Monthly Archives: May 2017

Turkey’s Aselsan to supply targeting pods for Pakistan’s JF-17 fighters, says report

Gabriel Dominguez, London – IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly

31 May 2017

Turkish defence company Aselsan has secured a USD24.9 million contract from an overseas customer for the integration of its Aselpod electro-optical targeting pods into aerial platforms, according to a statement published by the Turkish Public Disclosure Platform (KAP) on 26 May.

Aselsan has secured a USD24.9 million contract to supply its Aselpod targeting pods for Pakistan's JF-17 fighters, according to Turkish media. (Aselsan)Aselsan has secured a USD24.9 million contract to supply its Aselpod targeting pods for Pakistan’s JF-17 fighters, according to Turkish media. (Aselsan)

The announcement was followed two days later by a report by Turkish newspaper Daily Sabah identifying Pakistan as the customer, and pointing out that this is the second order for the system placed by the South Asian country.

“Aselsan realised the first Aselpod exports last June to Pakistan, which has re-ordered a year later. The said system will be used on the JF-17 aircraft that Pakistan has jointly developed with China,” the paper said in an article that was republished by Turkey’s Directorate General of Press Information.

Original post janes.com

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ASELPOD Advanced Targeting Pod Electro-Optical Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Targeting System

ASELPOD_pg1

ASELPOD is a high performance electro-optical reconnaissance, surveillance and targeting system designed specifically for fighter aircrafts. ASELPOD is designed as the new generation targeting pod for fighter aircrafts.

ASELPOD is a multi-sensor targeting pod consisting of:

  • High Resolution, 3rd generation FLIR
  • Laser Range Finder / Target Designator
  • Laser Spot Tracker
  • Laser Pointer
  • Advanced Video Tracking (Simultaneously on IR/Day Video)
  • IR/Day Video & Mission History Recording
  • Advanced Image Processing
  • Providing Highly Accurate Geo-Location Coordinates
  • Growth Potential for Mission Requirements

With a modular mechanical design, ASELPOD comprises high density capabilities.

ASELPOD designed to fit fighter jets such as F-16’s and F-4’s and can be adapted to various air platforms.

Technical Specifications

Sensor Resolutions IR: 640×512
TV: 768×576
Fields of View (FOVs)

(Horizontal)

IR: 0.8° – 4.0° – 28°
TV: 0.8° – 4.0°
Field of Regard (FOR) Azimuth: 360° continuous

Elevation: +45° to -150°

Laser Range Finder and Target Designator Wavelength (Combat): 1064 nm

Wavelength (Training): 1570 nm

Repetition rate: up to 20 Hz

Laser Pointer Wavelength: NIR
Laser Spot Tracker Wavelength: 1064 nm
Communication Interface MIL-STD-1553B
Video Interface 2x Video Output (RS-170)

1x Video Input (Optional)

Power Interface 115 VAC 400Hz and 28 VDC
Size Diameter: 430 mm

Length: 2350 mm

Weight 240 kg

Note: All tolerances are within ±10%. Specifications may change without prior notice.

Source aselsan.com.tr

JF-17 “Thunder” fighter: Details

MBT Revolution by Rheinmetall

The Leopard 2 MBT Revolution is a former upgrade package, developed and manufactured by Rheinmetall for the Leopard 2A4 Tank. A number of sources confuse the Leopard 2 Evolution as the Leopard 2 MBT Revolution.

The  IBD Deisenroth Engineering Evolution, which only featured AMAP armor upgrades, was unveiled at the CANSEC 2009 show in Ottawa, Canada. The MBT Revolution was unveiled at Eurosatory 2010 and featured an AMAP Armor package and a new digital architecture.

Rheinmetall have since introduced a new version of the Leopard 2 Evolution, called “MBT Evolution“. The  Leopard 2 MBT Revolution package has also been improved and is now marketed as the “MBT Advanced Technology Demonstrator“. Source fighting-vehicles.com

Leopard 2 MBT Revolution

The MBT Revolution at a glance:

  • Protection concept: Comprehensive protection from all current threats, including RPG 7, landmines, IEDs, bomblets, large-calibre KE ammunition and EO-, IR- and laser-guided weapons.
  • Digital turret core system: Fully integrated network capabilities, fully interoperable subsystems and components, with significantly shorter reaction times and smaller additional space requirements.
  • Fire control technology: An improved first round hit probability, especially when firing on the move.
  • New commander’s periscope: Night fighting and observation capabilities, improved range and higher elevation angles (up to 70°).
  • Situational awareness system: 360° day and night near-field view of the vehicle’s immediate surroundings, with automatic alarm and target-tracking functions.
  • Command and control system: New capabilities include real-time blue force tracking and red force visualization, augmented reality and MIP-DEM-based interoperability.
  • Commander’s brake: A revolutionary innovation that enables the commander to stop the tank in critical situations
  • Secondary armament: State-of-the-art remote control weapon station, fully stabilized and flexibly configurable.
  • Ammunition: The world’s first temperature-independent KE tank round and the latest generation of programmable HE ammunition.
  • Climate control: High performance air conditioning coupled with a new insulation concept in the fighting compartment, improved ventilation and thermal protection for the magazine.
  • Auxiliary power unit: High electric power generation (17 kW) and optimized intelligent energy balance of the vehicle.
  • External two-way communications system: Enables the crew to communicate with people outside of the tank.
  • Embedded logistics: Provides comprehensive monitoring of vehicle- and weapon system-relevant logistical data; linked with a central logistical information and evaluation system.
  • Weight class: MLC 70

Source rheinmetall-defence.com

Leopard 2 MBT Revolution Requirement

Originally entering service in 1985, a total of 11 countries have purchased surplus Leopard 2A4 Tanks. The MBT Revolution upgrade package has been developed to extend their service life beyond 2035, with replacement of key components and additional features produced by Rheinmetall and its subsidiary companies. Source fighting-vehicles.com

Leopard 2 MBT Revolution Operators

The MBT Revolution is a modular upgrade package to the Leopard 2A4 main battle tanks. It was developed by Rheinmetall. This MBT was first revealed in 2010. It is also referred as Leopard 2A4 Evolution. The Leopard 2A4 was the most widespread version of the Leopard 2. It is still used by a number of countries in large numbers. So the market for upgrades remains substantial. Indonesia plans to obtain 61 Revolution MBTs.

Indonesian Leopard 2RI: Details

Warsaw signed contracts to upgrade 128 of its Leopard 2A4 battle tanks to 2PL standard: Here

Excerpt

The indigenous led modernization of Poland’s armed forces continues, after Warsaw signed contracts to upgrade 128 of its Leopard 2A4 battle tanks. The $605.7 million deal will see prime contractor Polska Grupa Zbrojeniowa (PGZ) and integrator ZM Bumar-Labedy conduct the works due to be completed by 2020, with options to upgrade fourteen more. Bought from ex-German stocks in 2002, the tanks will see work done to turrets, chassis and other equipment as well as upgrades to Poland’s tank training simulators.

Protection concept

Image: rheinmetall-defence.com

By combining numerous individual components and measures, Rheinmetall created a comprehensive 360° protection concept that addresses virtually every current threat. Thanks to the use of highly advanced materials and technologies, the increase in weight is comparatively small. Further advantages include easy mounting and dismounting of the protective modules on the vehicle’s exterior; the need for structural alteration is negligible.

Image: rheinmetall-defence.com

Modular in design, the protection package contains the following elements:

  • Lateral protection of turret and hull against IED blasts, including shrapnel resulting from the detonation of multiple artillery shells or large explosively formed projectiles.
  • Protection of the hull against large-calibre KE rounds, precision guided munitions and guided and unguided antitank weapons.
  • Protection of the roof against artillery bomblet fragments.
  • Protection of the turret against large-calibre KE rounds, precision guided munitions and guided and unguided antitank weapons.
  • Protection of the vehicle’s underside and interior from mine blasts.
  • Decoupled magazine
  • ROSY, Rheinmetall’s unique new smoke/obscurant system, provides 360° protection against TV-, EO-, IR-, IIR-, laser and SCALOS-guided weapons. Unlike conventional smoke/obscurant systems, ROSY not only generates an instantaneous multispectral interruption of the line of sight in less than 0.6 seconds, it also produces a dynamic wall of smoke/obscurant which provides moving vehicles with lasting protection from multiple attacks.

Source rheinmetall-defence.com

The Revolution main battle tank is better suited for urban warfare and low-intensity conflicts. It is worth noting that original Leopard 2 tanks were developed during the Cold War and were intended for high intensity conflicts based on tank battles in open terrain. The tank has improved overall protection. It is fitted with new Advanced Modular Armor Protection (AMAP) composite armor package. It uses new nano-ceramics materials and modern titanium and steel alloys. This armor provides higher level of protection against wide range of threats. The AMAP armor can be done is different compositions and armor configuration depends on customer requirements. Various configurations do different jobs. Some are used for RPG attacks, the other are used for IED attacks.

AMAP composite armor

Advanced Modular Armor Protection (AMAP)

The MBT Revolution has a new Advanced Modular Armor Protection (AMAP) upgrade, which contains the various passive AMAP composite armor offered by Rheinmetall Chempro GmbH. The modular armor extends the length of the turret and most of the hull for improved protection in built-up/urban area’s. The rear section of the hull is fitted with cage armor. Source fighting-vehicles.com

The tank is also fitted with a mine protection package. This MBT has a modular armor, so damaged modules can be easily replaced in field conditions. Tank is also fitted with new Rheinmetall ROSY smoke grenade dischargers. These set up a smoke screen within 0.6 seconds. Overall the Revolution MBT is less vulnerable to ambushes, RPG rounds, anti-tank missiles, improvised explosive devices and mines.

ROSY smoke screen system

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The unique 40mm Rosy_L smoke protection system offers light military and civilian vehicles protection from unexpected attacks, e.g. during patrols or when travelling in convoys. Unlike the conventional smoke protection systems in use, Rosy_L is able to generate dynamic smoke screens as well as spontaneous, large-area and multispectral interruption of the line of sight (LOS). Moreover, its multimission capability represents a sure defence against stream and wave attacks. Due to its integrated IR jamming and decoying capabilities, Rosy_L effectively counters all TV-, EO-, IR-, IIR-, laser- and SACLOS-guided weapons. Rosy_L comprises a basic system with a control device and one to four ROSY launchers per vehicle. By means of a one-click adapter, the system can be quickly mounted to the vehicle without tools, and just as quickly removed and stowed.

The latest version of Rosy is the modular Rosy_Mod. It is designed for small weapon stations and light vehicles of the kind used by special operations forces. Rosy_Mod is integrated directly into the vehicle without a surface-mounted launcher, thus making it undetectable. Source rheinmetall-defence.com

The Revolution MBT is only slightly heavier than its predecessor. It weights 60 t, comparing with 56.6 t of the original Leopard 2A4.

In 2010 Singapore upgraded its 96 ex-German Leopard 2A4 tanks with the AMAP composite armor, which is a part of the Revolution upgrade package. Upgraded tanks are known as the Leopard 2SG. (*Note Singapore only operates 66 the remaining 30 are used as spare parts)

Singapore Leopard 2SG and Leo 2A4

The Revolution MBT retains a fully-stabilized 120-mm / L44 smoothbore gun of the Leopard 2A4. The gun is loaded manually. It is compatible with all standard NATO 120-mm tank munitions, as well as the latest programmable HE rounds. These rounds enable to engage targets behind cover and within buildings. A total of 42 rounds are carried for the main gun. 15 rounds are stored in the turret bustle and are ready to use, while remaining rounds are stored in the hull.

Rheinmetall smoothbore L44 gun

Image result for smoothbore L44 and L55 tank gun120-mm / L44 smoothbore gun

L44 – is a highly successful 120mm, 44 cal (length) smoothbore cannon. Designed and manufactured by the German Company, Rheinmetall, for the Leopard 2 up to and including the A5 variant. It is built under licence in Egypt for the M1 Abrams, in Israel for the Merkava III & IV (AKA MG251 & MG253 modified), Japan for the Type 90, South Korea for the K1 A1 (AKA KM256) and in the US for the M1 Abrams (AKA M256).

It can fire APFSDS, HEAT, MPAT, Canister and HE-FS.

L55 – is the successor to the L44. it to is a 120mm, 55 cal (length) smoothbore cannon, designed and manufactured by the German Company, Rheinmetall. With its extra length it provides a higher muzzle velocity. It is currently used on the Leopard 2 A6 and the newly developed South Korean K2 Black Panther. It did complete trials on the British Challenger II, but there are no plans in the near future to equip it. It can fire the same rounds as the L44. Source tanknutdave.com

120mm HE DM 11 Tank Ammunition

Rheinmetall developed its 120mm x 570 DM11 cartridge on behalf of the German MoD. From the technical standpoint, it is characterised first and foremost by the programmability of the chambered round and by its airburst capability. The necessary system modifications (programmability) can be retrofitted into any modern MBT with a 120mm smoothbore gun. Modular in design, the DM11 consists of warhead with a programmable fuse as well as a ballistic cowl, tailfin assembly, drive band, combustible casing with propelling charge, and a newly designed case base containing the primer and an integrated data cable for programming.

The DM11 is designed for engaging lightly armoured targets such as vehicles, antitank positions (whether dug-in or in the open), field fortifications, double reinforced concrete walls as well as earth and timber bunkers .

Furthermore, thanks to its high precision and maximum effective range of up to five kilometres, it can be used for penetrating barriers and engaging targets taking cover behind walls, etc., as well as for breeching enemy defences and creating avenues of approach for friendly forces in built-up areas. Source miltechmag.com

120mm KE DM63 / DM53 A1 Tank Ammunition

dm_63_grDM53 120mm KE Projectile (Rheinmetall)

The DM53 round was designed to maximize the performance of KE projectiles fired from 120mm smoothbore guns such as the L44 (15% improvement) or L55 (30% improvement in muzzle energy). The DM53 is in service with the German, Swiss and Netherlands Armies. The complete round weighs 21.4kg, the projectile (with sabot) weighs 8.35kg and propellant: 8.9kg. The projectile’s length is 745mm, and with chamner pressure of 5,450 generated during firing, the muzzle velocity is 1,750 m/sec (L55 barrel) and 1,670 m/sec. (L44 barrel). The DM53 has been optimized to lass than 0.2 mil accuracy.

DM 53-A1 is an advanced version of the DM 53. Currently being supplied in series to the armed forces of Germany, Austria and Turkey as the DM 63. DM53-A1 was selected by the armed forces of Finland and Denmark.

DM63 KE Cartridge (Rheinmetall)

The DM63 round is based on the DM53, with modified propulsion-based Temperature Independent Propulsion System (TIPS) utilizing the SCDB technology. The new type uses 8.45 kg of pure bulk powder to achieve nearly the same muzzle velocity of the DM53 (1,650 m./sec on L44 barrel). The propellant modifications aimed at improving the accuracy through a wide operational temperatures (-46 +63C) ensuring safe operation extreme climate zones, and minimizing the erosion of the barrel. Source defense-update.com

120mm PELE Tank Ammunition

120pele

PELE technology makes it possible to produce fully inert projectiles. The new technology modifies the projectile performance characteristics, significantly enhancing the accuracy of tank and artillery fire, while substantially reducing the risk of collateral damage. Non-explosive PELE ammunition consists of a high-density casing containing a core made of low-density, low-compressibility material. Upon impact with the target, the low-density material inside the shell is compressed to such an extent that the casing bursts, generating numerous fragments that are propelled in the direction of fire. This way, the round’s lethal impact is restricted to a defined space or limited area, reducing the likelihood of collateral damage. PELE and ALP make it possible to manufacture warheads containing little or no explosive. Moreover, existing ammunition can be inexpensively retrofitted with PELE and ALP technology. Both technologies can be integrated in full- and sub-caliber rounds, and fired from current and future weapon systems.

tcduyx4Image: from the web

In August 2006 Rheinmetall Defense acquired the industrial property and trademark rights of PELE and ALP. According to Rheinmetall, the company plans to market them in conjunction with ammunition procurement and upgrade programs both at home and abroad. Concurrently, negotiations are underway with Diehl BGT Defence GmbH & Co. KG of Überlingen, Germany to acquire licenses in various special caliber segments. Source defense-update.com

The Revolution MBT is also fitted with a remotely controlled weapon station, armed with a 12.7-mm machine gun. There is also a coaxial 7.62-mm machine gun.

Remote Weapon Station 12.7mm MG

Rheinmetall offers a family of fully digital and stabilized, remotely controlled weapon stations that can be integrated on various vehicle platforms and used for different mission profiles. Various sizes of weapons can be accommodated from small to medium calibres, including 40mm grenade launchers. The weapon station family is designed with a high level of commonality and modularity, and is fully compliant with military standards for human factors engineering. Our weapon stations meet a wide range of specific customer requirements such as:

  • Integration of small and medium calibre weapons
  • Integration of a broad variety of optical modules
  • Operation as a standalone system or as part of a network of systems

Full stabilisation, super elevation, long-range day/night all-weather sights, smoke protection systems, and the capability to integrate NATO and non-NATO weapons are available options on certain models. Rheinmetall’s weapon stations are fielded for instance on vehicles with the Canadian Army, the Nexter VBCI for the French Armed Forces, the MPPV and AIV for the Belgium Army, and are integrated on the Fuchs APC for the Armed Forces of an international customer.

Source rheinmetall-defence.com

This main battle tank is fitted with new state-of-the-art fire control system. It has improved first round hit probability. The Revolution MBT also has improved reconnaissance and observation capabilities. The commander has new 360° periscope, which gives the vehicle a hunter/killer capability. The tank is also fitted with a battlefield management system.

Reconnaissance systems

Image: rheinmetall-defence.com

The Seoss digital fire control unit, which stands for “stabilized electro-optical sensor system”, provides an enhanced vision capability. Two-axis stabilized, it is equipped with a Saphir thermal imaging device, a daylight camera and an eye-safe laser rangefinder. The data required for evaluating the situation – including the target, system status, range and ammunition type – appear on a display in the fighting compartment. Seoss enables day and night engagement of targets even when the tank is on the move, including in periods of limited visibility. The user can choose between a 360° panoramic view of the battlefield or a coaxial, weapon-aligned perspective. Seoss also features an integrated fire control computer for six different types of ammunition. Source rheinmetall-defence.com

Seoss – Stabilized Electro-optical Sighting System

Seoss enables accurate engagement of targets while on the move, both day and night and under conditions of limited visibility. Perfect for high-end combat vehicles, Seoss stabilized electro-optical sensor system is a compact digital fire control unit. Featuring dual-axis stabilization, the Seoss can be mounted without difficulty to any suitable surface on the vehicle. It is equipped with a Saphir® thermal imaging device, a daytime camera and an eye-safe laser rangefinder. All the data necessary for evaluating the situation appear on a display conveniently located in the interior of the vehicle. Apart from the target, these include the system status, range and type of ammunition.

Main features

  • Primary stabilized
  • 2-axis stabilized sensor head with: Thermal imager 3rd generation, high resolution daylight CCD camera (optional), eyesafe laser range finder, integrated fire control and stabilization electronics
  • Detection, recognition, identification and engagement of moving and stationary targets also on the move
  • Interface to battle management system (optional)
  • Very compact design and low weight
  • Easy integration without extensive turret modification (no turret penetration)
  • High degree of logistic communality between the versions (sector or panoramic)
  • Available as Seoss-sector, Seoss-panoramic and Seoss-MOUT

Product variants

  • Seoss-sector
  • Seoss-panoramic
  • Seoss-MOUT

Source rheinmetall-defence.com

Seoss – Image: militaer-wissen.de

In addition, an integrated Situational Awareness System, SAS, provides a panoramic view of the immediate vicinity of the tank, automatically detecting and tracking potential targets, helping to relieve pressure on the crew. The SAS consists of two to four modules, each covering 3 x 60°, plus high-definition colour cameras and high-performance night vision components. An interface to the fire control unit enables instant transmission of detected target data, enabling immediate engagement of emerging threats, primarily with the newly developed Qimek weapon station.

Cammander

Image: militaer-wissen.de

Cammander with Gunner below

Image: militaer-wissen.de

SAS – 360° viewer daylight camera and thermal imager module

The SAS modules provide vehicle crews with a complete 360° panoramic closeup view for enhanced local situational awareness. It features a high-resolution daylight camera as well as high definition colour cameras. Source rheinmetall-defence.com

SAS modules – Image: militaer-wissen.de

Vehicle has a crew of four, including commander, gunner, loader and driver.

Active Protection Systems (APS)

MBT-Revolution-10

C4I and network-enabled warfare capabilities

Image: rheinmetall-defence.com

Featuring uniform system architecture, Rheinmetall’s INIOCHOS command and information system is available for very echelon from brigade headquarters all the way down the individual soldier on the ground. A growing number of countries, including Greece, Spain, Sweden and Hungary have already opted for C4I solutions from Rheinmetall.

INIOCHOS is a family of tactical command and control systems whose functionalities can be adapted to specific operational spheres, e.g. a tactical operations centre, tactical vehicle or dismounted infantry. One of its most prominent features is systematic application of NATO interoperability standards, a critical advantage during international operations. This standardized system enables soldiers from participating nations to generate and share a common, role-oriented operating picture.

Image: rheinmetall-defence.com

The INIOCHOS family consists of a command post system for brigade and battalion level operations (INIOCHOS C), a tactical vehicle C4I system (INIOCHOS V), and an application optimized for dismounted troops, INIOCHOS S.

iniochos_pyramideImage: rheinmetall-defence.com

Designed to support modern tactical operations, INIOCHOS incorporates the full range of current interoperability standards used in combined and joint operations. User- and role-specific configurability, scalability and a concept enabling joint use mean that this system is equally effective at every level from brigade to individual soldier. The flexible communications concept enables all participants to remain in direct contact via the combat radio net.

iniochos_hardwareImage: rheinmetall-defence.com

Climate control

An entirely new air conditioning and ventilation concept ensures maximum crew comfort even in warmer climates. Air conditioning and thermal insulation in the fighting compartment, coupled with optimum ventilation and separate cooling of the driver’s compartment, result in a level of efficiency never attained before. Moreover, by ensuring that the ammunition on board remains fully functional, thermal insulation of the magazine contributes to operational safety. Thanks to intelligent control, the new climate control system automatically adapts to changing ambient conditions, assuring optimum use of energy. Simple cleaning and maintenance procedures are an added plus. source rheinmetall-defence.com

Auxiliary power unit

APU unit for illustration – Image: jenoptik.com

APUs have become increasingly important, especially in light of recent technical developments. Using an APU can optimize a vehicle’s energy balance. In many cases battery capacity is insufficient, especially when older types are used. If the battery power drops below a certain level the engine has to be started to recharge them. This results in excessive fuel consumption as well as producing unwelcome noise and heat. Fitting an APU can solve this problem. source rheinmetall-defence.com

The Revolution MBT also retains the MTU MB-837 Ka501 turbocharged diesel engine, developing 1 500 horsepower. Vehicle is fitted with auxiliary power unit, which powers all systems when the main engine is turned off. Cross-country performance is similar to that of its predecessor. (*Error it is MTU-873)

MTU MB-873 Ka501 turbocharged diesel engine

screenshotAtUploadCC_1516876209249

Since 2011 a broadly similar upgrade programme is offered by the Aselsan of Turkey. These are referred as the Leopard 2 Next Generation. It was locally developed as a private venture to meet a possible requirement of the Turkish Army. Source military-today.com

Engine model MB 873 Ka-501
Rated power max. kW (bhp) 1100 ()
Speed max. rpm 2600
Dimensions and masses
Length (L) mm (in) 1800 (70,9)
Width (W) mm (in) 1975 (77,8)
Height (H) mm (in) 1060 (41,7)
Mass (dry) kg (lbs) 2200 (4850)
Engine main data
Bore/Stroke mm (in) 170/175 (6,7/6,9)
Cylinder displacement l 3,97
Displacement, total l (cu in) 47,6 (2907)

Source mtu-online.com

Leopard 2 Next Generation: Details

Firepower
Main Gun Rheinmetall L44 – 120mm, calibre Length 44 smoothbore
Elevation -9 to +20
Secondary Weapons x1 coaxial 7.62mm MG,

x1 Remote Weapon Station 12.7mm MG or 40mm Grenade Launcher

Ammunition Storage x42 120mm, x4,750 7.62mm
Mobility
Engine MTU Mb 873 ka 501, turbocharged 1500hp Diesel
Transmission RENK HSWL 354, 4 speed forward/2 reverse
Top Road Speed 68 km/h
Road Range 550km
Fuel Capacity 1160 litres
Vertical Obstacle 1.1m
Water Capability 1m (4m with Snorkel)
Trench Crossing 3m
Gradient 60%
Side Slope 30%
Dimensions
Length Gun Forward 11m
Length Hull 7.72m+
Width 3.75m+
Height 2.48m+
Ground Clearance 0.54m?
Weight 62,500kg aka 62.5 tonne combat
Protection
NBC Protected Yes
Armor Type Steel/Tungsten/Modular/Composite/Cage
Active Protection Systems Yes (soft)
Crew
Commander Yes
Gunner Yes
Loader Yes
Driver Yes
Additional Crew
Troops Carried N/A

Source fighting-vehicles.com

Updated Jan 25, 2018

Russia to build first Lavina “Avalanche”  helicopter carrier by 2022

Russia to build first helicopter carrier by 2022

Military & Defense May 25, 17:41 UTC+3

Russia’s United Ship-Building Corporation earlier said the domestic shipyards could create the analog of Mistral ships

MOSCOW, May 25. /TASS/. Russia will build its first helicopter carrier by 2022, Russian Deputy Defense Minister Yuri Borisov said on Thursday.

“The cycle of building a helicopter carrier is at least four years; yes, somewhere by 2022,” the deputy defense minister said.

The Russian Navy currently lacks universal amphibious assault ships. Mistral-class helicopter carriers ordered in France in 2011 were not delivered to Russia.

Russia’s United Ship-Building Corporation earlier said the domestic shipyards could create the analog of Mistral ships.

Late in July last year, Navy Deputy Commander-in-Chief Viktor Bursuk said the technical assignment for the universal amphibious assault ship had been prepared.

Original post: tass.com

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Lavina “Avalanche” assault helicopter carrier dock-ship: Details

Argentina reportedly agreed to purchase 8 refurbished Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard fighter from France

Argentina purchased several refurbished Mirages and engines for Pucaras

Friday, May 19th 2017 – 06:42 UTCFull article17 comments

Argentine reportedly has agreed to purchase several refurbished Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard fighter bombers originally from the French navy. Apparently the Mirages are similar to those Argentine used during the Falklands conflict in 1982 and will be incorporated to the Air Force, as part of an Argentine re-equipment of its military forces.

Talks with France also involve the possible purchase of engines to power 20 Argentine Pucaras aircraft that are currently grounded.

“The transaction provides excellent value, and under very favorable conditions,” Defense Minister Julio Martinez was quoted during a visit to France. “The Argentine Air Force cannot do without supersonic aircraft. Our pilots must be able to train in modern aircraft.”

However Martinez declined to detail the financial details of a possible deal since “negotiations are not finished”.

The re-equipment program will also include the construction at the Tandanor yards of four patrol vessels, with support from France, Italy and China. The vessels are in addition to four LICA, for cadets’ training. Currently under construction at the Rio Santiago yard, with Japanese (NKK) supervision and the first to be delivered in early 2018.

The Air Force is also involved in the refurbishing and upgrading of five Hercules C 130, two are ready and another three in the coming months with the support from US experts at the Cordoba aircraft manufacturing plant.

Minister Martinez also acknowledged that the United States has offered to sell Argentina F-16 fighter fighters but the Mirage would better fulfill the needs of the country.

“The operating cost of the F-16 makes them almost prohibitively expensive,” he said.

Argentina had previously been in talks with Israel for their Kfir fighter.

Original post en.mercopress.com

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SUPER ETENDARD

The Super Etendard is a carrier-based single-seat strike fighter first introduced into service in 1978. It is an updated version of the Etendard IVM. Based on experience gained during the Korean war (1950-53), French authorities drew up specifications for a light interceptor. This definition was rapidly assimilated into a program for a light tactical bomber that could also fulfil an air superiority mission. At the same time, NATO published its requirements for the LWTSF (Light Weight Tactical Strike Fighter). In response, the Dassault company presented its Mirage and Etendard aircraft.To meet the needs of both national and NATO programs, Dassault carried over the aerodynamic design of its Super-Myst�re, applying it to smaller aircraft equipped with power plants that could reach transonic speeds without afterburners. This led to the design of the Myst�re XXII (Etendard II), Myst�re XXIV (Etendard IV) and Myst�re XXVI (Etendard VI), developments which were remarkable for improving lift so that take-off and landing became possible at reduced speeds.The Etendard IV M was the first naval aircraft developed by Dassault. The Etendard IV M made its maiden flight 21st May 1958 at Melun-Villaroche (the Seine-et-Marne region of France). The wings of the aircraft are mid-mounted, swept-back, and tapered with blunt tips there are sawtooth in the leading edges. There is one turbojet engine inside the body. There are semicircular air intakes below the canopy and a single exhaust. The fuselage has a long, pointed nose. The body bulges at the air intakes and tapers to the rear. There is a bubble canopy well forward on the nose. The dorsal spine extends from the cockpit to midbody. The tail is large, swept-back, and tapered tail fin with curved tip. The flats are low- to mid-mounted on the tail fin, swept-back, and tapered with blunt tips.Between 1961 and 1965, the French Navy took delivery of 69 Etendard IV M’s and 21 Etendard IV P’s. The Etendard IV M continued in service in the French Navy until July 1991. These aircraft logged a total of 180,000 flying hours and made 25,300 carrier landings. Even today, there are still several Etendard IV P’s and IV PM’s in service.

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CHASSE EMBARQUEE

The naval single-seater combat aircraft, Dassault Super-Etendard, is a modernized version of the Etendard IV M. Main modifications include updating of the weapons system through the installation (a first for a French production aircraft) of a modern navigation and combat management system. The aircraft prototype made its maiden flight 28 October 1974 at Istres (the Bouches-du-Rh�ne region of France).

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CHASSE EMBARQUEE

The French Navy commissioned the plane for the first time in 1977 and 71 aircraft are now in service on the aircraft carriers Foch and Clemenceau. This plane, armed with Exocet missiles and flown by Argentinian pilots (14 aircraft), proved its combat effectiveness during the Malvinas [Falklands] war with Britain in 1982.The Super-Etendard will be replaced by the naval version of the multi-role combat aircraft Rafale at the beginning of the 21st century. Source fas.org

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CHASSE EMBARQUEE

The Super Étendard is a development of the Dassault Étendard IVM.

Crew 1
Propulsion 1 Turbojet Engine
Engine Model SNECMA Atar 8K-50
Engine Power 48,9 kN 11000 lbf
Speed 1380 km/h 745 kts
857 mph
Service Ceiling 13.686 m 44.900 ft
Range 3.400 km 1.836 NM
2.113 mi.
Empty Weight 6.500 kg 14.330 lbs
max. Takeoff Weight 12.000 kg 26.455 lbs
Wing Span 9,60 m 31 ft 6 in
Wing Area 28,4 m² 306 ft²
Length 14,31 m 46 ft 11 in
Height 3,86 m 12 ft 8 in
First Flight 28.10.1974
Production Status out of production
Total Production 74
Developed from Dassault Étendard
Data for (Version) Dassault Super-Étendard

Specification flugzeuginfo.net

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IA-58 Pucara: Details

N.KOREA SAYS MISSILE TEST CONFIRMS WARHEAD GUIDANCE (Pukguksong-2 missile)

N.KOREA SAYS MISSILE TEST CONFIRMS WARHEAD GUIDANCE

BY REUTERS   MAY 22, 2017 02:23

EOUL – North Korea said on Monday it has successfully tested an intermediate-range ballistic missile to confirm the reliability of the late-stage guidance of the nuclear warhead, indicating further advances in the ability to hit US targets.

The North’s KCNA news agency said leader Kim Jong Un supervised the test which also verified the functioning of the solid-fuel engine for the Pukguksong-2 missile fired from a mobile launcher.

Original post jpost.com

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Pukguksong-2

The Pukguksong-2 pictured during a test on February 12, 2017 (Photo: KCNA).

New Technologies Demonstrated by Pukguksong-2 IRBM Test Launch

The Pukguksong-2 IRBM demonstrated a new solid propellant propulsion system. North Korea officially announced that this missile employed technologies used in the Pukguksong-1 SLBM, claiming it had created “the amazing miracle” of completing a new strategic weapons system in just six months.[1] Solid propellant motors shorten launch preparation times by eliminating the time-consuming process of loading liquid propellant, thus reducing the risk of timely detection by intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance assets. As a result, they improve the missile’s survivability and its capability for rapid launch from more secure locations, making effective pre-emptive military strikes more problematic. Solid propellant ballistic missiles have other significant military-operational advantages over conventional liquid propellant ballistic missiles. While being safer and easier to handle and maintain, they are also simpler and can provide better range performance than equivalent-sized liquid propellant missiles. Accordingly, solid propellant missiles pose a greater threat to allied forces than liquid propellant missiles.

Additionally, the Pukguksong-2 missile demonstrated other new capacities:

  • Greater Mobility: First, the Pukguksong-2 IRBM used a caterpillar-type transporter erector launcher (TEL) that can provide better mobility in harsh terrains than wheeled TELs. This new type of TEL, which was shown in the test launch, is based on a heavily modified tank chassis originally designed and built by North Korea and is similar in layout to the Soviet Union’s SS-14 system.
  • Use of a Cold Launch: Second, the Pukguksong-2 was the first road-mobile missile to employ a cold launch system, which uses compressed gas pressure to eject the missile from the erected canister on the ground before igniting the rocket motor as soon as the missile clears the canister. This system does not require additional volume within the launcher for exhaust plume control, making it feasible to launch from a confined space. Unlike hot launch systems, a cold launch also lowers the possibility of damage or destruction of the TEL in the event of missile failures, since they would happen in mid-flight rather than on the ground. This technology was already demonstrated last August by the Pukguksong-1 SLBM, which was successfully launched from a vertical launch tube.
Length of canister + gas generator 12.5m – Image: b14643.de 
  • Use of High-Angle Trajectory and Reduced Maximum Altitude: Third, the missile fired on February 12, 2017 was launched at a high angle with a fixed operational range, similar to the Musudan IRBMs and Pukguksong-1 SLBMs launched last year. As the Pukguksong-2 IRBM was fired in a lofted trajectory (almost vertically), the maximum altitude reached should have exceeded 1,000 km. However, the maximum altitude announced by South Korea’s military was only 550 km. If this claim is accurate, it would appear that North Korea intentionally launched the missile with a heavier warhead to lower its peak altitude. Based on a simulation by the author, it was estimated that the warhead mass loaded on the Pukguksong-2 would be around 1.6-1.7 tons, which is much heavier than previous warheads (Figure 1). The heavier warhead could allow for greater lethality due to higher yields. This simulation also estimated that the operational range of the Pukguksong-2 IRBM using a minimum energy trajectory (MET) would reach approximately 2,300-2,500 km, which is expected to be shorter than normal IRBM range (Figure 2). The difference between Model A and B lies in the assumed dry masses, such as the interstages and fairing in Figure 1 and Figure 2.
screenshotAtUploadCC_1504535062443Figure 1. Estimation of warhead mass to acquire a maximum altitude of 550 km. screenshotAtUploadCC_1504535062445Figure 2. Estimated operational range of Pukguksong-2 according to warhead mass in the minimum energy trajectory.

Projected Evolution of North Korean Ballistic Missiles

North Korea has supposedly worked for over 20 years to develop a liquid propellant ICBM with the ability to hit targets in the United States. It appears that through trial and error, they have developed a high-thrust first stage liquid rocket engine for an ICBM, as demonstrated by ground firing tests of an 80-ton Paektusan engine conducted during the past six months. While the exact development path is unclear, Pyongyang may have decided to develop ICBMs with solid propellants in parallel with liquid propellants. In March 2016, the North conducted a successful ground test firing of a solid rocket motor that is 3-3.2 m in length and approximately 1.3 m in diameter. Five months later, it tested the Pukguksong-1 two-stage SLBM with solid propellant motors, which was estimated to be approximately 9 m in length and 1.35 m in diameter (Figure 3).

With the development and successful testing of two new types of solid propellant missiles, North Korea has moved closer to a technological breakthrough that is required to develop an effective road-mobile ICBM. Pyongyang might even be developing two different types of road-mobile ICBMs with solid propellant motors; one could be based on the liquid propellant KN-14 configuration and size—which was displayed in a 2015 military parade—to minimize the development time. The other could be a completely new design to meet stricter mission requirements. The operational performance of new solid propellant ICBM, referred to as the Pukguksong-3, has been analyzed under the assumption that its dimensions are based on the KN-14. The length and diameter of the mobile KN-14 ICBM are assumed to be around 17 m and 1.9-2.0 m, respectively (Figure 3).

screenshotAtUploadCC_1504535136150Figure 3. Configuration and dimensions of Pukguksong-1 SLBM, Pukguksong-2 IRBM and the tentatively named Pukguksong-3 ICBM.

In the massive military parade in Pyongyang on April 15, 2017, North Korea displayed two different types of Pukguksong-3 ICBMs, both enclosed in launch tubes mounted on trucks (see Figures 4 & 5). Although the exact dimension and size of the new ICBM was not clear, one can estimate from the dimensions of the KN-14 that its range is up to 12,200 km with a 550 kg warhead and 10,300 km with a 750 kg warhead for a missile diameter of 1.9 m. These operational ranges may be enough to reach the US mainland (Figure 6).

Figure 4. The first type of Pukguksong-3 ICBM seen in Pyongyang’s military parade on April 15, 2017.Figure 5. The second type of Pukguksong-3 ICBMscreenshotAtUploadCC_1504535417633
Figure 6. Operational range performance of road-mobile Pukguksong-3 ICBM (with KN-14 configuration) using solid propellant.

North Korea may, in the future, replace all its liquid propellant ballistic missiles with solid propellant missiles. The first to be replaced will most likely be the Scud short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM) and Nodong medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBM). Both use conventional liquid propellant engines and more than 800 units are believed to have been deployed. Considering the North’s economic problems, replacement would happen gradually and possibly not on a one-for-one basis. A rapid replacement of the Musudan IRBM fleet, which also uses a high energy liquid propellant, with the Pukguksong-2 solid propellant IRBM may occur if the Musudan continues to prove unreliable.

The future evolution of the road-mobile ICBM is difficult to predict. However, if North Korea succeeds in the test flights of a solid propellant ICBM and continues to make improvements in its reliability, Pyongyang will likely abandon its liquid propellant ICBM designs.

What Explains North Koreas Solid Propellant Rocket Technology?

How did North Korea make such significant progress in the solid propulsion technology field? As is well known, the structure of a solid propellant rocket is much simpler than that of a liquid propellant rocket, but the complexity of the design grows exponentially with its size, requiring extensive testing and design iterations for development. Therefore, it is entirely possible that Pyongyang has been working on solid propellant technology for more than a decade while simultaneously developing the indigenous Musudan liquid propellant engine. It is also possible that Pyongyang is concurrently developing the solid propellant Pukguksong-2 IRBM and solid propellant Pukguksong-3 ICBM. As such, it would not be surprising if the North also decides initially to pursue concurrent development of both solid and liquid propellant ICBMs (Figure 7).

screenshotAtUploadCC_1504535417634

Figure 7. Projected evolution of solid propellant Pukguksong-2 IRBM.

Some experts also suspect that North Korea’s accelerated development of solid fuel rockets is connected to Iran’s missile program—more specifically, that the North provided liquid propellant missile technology to Iran in exchange for solid propellant missile technology. However, Iran only started to develop solid propellant missiles in the early 2000s, and its two-stage solid propellant Sajiil missile is still in development. In short, Iran has not yet mastered this technology. Nevertheless, a connection between the two countries is possible, but it is difficult to substantiate such claims due to the lack of solid evidence.

Conclusion

Ultimately, the transition from liquid to solid propellant missiles will bring about a fundamental paradigm shift in North Korean missile systems (Figure 8). A road-mobile ICBM, tentatively named the Pukguksong-3, employing solid propellant rocket motors could easily achieve the range performance required to hit the US mainland in the future, making it a serious potential threat to the United States.

screenshotAtUploadCC_1504535417635

[Figure 8] Family Tree of North Korean Ballistic Missiles.

Read entire post – Source 38north.org

Images from source other than specifically stated

Comparison P-1 and P-2 – Image: b14643.de Image: b14643.de 

HMAS Adelaide (III)

The largest ships ever built for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Amphibious Assault Ships also known as Landing Helicopter Docks (LHD) were built by contractors BAE Systems Australia and Navantia.

The ships provide the Australian Defence Force (ADF) with one of the most capable and sophisticated air-land-sea amphibious deployment systems in the world.

Each ship is divided into 112 modules, which are built and fitted out as discrete units and then consolidated together to form the completed ship. This allows work on the ship to be completed at a number of different locations prior to assembly. There are 105 modules that make up the hull and seven modules that make up the superstructure.

The construction of the hull to the level of the flight deck and the majority of fitting out was undertaken at Navantia’s shipyard in Ferrol, Spain. The work undertaken at the BAE Systems shipyard in Williamstown, Victoria, included consolidation of the superstructure and installation of the Combat and Communication Systems.

The vessels can embark, transport and deploy military forces along with their equipment and supporting aviation assets.

The ships have a conventional steel mono hull design with the superstructure located on the starboard side of the flight deck. They are designed with the shallowest possible draft to operate in secondary ports and harbours as well as manoeuvre in the shallow waters common in the littoral regions.

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navy.gov.au

There are four main decks; heavy vehicle, accommodation, hangar and light vehicles and flight decks.

Purpose build water craft will enable transport of troops and equipment to shore, including where there are no fixed port facilities.

The ships are equipped with modern Command and Control and combat systems including air and surface radar, advanced communications capability and surveillance systems.

The ships are fitted with defensive systems and weaponry including an anti-torpedo towed system and gunnery.

HMAS Adelaide was commissioned at a ceremony at Fleet Base East, Sydney on 4 December 2015.

 

Propulsion:
Engine source wikiwand.com
Commanding Officer
Class
Canberra Class
Type
Pennant
L01
Motto
United for the Common Good
Home Port
Builder
BAE Systems Australia and Navantia
Laid Down
18 February 2011
Launched
4 July 2012
Commissioned
4 December 2015
Resources
Datasheet
News Articles
Newsletter
Flipboard
Image Gallery
Dimensions & Displacement
Displacement 27,800 tonnes (unloaded and not docked down)
Length 230 metres
Beam
  • 32 metres
  • 29.5 metres (at waterline)
Draught
  • 7 metres (transit)
  • 10 metres (docked down)
Flight Deck
  • 202.3 metres (length)
  • 32 metres (width)
  • 4,750 square metres (area)
  • 27.5 metres (height)
Performance
Speed
  • 20+ knots (maximum)
  • 19 knots (sustained maximum at full-load)
  • 15 knots (economic cruising)
  • up to 8 knots (reversing speed with full directional control)
Range
  • 6,000 nautical miles (at 20 knots)
  • 9,000 nautical miles (at 15 knots)
Armament
Physical Countermeasures
  • SLQ-25C towed torpedo decoy
  • 4 BAE Nulka decoy launchers

Source navy.gov.au

SADRAL launcher

The SADRAL is a pedestal mounted six round launcher for naval use. SADRAL stands for Système d’AutoDéfense Rapprochée Anti-aérienne Légère, which is French for light short range anti-aircraft self-defence system. The SADRAL is a remotely operated system with three missiles on each side and optronics on top. Source weaponsystems.net

MISTRAL surface-to-air missile

MISTRAL_151217_05

The Mistral is a fire and forget, short range surface-to-air missile designed to engage air threats. The Mistral has been designed to be launched from a wide range of systems such as MCP, ALBI, MANPADS, SIMBAD, ATLAS, SIGMA, SADRAL, TETRAL and ATAM. The Mistral missile is able to engage a supersonic target flying at 3,000 meters of altitude. Mistral is being used for point defense, ship self-defense, defense of mobile units and air-to-air engagements (ATAM). It is provided with an imaging Infrared seeker and a blast fragmentation warhead detonated by a proximity laser fuze. The Mistral 1 is the baseline missile and the Mistral 2 is the improved, most recent, currently in production model. MBDA has produced more than 15,000 Mistral missiles for 25 countries.

MISTRAL-ALBI-system1

Dimensions
Diameter: 90 millimeter (3.54 inch)
Length: 1,860 millimeter (73 inch)
Wingspan: 180 millimeter (7.09 inch)
Performance
Max Range: 6,000 meter (3.24 nautical mile)
Min Range: 500 meter (0.27 nautical mile)
Target’s Max Altitude: 3,000 meter (1.86 mile)
Speed
Top Speed: 2.44 mach (2,917 kph)
Weight
Launch Unit Weight: 22.5 kilogram (50 pound)
Warhead: 3 kilogram (6.61 pound)
Weight: 19.5 kilogram (43 pound)

Source deagel.com