8 ANZ radar
The AN/SPS-49 long range 2-dimensional air surveillance radar used for early target detection. The long-range AN/SPS-49 radar operates in the presence of clutter, chaff, and electronic counter-measures to detect, identify, and control low-radar-cross-section threats traveling at supersonic speeds. AN/SPS-49 provides the front-end element for successful target identification, designation, and engagement with either long range (SM-1 or SM-2) missiles and/or short range local defense missiles. A key feature of the most recent version of the radar, the SPS-49A(V)1 is single-scan radial velocity estimation of all targets allowing faster promotion to firm track and improved maneuver detection. This is done using unique signal processing techniques originated and tested by the Radar Division of NRL using 6.1 and 6.2 Office of Naval Research (ONR) funds.
The AN/SPS-49(V) radar is a narrow beam, very long range, 2D air search radar that primarily supports the AAW mission in surface ships. The radar is used to provide long range air surveillance regardless of severe clutter and jamming environments. Collateral functions include air traffic control, air intercept control, and antisubmarine aircraft control. It also provides a reliable backup to the three-dimensional (3D) weapon system designation radar.
Band L Frequency Band: 850 to 942 MHz three selectable 30MHz bands 48 discrete frequencies Transmitting Power: 360 kW peak 280 kW specified peak power 12-13 kW average power Antenna Parameters: Parabolic Reflector stabilized for roll and pitch 7.3m/24 ft wide, 4.3m/14.2 ft high Rotating Clearance 8.7m/28.4 ft diameter Beamwidths: 3.3�-3.3� azimuth 11� elevation Cosec2 to 30�, csc2 to 20� elev Gain 28.5 dB Scan rate 6 or 12 rpm Line-of-sight mechanical stabilization to � 25 deg roll IFF antenna (AS-2188) mounted on boom Range 250 nm Minimum Range : 0.5 nmi Frequency Selection: Fixed or frequency agile Range Accuracy: 0.03 nmi Azimuth Accuracy: 0.5 deg PRF 280, 800, 1000 pps Pulse width 125 microsecond
The AN/SPS-49(V) radar operates in the frequency range of 850 – 942 MHZ. In the long range mode, the AN/SPS-49 can detect small fighter aircraft at ranges in excess of 225 nautical miles. Its narrow beamwidth substantially improves resistance to jamming. The addition of coherent side lobe canceller (CSLC) capability in some AN/SPS-49(V) radars also provides additional resistance to jamming/interference by cancelling the jamming/interference signals. The moving target indicator (MTI) capability incorporated in the AN/SPS-49(V) radar enhances target detection of low-flying high speed targets through the cancellation of ground/sea return (clutter), weather and similar stationary targets. In 12 RPM mode operation, this radar is effective for the detection of hostile low flying and “pop-up” targets. Features of this set include:
- Solid state technology with modular construction used throughout the radar, with the exception of the klystron power amplifier and high power modulator tubes
- Digital processing techniques used extensively in the automatic target detection modification
- Performance monitors, automatic fault detectors, and built-in-test equipment, and automatic on line self test features
Sea Giraffe G/H-band radar
Today the Sea Giraffe AMB has the designation AN/SPS 77 V(1) for the US Navy’s Littoral Combat Ship, LCS 2/4 and AN/SPS 77 V(2) for LCS 6 and higher.
Sea Giraffe AMB comprises the following main hardware units:
- Antenna Unit (AU)
- Transmitter Unit (TRU)
- Signal and Data Unit (SDU)
- Power Distribution System (PDS)
|Radar type||Stacked beam 3D radar|
|Antenna type||3D phased array, digital beam forming|
|Elevation coverage||> 70 degrees|
|Rotation rate||60 RPM|
|Instrumented range||180 km|
Thales Underwater Systems Pacific Spherion B hull-mounted sonar is fitted. Spherion B is a medium frequency, active search and attack sonar. A Kariwara towed array sonar may be fitted.
Spherion B hull-mounted sonar
■ Multi-mode Operation: Active omni, sectorial, TRDT or directional (search light) transmission modes. Up to 30° of beam tilt during transmission allows for optimum configuration based on performance of the day calculations. Concurrent passive or listening only detection and tracking.
■ Performance Optimised for all Operating Conditions: Continuous 3D electronic array stabilisation and a comprehensive choice of beamforming, pulse type, pulse length and gain configurations. Built in system configuration support allows for performance optimisation in all deep and shallow waters operations.
■ Pulse Length and Bandwidth: Stabilised transmission and reception permits the use of long (4 sec) pulses for long range detection. Wideband active transmissions deliver good shallow water and obstacle avoidance performance. Three octave passive bandwidth for covert surveillance and torpedo detection.
■ Concurrent Processing: Parallel CW active, FM active and passive processing chains providing simultaneous ASW surveillance and protection from attack by torpedo. Full passive surveillance capability in listening only mode.
■ Automatic Detection and Tracking: In active and passive. Up to 100 active and 12 Automatically Initiated passive tracks maintained. The last 8 pings of active track data and 10 minutes of passive history can be displayed.
■ Torpedo Warning: Panoramic listening for early detection and a neural net classification scheme designed to give the Command confidence in detection, a low false alarm rate and the maximum reaction time for countermeasures.
■ Obstacle Avoidance: The capability to detect mine-like objects in the near-surface region of the water column.
■ Performance of the Day (POD): Operator assistance in the selection of the best system configuration is provided by a POD prediction facility that is based on sound velocity profile and local environmental data.
■ On Board Trainer: Fully integrated simulation capability for operator training in harbour and at sea. At sea training scenarios can be overlaid over real sea data for the maximum training authenticity.
Centre Frequencies (kHz): 5.5, 6.5, 7.5
Pulse Lengths (ms): 60, 120, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000
Transmission Modes: OMNI, MOA ±60 about ship’s head
Pulse Types: LPFM, CW, COMBO (FM & CW) FM
Pulse Bandwidths: 500, 2000 Hz
Range Scales (km): 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 32, 64
Stabilisation/Tilt: +20° / -30°
Concurrent Rx Channels: 2 x Active, 1 x
Passive CW Doppler Band: ±30 kts
SPHERION Mk 3 hull sonar data @THALES UNDERWATER SYSTEMS
Sonar (hull mounted) Thales Underwater Systems Spherion B (Supplemented by TUS Petrel MOAS) Specification data @australiandefence.com.au
In December 2003, Thales Underwater Systems Pty Ltd was awarded a contract to supply the Petrel mine and obstacle avoidance sonar for the Anzac. Installation was completed in HMAS Arunta in September 2005. The final ship to be fitted, HMAS Perth, was complete by the end of 2008.
Petrel Mine and Obstacle Avoidance Sonar (MOAS) system
MOAS provides high detection performances and ensures that the submarine is always in a safe environment to maneuver.
- Mine & obstacle detection and localization
Safe shallow waters navigation.
Mine fields avoidance.
- Detection of surface obstacles
Highly important for submarine safety when surfacing.
- Bottom mapping for 3D Navigation
Real-time visualization of seabed (Nav 3D), localization & tracking of contacts.
- Short range submarines detection
Management of short range situation with very quiet submarines.
Range coverage 1Km approx.
Range accuracy better than 0.5 m at 1 km*
Bearing accuracy 1.5° at 54 KHz ahead of submarine
Bearing coverage ≤ 90°
Elevation coverage Sector of 24°, 12° or 6° Steerable elevation coverage
In August 2008, Kelvin Hughes was awarded a contract to supply the SharpEye navigation and tactical surface surveillance radar for the upgrade of the Anzac frigates.
Kelvin Hughes SharpEyeTM I-Band
SHARPEYE™ SOLID STATE PULSE DOPPLER RADAR
SharpEye™ I-Band and E/F-band (X & S-band) radar technology meets the detection challenges of navies, coastguards and border agencies through a clever combination of radar techniques designed to provide the best performance in all conditions, whilst also providing the flexibility to be optimised for specific detection needs.
Solid state radar ensures extremely high reliability and low through life cost:
- No magnetron – minimal routine maintenance requirements
- No fault-finding training required
- Line replaceable unit – does not require radar trained technician to replace
- Low Mean Time To Repair (MTTR)
- Upmast transceiver solution – no waveguide to compromise citadel integrity – easy to retrofit – reduced signal loss.
SharpEye™ transmits a low power patented pulse sequence, which enables short, medium and long range radar returns to be detected simultaneously, allowing the radar operator to maintain situational awareness regardless of the range scale setting of the radar display. Other users of the radar can select their own radar display range scale. A low peak transmission power (less than 300W) equivalent to a 25kW magnetron reduces the probability of intercept by ESM systems.
Doppler processing of radar returns provides coherent information concerning a target’s velocity (radial) and enable the detection of very small and slow moving objects and targets with a low RCS (Radar Cross Section) and through a series of electronic filters is able to distinguish between the targets of interest and sea, rain and land clutter.
SharpEye™ I-Band (X-Band) transmitters are the first in their class to employ Gallium Nitride GaN power transistor technology. The significant performance benefits of GaN transistors have been harnessed to directly improve the performance of the radar.
Other differentiating technologies include Moving Target Detection (MTD) providing enhanced clutter suppression at the Doppler processing stage and pulse compression of the return signal, enabling a low transmit power, providing efficient use of the radar and reducing the probability of detection by ESM equipment. Other Doppler radars may employ less advanced techniques such as Moving Target Indication (MTI), which does not take full advantage of the radial velocity information.
SharpEye Transceiver – Image @kelvinhughes.com
Customisable waveforms can be configured for specific threats and to track specific targets such UAVs, drones and helicopters. SharpEye™ is a truly multipurpose naval radar transceiver:
- Surface search
- Helicopter control and recovery (no need for helicopter transponders, even over land)
- Camera slew to cue
- Bi-directional links to combat management system
- Uniform transmission on all ranges so that multiple users on different range scales all see the optimum picture
- Frequency diversity, user selectable frequencies to ensure interoperability
NAVAL TACTICAL RADAR DISPLAY
Naval Tactical Radar Display – Image @kelvinhughes.com
Keyboard and Trackpad – Image @kelvinhughes.com
Compliant with the latest IMO radar performance standards and complete with Tactical functionality, Enhanced Target Detection (ETD) mode, twin PPI and an intuitive HCI, the SharpEye™ naval tactical radar display brings the processing advantages of the SharpEye™ radar transceiver to life.
The state of the art LED widescreen display is available in 22″ and 26″ sizes and is an easy to install console display with an integrated 5thgeneration Mil-Spec processor and 64bit operating system and can be easily integrated into any bridge, CIC or operations room.
The integrated radar display is part of a fully redundant networked system, is type approved (MSC192/79 / IEC 62388 ED2) and provides enhanced collision avoidance and situational awareness features such as dual PPI (Part Position Indicator), collision warning, spy scope and Enhanced Target Detection (ETD) mode.
The display provides a platform for ARPA radar, Chart Radar and Electronic Chart System (ECS) display options. With 100’s of features and benefits the radar display software categorizes these into the tactical features menu, navigation features and navigation modes. The software is easily controlled with an ergonomic trackerball, keyboard and on screen prompts to assist the user providing:
- Ease of operation
- Multifunctionality enables sharing of information across workstations
- The open architecture enables serial and digital interfaces
- Twin PPI enables the user to build a complex picture on one PPI while leaving the other clear for collision avoidance
- ETD mode provides a clearer picture and uses colour to differentiate between moving and stationary targets
- ETD also helps the user to detect targets before they are strong enough to be tracked
Tactical functionality with the naval radar operator in mind (please see the Naval Radar brochure for a full listing):
- Manual Rate Aided Track Facility (MRATS) and Synthetic Target
- Operator Track Labelling and Target Identification
- Sector Transmission / Single Scan
- Sector Screens and Plan Cordon
- ESM Bearings (Electronic Support Measures)
- Anti-submarine Warfare – FOC, Running Torpedo (Dogbox), Plan Cordons
- Navplans / Blind Pilotage
- Helo Path
Modes covering the full suite of navigation features include (please see the Naval Radar brochure for a full listing):
- Chart Radar
- ECS (Radar Interlay option)
- ETD (Enhanced Target Detection)
- Imaging Camera
|SHARPEYE™ SPECIFICATION||I-BAND (X-BAND)||E/F-BAND (S-BAND)|
|Operating Frequency||9.2 – 9.5 GHz||2.9 – 3.1 GHz|
|Frequency Diversity (FD)||Optional||No|
|Frequency Channels||Non FD 12 / FD 10||8|
|Peak Power||Up to 300W||Up to 200W|
|Average RF Power||39W||20W|
|Output Power Transistor Type||GaN||GaAs|
|Duty Ratio||Up to 13%||Up to 10%|
|Pulse Compression Ratio||Up to 1000:1||Up to 1000:1|
|Signal Processor||Doppler Processing||Doppler Processing|
|Clutter Discrimination||Up to 16 filters||Up to 32 filters|
|Instrumented Ranges||24nm and 48nm||24nm and 48nm|
|Pulse Lengths||0.1μS – 100μS||0.1μS – 100μS|
|Reliability||Up to 150,000 hrs MTBF||Up to 150,000 hrs MTBF|
|Power Modes||High and low power modes||High and low power modes|
|Antenna (standard)||2.5m low profile||3.9m low profile|
|Horizontal||≤0.95° – 3dB||≤2.0° – 3dB|
|Upmast System Weight (inc. standard antenna)|
|Colour||Light Grey – RAL7001||Light Grey – RAL7001|
Anzac Class frigate upgrade programme
In December 2003, the Australian Department of Defence announced a project to upgrade the Anzac Class anti-ship missile defences (ASMD). The contract for the first phase was signed in May 2005 with the ANZAC alliance between Tenix Defence (now BAE Systems), Saab and the Department of Defence. A previous programme, the ANZAC warfighting improvement programme, was cancelled in 1999.
The first phase of the ASMD programme includes the upgrade of the command and control system to the Saab 9LV Mk 3E and installation of: Sagem Vampir NG infrared search and track (IRST) system for detection and tracking of low-level aircraft and anti-ship missiles; CEA Technologies CEAFAR 3D E/F band, fixed active phased array radar for improved fire control against anti-ship missiles which replaces the Saab Sea Giraffe; and CEA Technologies CEAMOUNT active phased array radar system to provide mid-course guidance and terminal illumination for the evolved Sea Sparrow missile.
Saab 9LV Mk 3E
The full suite of Saab’s Combat Management System (CMS) and integrated fire control solutions in configurations for every type of Coast Guard and naval vessel, is on offer for the Royal Thai Navy
The latest generation of Saab 9LV solutions is built on operationally proven modules and fielded in the major combatants of navies such as the Royal Australian Navy, the Swedish Navy and many others. Building on the experience in over 230 warship installations, the CMS offering from Saab is the open architecture, flexible and extensible, 9LV family.
This offer is applicable to all types of vessels from patrol vessels, corvettes, frigates and aircraft carriers. Source @saab.com
Saab’s 9LV 453 Mk 3E. These enhancements include:
+ New 30-inch widescreen operator consoles, with large touch input displays operating commercial Microsoft(r) operating systems,
+ a completely redesigned operations room layout with 10 consoles to improve management and coordination of operations,
+ large screen displays on the bulkheads showing intelligence, CCTV and status information,
+ redundant Gigabit LANs for greater data capacity,
+ new operator modes for fighter control, and
+ ulitisation of advanced control modes for the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missiles.
Sagem Vampir NG infrared search and track (IRST) system
The VAMPIR NG is a cost effective third generation infrared search and track system (IRST) developed by Sagem Defense Securite for naval applications ranging from frigates to aircraft carriers. This passive surveillance and tracking system features very long-range, blue sea and littoral operation modes, suitability against symmetric and asymmetric threats, and long range identification. In littoral surveillance it provides high elevation coverage from -20 to +45 degrees and very low false alarm rate. The VAMPIR NG 3-5 micrometers thermal imager is mounted on a 3-axis gyrostabilized mount and delivers high resolution video with optical image stabilization.
The VAMPIR NG can be integrated with the ship’s combat system providing surveillance and warning against a wide range of targets such as sea-skimming missiles and small high speed craft. Besides, the thermal imager can serve as helicopter landing aid, and to help control the movements of landing craft. The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) selected the VAMPIR NG for its ANZAC-class frigates in 2005 and Canberra-class amphibious assault ships and Hobart-class destroyers in October and December 2008 respectively.
CEAFAR 3D E/F band
The new sensors installed after the upgrade to form the integrated sensors mast. Note the exhaust funnel just behind the mast. Source @defencyclopedia.com
CEAFAR ACTIVE PHASED ARRAY RADAR
CEAFAR is an active phased array radar with a unique microwave tile-based design. The combination of the microwave tile and the Digital Beam Forming (DBF) backend provides a modular, programmable and scalable solution. The radar is configurable to meet operational, physical and cost requirements for both military and civil applications.
- scalable in size and power to meet a broad range of applications, suitable from ‘Corvettes to Cruisers’
- full 3D multifunction capabilities
- advanced classification capabilities
- optimised for littoral and open ocean
- evolves to meet changing requirements
- very high reliability, no in-mission maintenance.
CEAMOUNT active phased array radar system
This is an active phased array solution providing target illumination and missile up-link for semi-active homing missiles.
The system uses MMIC technology to provide a high-power, light-weight phased array illuminator. CEAMOUNT is available mounted on an agile director or in fixed face configurations.
- X-band active phased array illuminator;
- trainable or fixed face configuration;
- very high operational availability and reliability;
- electronic beam steering;
- significant capability growth for upgraded systems;
- services multiple target / multiple axis engagements
- global application for ship-self defence systems;
- capable of supporting multiple channels of fire;
- supports all X-band guidance modes;
- maximises missile/combat capabilities;
- no in-mission maintenance;
- high levels of redundancy.
CEAFAR and CEAMOUNT together provide a scalable and modular solution for anti-ship missile defence.
- scalable in size and power to meet a broad range of applications, suitable from ‘Corvettes to Cruisers’
- advanced anti-ship missile defence capability
- scalable to support short and long range needs
- high level of performance in littoral and open ocean environments
- rapid response to multiple simultaneous and stressing threats
- adaptable to changing operational requirements
- simultaneous 3D Volume and Surface Surveillance
- very high reliability
Initially, the ASMD capability is being fitted in a single ship, HMAS Perth, prior to other Anzac vessels being modified. HMAS Perth began fitting out in January 2010. Initial operational capability for the ASMD started in 2011, followed by an operational evaluation period of 12 months.
In April 2009, Saab signed a continuation funding contract for progress of SEA 1448 phase 2 project of the Anzac frigates in Australia. The project will cost $840m. Under the project, Saab will integrate CEA Technologies radar and new navigation radars into the HMAS Perth. The funding for the lead ship was approved by the government and the project commenced in January 2010. This upgrade replaced the Saab Microwave Systems Sea Giraffe G/H-band radar. The contract also includes additional funding for implementation of an improved operations room design with additional air warfare capabilities of the ship.
Saab Systems, Defence Material Organisation and Tenix (now a part of BAE Systems) signed a three-way partnerhsip contract for enhancement and maintenance of the frigates in April 2007. This contract would replace the Anzac ship alliance that handled capability generation and the in-service support contract that handled capability sustainment. The contractual scope includes nine years of support with provision for extension for six more years.
Under the SEA 1448 phases 2A and 2B ASMD project, the team completed the final reviews for the mk3E combat management system in August 2008; received the first phased array radar faces and control equipment in June 2009; and completed HMAS Perth’s new FWD and AFT masts.
Further upgrades are scheduled under the joint project 2089 phase 2A (tactical information exchange domain) and Project SEA 1442 phase 4 (maritime communications modernisation).
Each ship is designed to accommodate, operate and maintain its own helicopter. The RAN is using its Sikorsky Seahawk S-70B2s initially but ordered 11 Kaman SH-2G Super Seasprite helicopters.
Sikorsky Seahawk S-70B2
Powerplant and fuel system
|Number of Engines||2|
|Maximum Take Off||3,426 shp||2,554 kw|
|OEI Shaft horsepower (30 sec)||1,911 shp||1,425 kw|
|Maximum Gross Weight||21,884 lbs||9,926 kg|
|Maximum Cruise Speed||146 kts||270 km/h|
|*HIGE Ceiling||15,989 ft||4,873 m|
|*HOGE Ceiling||11,222 ft||3,420 m|
|*AEO Service Ceiling||11,864 ft||3,616 m|
|Cabin Length||10.8 ft||3.2 m|
|Cabin Width||6.1 ft||1.8 m|
|Cabin Height||4.4 ft||1.3 m|
|Cabin Area||65 ft2||6.0 m2|
|Cabin Volume||299 ft3||8.5 m3|
* At nominal take-off gross weight
Deliveries began in 2001 and the SH-2G(A) received provisional acceptance into service in October 2003.
The helicopters were grounded in May 2006, after problems with the flight control system and ITAS software. A review of the programme was initiated in May 2006 and, in May 2007, the RAN decided to continue with the project rather than pursue alternatives.
However in March 2008, the RAN finally announced the cancellation of the programme. The helicopters were returned to Kaman for possible sale.
The RNZN ordered five SH-2Gs, two for the Anzac frigates. Deliveries completed in March 2003 and all five have entered service. These are armed with the Raytheon Maverick missile.
It is driven by a CODOG (combined diesel or gas) turbine system; one GE LM 2,500 gas turbine rated at 33,600hp with a power turbine speed of 3,600rpm; two MTU 12V 1163 TB83 diesels each rated at 4,828hp at 1,200rpm, twin shaft with controllable-pitch propellers.
GE LM 2,500 gas turbine
The LM2500 marine gas turbine is a simple-cycle, two-shaft, high-performance engine. Derived from GE’s CF6-6 aircraft engines, the LM2500 consists of a gas generator, a power turbine, attached fuel and lube oil pumps, a fuel control and speed governing system, associated inlet and exhaust sections, lube and scavenge systems as well as controls and devices for starting and monitoring engine operation.
The LM2500 is GE’s most widely-applied gas turbine, used by 33 navies worldwide. Possible applications for the LM2500 include patrol boats, corvettes, frigates, destroyers, cruisers, cargo/auxiliary ships and aircraft carriers. The LM2500 is also available as a military generator set.
|Output||33,600 shp (25,060 kW)|
|SFC||.373 lb/shp-hr (227 g/kW-hr)|
|Heat rate||6,860 Btu/shp-hr
|Exhaust gas flow||155 lb/sec (70.5 kg/sec)|
|Exhaust gas temperature||1,051°F (566°C)|
|Power turbine speed||3600 rpm|
|Average performance, 60 Hertz, 59°F, sea level, 60% relative humidity, no inlet/exhaust losses|
MTU 12V 1163 TB83 diesel
Propulsion: CODOG – 1 x 30,000shp GE LM2500 gas turbine; 2 x 8,500hp MTU 12V1163 Diesels; twin shafts; Bird Johnson controllable pitch propellers; 4 x 650kW diesel generators
Saab Systems is also to develop a multilink capability for the Anzac Class frigates. The A$43m five-year contractual work, the joint project 2089 phase 2A, began on 24 March 2009. It will provide Nato link 16 and variable message format (VMF) for enhancing the existing Nato link 11. Key technologies to be used in this project include tactical data link systems, digital communication systems, and combat management systems. Northman Grumman mission systems will provide the data link processor. Design activities for the project have already begun.
Nato link 16
Image Royal Thai Navy Link 16 which also deploys the Saab 9LV solution for example – Image @thaifighterclub.org
Displacement 3,600 tons
Max Range (@ 18kt) 6,000nm
Max Speed >27kt
Ship’s Company 163
Propulsion: CODOG – 1 x 30,000shp GE LM2500 gas turbine; 2 x 8,500hp MTU 12V1163 Diesels; twin shafts; Bird Johnson controllable pitch propellers; 4 x 650kW diesel generators
Weapons: Combat management System Saab 9LV 453 Mk3
(Replaced by 9LV Mk3E)
Fire Control System Saab 9LV 453 J-band tracker
Saab 9LV 453 Optronic Director
Anti-Ship Missile Boeing AGM-84 Harpoon Block II
(As part of ANZAC block upgrade program)
Point Defence Missile VL/RIM-7P NATO Sea Sparrow
(Replaced by Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile, ESSM)
Mk41 Mod5 8-cell vertical launch system
Mk73 Mod1 CWI Transmitter
(Replaced by CEA-Mount CWI)
ASW System 2 x Mk32 Mod5 triple torpedo tubes
(Mk46 torpedo replaced by MU90 Impact)
Decoy SRBOC Mk36 Mod1 chaff launcher
(Supplemented by BAE Systems Australia Nulka)
Sensors: Search Radar Raytheon AN/SPS-49(V)8 long range air search
Target Indication Radar Saab 9LV 453 TIR Air/Surface radar
Navigation Radar Krupp Atlas 9600M
ESM Thales Sceptre A
(Upgraded to Thales centaur configuration)
Sonar (hull mounted) Thales Underwater Systems Spherion B
(Supplemented by TUS Petrel MOAS)
Specification data @australiandefence.com.au
Main material source @naval-technology.com