The S-400 Triumph (NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler) is an air defence missile system developed by Almaz Central Design Bureau of Russia. The new system replaced the S-300P and S-200 air defence systems of the Russian Army.
S-300P SA-10 Grumble
The S-300-P is the first variant of the Russian-made S-300 family of long range surface-to-air missile systems. The S-300P was designed and manufactured by the Company Almaz Antey. The S-300 system was developed to defeatt aircraft and cruise missiles. The design aims of the original S-300P were to produce a strategic area defence SAM system, intended to protect fixed targets such as government precincts, industrial facilities, command posts and headquarters, military bases, strategic and tactical airfields and nuclear sites. Subsequent variations were developed to intercept ballistic missiles. The S-300 enters in service with the Russian army in 1979. Russia has exported different variants of the S-300P system to at least 14 countries including Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Vietnam but the S-300P is no longer produced.
The 5V55 is a family of highly supersonic, surface-to-air missiles used with the S-300 family of high performance, medium-range air defense systems. The 5V55 missile has a radio frequency based guidance system and a maximum speed of approximately Mach 5.5. The 5V55s may serve as anti-ship missiles against large ships for the naval variant of S-300, the S-300F. The 5V55K version is a medium range missile suitable against airborne and surface targets at distances of up to 45 kilometers.
Diameter: 450 millimeter
Length: 7 meter
Max Range: 45,000 meter
Target’s Max Altitude: 30,000 meter (98,425 foot)
Target’s Max Speed: 1,150 mps (4,141 kph)
Top Speed: 1,826 mps (6,575 kph)
Warhead: 70 kilogram
Weight: 1,480 kilogram
– S-300 F : naval version of the S-300
– S-300 V : four missiles mounted to an tracked vehicle.
– S-300 PS : Four missiles mounted to a Maz-543 truck.
– S-300 PM : Four missiles mounted to a Kraz-260 truck.
– S-300 PM1: upgraded version of S-300 PM, new missile, and association with a new radar system
– S-300 PM2 : upgraded version of S-300 PM1, higher range.
– S-300 PMU : export version of S-300 PS/PM
– S-300 PMU1 : export version of S-300 PM1
– S-300 PMU2 : export version of S-300 PM2
|Long range surface-to-air missile systems|
|Four missiles 5V55K in individual container|
|Russia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, China, Croatia, Syria.|
|High explosive ; fragmentation|
|Engagement radar 5N63 Flap Lid engagement radar and 36D6 3-D S-band surveillance radar.|
S-300VM Antey-2500 SA-23: Here
The S-400 was developed as an upgrade of the S-300 series of surface-to-air missile systems. The system entered service in April 2007 and the first S-400 was deployed in combat in August 2007. Russia set up four S-400 regiments defending national airspace in the Moscow region, the Baltic exclave of Kaliningrad, and the Eastern Military District.
Russia’s S-400 Deployments
The air defence units of Southern Military District are expected to be rearmed with advanced S-400 Triumph by the end of 2012. Over 20 battalions of S-400 Triumph will be delivered to the Russian armed forces by 2015. Russia plans to induct 56 S-400 battalions by 2020.
Pantsir-S1/S2/SM missile systems: Here
Russia’s new Pantsir-SM air defense system to roll off production lines in 2 years: Here
Russia intends to supply export versions of the S-400 Triumph system to the armed forces of China. Turkey also expressed interest in purchasing S-400 air defence systems during the IDEF 2009 exhibition.
S-400 Triumph features
Russia’s Buildup Of S-400 Missile Batteries In Kaliningrad Is Freaking Out NATO: Here
Commander of U.S. Air Forces Europe General Frank Gorenc told the following to the New York Times regarding the S-400’s presence in Kaliningrad:
“It is very serious… Obviously, we continue to monitor it. They have every right to lay that stuff out. But the proliferation and the density of that kind of A2/AD environment is something that we’re going to have to take into account.”
S400 coverage in Syria
Image – newsroompost.com
The system can engage all types of aerial targets including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and ballistic and cruise missiles within the range of 400km, at an altitude of up to 30km. The system can simultaneously engage 36 targets.
The S-400 is two-times more effective than previous Russian air defence systems and can be deployed within five minutes. It can also be integrated into the existing and future air defence units of the Air Force, Army, and the Navy.
Russia’s formidable S-400 Triumf air defense missile system
MOSCOW, October 9. /TASS/. Russia’s Federal Service for Military and Technical Cooperation reported on October 9, 2017 that Moscow and Riyadh had reached an agreement on the delivery of S-400 air defense missile systems and other armaments to Saudi Arabia.
The S-400 Triumf (NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler) is a Russian long-and medium-range air defense missile system. It is designed to destroy air attack and reconnaissance means (including stealth aircraft) and any other aerial targets amid intensive counter-fire and jamming.
Development and entry into service
The work on the conceptual design of the point air defense missile system initially designated as the S-300PM3 was launched by the Almaz research and production association (currently the Almaz research and production association named after Academician Alexander Raspletin, Moscow) in the mid-1980s under the supervision of Chief Designer Alexander Lemansky. This work was intensified in the late 1990s and on February 12, 1999 the system was demonstrated for the first time at the Kapustin Yar practice range (the Astrakhan Region) to then-Defense Minister Igor Sergeyev. The trials of the most advanced air defense missile system were carried out in the 2000s.
On April 28, 2007, the S-400 went into service and the first battalion of the newest surface-to-air missile systems assumed combat duty on August 6 that year in the town of Elektrostal (the Moscow Region). Six weeks later, On September 27, 2007, the Triumf’s developer, Alexander Lemansky who saw the launch of his missile system into serial production, died at the Kapustin Yar practice range. The system’s first live-fire exercises were successfully carried out at the Kapustin Yar practice range in 2011.
The S-400 is based on the S-300PMU2 air defense missile complex. It differs from its predecessors by its extended combat range and the capability of using new surface-to-air missile systems. It is capable of detecting and destroying low-observable (stealth) and fast-moving aerial targets.
S-400 system and its integral parts
The S-400 Triumfcomprises the following:
- a combat control post;
- a three-coordinate jam-resistant phased array radar to detect aerial targets;
- six-eight air defense missile complexes (with up to 12 transporter-launchers, and also a multifunctional four-coordinate illumination and detection radar);
- a technical support system;
- missile transporting vehicles;
- a training simulator.
The S-400 system can also additionally include an all-altitude radar (detector) and movable towers for an antenna post. All the S-400’s means are mounted on the wheeled all-terrain chassis (produced by the Minsk Wheeled Tractor Factory and the Bryansk Automobile Enterprise) and can be transported by rail, water and air transport.
The S-400 can selectively operate with the use of no less than 5 missile types of various takeoff weights and launch ranges to create a layered air defense zone.
The S-400 is also capable of exercising control of other air defense missile systems (the Tor-M1, the Pantsyr-S1), providing highly effective air defense even amid a mass air attack with the use of electronic warfare means.
- target detection range – up to 600 km;
- aerodynamic target kill range – from 3 to 250 km;
- tactical ballistic missile destruction range – from 5 to 60 km;
- target destruction altitude – from 2 to 27 km;
- engageable target velocity – up to 17,300 km/h;
- the number of targets engaged at a time – up to 36 (up to six with one air defense missile complex);
- the number of simultaneously guided missiles – 72;
- the time of the system’s deployment from its march position – 5-10 min, the time of making the system combat ready from the deployed position – 3 min;
- the operational service life of ground-based systems – no less than 20 years, air defense missiles – no less than 15 years;
S-400 systems on combat duty in the Russian Armed Forces
According to public sources, 19 regiments armed with S-400 complexes were on combat duty in the Russian Armed Forces as of April 2017. Overall, these regiments included a total of 38 battalions and 304 launchers in Elektrostal, Dmitrov, Zvenigorod, Kurilovo (Moscow Region), Nakhodka (the Primorye Territory), Kaliningrad, Novorossiysk (the Krasnodar Territory), Polyarny (the Murmansk Region), Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (the Kamchatka Territory), Novosibirsk, Vladivostok, Sevastopol and other places.
The state armament program envisages the arrival of 56 S-400 battalions for troops by 2020, which will make it possible to rearm 28 two-battalion air defense missile regiments.
A battalion of Triumf surface-to-air missile systems was deployed on November 25, 2015 from the Moscow Region to Syria’s Hmeymim air base accommodating the Russian air task force. Later on, according to media reports, another S-400 battalion was deployed in the Syrian province of Hama. Source tass.com
S-400 Triumph missiles
The S-400 air defence missile system uses four new missile types in addition to the missiles of the S-300PMU system. The first missile inducted for the system was the 48N6DM (48N6E3). It is an improved variant of the 48N6M with powerful propulsion system. The missile can destroy airborne targets within the range of 250km.
The Triumf Air Defense System is the most advanced of its type in the world. The S-400 uses different ranges of missiles to cover its entire performance envelope. These are the extremely long range (ex:40N6), long range (Ex: 48N6) and medium range (Ex: 9M96) missiles.The S-400 Triumf, a top-tier anti-aircraft weapon system produced in Russia, has no parallels across the globe in terms of combat capabilities. In contrast US-built Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), has a shorter range and is incapable of hitting targets beyond the horizon. In addition, the S-400 system is purely an anti-ballistic missile system designed to shoot down ballistic missiles.
THAAD missile defense: Details
The S-400 is capable of hitting targets at a height of up to 300 kilometers (186 miles). Its second distinctive feature is fire-and-forget capability. Its missiles are fitted with a homing device which can lock onto a target and terminate it. Unlike the US system, the S-400 does not need to track the target.
- The 40N6 very long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 400km (250mi). Active radar homing head. (expected in 2012) To engage targets out of sight from the ground (for homing missile can) is designed to find the target. System S -400 can hit targets at a height of 185km.
- The 48N6DM long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 250km (160mi). Semi-active radar homing head.
- The 48H6E3/48H6E2 -The 250/200km, target speed 4,800 metres per second (17,000km/h; 11,000mph; Mach14)/2,800 metres per second (10,000km/h; 6,300mph; Mach8.2), rocket speed 2,000 metres per second (7,200km/h; 4,500mph; Mach5.9).
Russian surface-to-air missile. Improved version of the 48N6 for the S-300PMU-1 48N6E and S-400 systems, capable of shooting down tactical ballistic missiles at incoming speeds of 4.8 km/s or hypersonic targets flying at 3.0 km/s at 150 km altitude.
AKA: S-400. Payload: 180 kg (390 lb). Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Height: 6.98 m (22.91 ft). Diameter: 0.52 m (1.69 ft). Span: 1.04 m (3.40 ft). Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).
Maximum range: 400 km (240 mi). Boost Propulsion: Solid rocket. Minimum range:3.00 km (1.80 mi). Floor: 10 m (32 ft). Source astronautix.com
Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300 system for export using the advanced 48N6E2 missile, capable of shooting down tactical ballistic missiles.
AKA: 48N6E2; Favorit. Payload: 180 kg (390 lb). Gross mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Height: 6.98 m (22.91 ft). Diameter: 0.52 m (1.69 ft). Span: 1.04 m (3.40 ft). Apogee: 27 km (16 mi). Source astronautix.com
The 40N6 missile of the S-400 has a claimed range of 400km and uses active radar homing to intercept air targets at great distances. It can be launched against AWACS, J-STARS, EA-6B support jammers and other high-value targets.
|SA-20/21 Long Range Missiles
||PO LSZ||Изготовитель||ПО “ЛСЗ”
|Зона поражения, км
|Target max speed [KTAS]
||Максимальная скорость цели, км/ч||6450||7500|
|SAM max speed
||Максимальная скорость ЗУР, м/с||до 2100||до 2100||
||Масса ракеты, кг||1800-1900||1835
|Warhead weight [lb]
||Масса БЧ, кг||143||180||180|
||Track via missile
||Длина ракеты, м||7,5||7,5||7,5|
||Диаметр корпуса ракеты, м||0,519||0,519||0,519|
||Размах оперения, м||1,134||N/A|
|Number of stages
|Motor burn duration [sec]
||Время работы двигателя, сек||до 12||N/A|
|Load factor limit [G]
|Storage life [yr]
||10||10||Гарантированный срок хранения в ТПК, лет||10||10|
|*including launch tube – 5170 lb
||* с контейнером – 2342 кг|
Technical data ausairpower.net
S-400F: The Hawkeye-killer: Here
“As far as VMF needs are concerned the newest ultra-long range 40N6 SAM of the S-400 system which has a range of up to 400km and which is at the final stage of acceptance trials is not only useful because it can shoot down Hornets outside of their Harpoon launch zone (120-150km). The main expectation is that it can deprive the carrier battle groups of the potential adversary of their main advantage in naval warfare, namely autonomously detect (without reliance on space assets) naval targets up to 700km and direct carrier-based strike aircraft against them.
Available information indicates that the Hawkeyes patrol about 32km from the carrier battlegroup (CBG). Their detection range is limited by the horizon and at E-2C practical ceiling of 9,390m is about 350km. Therefore a surface action group (SAG) built around a Project 11442M cruiser can destroy Hawkeyes shortly after they establish their radar contact (if the speed of the 40N6 missile is comparable to that of 9M83 missile of the S-300V system, it means that the E-2C will be hit 5.5 minutes after launch). The unmaneuverable prop-driven Hawkeye would have few chances to evade the almost-hypersonic missile.
A Nimitz air group includes only four Hawkeyes, and if the duty pair is shot down, the contact will be re-established in only half an hour. The absence of continuous target designation would complicate sending the first strike wave but would not cancel the attack (the original coordinates from the first shot-down Hawkeyes would suffice). However, without their “hawk eyes”, the CBG loses much of its combat power.
Note: There is at least one case of a Russian long-range missile engaging a Hawkeye. According to unconfirmed information, a Soviet S-200 crew deployed in Syria shot down an Israeli E-2C at a range of 190km. Even if it’s not true, and the plane only “quickly lost altitude” in order to avoid missile fire, the S-200 still won because it forced the Hawkeyes to maintain at least 150km distance from Syria’s shores which complicated their ability to direct Israeli air power.” Originally posted by South Front “ARCTIC DREADNOUGHTS” dated 17.08.2015
9M96 Missile (Fakel)
- The 9M96E2 extended range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 120km (75mi), flying altitude 5m to 30km,. It has the highest hit probability against fast, maneuverable targets such as fighter aircraft. Weight 420kg. Active radar homing head. The probability for single missile to destroy the target without taking into account the operational reliability is: (piloted stealth / UAV) of is actively maneuvering = 0.9 / 0.8.
- The 9M96E medium range missile (40km), flying altitude 20km, weight 333kg. Active radar homing head.
- The 9M96 (not for exporting) medium range missile. Range more 120km, a high probability of target destruction 1 rocket (0.9 for the aircraft and UAV maneuvering -0.8). Can maneuver at a height of 35 km with an overload of more than 20g, which greatly increases the efficiency of destruction of ballistic missiles medium and short range.
- The ABM capabilities are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
- The new anti-ballistic missiles 77N6-N and 77N6-N1 to enter service in 2014 supposedly add inert/kinetic anti-ballistic capability to the system.The same missiles will also be used by the S-500, which has a clearly stated anti-ICBM role.
77N6-N and 77N6-N1 hypersonic missile to be used by S-500
The S-500 Prometheus uses two new types of missile the 77N6-N and 77N6-N1, the first Russian missiles with inert warheads, which can destroy nuclear warheads by force of impact, i.e., by hitting them with precision at great speed. No explosives are needed: Russian engineers’ estimates show that a collision at a speed of 7km/s would be sure to destroy just about any flying object. Source armyrecognition.com
Russian Aerospace Forces to Get State of the Art S-500 Air Defense Systems: Here
The S-400 Triumph also launches 9M96E and 9M96E2 medium range ground-to-air missiles. Designed for direct impact, the missiles can strike fast moving targets such as fighter aircraft with a high hit probability. The maximum range of the 9M96 missile is 120km.
|9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles (Fakel in Milparade.ru)|
|Target engagement envelope, km:
container with four missiles
|Average velocity, m/s||750||1,000|
|First shot hit probability:
S-400 5P85SE demonstrator TEL with quad 9M96E launch tubes
S-400 5P85SE demonstrator TEL with quad 9M96E launch tubes. This design may be replaced in production with a four chamber design in the same form factor as the 48N6 launch tube (image © Miroslav Gyűrösi). -Image – ausairpower.net
Command and control
The 55K6E command and control system of the S-400 Triumph is based on the Ural-532301 mobile command post vehicle. The command post is equipped with LCD consoles to process the air space surveillance data of the individual batteries. It controls and monitors long-range surveillance radar, tracks airborne threats, prioritises the threats, and coordinates other batteries.
The system is also capable of exchanging data with other defence systems such as SA-12, SA-23, and S-300.
The 55K6E is employed to control all components in the group of batteries, and can collect and present status information from all components. It can also control the operating modes of the 91N6E Big Bird acquisition and battle management radar, including its IFF/SSR functions. A comprehensive C3 /datalink package is installed, and an Elbrus-90 mikro central processor is used to execute the data processing and system management code. Sharing hardware with the S-300PMU2 54K6E 2 CP, the 55K6E uses 18 inch LCD panels for all crew stations.
Five common consoles are installed, with unique software driven presentation for the five person crew of the CP, the latter comprising:
- 1 x Air Defence Unit Commander
- 1 x Air Situation Management Officer
- 2 x Fire Control Officers
- 1 x Engineering Officer
While Lemanskiy et al did not detail the 55K6E any further, the high level of commonality suggests that more recent Almaz-Antey disclosures on the 54K6E2 CP also apply to the 55K6E2. Source ausairpower.net
The fire control and target tracking radar of the S-400 is the 92N6E (NATO Codename: Gravestone). The radar is based on the MZKT-7930 8×8 vehicle. The 96L6 Cheese Board 3D surveillance and tracking radar is optionally carried by the same vehicle when the S-400 battery is deployed autonomously.
92N6E (NATO Codename: Gravestone) Multimode Engagement Radar
The 92N6E departs from the specialised engagement and fire control functionality of earlier radars in the Flap Lid family, exploiting abundant computing power no differently than Western AESAs. It is intended to provide autonomous manual and automatic sector searchs, target acquisition and tracking, in adverse weather, Electronic Counter Measures, chaff and low altitude clutter environments. The radar is equipped with an IFF capability.
The 92N6E Grave Stone will automatically prioritise targets, compute Launch Acceptable Regions for missile launches, launch missiles, capture missiles, and provide midcourse guidance commands to missiles while tracking the target and missile. Missile guidance modes include pure command link, semi-active homing, and Track via Missile (TVM) / Seeker Aided Ground Guidance (SAGG), where missile semi-active seeker outputs are downlinked to the Grave Stone to support the computation of missile uplink steering commands.
The radar can track 100 targets in Track While Scan mode, and perform precision tracking of six targets concurrently for missile engagements. data exchanges between the 92N6E Grave Stone and 30K6E battle management system are fully automatic.
The 92N6E Grave Stone data processing subsystem is designed around the Elbrus-90 mikro SPARC multiprocessor system, like the S-300PMU2 30N6E2 Tomb Stone variant. Computing power is exploited to support a diverse range of modes and waveforms. These including:
- Sniffing waveforms at varying power levels to establish the presence of interfering emitters at a given angle and frequency;
- Adaptive beam control reflecting immediate operational conditions;
- Variable PRFs and scan rates for missile and target tracking;
- Defeat of high power active noise jammers by the use of “radical measures” in the design.
New Electronic Counter Counter Measures technology was employed in the design of the 92N6E Grave Stone, but was neither described nor named.
Lemanskiy et al described the 48N6E3 missile in some detail, but did not include any disclosures beyond what is already public knowledge.
The authors did state that increased radar power-aperture product performance in both the 92N6E Grave Stone and 91N6E Big Bird increases the capability of the S-400 Triumf to engage low signature or stealth targets, but their cryptic claim of 50 percent of the engagement range remains difficult to interpret.
What is evident is that the fully digital S-400 Triumf displays most if not all of the typical capability gains seen in the latest generation of fully digital systems of Western design. Source ausairpower.net
96L6 Cheese Board 3D surveillance and tracking radar
The 96L6 was developed by KB Lira and is built by LEMZ. It was developed to replace the S-band 36D6 Tin Shield medium and high altitude acquisition radar, and the S-band 76N6 Clam Shell low altitude acquisition radar, with a design which is fully mobile and can redeploy as quickly as a ‘shoot and scoot’ missile battery. The 96L6 can be operating 5 minutes after coming to a stop.
The 96L6 is the standard battery acquisition radar in the S-400 / SA-21 system, and is available as a retrofit for the S-300PM/PMU/PMU1 and S-300PMU2 Favorit / SA-20 Gargoyle as a substitute for the legacy acquisition radars. The radar interfaces to the S-300PMU2 via a radiofrequency datalink or optical fibre cable, and interfaces to older missile batteries via a conventional cable. Interfaces are available for the 30N6E Tomb Stone, the 83M6 battery command post, and Integrated Air Defence System command posts including the Baikal-1E, Senezh-M1E, Osnova-1E and Pole-E. Links to the latter include radiofrequency datalinks or cables.
The radar is a frequency hopping design intended to provide high jam resistance and high clutter rejection. Up to five operator consoles are provided. The planar array antenna employs mechanical beamsteering in azimuth and electronic beamsteering in elevation. Several operating modes are available:
Full azimuth search involves rotating the aperture through 360° and performing vertical sweeps electronically. Medium to low altitude targets can be acquired by constraining the mainlobe elevation angle between -3° and +1.5°, with a 12 second sweep period, or -1.5° and +20°, with a 6 second sweep period. Target velocity is limited to a range of 30 m/s to 1200 m/s. Sector search typically limits sweeps to a 120° sector, with a high sector search between 0° and 60° elevation requiring 8 seconds, or a low sector search between 3° and +1.5° requiring 5.5 seconds. In these modes target velocities are limited to between 50 m/s and 2800 m/s. A dedicated low altitude search mode is also provided, with a 360 sweep performed in 6 seconds, for elevations between -3° and +1.5°.
Two basic configurations of the design are available. The first is the best known, the self propelled TM966E configuration, is carried on the MZKT-7930 chassis, itself derived from the MAZ-543 series first used with the S-300PS. This variant mounts the antenna head on a turntable and carries the equipment cabin, as well as an SEP-2L power generator. The second configuration is semimobile, and uses a pair of trailers, one mounting the antenna head and the SES-75M power supply, the other the equipment cabin, these being connected by up to 100 metres of cable. Accessory options include the 98E6U generator, tow tractors, and either the 24 metre 40V6M or 40 metre 40V6MD semi-mobile mast systems. The latter are carried by semi-trailer and typically towed by a MAZ-537 or other tractor.
|Main tactical and technical characteristics (LEMZ Data)|
|Radiated frequencies waveband||“C”|
|Automatic frequency control availability||+|
|Diapason of detected targets slant ranges
А) In a mode of all-altitude detection:
(there is a possibility to adjust the lower limit of elevation coverage down to minus 3°)
in Doppler speed
data renewal rate:
in lower zone from 0 to 1.5°
in upper zone from 1.5 to 20° B) In the mode of sector scan:
In the sector of coverage:
in doppler speed
sector scan time
Outside the decelaration sector:
lower sector scan time
Full scan cycle В) In the mode of low-altitude detection
in doppler speed
|5-300 km 360°
from 0 to 20° from ±30 to ±1200 m/s 6 s
12 s from 0 to 60°
up to 120°
from ±50 to ±2800 m/s
up to 8 s from -3 to1.5°
13,5 s 360°
0 – 1,5°
from ±30 to ±1200 m/s
|Tracking of targets is provided at elevation angles||up to 60°|
|Quantity of tracked targets||up to 100|
|Time of track initiation and outputting of target indication (TI):
for aerodynamic target:
at elevation angles below 1.5°
at elevation angles above 1.5°
|Quantity of false TI during 30 min of operation||at most 3-5|
for manufacturing version on one transportation vehicle:
from deployed state
from on-duty state for manufacturing version on two transportation vehicle:
from deployed state
from on-duty state
at most 3 min
at most 40 s 30 min
at most 3 min
at most 40 s
|Time of installation of antenna on a tower||2 hr|
|Continuous operation||without limit|
|The radar provides serviceability
under the following climatic conditions:
at dust contents
at wind speed
stability against turnover at wind speed
under solar radiation, icing
at altitude above sea level
up to 2.5 g/m3
up to 30 m/s
up to 50 m/s
up to 3000 m
|The radar crew||3 people|
The 91N6E Big Bird acquisition and battle management radar of the S-400 is based on the 8×8 trailer. The radar can detect and track aircraft, rotorcraft, cruise missiles, guided missiles, drones and ballistic rockets within the distance of 600km. It can simultaneously track up to 300 targets.
91N6E Big Bird acquisition and battle management radar
The new 91N6E is a derivative of the 64N6E Big Bird series. It is readily identified against the 64N6E by the use of the new build MZKT-7930 tractor. It retains the general configuration of its predecessors. Russian planning is to replace the MZKT tractor with a new (Almaz-Antey).
NIIIP 5N64S/64N6E/E1/E2 / 91N6E Big Bird
The 64N6E Big Bird is the key to much of the improved engagement capability, and ballistic missile intercept capability in the later S-300P variants. This system operates in the 2 GHz band and is a phased array with a 30% larger aperture than the US Navy SPY-1 Aegis radar, even accounting for its slightly larger wavelength it amounts to a mobile land based Aegis class package. It has no direct equivalent in the West.
Like other components of the S-300PM system, the 64N6E has a number of unique and lateral design features. The radar antenna is mounted on a cabin, in turn mounted on a turntable permitting 360 degree rotation. Unlike Western phased arrays in this class, the 64N6 uses a reflective phased array with a front face horn feed, the horn placed at the end of the long boom which protects the waveguides to the transmitters and receivers in the cabin. The beam steering electronics are embedded inside the antenna array, which has around 2700 phase elements on either face. This Janus faced arrangement permits the Big Bird to concurrently search two 90 degree sectors, in opposite directions, using mechanical rotation to position the antenna and electronic beam steering in azimuth and elevation. This design technique permits incremental growth in output power as the only components of the system which have to handle high microwave power levels are the waveguide and feed horn.
The 64N6E is a frequency hopper, and incorporates additional auxiliary antenna/receiver channels for suppression of sidelobe jammers – NIIP claim the ability to measure accurate bearing to jamming sources. The back end processing is Moving Target Indicator (MTI), and like the Aegis the system software can partition the instantaneous sector being covered into smaller zones for specific searches. To enhance MTI performance the system can make use of stored clutter returns from multiple preceding sweeps. Detection ranges for small fighter targets are of the order of 140 to 150 nautical miles for early variants. Per 12 second sweep 200 targets can be detected, and either six or twelve can be individually tracked for engagements.
While the Big Bird provides an excellent acquisition capability against aerial and ballistic missile targets, the 5V55 missile was inadequate. The S-300PM/PMU1 introduced the 48N6 which has much better kinematics – cited range against aerial targets is 81 nautical miles, ballistic missile targets 21.5 nautical miles, with a minimum engagement range of 1.6 to 2.7 nautical miles. Low altitude engagement capabilities were improved – down to 20 – 30 ft AGL. The missile speed peaks at 2,100 metres/sec or cca Mach 6. The missiles can be fired at 3 second intervals, and Russian sources claim a single shot kill probability of 80% to 93% for aerial targets, 40% to 85% for cruise missiles and 50% to 77% for TBMs.
The latest variant is the 91N6E developed for the S-400 Triumf / SA-21 system. It is known to be a fully digital design with a higher peak power rating than the 64N6E2 to accommodate the longer ranging 48N6E3 and 40N6E missiles.
A 2008 diagram published by Almaz-Antey showing the composition of an S-400 battery. – Image ausairpower.net
The SP85TE2 launchers are based on the BAZ-64022 6×6 tractor truck or MAZ-79100 series Transporter-Erector-Launcher (TEL) vehicle. The TEL vehicle can carry up to four launch tubes holding a mix of missiles.
5P85T(2) TEL towed by BAZ-64022
5P85SM TEL hosted by MAZ-543M
New 51P6 TEL. According to official descriptions, it is intended to carry 40N6
Main material source army-technology.com
Detection range: 600KM
Simultaneous taget detection: 300+
Kill range: 400 KM
Simultaneous kill capability: 12
Max target speed: 14 Mach
Types of target: BOMBERS/AWACS
Strategic bombers such as the B-1, FB-111 and B-52H
Electronic warfare airplanes such as the EF-111A and EA-6
Reconnaissance airplanes such as the TR-1
Early-warning radar airplanes such as the E-3A and E-2C
Types of target: FIGHTERS/STEALTH AIRCRAFT
Fighter airplanes such as the F-15, F-16, Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II and F-22
Stealth airplanes such as the B-2 and F-117A
Types of target: BALLISTIC/CRUISE MISSILES
Strategic cruise missiles such as the Tomahawk
Ballistic missiles (range up to 3,500 km).
Updated Sep 02, 2018