Daily Archives: January 11, 2016

Royal Thai Army buys four latest-generation Skyguard systems

Rheinmetall will supply the Royal Thai Army with four latest-generation Skyguard systems

Original article: armyrecognition.com


Oerlikon Skyguard III

The Oerlikon Skyguard III is a modernized version of the Skyguard I air defense missile/twin-cannon system. Made by Rheinmetall Air Defence, the state-of-the-art Oerlikon Skyguard III places the latest advances in technology at the disposal of Skyguard users, while maintaining the existing transport concept. Tried-and-tested air defence systems such as the Oerlikon Skyguard have to be modified to meet new threats. Designed for round-the-clock, network-enabled operations in all weathers, the Oerlikon Skyguard III is the perfect answer for echeloned air defence, offering excellent protection against a wide spectrum of aerial threats, including fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, missiles, unmanned air vehicles and precision guided missiles. The Oerlikon Skyguard III is characterized by a high degree of networkability. At the tactical and operational level, Skyguard III fire units can be linked to higher-echelon command structures. Up to three fire units can be linked to form their own network, exchanging data in near real-time and generating a uniform air situation picture. In addition, a battle management system assures extremely short reaction and engagement times. This 35mm twin gun/ Skyguard III modernization program also includes all necessary fire control functions for Ahead engagement against Finally, using the latest high-tech components ensures efficient logistical support as well as low lifecycle costs. Source armyrecognition.com

35mm Oerlikon GDF007 Twin Guns


Ahead airburst ammunition

Royal Thai Navy’s DW-3000F Frigate

ATLAS ELEKTRONIK to deliver Bow and Towed Sonar systems for new Royal Thai Navy frigate

Posted on December 20, 2013

ATLAS ELEKTRONIK GmbH has been commissioned by the Korean yard Daewoo Shipbuilding & Ma- rine Engineering (DSME) with the supply and integration of a bow sonar (ASO) as well as a low- frequency active towed array sonar (ACTAS) for a new frigate of the Royal Thai Navy.

Delivery of the systems is planned to take place early in 2016.

Together, the two systems offer active and passive sonars for the detection, tracking and classification of underwater vehicles, such as submarines, torpedoes and unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV). In addition, these sonars are able to detect and classify small speedboats, divers or floating obstacles, e.g. containers or tethered mines.

The ASO bow sonar operates in the frequency range between 6 and 9 kHz and provides a surveillance radius of up to 15 kilometres around the ship. This makes it most suitable for the self-protection of the ship. The towed array sonar ACTAS operates in the low-frequency range from about 2 kHz and permits observation of the sea space at ranges considerably above 60 kilometres, depending on the propagation conditions of the water. This gives the sonar an operational range that by far exceeds that of radars and the weapons range of submarines. The system is therefore not only ideal for hunting submarines but also for the wide-area reconnaissance of surface combatants.

Both sonar systems represent the state of the art from ATLAS ELEKTRONIK and, besides newly devel- oped signal processing methods, offer a unified hardware design with the corresponding simplifications in servicing and support. Source navaltoday.com

Main image source headshot.tnews.co.th

EA to Provide Torpedo Launcher Systems for Thai, Philippines & Malaysian Navies

SEA is supplying torpedo launchers to the SE Asia market

Cohort company SEA will look to build upon growing demand in South East Asia for its torpedo and decoy launcher systems when it highlights the capability at the Defense and Security exhibition in Ban Mai, Thailand, on November 6-9.

SEA has recently won an order to provide Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) in South Korea with Torpedo Launcher Systems (TLS) for two new frigates being built for the Philippines Navy and is also engaged in providing TLS and weapons handling systems for a new class of Combatant Ships under construction for Malaysia. This follows the supply of a TLS for the Royal Thai Navy’s latest frigate, which was built by DSME in South Korea.

SEA is looking to build upon this pedigree with the supply of a triple trainable deck mounted system for a further frigate under consideration by the Royal Thai Navy. In addition, there are several more opportunities in frigate new build and refurbishment projects throughout SE Asia.

One of the major benefits of SEA’s TLS is that they can be configured to fire any NATO standard light weight torpedo, enabling operators to benefit from the flexibility of choosing the best weapon independently and the option of re-configuring during the life of the ship.

The modular nature of the SEA TLS also means that by utilising a common tube selection panel as part of the combat management system the fire control electronics can be adapted to interface with the ship’s decoy launchers as well as the TLS.

SEA’s SE Asia Vice President, Strategic Accounts, David Hinds explains: “Our systems are based on over 30 years s of experience supplying and supporting the UK Royal Navy and there is a growing demand for our launchers in SE Asia.”

In addition, SEA’s torpedo and decoy launchers are being developed to integrate with the company’s thin line KraitArray towed Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) sonar as part of a wider detection and countermeasures defence system – Krait Defence System – that uses common software to integrate SEA’s proven range of launchers. Source navyrecognition.com

The State Department approved a possible FMS to Thailand for RGM-84L Harpoon Block II Surface Launched Missiles: Here


WASHINGTON, Aug. 10, 2017 – The State Department has made a determination approving a possible Foreign Military Sale to the Government of Thailand for RGM-84L Harpoon Block II Surface Launched Missiles.  The estimated cost is $24.9 million.  The Defense Security Cooperation Agency delivered the required certification notifying Congress of this possible sale on August 9, 2017.

  • HTMS Tachin (FFG-471) – fitting out (New name HTMS Bhumibol Adulyadej)
  • HTMS Prasae (FFG-472) – under construction

Progress report

Welcoming ceremony of H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Video: Here


Arrived in Thailand

on Jan 05, 2019

A.P D. special.

Dated Dec 14, 2018

Royal Thai Navy’s new Frigate FFG-471 HTMS Tachin Delivery Ceremony at Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering( DSME) Okpo-Dong shipyard, Geoje, South Gyeongsang, Busan, Republic of Korea, 14 December 2018


Image from the internet


Tik smile

Dated Jan 25, 2017

Dated Jan 22, 2017




Navy for life


Navy for life

Dated Jan 19, 2017


(ร.ล.ท่าจีน 471 – HTMS Thachin 471)  Image: thaidefense-news.blogspot.com DD Jan 18, 2017

*ความคืบหน้า โครงการต่อเรือฟริเกตสมรรถนะสูง ของกองทัพเรือไทย

*ความคืบหน้า โครงการต่อเรือฟริเกตสมรรถนะสูง ของกองทัพเรือไทย นี่เป็นรายงานข่าวอย่างไม่เป็นทางการจาก พัทธนันท์ สงชัย ครับ..
เรือฟริเกตสมรรถนะสูง (ร.ล.ท่าจีน 471) ของกองทัพเรือไทย ซึ่งกำลังทำการต่อที่อู่ DSME ประเทศเกาหลีใต้ มีรายงานว่า วันจันทร์ที่ 23 ม.ค.2560 พลเรือเอก ณะ อารีนิจ ผู้บัญชาการทหารเรือ จะเดินทางไปเป็นประธานในพิธีปล่อยเรือลงน้ำเพื่อติดตั้งระบบอาวุธและระบบไฟฟ้า..Source thaidefense-news.blogspot.com

thaidefense-news.blogspot.com DD Oct 26, 2016

DW 3000F class : 2 (one will be constructed in Korea and one in Local )

A ship Frigate has been selected. The series was developed from class destroyer Kwanggaeto Class Destroyer (KDX-I), which ships the Navy Frigate supply. Designing and building ships Using the standard US military. And Korea Navy The certification is recognized by the Institute classified the ship, a member of IACS (International Association of Classifications Society) by such a ship. Is liable to a maximum of 3,700 tons of water, maximum speed 30 knots continuous operating range of around 4,000 nautical miles, the nature of the ship’s 136 troops designed using Stealth. Technology and reduces diffusion magnetic resonance hull.Including reducing the spread of sound underwater. Install a combat system and weapons from Europe and America. The combat operations as well as three-dimensional self-defense at close range. By European standards, the US Navy and is currently in use and supply.

Boat building is carried out at the company’s shipyard DSME in South Korea during the years 2556 – 2561 built vessel, with wages totaling about 14,600 million baht, the price including VAT. Parts, tools, documentation, support the experimental testing, training, technology transfer and other related issues.

Reportedly, HTMS Tachin (FFG-471) is one of the two DW 3000F class warships built by South Korea’s Daewoo Marine Group for the Royal Thai Navy. And in the process of returning home this ship with a visit to some Asian countries. Images of HTMS Tachin visited Hong Kong to get essentials on December 26 last. Photo source: Richard Yip


Weapon system

8 x SSM
VLS with capabilities of
     + 8 x Canisters (max 32 ESSM).
     + Vertical Launch Anti-submarine Rocket (VLA).
     + Nulka Active-off board ECM.
     + SM2 **
1 x 76/62 Stealth Shield, Multi feeding system.
    (Max range 40- 45 km with smart ammunition).
2 x 30 mm Guns (200 RPM) x CIWS (4,500 RPM).
2 x .50 inch (Range; 2 km).
2 x Trainable Triple tube torpedo launchers.















































































Fire Control Systems 

2 x Radar Fire Control System
2 x Continuous Wave Illuminators
1 x Electro Optical Fire Control
2 x Target Designation Sight

Oto Melara 76/62 Stealth Shield, Multi feeding system


H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Surin Lertseethong‎

Technical data:

Caliber: 3 inches / 76,2 mm
Barrel lenght: 186 inches / 4,72 meters (= 62 caliber)
Weight: 7900kg, empty (Super Rapid)
Shell: 76 x 900 mm / 12,34 kilograms
Elevation: – 15° to + 85°
Traverse: 360°
Rate of fire: Compact: 85 rpm / Super Rapid: selectable from single shot up to 120 rpm
Muzzle Velocity: 925 m/s (1100 m/s – DART)
Magazine: Compact: 80 rounds / SR: 85 rounds
16 kilometers with standard ammunition
20 km with extended range ammunition
up to 40 km with VULCANO ammunition


H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Thairath

HE (high explosive) – 6,296kg / Range 16km / effective range 8km (4km vs. air targets at elev. 85°)
MOM (multi-role OTO munition)
PFF (pre-formed fragmentation) – anti-missile ammunition
SAPOM (semi-armored piercing OTO munition) – 6,35kg / Range 16km
SAPOMER (semi-armored piercing OTO munition, extended range) – Range 20km
DART (driven ammunition reduced time of flight) – sub-calibre guided ammunition against multiple targets
(missiles and maneuvering targets at sea) 4,2kg in barrel / 3,5kg in flight / 660mm lenght / effective range >8km
VULCANO (76mm unguided and guided extended range ammunition) – under development

Source seaforces.org

1 × OTO Melara 76 mm 

1 x CIWS


H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Surin Lertseethong‎

2 x 30 mm Guns


H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Surin Lertseethong‎

2 x DS-30M automated small calibre gun 30mm DS30M Mark 2 is a ship-protection system made by MSI-Defence Systems consisting of a 30mm Mark 44 Bushmaster II cannon on an automated mount. (wiki)


8 x SSM


General characteristics:

Primary function: Air-, surface-, or submarine-launched anti-surface (anti-ship) missile
Contractor: McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing)
Power plant: Teledyne CAE J402 turbojet, 660 lb (300 kg)-force (2.9 kN) thrust, and a solid-propellant booster for surface and submarine launches
Length: Air-launched: 3.8 metres (12 ft) / Surface and submarine-launched: 4.6 metres (15 ft)
Weight: Air-launched: 519 kilograms (1,144 lb) / Submarine or ship launched from box or canister launcher: 628 kilograms (1,385 lb)
Diameter: 340 millimetres (13 in)
Wing span: 914 millimetres (36.0 in)
Maximum altitude: 910 metres (2,990 ft) with booster fins and wings


Over-the-horizon (approx 50 nautical miles)
AGM-84D (Block 1C): 220 km (120 nmi)
RGM/UGM-84D (Block 1C): 140 km (75 nmi)
AGM-84E (Block 1E): 93 km (50 nmi)
AGM-84F (Block 1D): 315 km (170 nmi)
RGM-84F (Block 1D): 278 km (150 nmi).
RGM/AGM-84L (Block 2): 278 km (150 nmi)
AGM-84H/K (Block 1G / Block 1J): 280 km (150 nmi)
Speed: High subsonic, around 850 km/h (460 knots, 240 m/s, or 530 mph)
Guidance: Sea-skimming cruise monitored by radar altimeter, active radar terminal homing
Warhead: 221 kilograms (487 lb), penetration high-explosive blast
Unit cost: US$1,527,416

Source seaforces.org


H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Surin Lertseethong‎


H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Surin Lertseethong‎


H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Surin Lertseethong‎

8 x Canisters (max 32 ESSM)

H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Thairath

8 cell Mk.41 vertical launch system “quad-packed”

32 x RIM-162 ESSM – RIM-162 Evolved SeaSparrow Missile (ESSM)


32 x RIM-162 ESSM – RIM-162 Evolved SeaSparrow Missile (ESSM) is a development of the RIM-7 Sea Sparrow missile used to protect ships from attacking missiles and aircraft. ESSM is designed to counter supersonic maneuvering anti-ship missiles. ESSM also has the ability to be “quad-packed” in the Mk 41 VLS system, allowing up to four ESSMs to be carried in a single cell. Compared to the Sea Sparrow, ESSM has a larger, more powerful rocket motor for increased range and agility, as well as upgraded aerodynamics using strakes and skid-to-turn. In addition, ESSM takes advantage of the latest missile guidance technology, with different versions for Aegis/AN/SPY-1, Sewaco/APAR, and traditional target illumination all-the-way. The improved ESSM Block II will be fielded by the US Navy from 2020. (wiki)

General Characteristics:
Primary Function: Surface-To-Air and Surface-To-Surface radar-guided missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems, Tuscson, Ariz.
Date Deployed: 2004
Unit Cost: $787000 – $972000 depending on configuration
Propulsion: NAMMO-Raufoss, Alliant (solid fuel rocket)
Length: 12 feet (3,64 meters)
Diameter: 8 inches (20,3 cm) – 10 inches (25,4 cm)
Weight: 622 pounds (280 kilograms)
Speed: Mach 4+
Range: more than 27 nmi (more than 50 km)

Source seaforces.org

SM-2 standard missile (Provision for)

The RIM-66C/D Standard MR (SM-2MR Block I), was developed in the 1970s and was a key part of the Aegis combat system and New Threat Upgrade (NTU). The SM-2MR introduced inertial and command mid-course guidance. The missile’s autopilot is programmed to fly the most efficient path to the target and can receive course corrections from the ground. Target illumination for semi-active homing is needed only for a few seconds in the terminal phase of the interception. This capability enables the Aegis combat system and the New Threat Upgrade equipped vessels to time share illumination radars, greatly increasing the number of targets that can be engaged at one time. In the middle 1980s, the SM-2MR was deployed via Mk-41 Vertical Launch System (VLS) aboard the USS Bunker Hill, the first U.S. Navy ship to deploy a vertical launcher. VLS has, since 2003, been the only launcher used for the Standard missile in the U.S. Navy aboard Ticonderoga-class cruisers and Arleigh Burke-class destroyers.

The Standard can also be used against ships, either at line-of-sight range using its semi-active homing mode, or over the horizon using inertial guidance and terminal infrared homing.

SM-2 Medium Range Block I, RIM-66C/D:
The RIM-66C was the first version of the Standard missile two. The missile became operational in 1978 with the Aegis combat system fitted to the Ticonderoga class cruiser. The RIM-66D was the SM-2 medium range block I version for the New Threat Upgrade. The SM-2 incorporates a new autopilot giving it inertial guidance in all phases of flight except for the terminal intercept where semi-active radar homing is still used. This version is no longer in service, remaining missiles have either been remanufactured into later models or have been put in storage.

SM-2 Medium Range Block II, RIM-66G/H/J:
The Block II missile introduced in 1983 with a new rocket motor for longer range and a new warhead. The RIM-66G is for the Aegis combat system and the Mk26 missile launcher. The RIM-66H is for Aegis and the Mk41 vertical launcher. The RIM-66J is the version for the New Threat Upgrade. Block II missiles are no longer manufactured, and have been withdrawn from service. The remainder have either been put in storage, or remanufactured into later models.

SM-2 Medium Range Block III/IIIA/IIIB, RIM-66K/L/M:
The RIM-66M is the version of the Standard missile two medium range (SM-2MR) currently in service with the USN aboard Ticonderoga class cruisers, and Arleigh Burke class destroyers. The missile is specifically designed for the Aegis Combat System and the Mk41 Vertical launch system. The Block III missiles differ from earlier blocks by the addition of the MK 45 MOD 9 target detecting device, for improved performance against low altitude targets. The Block IIIB missile additionally has a dual semi-active/infrared seeker for terminal homing. The dual seeker is intended for use in high-ECM environments, against targets over the horizon or with a small radar cross section. The seeker was originally developed for the canceled AIM-7R Sparrow air-to-air missile. All USN Block III and IIIA missiles are to be upgraded to Block IIIB. Block IIIA missiles are operated by the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force on its Kongo class and Atago class Aegis destroyers. Aegis equipped vessels in the Spanish and South Korean navies use it as well. The Dutch and German Navies have added it to the Anti-Air Warfare system, which uses the Thales Nederland Active Phased Array Radar and Smart-L radar. South Korean KDX-II destroyers use the block IIIA with a New Threat Upgrade compatible guided missile fire control system. Block III variants for Aegis and arm launchers are designated RIM-66L. Block III missiles for New Threat Upgrade systems is designated RIM-66K. Block IIIB missiles were not produced for the New Threat Upgrade. Blocks IIIA and IIIB are the current production versions. The Thales Nederland STIR 1.8 and 2.4 fire control systems are also supported.

Weight: SM-2MR = 1558 lb (707 kg)
Lenght: 15 feet 6 inch (4,72 meters)
Engine: solid fuel rocket
Range: 40 to 90 nmi (74 to 170 kilometers)
Ceiling: 80100 feet (24400 meters)
Speed: Mach 3,5

Source seaforces.org


The VLA is intended to provide vertical-launch-capable surface combatants with an all-weather, 360-degree quick-reaction, standoff antisubmarine weapon capability. It is carried by Aegis-equipped ships (cruisers and destroyers) equipped with the Mk-41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) and the SQQ-89 ASW Combat System. VLA includes a solid-propellant booster thrust vector control (TVC), and a digital autopilot control (DAC) to guide the missile from a vertical orientation through a pitch-over maneuver into a ballistic trajectory intended to deliver the torpedo to an aim point on the ocean surface. Originally deployed with the Mk-46 Mod 5A(S) torpedo, all VLAs have been upgraded with the Mk-46 Mod 5A (SW) torpedo. This variant of the Mk-46 torpedo provides improved performance in shallow water. With Initial Operational Capability (IOC) of the Mk-54 Lightweight Torpedo in 2010, a program is currently underway to upgrade the VLA inventory with the Mk-54 Lightweight Torpedo. VLAs with Mk-54 torpedoes are planned for fleet delivery in FY 2010.

Contractor: Lockheed Martin
Propulsion: Solid propellant rocket
Length: 16.7 feet (5,1 meters)
Diameter: 14.1 inches (35,8 centimeters)
Weight: 1,650 pounds (748 kilograms)
Range: 24000 yards (22 kilometers)
Warhead: Mk-46 torpedo, Mk-54 MAKO torpedo

Source seaforces.org

H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Thairath

2 × Mk.32 torpedo tubes triple launch tubes 

H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Thairath

Mark 54 Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo (LHT)

The MK 54 Lightweight Torpedo was previously known as the Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo (LHT).


The MK 54 Mod 0 Lightweight Torpedo integrates existing torpedo hardware and software from the MK 46, MK 50 and MK 48 torpedo programs with state-of-the-art commercial-off-the-shelf digital signal-processing technology. It incorporates an advanced guidance and control section employing COTS processing technologies and tactical software improvements to significantly increase shallow water counter-countermeasure capability at reduced lifecycle costs. These features provide performance improvements in the most challenging littoral scenarios.

Future development will continue to provide improvements to shallow water performance via software Advanced Processor Build upgrades, and the MK 54 Mod 1 adds a new sonar array assembly and improved processing capability. The MK 54 Mod 0 Lightweight Torpedo reached Initial Operational Capability in 2004. The MK 54 Vertically Launched ASW Rocket (ASROC)(VLA) system reached IOC in 2010. Source military.com

2 x .50 caliber machine gun 

Nulka active missile decoy


H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Surin Lertseethong‎

Nulka is an Australian designed and developed active missile decoy built by an Australian/American collaboration.

It is a rocket propelled, disposable, offboard, active decoy designed to seduce anti-ship missiles away from their targets. It has a unique design in that it hovers in mid air while seducing the incoming anti-ship missile.

The hovering rocket concept was initiated in Australia by the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), and the system was designed, developed and then manufactured by AWA Defence Industries (AWADI) (now BAE Systems Australia).

The Nulka consists of the missile itself enclosed in a hermetically sealed canister. This canister is then contained in a Launcher module. Source navy.gov.au

Nulka decoy

The Decoy Launching System (DLS) Mk 53 (NULKA) is a rapid response Active Expendable Decoy (AED) System capable of providing highly effective defense for ships of cruiser size and below against modern radar homing anti-ship missiles. Nulka is being developed in cooperation with Australia (in the Australian Aboriginal dialect, “Nulka” means “be quick!”). It is intended to counter a wide spectrum of present and future radar-guided anti-ship missiles (ASMs) assessed to have passive decoy rejection and active angular deflection electronic countermeasures rejection capabilities. It is designed to over-come the inherent shortfalls of chaff, which are wind dependence, lack of placement flexibility, relatively slow reaction time, and susceptibility to Doppler discrimination.

The system can either be integrated with the Combat System or used with the stand-alone AED Fire Control System. The DLS MK 53 Mod 4 is a modified DLS MK 36 Mod 12 by the addition of two NULKA launching tubes to each of the four MK 137 Mod 2 launchers and a Decoy Launch Processor.

The Nulka decoy employs a broad-band radio frequency repeater mounted atop a hovering rocket platform. After launch, the Nulka decoy radiates a large, ship-like radar cross section while flying a trajectory that seduces and decoys incoming ASMs away from their intended targets. The NULKA decoy is an active offboard decoy which utilizes a broad band radio frequency repeater mounted atop a hovering rocket. The decoy is an autonomous flight vehicle, capable of operating over a wide range of environments and of positioning the payload with a high level of accuracy. The decoy employs the hovering rocket principle and uses a solid state microprocessor autopilot and thrust vector control. The decoy is designed to counter a wide variety of present and future radar Anti-Ship Missile (ASM) guided threats by radiating a large radar cross section signal while flying a ship-like trajectory thus enabling one decoy to counter multiple threats. The flight trajectory is determined by a digital Flight Control Unit mounted immediately above the rocket motor. The combination of thrust and flight control enables successful decoy launches to be accomplished even in severe sea state and high wind conditions. The Processor Power Supply controls the decoy launching by igniting the decoys thermal batteries, monitoring the decoy self check process, downloading the decoy flight program and then igniting the rocket motor. Once launched the decoy operates autonomously and follows the stored flight demands, moving away from the ship at a pre-programmed height and speed and thus presenting an alternative and more attractive target to incoming missiles.Australia is developing the hovering rocket, launcher, and launcher interface unit. The United States is developing the electronic payload and fire control system, which is presently being integrated into the SSDS. Recent upgrades to Nulka include improved payload to reduce cost and modifications to the fire control system to reduce the system’s overall weight.The existing Mk 36 Decoy Launching System is being modified to support Nulka launches. After the Nulka equipment is installed, the system is redesignated as a Mk 53 DLS. Nulka can be used as part of a multi-layer defense system, or it can be used for stand-alone ship protection. The Nulka Decoy System has been successfully tested as a part of the Navy’s Ship Self Defense System (SSDS). Introduction priority will be given to ship classes that are presently without an active electronic warfare suite to provide an increased ASM defense capability. Due to the ever changing complexity of Anti-Ship Cruise Missiles, Nulka will be continually upgraded in order to provide protection to the Fleet. Changes will include technology advancement as well as tactical and technical changes to counter the threat. Source fas.org



H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Surin Lertseethong‎

Fire Control Systems 

2 x Radar Fire Control System
2 x Continuous Wave Illuminators
1 x Electro Optical Fire Control
2 x Target Designation Sight

CEROS 200 fire control radar


H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Surin Lertseethong‎

The CEROS 200 comprises multiple sensors, including EO, IR, TV and Laser. In addition, it has an advanced video tracker to enable simultaneous TV and IR tracking. The radar director pedestal is of twoaxis, elevation over azimuth type, and incorporates direct-drive hydraulic motors with built-in hydrostatic bearings. The freedom of motion in azimuth is unlimited and all electrical signals are transferred via slip rings. In elevation the motion is controlled both by electrical and mechanical end stops. For stabilisation against ship motion and angular rate measurements of the pedestal, a two-axis measurement gyro is used. The gyro features high performance and reliability. At turn-off, the director is automatically slewed to parking position and secured with hydraulic locking pins. A key feature is its high ability when tracking with low angular speed. The CEROS 200 has a hydraulically-driven pedestal with a much higher Mean Time Between Failure compared with alternative approaches such as electro-driven systems.


  • Extremely high accuracy
  • Fast reaction
  • Extremely high availability
  • Patented CHASE algorithm
  • Proven performance
  • Unique capabilities
  • Long range
  • Extremely wide bandwidth (2 GHz)
  • Low weight
  • Low lifecycle cost
  • Inherent growth potential

Source Saab

Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Early 2000s
Properties: Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Continuous Wave Illumination
CEROS 200 Tracker [9LV Mk4 ESSM] – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface, Short-Range
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

EOS 500 integrated with CMS


H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Surin Lertseethong‎


Type 2-axis, elevation over azimuth
Angular speed < 2 rad/s
Angular acceleration < 2 rad/s2
Weight < 112 kg including all sensors
IR Thermal imager
Type Third generation
Wavelength 3-5 um or 8-12 um
Laser range finder
Type OPO-shifted Nd YAG
Wavelength 1.57 um (eye-safe)
PRF 3 Hz continuous (8 Hz during 30-sec burst)
Power 115 V 50-60 Hz, 3kVA
Communication interface
Ethernet TCP/IP
Environmental conditions

Source saab.com

Surveillance system 

H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Thairath

1 x 3 D Long Range Radar (> 350 Km).
1 x 3 D Medium Range Radar (> 180 Km).
3 x Navigation Radar
1 x Surveillance Camera (TV and thermal imager).
1 x Hull Mounted Sonar
1 x Towed Array Sonar
2 x IFF
1 x Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B).

Sea Giraffe 4A medium- and long-range AESA surveillance radar



  • Automatic air and surface surveillance and tracking including tracking-on-jam
  • Classification of both hovering and moving helicopters
  • Target indication to weapon systems for both anti-air and anti-surface engagements
  • 360˚ mortar/rocket alert and weapon location
  • Target designation for long-range surface-to-air missiles

Extensive ECCM capability

The Sea Giraffe 4A provides extensive Electronic Counter-Counter Measure (ECCM) to meet the complex ECM environment of today and tomorrow. Methods of countering noise and deceptive jamming and chaff are included such as:

  • Ultra-low side-lobe levels including side-lobe blanking
  • Frequency agility; pulse to pulse, burst to burst, and scan to scan frequency agility
  • Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) to reject false alarms caused by clutter and/or noise jamming
  • PRF switching and PRF stagger with random jitters
  • Intermittent (or random) transmission to confuse hostile ESMs and anti-radiating missiles
  • Sector transmission that can be independently defined by the operator
  • Automatic selection of least jammed frequency
  • Automatic jammer detection and tracking in both azimuth and elevation
  • LPI waveforms

H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Surin Lertseethong‎


Sea Giraffe 4A baseline configuration

The Sea Giraffe 4A has the following main hardware units:

  • Antenna including RF parts and turntable (AU)
  • Liquid Cooling Unit (LCU)
  • Signal Data Unit (SDU)
  • Power Distribution System (PDS)

Upgrading and extended capabilities

  • Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) interrogator antenna
  • IFF interrogator
  • IFF transponder equipments

H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Surin Lertseethong‎

Technical data

Radar type Stacked beam 3D radar
Antenna type AESA, digital beam forming
Frequency S (E/F) band
Elevation coverage > 70 degrees
Rotation rate 30 or 60 rpm
Search volume 360° or in a sector
Instrumented range 280 km



Giraffe 4A and Sea Giraffe 4A: medium- to long-range radars, combining air surveillance, air defence, sense and warn and weapon locating capabilities in a single, low-footprint S-band AESA-based unit.


Sea Giraffe 4A @saab

Sea Giraffe AMB

3 D Medium range radar 180 km – Sea Giraffe AMB

This multi-role 3D radar provides a full range of functions for simultaneous:

  • Air surveillance and tracking, including tracking-on-jam
  • Surface surveillance and tracking
  • Target classification of both moving and hovering helicopters
  • Navigation/close combat capabilities
  • Target indication to weapon systems for precision anti-air and anti-surface engagement
  • Gunfire support, including high-resolution splash spotting

The radar simultaneously detects small fast-moving targets at all altitudes and in severe clutter. The surface channel gives a high probability of detecting very small targets in close proximity to the surface, for example rib boats and periscopes.

The radar has been proven in all kinds of environments including regions with extensive ducting conditions.

The concurrently processing target returns from multiple digitally shaped narrow receive beams in elevation results in high altitude coverage and monopulse accuracy in elevation. The radar covers the full search volume every second.

In order to relieve operator interaction, Sea Giraffe AMB provides fully automatic operation on both air and surface targets, supported by a variety of different clutter maps and doppler processing to eliminate both land and weather-driven clutter.

Sea Giraffe AMB provides the most comprehensive Electronic Counter-Countermeasure (ECCM) capabilities available today including ultra-low antenna side-lobes.


Today the Sea Giraffe AMB has the designation AN/SPS 77 V(1) for the US Navy’s Littoral Combat Ship, LCS 2/4 and AN/SPS 77 V(2) for LCS 6 and higher.

Sea Giraffe AMB comprises the following main hardware units:

  • Antenna Unit (AU)
  • Transmitter Unit (TRU)
  • Signal and Data Unit (SDU)
  • Power Distribution System (PDS)

The following extended capabilities for the Sea Giraffe AMB baseline product configuration are available:

  • Stealth Radome
  • 360˚ mortar/rocket detection and alert (C-RAM)
  • Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) interrogator antenna
  • IFF interrogator
  • Improved detection range and redundancy with an additional transmitter unit

The stealth radome is built with Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS) to minimise the Radar Cross Section (RCS) and infrared signature of the above-deck parts of the Sea Giraffe AMB. The radome is capable of carrying equipment on the top, for example an ESM, ELINT and/or a COMINT. The counter rocket, artillery and mortar alert function detects, tracks and classifies very small ballistic objects in severe clutter. The point of impact, the ballistic trajectory as well as the impact position are calculated. A warning signal of impact position is given well in advance, allowing the ship to perform an evasive manoeuvre in order to avoid being hit.


H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Surin Lertseethong‎


Radar type Stacked beam 3D radar
Antenna type 3D phased array, digital beam forming
Frequency C (G/H)-band
Elevation coverage > 70 degrees
Rotation rate 60 RPM
Instrumented range 180 km

Sea Giraffe AMB

ATLAS ELEKTRONIK Towed Sonar system

H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Thairath

H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Thairath

H.T.M.S. Bhumibol Adulyadej (FFG 471) – Thairath

Electronic Warfare System
1 x Radar ESM
1 x Communication ESM
6 x Decoy Launchers
Active-off board ECM
1 x Integrated Communication System
Link RTN, Link G & Link E.
1 x SAT Communication

Updated Sept 24, 2019

Features and capabilities General

Liable to drive up water
3,700 ton
123 x 14.4 x 8 (m).
Persistence sea
Sea State 8 (Survivability)
maximum speed
 30 Knots
operating distance
4,000 NM @ 18 Knots
drive system
2 x Diesels + 1 x GE, Controllable Pitch Propeller.
electrical system
4 x Ship Service Power Generation (Each of 830 kW Rated output).
1 x RHIB
The system ships >
Stealth Technology
– RCS (Radar Cross Section) Reduction.
– IR (Infra Red Reduction).
– URN (Underwater Radiated Noise) Reduction.
– Degaussing
– NBC Protection System
1 x 10 Ton Helo (S-70B Sea hawk or MH-60S Knight hawk) with Hangar.
136 Mr.
The battle system director
15 x MFC (Multi Function Consoles).
weapon system
8 x SSM
VLS with capabilities of
     + 8 x Canisters (max 32 ESSM).
     + Vertical Launch Anti-submarine Rocket (VLA).
     + Nulka Active-off board ECM.
     + SM2 **
1 x 76/62 Stealth Shield, Multi feeding system.
    (Max range 40- 45 km with smart ammunition).
2 x 30 mm Guns (200 RPM) x CIWS (4,500 RPM).
2 x .50 inch (Range; 2 km).
2 x Trainable Triple tube torpedo launchers.
Fire Control Systems 
2 x Radar Fire Control System
2 x Continuous Wave Illuminators
1 x Electro Optical Fire Control
2 x Target Designation Sight
surveillance system 
1 x 3 D Long Range Radar (> 350 Km).
1 x 3 D Medium Range Radar (> 180 Km).
3 x Navigation Radar
1 x Surveillance Camera (TV and thermal imager).
1 x Hull Mounted Sonar
1 x Towed Array Sonar
2 x IFF
1 x Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B).
Electronic Warfare System
1 x Radar ESM
1 x Communication ESM
6 x Decoy Launchers
Active-off board ECM
1 x Integrated Communication System
Link RTN, Link G & Link E.
1 x SAT Communication
** Navy Frigate designed hull and infrastructure improvements that can fire missile missile surface – to – air SM2 including a plan prepared to support them. The manufacturer of the system components that are involved. Missile launching pad launching pad’s vertical combat system director. And fire control radar Point range radar(Illuminator) to support the improvement of fire weapons such as the Navy’s needs and circumstances, budget permitting.


Naval Frigate supply at this time. The ship Frigate high performance in the Navy. A completely operating in the sea every dimension. The features and capabilities of the mission and functions assigned to it effectively and efficiently. Meet the needs of the Navy. And objectives of the project
Translated by google

VT4 (MBT-3000) Main Battle Tank

The VT4 (formerly MBT-3000) main battle tank (MBT) is a third-generation MBT designed and developed by China North Industries Corporation (Norinco).

Intended primarily for export markets, the VT4 tank integrates advanced armour and fire control capabilities and offers increased firepower and protection to combat forces in the battlefield.

A scale model of the MBT-3000 was displayed at the Eurosatory 2012 defence exhibition in Paris, France, while an advanced version of the VT4 was unveiled at China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition 2014 in Zhuhai, China.

VT4 MBT orders and deliveries

Army Calvary Center

Thailand plans to purchase a total of 49 VT4 MBTs from Norinco in three batches for use by the Royal Thai Army. The order for the first batch of 28 tanks was finalised in 2016. The vehicles were delivered in October 2017 and tested by the Royal Thai Army in January.

A total of 26 vehicles are inducted into service with the 3rd Cavalry Division in Khon Kaen Province, while the remaining two are operational with the Royal Thai Army Cavalry Centre at Adisorn Military camp in Saraburi and the Army Armory Hall.

The Government of Thailand approved the purchase of a second batch of ten VT4 tanks in April 2017. The vehicle deliveries are scheduled for this year.

Army Calvary Center

Thailand approves purchase of 10 more Chinese tanks worth $58 million

The Thai cabinet on Tuesday approved the purchase of 10 Chinese tanks worth $58 million to replace an old U.S. model, a government spokesman said, the second of three planned purchases of 49 tanks from China.

Thailand ordered 28 tanks from China last year.

“These tanks will replace the M41 tanks, which are small and old,” Sansern Kaewkamnerd told reporters.

Thailand has used the U.S. M41 light tanks since World War II, said Defense Minister Prawit Wongsuwan.

Relations have been strengthening between China and the United States’ oldest ally in Southeast Asia, particularly since ties with the United States cooled after a 2014 coup.

In January, the cabinet also approved 13.5 billion baht ($380 million) to buy a submarine from China and is consider Elsewhere in Southeast Asia, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte has boasted of his new friendship with China as he has talked down the relationship with the United States, despite a longstanding territorial dispute with Beijing.

A U.S. Navy aid unit has also been told to leave Cambodia, the U.S. embassy said, in a new sign of the country loosening links with Washington as it strengthens ties with Beijing.

(Reporting by Pracha Hariraksapitak; Writing by Patpicha Tanakasempipat; Editing by Nick Macfie).  Source reuters.com

Royal Thai Army to order more Chinese tanks: Here


The Royal Thai Army will buy 34 armoured vehicles worth about two billion baht and another 11 VT-4 battle tanks from China, says army commander Chalermchai Sitthisat.

The army’s arms deal plan with China follows the controversial submarine procurement project by the Royal Thai Navy which last Friday finalised the contract for the first S26T Yuan-class submarine worth 13.5 billion baht.

According to Gen Chalermchai, the army has proposed the procurement of VN-1 armoured vehicles to the Defence Ministry for further submission to the cabinet for approval.

Store rack ERA

*Thailand should negotiate for ERA on turret store rack similar to ZTZ-99 to be included without extra charge for the next order.  Considering the current cost are almost $6 million per unit (I suppose the cost would also include ammunition).  However, the T-90MS turret is more heavily armored and would cost less at $5 million.

Operators: Here

VT4 main battle tank design details

Based on tracked chassis, the hull of the VT4 MBT is of all-welded steel armour construction. The gross vehicle weight of the tank is approximately 52,000kg.



Chinese source indicate that the ERA is FY-4 which is considered to have the same protection level as the Russian 4S22 (Kontakt-5).

screenshotAtUploadCC_1516983419344.pngCloseup of ERA – Army Calvary Center YouTubescreenshotAtUploadCC_1515444187989Closeup of ERA on turret– BATTLEFIELD DEFENSEDriver hatch – BATTLEFIELD DEFENSECommanders hatch and panoramic sight – BATTLEFIELD DEFENSEGunners hatch and panoramic sight – BATTLEFIELD DEFENSEBATTLEFIELD DEFENSE









The tank is manned by three crew members including commander, driver and gunner. The driver’s seat is located in the centre of the forward hull with a single hatch. The commander is seated to the right of the turret, while the gunner is seated in the left side. A hull escape hatch is provided on each side.

Air-conditioning system – TNN24 YouTube

The tank features an air-conditioning system, a fire extinguisher and an explosion suppression system.


TNN24 YouTubeTNN24 YouTube

The VT4 main battle tank is armed with a 125mm smoothbore cannon to engage armoured personnel carriers, main battle tanks, infantry forces, military installations, light vehicles, and low-flying helicopters.

125mm smoothbore cannon

Army Calvary Center YouTubeAuto loader – Army Calvary Center YouTubeAuto loader – Army Calvary Center YouTubeAuto loader – Army Calvary Center YouTubeAuto loader – Army Calvary Center YouTube

The 125mm gun can fire armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding-sabot (APFSDS) rounds, high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warhead, artillery and guided missiles. The maximum firing range of the anti-tank missiles is 5km.

Army Calvary Center YouTube

Russian 9K119 Refleks (AT-11 Sniper) missiles

These are Russian 9K119 Refleks (AT-11 Sniper) missiles, produced in China under license. Missiles are launched in the same manner as ordinary munitions. Missiles have a maximum range of 5 000 m. Typically four missiles are carried. This anti-tank guided missile capability is not common in Western designs. A total of 38 rounds are carried for the main gun. 22 of them are loaded into the autoloader and are ready to use. Other rounds are stored inside the hull. Source military-today.com

Technical Characteristics
Calibre of 9M119F missile, mm 125
Firing range
maximum, m
minimum, m
Flight time of 9M119F missile at the range of 5000 m, s 16
Control system semi-automatic, jamming invulnerable, by a beam of the optical quantum generator
Temperature range for the combat use of 3UBK14F round, С° ±50*
Mass of 3UBK14F round, kg
9M119F missile
9X949 throwing device
Length of 3UBK14F round, mm
9M119F missile
9X949 throwing device
* Note. Combat use of 3UBK14F rounds is admissible after short-term (6 h) exposure to the ambient temperature from −60° to +60 С° and their subsequent keeping within the operating temperature range of ±50 С° during not less than 8 h as well as at temperature differences of the ambient air and the round charge of up to 70 С°.

Source zid.ru

SpringNews YouTubeSpringNews YouTubeSpringNews YouTube

A remotely operated 12.7mm anti-aircraft machine gun and a 7.62mm coaxial machine gun comprise the secondary armament.

12.7mm anti-aircraft machine gun

12.7mm anti-aircraft machine gun – Army Calvary Center YouTube

QJZ85 / W85 / QJC88 12.7 mm heavy machine gun?

The QJZ85 or Type 85 heavy machine gun was developed by China North Industries Corporation (NORINCO) to succeed the previous Type 77. It is tripod mounted and the vehicle mounted version is known as the QJC88 or Type 88.

The belt-fed and fully automatic QJZ85 / QJC88 uses the 12.7×108 cartridge of Russian origin. A variant exists using the 12.7×99 NATO cartridge for export only.

The gas-operated QJZ85 / QJC88 comes with an iron sight, but can also be fitted with an optical sight. Muzzle velocity is 850 m/s and the maximum rate of fire 600 rounds per minute.

The QJZ85 / QJC88 heavy machine gun weighs 18.5 kg and is being succeeded by the Type 89 or QJZ89.  Source defenseupdates.blogspot.com

7.62mm coaxial machine gun

7.62mm coaxial machine gun – Army Calvary Center YouTube

Type-80 General Purpose Machine Gun

The Type 80 (Chinese: 80式通用机枪) is a general-purpose machine gun manufactured by Norinco in China, based on the Soviet PKM. The machine gun was certified for design finalisation in 1980 and entered the PLA service in the mid-1980s, specifically in 1983. The Type 80 was intended as a successor to the Chinese independently developed Type 67, doing well in tests conducted in the Chengdu Military Region before it was dropped and instead, opted to keep the Type 67 GPMG in use. Only a few Type 80s were used in the People’s Liberation Army Marine Corps and airborne units, and a modified Type 80, named as Type 86, was then accepted by PLA armor units.


Source aminoapps.com

VT4 self-protection features

Laser warning receiver – thairath YouTube

The main battle tank is equipped with GL5 active protection system (APS), which integrates four fire control radars with a detection range of approximately 100m.

The roof-mounted APS offers a high level of protection against main battle tanks, armoured vehicles, anti-tank guided missiles, and anti-tank weapons.

New active protection system designated the GL5

Red Shield 2 active protection system for main battle tanks and armoured vehicles is a fully automatic, intelligent active protection system. It is comprised of detection devices, missile-interception equipment and launcher. It is intended to realize active protection for main battle tanks and armoured vehicles to effectively intercept anti-tank missiles, RPGs so as to improve greatly the field survivability. It is also adopted as the last phase protection means for high-value facilities such as communication station, missile launching well and command center, etc.


  • Automatic working function: When the Red Shield 2 is switched on, it is able to perform the whole process of target detection, information processing, intercept projectile launch, target destruction automatically, without human interference
  • Real-time target detection : Red Shield 2 is able to search target within a distance of 100m. When target is acquired, it starts to track it automatically and measures the speed, distance, angle of targets accurately
  • Fire control and trajectory resolution: Red Shield 2 establishes target trajectory with real-time target data acquired, thus calculates target projectile encounter position and resolves the fire control parameters and generates ignition order to intercept projectile so that realize launch of projectile at right time to intercept the target
  • Real-time interception: It is able to damage, destruct or detonate the incoming targets effectively at a distance of 10m±1.5m


  • Operating mode: Automatic, intelligent, all-time and 3-dimensional protection
  • Target type: Anti-tank missile, RPG
  • Target detection range: >100m
  • Target intercept range: 10m
  • Protection area: 360°, 3-dimensional
  • Length of whole system: <400 mm
  • Number of tubes: 12

Source army-guide.com

MBT-3000/VT-4 GL-5 active protection system successfully intercepted 120mm rocket

The tank is also fitted with smoke grenade launchers and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection system to protect the occupants.

76 mm smoke grenade launchers

Smoke grenade launchers – Army Calvary Center YouTube

The MBT3000 countermeasures include eight 76 mm smoke grenade launchers and four 76 mm shrapnel grenade launchers. Source army-guide.com

Army Calvary Center

Fire control

screenshotAtUploadCC_1515444550494BATTLEFIELD DEFENSE

The gunner and commander of the VT4 tank are provided with stabilised thermal imaging sights for identification and recognition of targets. The driver has three observation periscopes.

Gunner station – Army Calvary CenterGunner station – Army Calvary CenterCommanders station – Army Calvary CenterCommanders station – Army Calvary CenterDriver station – Army Calvary Center4a41000852b0a481a4d4Driver station

The vehicle’s fire control unit also comprises roof-mounted panoramic sights, a laser warning device, and a digital gun control system designed to support day and night operation.

A digital communications system is also installed in the vehicle to provide the commander with communication and control functions.

Engine and mobility of VT4 main battle tank

27021212_1591696894229350_1124787410688651649_oArmy Calvary Center

The VT4 main battle tank is powered by a rear-mounted 1,200hp turbocharged diesel engine coupled to a hydro-mechanical drive system.

The automatic transmission and torsion bar suspension systems provide increased mobility in off-road conditions.

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.07.22-12-40-13Army Calvary Center

The tank can attain a maximum speed of 70km/h on highways and a speed of 50km/h in cross country conditions, while the maximum range is 500km.

It can climb gradients of 30% and vertical obstacles of 1.2m.


VT/E1 Diesel engine

Rated speed (r.p.m.)
Engine power output (h.p.)

Source army-guide.com

f866d22e964e3b3_w440_h248Chinese internet images


Weight (kg)
Main weapon caliber (mm)
Auxiliary gun calibre (mm)
AA gun caliber (mm)
Ammunition of the main gun
Ammunition in the autoloader
Fording depth (mm)
Engine power output (h.p.)
Max. road speed (km/h)
Max. road range (km)
Trench (mm)
Vertical obstacle (mm)
Gradient (%)
Side slope (%)
Ground pressure (kg/sm2)
Operating temperature, max (degree, C)
Operating temperature, min (degree, C)
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
Length of track on ground (mm)
Max. road range (km)
Rate of fire (rds/min)
Ammunition of the auxiliary gun
Ammunition of AA gun
Number of smoke grenade launchers
Number of forward gears
Number of reverse gears
Depression (degree)
Elevation (degree)
Fuel capacity (l)

Specification army-guide.com

Main material source army-technology.com

Main image thaipost.net

Revised Aug 15, 2018