The Su-24M front-line bomber is manufactured by the Sukhoi Design Bureau Joint Stock Company, based in Moscow, and the Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association, Novosibirsk, Russia. The Su-24M entered service in 1983 and is a development of the Su-24, known by the NATO codename ‘Fencer’.
Over 900 Su-24s have been delivered, and the aircraft is in service with the Russian Air Force and Navy, and the air forces of Azerbaijan, Algeria, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Libya, Syria and Ukraine.
Syrian Air Force to get Russian Su-24M2 frontline bombers: Here
Su-24M2 is the latest development of Su-24M frontline bomber developed in the 1970s. The upgraded aircraft made its maiden flight in 2001. It has a length of 24.59 m, a maximum wingspan of 17.64 m, a height of 6.19 m, a normal take-off weight (NTOW) of 33,500 kg, a maximum take-off weight (MTOW) of 39,700 kg, a payload of 8,000 kg, a maximum speed of 1,700 km/h, a combat range of 560 km, and a service ceiling of 11,000 m. Su-24M2 has received advanced multifunctional displays (MFD), GPS/GLONASS/IN (inertial) combined navigational system, new data display devices, and upgraded communications suite. The enhanced software of Su-24M2 allows firing Kh-31A (AS-17 Krypton) anti-ship and Kh-31P (AS-17 Krypton) anti-radiation missiles, as well as KAB-500Kr guided bombs. Su-24M2 can be equipped with electronic warfare (EW) systems.
According to the Military Balance 2016 report issued by the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), Russia`s Aerospace Forces (Russian acronym: VKS, Vozdushno-Kosmicheskie Sily) operate 140 Su-24M/M2 frontline bombers and 79 Su-24MR reconnaissance aircraft. The Syiran Air Force has deployed 11 Su-24 combat aircraft. VKS are using Su-24M planes to bomb the Islamic State`s (forbidden in Russia) machinery of war in Syria. Source Tass.com
The Su-24M front-line bomber is designed to penetrate hostile territory and destroy ground and surface targets in any weather conditions, by day and night. Variants of the Su-24 have also been produced, designed for reconnaissance and electronic countermeasures.
400 Russian Air Force Su-24M were upgraded to M2 standard with navigation and weapons systems to enable launch of new versions of Kh-29 and other missiles. Upgrades include a new SV-24 computer, liquid crystal displays, ILS-31 head-up display, digital moving map and global positioning system. In 2010 the Russian Air Force began replacing the Su-24 with the Su-34 with deliveries scheduled through to 2015.
Su-24 bomber design
The aircraft has a conventional aerodynamic configuration with a variable-sweep shoulder wing. The fuselage is of rectangular-section semi-monocoque design, with a two-seat pressurised cockpit. The wing sweepback angle varies from 16° to 69°, with respect to the wing leading edge with four outer-wing panel fixed positions of 16°, 35°, 45° and 69°.
The tail unit comprises all-moving horizontal tail surfaces and a single-fin vertical tail fitted with a rudder. The horizontal tail surfaces function as an elevator when deflecting symmetrically, and as ailerons when deflecting differentially. Tricycle-type landing gear allows the aircraft to be operated from either concrete or unpaved runways.
Image – afwing.com
The Sukhoi Su-24 (NATO reporting name: Fencer) is a supersonic, all-weather attack aircraft developed in the Soviet Union. The aircraft has a variable-sweep wing, twin-engines and a side-by-side seating arrangement for its two crew. It was the first of the USSR’s aircraft to carry an integrated digital navigation/attack system. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force, Ukrainian Air Force, and various air forces to which it was exported.
Next modernization of Su-24M introduced in 2000 with the “Sukhoi” program and in 1999 with the “Gefest” program. The modernized planes are equipped with new equipment and systems.
As a result, they get new capabilities and improved combat efficiency, including new navigation system (SVP-24), new weapons control system, new HUD (ILS-31, like in Su-27SM or KAI-24) and expanding list of usable munitions (Kh-31A/P, Kh-59MK, KAB-500S). The last batch of the Sukhoi was delivered to the Russian VVS in 2009. Modernization continues with the program “Gefest”. All frontline bombers Su-24 in the Central Military District received new sighting and navigation systems SVP-24 in 2013. Source wikipedia.org
Orion-A radar (NATO: “Drop Kick”)
Orion was originally designed for the Su-7. Operating at 8mm wavelength(?), Orion was unfortunately far too large (antenna is 1.4m across) for the Su-7 nosecone, so it was hoped to carry it in an external pod. The radar was too heavy, however, and the plans were abandoned. The radar design eventually found its home on the much larger Su-24. Using a conventional parabolic antenna, it has a maximum range of 150 km, and could detect and track large targets with significant radar contrast with the ground. It could be used for blind bombing only against big area targets, such as railway stations, large command posts, etc. A slightly improved version, Orion-A, was fitted to the Su-24M. Source aerospace.boopidoo.com
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 148.2 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.4 km||Generation: Early 1970s|
|Properties: Pulse-only Radar|
|Sensors / EW:|
|Drop Kick [RPO Orion-A] – (Su-24M) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Air-to-Air & Air-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 148.2 km
Terrain Following Radar (Relyef)
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 3.7 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.2 km||Generation: Early 1980s|
|Properties: Pulse-only Radar|
|Sensors / EW:|
|TFR [Relyef] – (Su-24M) Radar
Role: TFR, Terrain Following Radar
Max Range: 3.7 km
Image redstar.grImage airvectors.net
The Su-24 is armed with the following types of air-to-surface missiles: Kh-23 or Kh-23M (NATO codename AS-7 Kerry) radio-command guided missiles (range 5km; up to four missiles carried); Kh-28 (AS-9 Kyle) and Kh-58 passive radar-homing missiles (range 90km; up to two missiles carried). Up to two Vympel R-60 (AA-8 Aphid) IR-homing air-to-air missiles with a range of 3km are also carried.
Kh-23 or Kh-23M (NATO codename AS-7 Kerry)
Radio-command guided missiles, Engine – SRM with side jets
|Length||3591 mm||3570 mm|
|Wingspan||785 mm||785 mm (?)|
|Case Diameter||275 mm||275 mm|
|Weight||288 kg||300 kg|
|Weight warhead||110/111 kg||89.6 kg|
|Range||2-10 km||2.5-10 km|
Range of effective start-up X-23 – 3-4 km
Range start X-23M with a passive radar homing – 3-4 km
Kh-28 (AS-9 Kyle) Anti-radiation missile
The Kh-28 (Russian: Х-28; Nisan-28; NATO: AS-9 ‘Kyle’) was the first Soviet anti-radiation missile for tactical aircraft. It entered production in 1973 and is still carried on some Sukhoi Su-22s in developing countries but is no longer in Russian service. Use of the Kh-28 was restricted by its weight, limited seeker head, bulk and fuelling requirements, and it was superseded by the smaller, solid-fuel Kh-58 (AS-11 ‘Kilter’) in the early 1980s. Source wikiwand.com
Control and guidance – electro autopilot APR-28 (developer – SRI-923, Moscow, Chief Designer – E.F.Antipov) Temperature controlled hydraulic system coupled with a passive radar seeker PWG-28M of three types (the developer – CDB-111 SERC, chief designer A.V.Kirchuk, later renamed the NGO “Automation”, Omsk) – provides for work in three main ranges of NATO frequency. Autopilot unit had prolongation of the trajectory in the event of loss bearing signal for up to 10 seconds. On the aircraft carrier set equipment for exploration and production of enemy radar targeting issued for onboard equipment missile guidance (on the Su-17M, for example, the container “Blizzard-A”). GSN does not migrate a single-character.
According to the data of the western experience of application of X-28 missiles during the Iran-Iraq war, missile seeker has a high sensitivity and can be induced on the radar SAM Hawk at a distance of 200 km, but the use of such missiles in the range it was impossible to incl . due to the limited capacity of the container “Blizzard” of equipment ( source ).
Equipment Development of complex container “Blizzard” was carried out by TK issued in 1970, the chief designer B.Prasolov. Developer – Automation Omsk CDB-111.
– for the preliminary design (1963) – SRM Development Bureau plant №81, Chief Designer – I.I.Kartukov.
– Dual-mode R-LRE 253-300. At the stage of preliminary design involves the use of SRM, but at the end of 1963 decided to use LRE created OKB-300 S.K.Tumanskogo for missile DAC-5 (AS-6) .
The engine thrust – 8000 kg
Fuel – exclusion
The working fluid – compressed air
Fuel – TG-02 ( “thin”)
oxidizer – nitric acid, an AK-27
Device X-28 missile ( http://rbase.new-factoria.ru ):
|1 – antenna unit PWG-28M
2 – blocks passive radar coordinator goal PSG-18M
3 – air vent cooling system
4 – sub-assembly Suspension
5 – high-explosive warhead 9A283 active shell
6 – the front unit suspension
7 – tank compartment oxidant AK-27I
8 – a tank-compartment fuel TG-02
9 – rear suspension unit
10 – the engine start system
11 – “tooth” repulsive
12 – tear combined electrical connector
13 – checks fusing device
14 – vent the cooling system
|15 – blocks forming teams autopilot APR 28
16 – DC static converter
17 – jellied mouth of fuel and oxidizer
18 – liquid rocket engine R253-300
19 – electrohydraulic steering autopilot
20 – impulse battery power
21 – aggregates tank pressurization system
22 – a can of compressed air
23 – autopilot control unit APR-28
24 – autopilot control unit APR-28
25 – protection units and electromechanical fuse-host computer 132
26 – optical proximity fuse DOM-5
27th – the cradle apparatus PWG-28M
28 – contact sensors detonation device
TTX missiles :
– 5970 mm
– 6210 mm (according to Western data)
Wingspan – 1390 mm
body diameter – 430 mm
sweep angle – 75 degrees.
– 690 kg (on the project and according to the official TTC)
– 715 kg (according to Western sources)
Weight warhead :
– 160 kg (on the draft K-28P)
– 140 kg / 155 kg (according to various sources)
– 200 kg (according to Western sources)
BB Weight – 74 kg
– 36 – 120 km (on the draft K-28P)
– 18 – 120 km (official TTX)
– 15 – 120 km
– 45 km (when starting with a height of less than 1000 m)
– 70 km (when starting from a height of 5000 m)
– up to 90 km (according to other sources)
speed maximum – 3300 km / h (including the project K-28P)
The height of the carrier at the time of start-up:
– 500-15000 meters (complex K-28P project)
– 500-16000 m
accuracy – a circle of 20 m radius with a probability of 80%
CU Type – 9A283 – high-explosive shell with an active development of the NII-6. Fuses -. Electromechanical contact fuze-host computer 132 and the proximity fuse DOM-5, providing undermining warhead in the air at a height of 5 m, optimal for destroying radar project provides for the installation of nuclear warheads on missiles. In western sources mention its index – the TC-43. Current evidence for this is not found in domestic sources.
– X-28 – base model of anti-radar missiles.
– X-28E – eskportnaya modification of the basic model anti-radar missiles.
– X-28M – missile modernization option of a beginning of the 1970s (by dr.dannym started in 1967) missile was equipped with a solid propellant. Later development was transformed into anti-radar missiles Kh-58 (a product “112” / D-7).
– Yak-28N (some sources Yak-28P) – tactical fighter-bomber weapons complex K-28P, 2 missiles X- 28. Designed by OKB-115 Design Bureau, tested, not commercially produced.
The range of complex weapons – 1000-1100 km (at 1,000 km / h)
support the maximum speed – 1700 km / h
Translated by google – Source militaryrussia.ru
Kh-58 (Russian: Х-58; NATO:AS-11 ‘Kilter’)
Kh-58 (Izdeliye 112) – original version for the Su-24M
The Kh-58E missile is designed to engage radars making part of land-based air defence systems, air defence early warning, target designation and control systems, and other emitting targets operating in A/A’, B/B’ and C frequency bands.
The Kh-58E missile can be employed in any weather conditions (rain, snow, fog) or season, without any restrictions on geographical latitude of the launch site.
The missile is guided by a passive radar homing head and an autonomous control system.
The Kh-58E missile can be employed in weapon systems of the Su-24MK, Su-22M4, Su-25TK, MiG-25BM type combat aircraft equipped with an appropriate target designation system and airborne ejection unit for missile’s launch.
Developer and manufacturer: “Raduga” State Machine-Building Design Bureau
|(depends on launch altitude at max speed), km||46-200|
|Launch altitudes, km||0,2-20|
|Launch speeds, Mach number||0,47-2,35|
|Min launch range, km||8-60|
|Missile launch weight, kg||650|
|Warhead weight, kg||149|
|Missile dimensions, m:|
Su-24 armed with Vympel R-60 and Kh-31 A/P missiles
Grom tactical air-to-ground missile
Vympel R-60 (AA-8 Aphid)
The Molniya (now Vympel) R-60 (NATO reporting name: AA-8’Aphid’) is a short-range lightweight infrared homing air-to-air missile designed for use by Soviet fighter aircraft. It has been widely exported, and remains in service with the CIS and many other nations.
|Type||Short-range air-to-air missile|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||1974- present|
|Weight||43.5 kg (96 lb)|
|Length||2,090 mm (6 ft 10 in)|
|Diameter||120 mm (4.7 in)|
|Warhead||3 kg (6.6 lb)|
|Engine||solid-fuel rocket engine|
|Wingspan||390 mm (15 in)|
|8 kilometres (5.0 mi)|
|Flight altitude||20,000 m (66,000 ft)|
The Su-24M aircraft is armed with: Kh-25L (AS-10 Karen) laser-guided missiles (range 20km; up to four missiles carried); Kh-29LT (AS-14 Kedge) laser / TV-guided missiles (range 10km; up to three missiles carried); Kh-31P (AS-17 Krypton) passive radar-homing missiles (range 180km; up to two missiles carried); and Kh-59 (AS-13 Kingbolt) TV-command-guided missiles (range 90km; up to two missiles carried).
Kh-25L (AS-10 Karen) laser-guided missile
The Kh-25, AS-10 Karen NATO designation, is a tactical, supersonic, guided missile family intended for use on the Mig-27, Su-24 and Su-17/22 tactical attack aircraft. Developed in the 1970s, externally it is similar to the Kh-23M missile. Overall, Kh-25 family of missiles is from a certain point of view the Soviet counterpart to French Air Force’s AS-30L supersonic air-to-ground missile. Kh-25 missile flexibility has allowed integration onto Russian Air Force’s Ka-50 Hokum attack helicopter. They are fitted with either a high explosive or piercing warhead.
The basic Kh-25 variant includes three main versions outfitted with three different guidance systems. The Kh-25ML uses a semi-active laser guidance system, Kh-25MR a radio command guidance system and Kh-25MTP uses an infrared seeker. Their primary targets are armored vehicles and fortifications using a high explosive shaped charge warhead. The Kh-25MUL is a combat training missile, Kh-25ML-UD is a functional training missile and Kh-25ML-UR is a sectional training missile.
Diameter: 275 millimeter (10.8 inch)
Length: 3.70 meter (146 inch)
Wingspan: 755 millimeter (29.7 inch)
Max Launch Altitude: 5,000 meter (16,404 foot)
Max Range: 10 kilometer (5.40 nautical mile)
Min Launch Altitude: 50 meter
Min Range: 3 kilometer
Piercing in Concrete: 1 meter
Cruise Speed: 670 mps
Max Launch Airspeed: 1,250 kph
Top Speed: 870 mps (2.62 mach)
Warhead: 89 kilogram (196 pound)
Weight: 300 kilogram (661 pound)
Kh-29L air-to-surface missiles (AS-14 Kedge)
The Kh-29L air-to-surface missiles are designed to engage visually observed hardened ground and surface targets, such as big railway and highway bridges, industrial installations, concrete runways, aircraft in reinforced concrete shelters, surface vessels displacing up to 10,000 tonnes. Kh-29L is equipped with a semi-active laser guidance system using reflected laser illumination spot.
The missiles are armed with a high explosive penetrating warhead and an impact target sensor. They are powered by a single-mode solid-fuel rocket engine.The missiles make part of weapon systems of multi-role fighters and attack aircraft.
Designed: Soviet Union 1975 (X-29)
Weight: 660 kgs
Length: 390 cm
Diameter: 38 cm
Warhead: HE Armour-piercing
Warhead weight: 320 kgs
Detonation mechanism : Impact
Engine: Fixed thrust solid fuel rocket
Wingspan: 110 cm
Op. range min/max: 3-10 km
Speed: 1,470 km/h (910 mph)
Guidance System: semi-active Laser guidance
Kh-31P (AS-17 Krypton) anti-radiation missile
The Kh-31P high-speed medium-range “air-to-surface” guided missile with changeable passive radar homing heads is designed to engage radars operating within long- and medium-range air defence missile systems, as well as other ground- and sea-based radars of different purpose, in the corresponding frequency band.
The Kh-31P missile can be efficiently launched either independently or in salvo, in fair and adverse weather conditions, to engage radar targets of opportunity or previously disclosed ones.
The missile can be equipped with changeable homing heads operating in coresponding frequency bands used by modern continuous-wave and pulsed radars of surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery systems.
The missile’s radar homing head ensures:
– target search and lock-on in the autonomous mode, or by receiving target designation data from carrier’s sensors with the missile on the aircraft suspension station;
– target tracking and missile guidance command generation.
It has a high explosive/fragmentation type of warhead.
Thanks to its relatively small weight and size the Kh-31P missile can be employed from various air combat platforms including moderately sized ones. The missile has passed state acceptance tests on a number of series-production front-line combat aircraft of the Russian Air Force. The missile makes part of weapon systems of modern combat aircraft, such as the Su-25, Su-27, Su-30, Su-34, Mig-29, etc., and can be adapted to other types of Russian or foreign-origin aircraft during their modernization.
The missile is suspended under the aircraft and linked to its onboard systems, carried in flight and launched (or jettisoned in emergency, if required) by means of the AKU-58 airborne ejection unit.
Developer and manufacturer: Tactical Missiles Corporation
|Launch range envelope, km||15-110|
|Launch altitude envelope, m||100-15,000|
|Launch speed envelope, km/h (Mach number)||600-1,250|
|Max missile cruising speed, m/s||1,000|
|Warhead weight, kg||87|
|Missile launch weight, kg||about 600|
|Missile dimensions, m:|
Kh-31A (AS-17 Krypton) anti-ship missile
The Kh-31A high-speed anti-ship airborne missile is designed to engage warships of different type, including destroyers, navigating both autonomously and within naval attack groupings.
The Kh-31A missile can be effeciently launched either independently or in salvo, in fair and adverse weather, clutter and active jamming conditions, against preplanned targets and targets of opportunity.
The missile is equipped with a high-precision active radar homing head and a radio-altimeter. The active radar homing head can operate in the pre-launch and en route (post-decent) target designation modes. It ensures target acquisition and selection, determination of target coordinates (range, azimuth, elevation), generation of command signals and their feeding into the missile’s guidance system.
Thanks to its relatively small weight and size the Kh-31A missile can be employed from various air combat platforms, including moderately sized ones. The missile has passed state acceptance tests on a number of series-production front-line combat aircraft of the Russian Air Force. It makes part of weapon systems of modern combat aircraft, such as the Su-25, Su-27, Su-30, Su-34, MiG-29, etc., and can be adapted to other types of Russian or foreign-origin aircraft during their modernization.
The Kh-31A missile is suspended under the carrier aircraft with necessary links to its onboard systems, carried in flight and launched (or jettisoned in emergency, if required) by means of the AKU-58A missile ejection unit.
Developer and manufacturer: Tactical Missiles Corporation
|Launch altitudes envelope, km||0,1-10(15)|
|Launch speeds envelope, km/h|
|(Mach number)||600-1,250 (0,65-1,5)|
|Max launch range|
|(against destroyer-type targets from|
|altitude of 10/15 km), km||50/70|
|Max missile cruising speed, m/s||1,000|
|Warhead weight, kg||94|
|Missile launch weight, kg||about 610|
|Missile dimensions, m:|
Kh-59 (AS-13 Kingbolt)
The Kh-59 Ovod (Russian: Х-59 Овод ‘Gadfly’; AS-13 ‘Kingbolt’) is a Russian TV-guided cruise missile with a two-stage solid-fuel propulsion system and 200 km range. The Kh-59M Ovod-M(AS-18 ‘Kazoo’) is a variant with a bigger warhead and turbojet engine. It is primarily a land-attack missile but the Kh-59MK variant targets shipping.
APK-9 datalink pod for the Kh-59M
APK-9 Tekon pod –Image @ausairpower.net
The original Kh-59 is propelled by a solid fuel engine, and incorporates a solid fuel accelerator in the tail. The folding stabilizers are located in the front of the missile, with wings and rudder in the rear. The Kh-59 cruises at an altitude of about 7 meters above water or 100–1,000 metres (330–3,280 ft) above ground with the help of a radar altimeter. It can be launched at speeds of 600 to 1,000 km/h (370 to 620 mph) at altitudes of 0.2 to 11 kilometres (660 to 36,090 ft) and has a CEP of 2 to 3 meters. It is carried on an AKU-58-1 launch pylon.
The Kh-59ME has an external turbofan engine below the body just forward of the rear wings, but retains the powder-fuel accelerator. It also has a dual guidance system consisting of an inertial guidance system to guide it into the target area and a television system to guide it to the target itself.
The 36MT turbofan engine developed for the Kh-59M class of missiles is manufactured by NPO Saturn of Russia.
36MT turbofan engine
- 1-stage fan
- axial-diagonal high pressure compressor
- annular combustor
- 1-stage high pressure turbine
- 1-stage low pressure turbine
|Thrust at maximum rating, kgf||450|
|Maximum length, mm||850|
|Maximum diameter, mm||330|
Target coordinates are fed into the missile before launch, and the initial flight phase is conducted under inertial guidance. At a distance of 10 km from the target the television guidance system is activated. An operator aboard the aircraft visually identifies the target and locks the missile onto it.
|Weight||930 kg (2,050 lb)|
|Length||570 cm (220 in)|
|Diameter||38.0 cm (15.0 in)|
|Warhead||Cluster or shaped-charge fragmentatio|
|Warhead weight||320 kg (705 lb)|
|Engine||Kh-59: two-stage rocket
Kh-59ME: rocket then turbofan
|Wingspan||130 cm (51.2 in)|
|Kh-59ME (export): 115 km (62 nmi)
Kh-59ME: 200 km (110 nmi)
Kh-59MK: 285 km (150 nmi)
|inertial guidance (then TV guidance), millimeter wave active radar seeker (Kh-59MK, Kh-59MK2 land attack version)|
Kh-59: Su-24M, MiG-27, Su-17M3/22M4, HAL Tejas, Su-25 and Su-30
It is also armed with KAB-50OKR TV-guided and KAB-1500L laser-guided air bombs, supplied by the Region State Research and Production Enterprise of Moscow.
KAB-50OKR TV-guided bomb
The KAB-500Kr corrected air bomb is designed to engage stationary ground/surface small-sized hardened targets, such as reinforced concrete shelters, runways, railway and highway bridges, military industrial installations, warships, and transport vessels.
The KAB-500Kr, KAB-500-OD, KAB-1500Kr corrected air bombs are fitted with TV/terrain-matching homing heads and various types of warheads. TV homers with target data processing correlation algorithm can “remember” target location and correct bomb’s flight trajectory until the impact on the target, thus realizing the “fire and forget” principle. Such homing heads can help defeat low-contrast and masked targets provided that terrain reference points and target coordinates related to them are available. The KAB-500Kr, KAB-500-OD, KAB-1500Kr corrected air bombs make part of weapon systems of such front-line aircraft types as Su-27, Su-30, Su-34, Su24M, MIG-29 and others.
Developer and manufacturer: State Research and Production Enterprise “Region”
|Weights: total/warhead/HE, kg||520/380/100|
|Bomb drop altitude, km||0,5-5|
|Carrier speed, km/h||550…1100|
|Root mean square deviation, m||4…7|
KAB-1500L laser-guided air bomb
The KAB-1500L, KAB-1500LG-F-E is the current production standard, is a 1,500 kg, laser-guided bomb designed to hit stationary ground and surface targets when used by the latest generation of Russian-made fighters and bombers. It is the Russian counterpart to United States Paveway II/III laser-guided bombs. Once released, the pilot or a third party must aim at the target with a laser designator in order to successfully direct the KAB bomb. The KAB-1500LG-F-E features an impact fuze with three delay modes.
The KAB-1500L bombs were deployed successfully during the Russian military campaign in Chechnya. Usually, the Su-24 Fencer and Mig-27 Flogger aircraft use this type of weapon in strike missions but can be used by the latest generation of Su-30MK multirole aircraft. The spectrum of targets to hit by this weapon include: railway and highway bridges, military and industrial facilities, ships and transport vessels, ammunition depots and railway terminals. Source deagel.com
Developer and manufacturer: GNPP “Region”
|wingspan||0,85 (retracted)||0,85 (retracted)||0,85 (retracted)|
|1,3 (extended)||1,3 (extended)||1,3 (extended)|
|Drop altitude, km||1 to 8||1 to 8||1 to 10|
|Aircraft drop speed, km/h||550 to 1100||550 to 1100||550 to 1100|
|Aiming accuracy, m||4 to 7||4 to 7||4 to 7|
|Warhead||penetrating||high explosive||full air explosive|
|Type of blasting device||contact with three||contact with three||direct action contact|
|types of delay||types of delay|
Both aircraft can carry up to six rocket pods. The weight of conventional bomb armament amounts to between 7.5t and 8t.
Unguided rockets, for example six 32-round pods of 57 millimeter rockets; six 20-round pods of 80 millimeter rockets; six 5-round pods of 122 millimeter rockets; six individual 240 millimeter rockets; or four individual 370 millimeter rockets. Source airvectors.net
Various dumb bombs, ranging from 100 kilogram (220 pound) to 1,500 kilogram (3,300 pound) munitions, with smaller munitions carried on multiple stores racks; 250 kilogram (550 pound) or 500 kilogram (1,100 pound) cluster munition dispensers; or tactical nuclear weapons. Source airvectors.net
RBK-500 cluster bombs
Image – sdelanounas.ru
The aircraft can carry up to three gun pods with 23mm Gsh-6-23 guns, which have a rate of fire of 9,000 rounds a minute and fire unit of 500 rounds. Gsh-6-23 guns are manufactured by the Instrument Design Bureau of Tula, Russia.
SPPU-6 23mm Gsh-6-23 gun pod
The SPPU-6 is a large and powerful gun pod of Soviet origin. It was developed in the early 1970’s for use with the Su-24 Fencer ground attack aircraft. The six barrel GSh-6-23 autocannon makes it one of the most powerful gun pods in existence. A unique feature of this pod is that the armament is flexible and may face downwards and to the side, removing the need to dive directly towards the target in order to fire. The name SPPU stands for Samolyatnaya Podvizhnaya Pushechnuaya Ustanovka which is Russian for aircraft movable gun pod.
The SPPU-6 carries the six barrel gas operated GSh-6-23 autocannon and 500 23x115mm rounds of ammunition. The same ammunition is used in the twin barrel GSh-23L found on various aircraft and in the SPPU-22 and UPK-23 pods. The GSh-6-23 has a cyclic rate of fire of 9.000 to 10.000 rpm and thus expends ammunition quickly. The flexible mounting allows the aircraft to use the weapon at low altitudes and maneuver slightly when using the weapon to avoid air defenses.
|Weight||525 kg loaded|
|Armament||23mm GSh-6-23 autocannon with 500 rounds|
|Remarks||Flexible armament with +0 to -45° elevation and +0 to +45° traverse, 250 mm lug spacing|
The Su-24 bomber’s integrated navigation and aiming system is the PNS-24. PNS-24, in conjunction with radio navigation equipment, can perform the following functions: terrain warning; detection of targets and their destruction by level and toss bombing; target designation for missiles; detection of operating radars and launch of missiles on these radars; and automatic and semi-automatic aircraft control during landing approach to a height of 40m to 50m.
The Su-24M aircraft is equipped with the PNS-M modified integrated navigation and aiming system, which includes a laser/TV-sighting system for the air-to-surface laser/TV-guided missiles.
“The pace and effectiveness of the Russian Air Force (well, technically they are now called AirSpace Forces or ASF so I will refer to them as RASF from now on) has the western military experts in shock. Not only are the number of sorties per day about 3 times as much as a US or NATO country could achieve, but the Russian airstrikes are amazingly accurate even though the Russians are flying at over 5000m above ground, well out of reach of man portable air defense systems (MANPADS). They are even flying at night and in bad weather. This is even more puzzling considering that most of the work, at least in quantitative terms, is done by old SU-24s (first deployed in 1974) and SU-25 (first deployed in 1981). In fact, most of the missions in Syria could have been executed by these to excellent but, frankly, ancient aircraft and the main reason for the presence of the brand new and extremely advanced SU-34 is to test out the airframe and its systems (and since the Turks shot down the SU-24, to provide credible air-to-air self defense capability where needed). So what is the deal here? How did the Russians achieve these apparently quasi-miraculous results?
With something called the SVP-24.”
“The advent of satellite guidance ushered a new era for guided weapons. For the first time it became possible to use GPS (or, for the Russians, GLONASS) satellite signals to guide a bomb to a target. Not only were these satellite guided bombs more accurate, they also did not depend on good weather conditions. Their main problem was that they were very expensive to manufacture. The other problem is that most weapons stores were full of thousands of cheap and old unguided bombs. What to do with them?
The Americans came up with an elegant solution: the JDAM. The Joint Direct Attack Munition kit was a way to convert “dumb” (non-guided) bombs into “smart” (guided) bombs by attaching a special kit to them. You can read more about this in this Wikipedia article. This made it possible to use old bombs, but this was still not cheap, roughly 25’000 dollars a kit (according to Wikipedia).
The Russians came up with a much better solution.
Instead of mounting a kit on an old bomb and lose the kit every time, the Russians mounted a JDAM-like kit, but on the airplane.
Introducing the SVP-24:
SVP stands for “специализированная вычислительная подсистема” or “special computing subsystem”. What this system does is that it constantly compares the position of the aircraft and the target (using the GLONASS satellite navigation system), it measures the environmental parameters (pressure, humidity, windspeed, speed, angle of attack, etc.). It can also receive additional information from datalinks from AWACs aircraft, ground stations, and other aircraft. The SVP-24 then computes an “envelope” (speed, altitude, course) inside which the dumb bombs are automatically released exactly at the precise moment when their unguided flight will bring them right over the target (with a 3-5m accuracy).
In practical terms this means that every 30+ year old Russian “dumb” bomb can now be delivered by a 30+ year old Russian aircraft with the same precision as a brand new guided bomb delivered by a top of the line modern bomber.
Not only that, but the pilot does not even have to worry about targeting anything. He just enters the target’s exact coordinates into his system, flies within a defined envelope and the bombs are automatically released for him. He can place his full attention on detecting any hostiles (aircraft, missiles, AA guns). And the best part of this all is that this system can be used in high altitude bombing runs, well over the 5000m altitude which MANPADs cannot reach. Finally, clouds, smoke, weather conditions or time of the day play no role in this whatsoever.
Last, but not least, this is a very *cheap* solution. Russian can now use the huge stores of ‘dumb’ bombs they have accumulated during the Cold War, they can bring an infinite supply of such bombs to Syria and every one of them will strike with phenomenal accuracy. And since the SVP-24 is mounted on the aircraft and not the bomb, it can be reused as often as needed.
The SVP-24 has now been confirmed to be mounted on the Russian SU-24s, SU-25s, Tu-22M3 “Backfires” and the Kamov Ka-50 and Ka-52 helicopters, the venerable MiG-27 and even the L-39 trainer. In other words, it can be deployed on practically *any* rotary or fixed wing aircraft, from big bombers to small trainers. I bet you the Mi-24s and Mi-35Ms deployed near Latakia also have them.
Here are what the various parts of the SVP-24 system look like:
IR missile approach warning sensor
L-082 Mak-UL fitted to Su-24M
Su-24M “Fencer-D” (improved strike aircraft): Karpati integrated defensive system with SPO-15C (alternative translation SRO-15) Beryoza or -155 radar warning receivers on sides of engine air intakes and tail fin; LO-82 Mak-UL missile warning receivers above centre-fuselage and below front fuselage;
APP-50 IR decoy dispenser
The APP-50 passive jamming automatic units (decoy dispensers) are designed to protect aircraft from engagement in flight by airborne missile systems and air defence missile/artillery systems by dispensing radar/IR interference rounds. The dispensers are installed onboard aircraft, and can be controlled manually (from the control panel) or automatically. The APP-50 dispensers can be delivered in two variants: APP-50P for autonomous operation; APP-50A for integration into onboard electronic support systems. The dispenser can launch rounds (up to three types) in continuous, salvo, combined and emergency modes. Launch time intervals, number of salvos and number of rounds in one salvo (from 1 to 4) are set by operator or by the electronic support system.
|Launch altitude envelope, m||0 – 30, 000|
|Launch time intervals, sec||0,1 – 8,0|
|Round types||PRP-50, PPI-50|
|Number of rounds||24|
|Dispenser weight (loaded), kg||53 – 56,5|
|Launch modes||continuous, salvo, by series|
Two AAP-50 12-round chaff/flare launchers on fuselage either side of tail fin, LO-82 Mak-UL infrared missile warning receiver on centerline, and two triangular SPO-15 radar warning recievers on engine intake sides, on a Su-24M “Fencer-D”.
APP-50A chaff/flare 48-round launcher and AAP-50 12-round flare launcher, apparently on Su-24 “Fencer-D Mod”
The power plant comprises two A-F turbojets, with a thrust of 11,200kgf each. Fuel is accommodated in fuselage integral tanks. Two external fuel tanks with a capacity of 3,000l each can be suspended from the centre-wing section, with one external fuel tank, with a capacity of 2,000l, suspended from the fuselage.
Ljulka AL-21 F 3
|Rf (thrust in afterburner mode)||11215 kgs|
|Rmah (traction at maximum capacity)||7800 kgs|
|Tr (gas temperature before the turbine)||1097 ° C|
|The degree of pressure increase||14.5|
|engine weight||1800 kg|
|Air consumption||104 kg / s|
|The diameter of the engine||1030 mm|
|engine Length||5340 mm|
Installed on the aircraft Su-17, Su-20, Su-22, Su-24
Engine data motor-lutsk.com.ua
An inert gas system is installed for fire safety. The Su-24M aircraft is equipped with a flight refuelling system.
The Su-24M has a maximum speed of 1,550km/h and a range of over 3,000km. The service ceiling is 11,000m and the maximum rate of climb is 9,000m a minute.
Main material source airforce-technology.com
Update Aug 06, 2018
|Length||22.67 m||22,59 m||20.53 m|
|Wingspan (wings)||17.64 m||17.64 m||17.64 m|
|Ground clearance||5.92 m||5.92 m||5.92 m|
|Wing area (wings)||55,16 m 2||55,16 m 2||55,16 m 2|
|Empty weight||21,150 kg||22,300 kg||22,100 kg|
|MTOW||39,700 kg||39,700 kg||39,700 kg|
|motorization||2 AL-21F turbofan Lioulka-3 11 200 kp each with afterburner||2 AL-21F turbofan Lioulka-3 11 200 kp each with afterburner||2 AL-21F turbofan Lioulka-3 11 200 kp each with afterburner|
|operational ceiling||17 000 m||17 000 m||17 000 m|
|Maximum speed||1700 km / h||1700 km / h||1430 km / h|
|stop range||3055 km with additional tanks||2850 km with additional tanks||2500 km with additional tanks|
|take-off roll||900 m||1250m||1200 m|
|Landing roll||800 m with parachute||950 m with parachute||1000 m with parachute|
|armament||1 sextuple gun hCG-6-23 23 mm (500 rounds)
up to 7000 kg of external loads
|1 sextuple gun hCG-6-23M 23 mm (500 rounds)
up to 8000 kg of external loads
|2 air-air missile R-60 or R60M|
Technical data krasnayazvezda.com
Wow, another awesome post!
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