The T-90S is the latest development in the T-series of Russian tanks and represents an increase in firepower, mobility and protection. It is manufactured by Uralvagonzavod in Nizhnyi Tagil, Russia.
The T-90S entered service with the Russian Army in 1992. In February 2001, the Indian Army signed a contract for 310 T-90S tanks: 124 were completed in Russia and the rest are being delivered in “knocked down” form for final assembly in India.
T-90: Original production model whereas the T-90K is the Command version of the T-90.
T-90E: Export version of T-90 MBT.
T-90A: Russian army version with welded turret, V-92S2 engine and ESSA thermal viewer. Sometimes called T-90 Vladimir.
T-90S: Export version of T-90A and is found with two different turret Armour arrays.
T-90SK: Command version of the T-90S. It differs in radio and navigation equipment and Ainet remote-detonation system for HEF rounds.
T-90S “Bhishma”: modified T-90S in Indian service.
T-90M: Prototype version featuring new explosive reactive armour (ERA) Relikt, new 1,250 PS (920 kW) engine, new improved turret and composite armor, new gun, new thermal imaging Catherine-FC from THALES, an enhanced environmental control system supplied by Israel’s Kinetics Ltd for providing cooled air to the fighting compartment, integrated tactical system, satellite navigation and others.
T-90MS: Production version of the T-90M. PK PAN with IR camera, and PNM Sosna-U gunner view, 7.62mm turret UDP T05BV-1 RWS, GLONASS+inertial navigation, explosive reactive armour (ERA) Relikt.The T 72s and the T90s have been researched extensively by Russia and other military vehicles such as BREM-72: Armoured recovery vehicle,MTU-90: Bridge layer tank with MLC50 bridge,IMR-3: Combat engineer vehicle and the BMR-3: Mine clearing vehicle ,are all based on the T 72 Structure.
The T-90S comes with a price tag of $2.77 – 4.25 million USD depending on the Armour,Armament ,Engine Selection,etc. Source tejwebworld.com
T-90S main battle tank orders and deliveries
The first of these was delivered in January 2004. The locally assembled tanks are christened ‘Bhishma’. The tanks are fitted with the Shtora self-protection system and Catherine thermal imagers from Thales of France and Peleng of Belarus. The first ten Bhishma tanks were inducted into the Indian Army in August 2009. India plans to induce 1,640 T-90 tanks by 2020.
In January 2005, it was announced that a further 91 T-90S tanks would be procured for the Russian Army, although this number was later reduced.
By November 2007, it has been estimated that the Russian Army has around 200 T-90 tanks. In August 2007, Thales was awarded a contract to supply 100 of these with the Catherine FC thermal imager. In March 2006, Algeria signed a contract for the supply of 180 T-90S tanks from Uralvagonzavod, to be delivered by 2011. Of the total, 102 tanks were in service with the Algerian Army by 2008.
In November 2006, India ordered a further 330 T-90 tanks, to be licence-built by heavy vehicle factory (HVF), Avadi, Tamil Nadu.
T-90S Bhishma and T-90M Bhishma
India’s T-90’s have come in various stats of construction and models. The first purchase was in 2001 of the T-90S. 120 were delivered assembled, 90 in semi-assembled kits and 100 un-assembled kits.
These vehicles did not have the Shtora-1 countermeasure suite, but did retain the Kontakt-5 ERA on the turret. The Russian sights were replaced with those from France and the Russian composite armour has been replaced with India’s own Kanchan composite.
These tanks were divided between five to seven regiments of the XXI (Bhopal) and II (Ambala) Strike Corps.
The Indian T-90M Bhishma
After India’s purchase of the T-90S, in 2006 330 T-90M were licensed for manufacturer in India from local sources, not in kit form from Russia. In 2007 a further 347 un-assembled kits were ordered.
The Kontakt-5 has been replaced with the superior Kaktus ERA. To cope with India’s harsh heat and its effects on tank crews, Israeli firm Kinetics Ltd’s environmental control system’s have been installed.
Changes to the fighting compartment have also been made to accommodate the cooling equipment for new THALES- Catherine-FC thermal imager. Source tanknutdave.com
India’s Main Battle Tanks T-90, T-72 to Become More Lethal: Here
India plans to make the Russian origin tanks T-90 and T-72 more lethal by upgrading their missile systems. The Indian government has approved the purchase of third generation anti-tank missile systems which will make the T-90 & T-72 capable of hitting targets up to 8 kilometers during the day as well as night. Currently, the T-90 fleet of the Indian Army is armed with the INVAR missile system.
India’s OFB expects Indian Army to order 700 T-90S tanks in 2018: Here
India’s state-owned Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) expects to receive an order in early 2018 to licence-build a total of 700 T-90S main battle tanks (MBTs) for the Indian Army (IA) by 2022, R K Khanna, the OFB’s director general, told Jane’s on 15 September at the Defence and Security Equipment International (DSEI) 2017 exhibition in London.
The order will provide the IA with enough tanks to equip two new regiments and replace the retired T-55 MBTs. The move will also allow the OFB to increase its production share of the tank to 96% by manufacturing most of the electronics and mission systems, said Khanna, adding that a few essential elements will remain with external suppliers for the time being.
T-90SA aka T-90CA
Modified version of the T-90S. Has the Shtora-1 countermeasure suite, but missing the “dazzlers”. It is equipped with Nakidka radar-absorbent material (RAM) camouflage that reduces the infrared, thermal and radar band signatures of the vehicle. It also has air-conditioning. Source tanknutdave.com
Russian T-90 Main Battle Tank Operators
Operates a fleet of 305 T-90SA, which entered service in 2009.
100 T-90SA ordered in 2011, final deliveries were completed in the Spring of 2014.
First orders were placed in 2001. Supplied with T-90S Bhishma and licence built T-90M Bhishma. Further upgrades are due to be made to those in service. In 2012 India wished to buy 354 T-90SM for new Tank Regiments it was creating. No order is confirmed.
Deliveries started in 1993 of the T-90 and the T-90A in 1999. Orders for the tank ended in 2010. As of 2014 there are 930 T-90A in service.
10 T-90SA ordered in 2009/10 for approximately $30 million and now in service.
44 T-90S were ordered in 2010 and delivered in 2011.
In January 2009, the Greek Cypriot Government approved the purchase of 41 T-90 tanks from Russia. In March 2010, however, the government changed its plans and opted for T-80 tanks against the T-90s. Saudi Arabia placed a $2bn order for helicopters and 150 T-90S MBTs in September 2009. In the same year, Turkmenistan ordered 10 T-90S tanks under a $30m contract.
The T-90S armament includes one 125mm 2A46M smoothbore gun, stabilised in two axes and fitted with a thermal sleeve. The gun tube can be replaced without dismantling inside the turret. The gun can fire a variety of ammunition including APDS (Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot), HEAT (high-explosive anti-tank), HE-FRAG (high-explosive fragmentation) as well as shrapnel projectiles with time fuses.
125 mm 2A46 series of smoothbore guns
The T-90’s main armament is the 2A46M 125mm smoothbore tank gun. This is a highly modified version of the Sprut anti-tank gun, and is the same gun used as the main armament on the T-80-series tanks. It can be replaced without dismantling the inner turret and is capable of firing armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding sabot (APFSDS), high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT-FS), and high explosive fragmentation (HE-FRAG) ammunition, as well as 9M119M Refleks anti-tank guided missiles. Source wikiwand.com
It rested on the 125mm 2A46M-2 and later 2A46M-5 smoothbore main tank gun. The latter was assisted by a 2E42-4 Zhasmin two-plane electro-mechanical stabilization system, and could fire 6-8 rounds/min. Ammunition storage consisted in 43 rounds, 22 ready-rounds in the carousel below the autoloader system and the others into the hull. The autoloader is basically of the same model developed for the T-72B and allowed to reduce the turret size considerably. There is an autoselector which can rapidly select APFSDS, HEAT and HE-Frag rounds depending of the threat. There is also a hunter-killer mode, the commander can instantaneously passed the target coordinates to the gunner/ballistic computer that lays the gun while concentrating on the next target. The estimated FCS performances are a very high first hit capability on the move at 30 kph off-road, and ranges of up to 5,000 m, including low visibility. Source tanks-encyclopedia.com
2A46M-5-4 2A46M 125mm smoothbore tank gun
Cannon 2A46M 4-established in CB AO “Plant №9” Tank family of T-80, the gun-5 2A46M to tank T-90.
Currently, the arms enter the 4th and 5th embodiments gun modernization – 2A46M 2A46M 4 and 5, taken into service in 2005 Year and mounted respectively on the tank T-80 and T-90. Trunks guns 2A46M-5 (2A46M-4) are interchangeable with trunks 2A46M guns (2A46M-1).
New models are 125mm tank gun has the following differences:
- Increased rigidity of the cantilevered portion of the barrel and dynamic balance guns
- Improved fixing barrel on the rails of the cradle and gun trunnions in the tank turret
- toughened tolerances stem geometry. The barrel has a tolerance for variation in the differential (not greater than 0.6 mm variation in muzzle).
The upgraded guns 2A46M-5-4 2A46M applied guide trunk in a cradle prism type. Rear rail with cradles box transferred to a more rigid oboymennuyu portion and formed as a bronze cladding. Introduced additional devices lyuftovybirayuschie neck cradle (2 pcs.), And these thrusts are applied in place of the rollers, eliminating the influence of wear on the barrel abutments to preload the guide cage and reduced friction force in this compound by replacing sliding friction to rolling friction. It reduces the effects of backlash in the journals on the accuracy through the use of backlash-free tsapfennyh nodes with elastic rollers and a reverse wedge.
To improve the accuracy of artillery weapons firing by automatically accounting when firing barrel bending, at the muzzle of the barrel pipe bending fixture is provided accounting apparatus reflector (CID), and 4-2A46M modified gun cradle for mounting transceiver CID. The apparatus is opto-electronic system consisting of a special priomoizluchayuschego unit installed at the bottom of the barrel of the artillery, and the reflecting mirror arranged on the muzzle of the barrel. Applied in digital signal processing apparatus provides a measure of the required parameters of the barrel in a wide range of the disturbance and operational impacts. The measured parameters are issued as an amendment to the ballistic computer that provides increased accuracy. Use of the device makes it possible to increase the accuracy to hit while rapid-firing at targets several times.
As a result of all these measures accuracy with 2A46M-5 cannon in comparison with a gun 2A46M was increased.
Compared with guns and 2A46M 2A46M-January 1980 Sample
- Increased accuracy of firing at 15-20%
- Reduced the total dispersion when firing at once a factor of 1.7
2A46M and 2A46M1 – Image: army-news.ruImage: army-news.ruImage: army-news.ruImage: army-news.ruImage: army-news.ruImage: army-news.ru2A46M-4 and 2A46M-5 – Image: army-news.ruImage: army-news.ru
Caliber 125 mm
Applicable Standard shots, including controlled to T-80, T-90
Barrel Length, mm 6000
Angles vertical lay, hail
– forward from -5 to +15
– back from -3 to +17
angle of traverse, 360 deg
Rate rds / 7 min.
Mass , 2500 kg
Normal rollback length mm 300
2E42-4 Zhasmin two-plane electro-mechanical stabilization system
The 2E42-2 is still very conventional as it combines an electric turret rotation and stabilization drive with a hydraulic cannon elevation and stabilization drive. It was first used on the T-72B. The hydraulic pump for powering the cannon elevation system is located under the cannon’s breechblock, and the electric motor for turret traverse is installed in front of the gunner, behind his TPD-K1 sight unit.
This stabilizer is much more precise than the “Sireneviy”. “Zhasmin” is precise enough to lay the gun to within 0.5 mil on the vertical axis and 0.9 mild on the horizontal axis of the target, meaning that the gun can be lain with an accuracy of at least 0.5 m on the vertical plane and 0.9 m on the horizontal one at 1000 m.
Maximum elevating speed: 3.5° per second
Minimum elevating speed: 0.05° per second
Maximum turret slew speed: 24° per second
Minimum turret slew speed: 0.054° per second
The turret traverse speed is even further improved to 24 degrees per second.
2E42-4 Electric/Hydroelectric Stabilizer
The 2E42-4 two-axis stabilizer is an improved modification of the 2E42-2, now including a much more powerful horizontal drive for much faster turret rotation. The T-72B3 is equipped with this stabilizer.
Maximum elevating speed: 3.5° per second
Minimum elevating speed: 0.05° per second
Maximum turret slew speed: 40° per second
Minimum turret slew speed: 0.054° per second
The 2E42-4 stabilizer offers a significant weight reduction of 120 kg over the 2E42-2 stabilizer, for a total weight of 200 kg. This is mainly because of the design simplification of the electro-hydraulic gun elevation drive, the improved turret traverse motor, and the usage of solid state electronics in the digitized control systems. Source thesovietarmourblog.blogspot.com
The used automatic loader contains 22 rounds, with additional 20 grenades/charges stored in the hull. The loader is similar to the one used with the T-72B. The autoloader is electrically powered and rotate in both directions. Source kampfpanzer.de
The T-90S gun can also fire the 9M119 Refleks (NATO designation AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missile system. The range of the missile is 100m to 4,000m and takes 11.7 sec to reach maximum range. The system is intended to engage tanks fitted with ERA (explosive reactive armour) as well as low-flying air targets such as helicopters, at a range of up to 5km. The missile system fires either the 9M119 or 9M119M missiles which have semi-automatic laser beamriding guidance and a hollow charge warhead. Missile weight is 23.4kg. The guns automatic loader will feed both ordnance and missiles.
The ammunition were also news for the most, here is the detail:
- 3BM-44M APFSDS (range 4,000 m)
- 3BK21B (DU liner), 3BK29 (800 mm RHA equ.), 3BK29M (Triple-tandem charge)
- 3OF26 HE-FRAG with the Ainet fuse setting system
This fuse allows to detonate this ammunition at specific distance by the laser rangefinder for maximal impact on low-flying helicopters and infantry. In indirect mode, this round has a practical range of 10,000 m. Source tanks-encyclopedia.com
The 9K119M Refleks-M (AT-11 SNIPER-B) is a guided weapons system launched from the 2A46M main gun of T-80 and T-90 MBTs. The 9K119M system uses beam-riding laser guidance. The tank directs a coded beam from a special gunner’s sight, which creates a laser “funnel” with the missile riding in the center. The 9K119M uses the 9M119M missile. The ammunition round is 3UBK20 and consists of the 9M119M missile and the 9Kh949 reduced charge propellant casing with a spacer plug which seats the missile properly into the main gun. The 3UBK20 ammunition fits into the normal autoloader on the tank, and the normal load is 6 missiles. Due to high cost of the system, usually only elite regiments shall have the missiles in a loadout.
The 9M119M missile uses a tandem configuration with the precursor charge for overcoming ERA. There are also rumors about a prototype warhead which uses enhanced blast explosive to defeat personnel in non-pressurized vehicles and structures and destroy buildings. Source fofanov.armor.kiev.ua
3BM-44 APFSDS projectile assembly
3VBM-17 (3BM-42 projectile; 3BM-44 projectile assembly) (DOI 1986)
Research topic “Mango” initiated 1983. An advanced round designed to defeat modern laminate armor arrays. Had a very complicated design, including the solid frontal ballistic/penetrating cap, shock absorber/secondary penetrating cap, and then two WHA penetrators of very high elongation. The penetrators interfaced with the projectile body by means of a sheath manufactured of a low-melting-point alloy; during the penetration the sheath would melt allowing the penetrators to slide freely forward without losing energy and integrity on separation from the projectile body. Used a further evolution of the sabot introduced on 3BM-29, manufactured out of improved V-96Ts1 alloy. This round is common in current Russian inventory, and has also been exported in the recent years for use with more modern Russian and Ukrainian export tanks (T-80U, T-80UD and T-90). Source fofanov.armor.kiev.ua
3BK21B (DU liner), 3BK29 (800 mm RHA equ.), 3BK29M (Triple-tandem charge)
3OF26 HE-FRAG with the Ainet fuse setting system
Projectile mass ~23,000g
Charge mass 3,148g
Extended fin span 356mm
Muzzle velocity 850m/s
Barrel pressure 387.4MPa
EFC rating 1
Designation V-429E (3V-21)
Guaranteed life 15 years
Type point detonating (PD)
- 3VP-24 (3P-23 projectile) (DOI unknown)
Practice HE-FRAG round (same mass and behaviour as HE-FRAG, but inert)
- 3VOF-22 (3OF-19 projectile) (DOI 1962)
- 3VOF-36 (3OF-26 projectile) (DOI est.1970)
Charge: A-IX-2 (flegmatized RDX with aluminum) 3,400g
T-80UK and T-90 MBTs are equipped with Ainet system that allows to electronically fuse HE-FRAG rounds to explode at predetermined moment of flight. In order to use the system the gunner must lase the target before loading the round into the breech. The round is passed by the auto-loader through an automatic fuse setter, which sets the fuse to explode at the correct distance; the fused round is then loaded into the gun and is ready to be fired. This system allows to efficiently use HEF rounds against hovering helicopters as well as infantry and light armor in entrenched positions, out to 4 km and more. The effective fragmentation radius and range consistency improve three-fold, while ammunition expenditure for a typical mission decreases two-fold. All HE-FRAG rounds are compatible with this system, provided a new electronic detonator is used instead of the standard V-429E.
- 3USh-3 (3Sh-7 projectile) (DOI UNKNOWN)
4700-4800 elements of 1.26g; muzzle velocity 1000m/s; sweep sector 9°; fatal range 200-500m
- 4Kh-33 (DOI UNKNOWN)
Consists of standard propellant charge and a further charge simulating auxiliary propellant of an APFSDS round to allow for sufficient recoil to allow gun automatics to function properly.
Also fitted is a coaxial 7.62mm PKT machine gun and a 12.7mm air defence machine gun. A 5.45mm AKS-74 assault rifle is carried on a storage rack.
Coaxial 7.62mm PKT machine gun
All Russian MBTs are traditionally equipped with a 7.62mm machine-gun mounted coaxially with the main armament.
The PKT machine-gun (Pulemyot Kalashnikova Tankovyi, Kalashnikov Machine-gun Tank version) is used in this role since 1962 when it was introduced instead of the older Goryunov SGMT MG. The differences from the PK unified MG include removal of stock and sights, longer and heavier barrel to facilitate higher rate of fire, solenoid electric trigger, gas regulator and several others.
PKT permits only automatic fire, is belt-fed, and the ammo box holds 250 rounds. Source fofanov.armor.kiev.ua
|Length of gun::||1100 mm|
|Theoretical rate of fire:||700-800 rounds/min|
|Combat rate of fire:||250 rounds/min|
|Maximum range:||3800 m|
|Muzzle velocity:||830 m/s|
|Effective range of ground targets:||1000 m|
|Number of cartridges in the belt:||1000 pcs|
|Weight of gun:||10.5 kg|
|Mainly weight:||3.2 kg|
12.7mm air defence machine gun
©Copyright 2008 Prime Portal All Rights Reserved
The NSV is a heavy machine gun that is relatively light. It is gas operated and uses a long stroke gas piston. The NSV is belt fed and exists in both right hand and left hand feed models which are both available with or without iron sights. When in use with infantry a pistol grip and shoulder stock are fitted and optical sights are optional. It is also available as vehicle armament with a solenoid trigger.
The NSV fires the 12.7x108mm round from 50 round belts and fires fully automatic only. The cyclic rate of fire is about 700 to 800 rpm. Even though the NSV is not very accurate it can be used out to 1.5 km. The high rate of fire makes the NSV more useful as an anti-aircraft machine gun than the older DShK.
|Type||Heavy machine gun|
|Magazine||Belt fed, 50 rounds|
|Operation||Gas operated, long stroke gas piston, rotating bolt|
|Rate of fire||700 – 800 rpm|
|Barrel length||1.1 m|
|Rifling||8 grooves, 381 mm right hand twist|
|Muzzle velocity||820 – 860 m/s|
|Sights||With and without iron sights, 200 to 2.000 m gradations, optional optical sights|
- Type – thermoelectric
- Useful refrigerating capacity, 3,500 kcal
- Electrical power input, 3.2kW
- Refrigerating fluid Tocol MOM (A-65M), 10 l
- Minimum continuous running time, 24 h
- Cooling unit, 3 pes
The T-90 tank is protected by both conventional armour-plating and explosive reactive armour.
The T-90 is fitted with the Shtora-1 defensive aids suite which is produced by Electronintorg of Russia. This system includes infrared jammer, laser warning system with four laser warning receivers, grenade discharging system which produces an aerosol screen and a computerised control system.
It is also fitted with NBC (nuclear, biological and chemical) protection equipment.
Russia 4S22 (Kontakt-5)
Images ©Copyright 2008 Prime Portal All Rights Reserved
“Classic” ERA from the USSR and Russia 4S22 (Kontakt-5)
It’s good to start describing “Nozh” with a point of reference first – for example heavy reactive armor types designed in the USSR/Russia, 4S22 (Kontakt-5) and 4S23 (Relikt). The overall working principle of every classic ERA is similar – it’s based on movement of metal elements of the ERA cassette caused by an explosion of reactive elements , this inflicts side stress disrupting the cumulative jet from a HEAT round or bending (optimally breaking) of an incoming KE penetrator. This overall principle is realized by different cassette’s structure. First, let’s look how Kontakt-5 ERA provides protection for Object 188 (T-90S tank).
plate, violet – elements preventing the explosive inserts from moving, light
green – explosive inserts, light blue – cassette’s back plate and mounting
points. The explosive inserts are shown below the scheme. All pictures belong
to the author if not stated otherwise. Written by : militarysta Translated by : Bzdziuchanson
Images ©Copyright 2008 Prime Portal All Rights Reserved
The Shtora-1 armoured fighting vehicle defence system has been developed by the Zenit Research and Production Corporation to increase the battlefield survivability of vehicles against attack from Anti-Tank Guided Weapons (ATGWs) with a Semi-Automatic Command to Line Of Sight (SACLOS) guidance system as well as missiles and artillery projectiles that use laser illumination.
The complete Shtora-1 system comprises four key components:
(1) electro-optical interference station comprising jammer, modulator and control panel with a total weight of 80 kg. Typically an MBT would have two of these with one jammer being mounted either side of the main armament pointing forwards
(2) bank of grenade dischargers mounted either side of the turret firing forwards capable of firing grenades dispensing an aerosol screen, weight 115 kg
(3) laser warning system with precision and coarse heads weighing 20 kg each
(4) control system with a total weight of 15 kg comprising control panel, microprocessor and manual screen laying panel; this processes the information from the sensors and activates the aerosol screen laying system.
The laser warning system detects the threat laser system and automatically orientates the turret in the direction of the threat. It then triggers the grenade launchers creating an offboard aerosol screen. The composition of this cloud is claimed to screen the tank against laser range-finders and designators and is also claimed to be sufficiently hot to seduce infra-red homing weapons away from the MBT.
The jammer, which is designated the TShU1-7, introduces a spurious signal into the guidance circuitry of the incoming ATGW through the use of coded pulsed infra-red jamming signals continuously generated. It is claimed to be effective against Western ATGWs such as the TOW, HOT, MILAN and Dragon as well as Eastern ATGWs such as the AT-3 ‘Sagger’.
The TShU1-7 has a specified life of 1,000 hours, a Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) of 250 hours and a radiation source life of 50 hours. It operates from a 27 V DC power supply with the infra-red jamming source consuming 1 kW of power.
In addition to being used to jam incoming ATGWs, the manufacturer claims that the TShU1-7 system has a target illuminating capability, including for night vision devices.
Shtora-1 has three methods of operation:
(1) fully automatic
(2) semi-automatic, target designation
(3) manual and emergency mode.
According to the manufacturer, the installation of the Shtora-1 system on an MBT reduces the target hit probability by the following factors:
(1) TOW and Dragon ATGWs, Maverick, Hellfire and Copperhead laser seeker systems by 4 to 5 times
(2) MILAN and HOT ATGWs by about 3 times
(3) artillery and tank projectiles fired from systems with laser range-finders by about three times.
The detection of laser sources takes place around the vehicle in the 360 degree range. In the range of 45 degrees right and left of the cannon by precision laser sensors and in the other sectors 90 degrees left, right or behind the tower by coarse laser sensors. Shtora-1 is capable of reflected laser scatter, muzzle flashes fire Direction weapons, sunlight reflections, light energy from search lights, highly heat-radiating objects can be seen, among other things on the battlefield and filter out as non-hazardous. The system interacts with the fire control system of the combat vehicle, the tower directional drives, the eventual drive the commander’s cupola, the intercom, the speed sensor of the vehicle and the smoke grenade launcher. Recognized laser radiation of the vehicle crew notified visually and acoustically in accordance with their characteristics.On the driver’s seat, a light indicates the optimal direction of movement to dodge in accordance with the vehicle speed and wind direction and wind strength. The used means fog or aerosols also cover the used spectral range of thermal images and laser off effectively. source kotsch88.de
Laser warning system
902B “Tuchia” smoke grenade launchers
Smoke grenade launcher ©Copyright 2008 Prime Portal All Rights Reserved
Export of Russian Tanks double due to successful performance in Syria: Here
In 2016 Russia’s UralVagonZavod Corporation doubled its exports of tanks and armored vehicles, Rossiiskaya Gazeta wrote citing the company’s press service.
UralVagonZavod, based in Nizhny Tagil, owes some of these skyrocketing sales to the successful performance of its tanks in Syria. Even veteran T-72 and T-90 tanks can withstand direct hits by US guided missiles – something neither their American nor Turkish counterparts can boast. With 149.9 billion rubles in sales last year, UVZ is now set to enter the list of the world’s top 50 arms manufacturers.
Russian tank T-90 can defeat most of modern anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM): Here
What a T-90 Tank Looks Like After Being Hit With a TOW Missile: Here
Missile hit location where there are no ERA
After the missile hit the crew climbing out of the tank
Another T-90 SURVIVES A MISSILE HIT IN SYRIA: Here
The news and photos of a Russian-made T-90 MBT following a direct hit by an anti-tank guided missile have been posted on a number of Russian news outlets and blogs. The tank’s frontal turret armor indicates it’s the newer T-90A with a welded turret and thicker frontal surfaces.
Fire control and observation
The T-90S has the 1A4GT integrated fire control system (IFCS) which is automatic but with manual override for the commander. The IFCS contains the gunner’s 1A43 day fire control system, gunner’s TO1-KO1 thermal imaging sight which has a target identification range of 1.2km to 1.5km and commander’s PNK-S sight.
The gunner’s 1A43 day FCS comprises: 1G46 day sight / rangefinder with missile guidance channel, 2E42-4 armament stabiliser, 1V528 ballistic computer and DVE-BS wind gauge.
MCT-Matrix Heat-Vision Sight for T-90 MBT after 2017
T-90 Tanks to Get MCT-Matrix Heat-Vision
14 May 2017 17:47
In 2016, the Krasnogorsk plant finished tests of the heat-vision sighting system Irbis for modernized tanks T-80U and T-90. The sights will be supplied to the army after 2017 under the already concluded contract, says the manufacturer’s annual reporting. According to the experts of Mil.Today, commissioning of the new sight will for the first time give Russian tankers a homemade thermal vision device based on the mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) matrix, which will bridge a gap between the leading NATO countries in this area.
According to the annual reporting of the Krasnogorsk plant, in the last year it completed “a set of trials in order to equip the T-90 tank with the Irbis thermal-vision sighting system, which ensured conclusion of supply contracts on 2017 and further years”. Details of the tests and technical features of the sight are not disclosed.
Press service of Schwabe, the plant’s holding, refused to give comments: experts told Mil.Today that security services had prohibited disclosing tactical and technical characteristics of the Irbis system. However, the sight was many times displayed at Russian and international exhibitions, which photos and presentation videos are publicly available.
Features of the new gunner’s sight Irbis
For the first time the new tank gunner’s heat-vision sight Irbis-K and the commander’s combined sighting and observation system Agat-MDT were presented at the Engineering Technologies 2012 exhibition. Allegedly, both systems are based on Russian-made components.
According to the publicized characteristics, the tank heat-vision system Irbis-K is designed for T-80 and T-90 tanks.
The sight is capable to identify targets at the range up to 3,240 meters day and night. Its spectral range is 8-12 micron (while in 2012 this parameter was declared as 7-12 micron). The photodetector type is submatrix, 4*288 elements. Wide field of view is at least 6.8 per 9 degrees, narrow field of view – at least 2.3 per 3 degrees.
The image is transmitted via digital interface on two gas-discharge displays. The gunner may hit targets either with automatic ranging or, in emergency mode, with manual ranging by the ‘base on target’ method. A tank commander may hit targets with manual ranging by using the same technique.
Operating temperatures of Irbis range from minus 50 to plus 50 degrees. The system is capable to operate in conditions of sand, dust, hoarfrost, sea fog, dew, or high humidity.
The heat-vision sight operates in tandem with the commander’s combined sighting and observation system Agat-MDT. In 2012, this device was codenamed as TO1-KO 4DT.
Spectral range of its photodetector is 3-5 micron, representing a cooled matrix with resolution of 320*256 pixels. Identification range is up to 2.5 km, an option of double range is also available.
Source: Russia makes up for long-lasting lag in heat-vision technologies
According to an insider in Russian defense industry, heat-vision devices for military hardware like tanks, IFVs and helicopters began to develop in 80’s, and at that time Soviet projects were globally recognized.
“The Soviet defense industrialists chose to develop infrared imagers instead of thermal sights based on mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) light-sensitive films. IR technology showed little promise and films were regarded as too expensive, so that area has seen no funding since the end of 80’s till late 90’s”, said the source.
As a result, for several years Russia was left behind in terms of production of heat-vision devices.
As of today, there are two categories of thermal vision devices: the first one is based on MCT films with cooled matrixes (spectral range 7-12 micron), and the second one is with uncooled matrixes on microbolometers (range 3-5 micron). Microbolometer is a thermal detector of optical radiation, most often, IR-band.
Russian scientists mastered growing mercury-cadmium-telluride films at the turn of XXI century, a source in the Institute of Semiconductor Physics at Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences told Mil.Today. However, it is also important to enter their mass production, he added.
Russia coped with mass production of uncooled matrix microbolometrical receivers only last year, they had been bought from France before. Russian tanks T-90, including export ones, were equipped with heat-vision devices produced by Thales. Their licensed production was set up at the Vologda optical mechanics factory.
According to Viktor Murakhovsky, a military expert, those matrixes are suitable for small arms or short/middle-range antitank weapons, but for tanks and helicopters leading NATO countries use MCT-film cooled matrixes. Murakhovsky added that Russian thermal cameras Agava and Agava-2 for Т-80U and Т-90 tanks were also based on microbolometers and are less effective. Earlier on, it was planned to equip upgraded tanks T-80 with Belarusian fire control system Sosna-U produced in Russia. Sosna has a 2G thermal vision camera with spectral range of 8-12 micron.
“Matrixes can be tracking or scanning. Tracking ones are faster and more effective. In Russia, there is a pilot production of scanning matrixes”, the source in Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences told Mil.Today.
Image on the of commander’s and gunner’s displays equipped with heat-vision sighting systems Irbis and Agat-MDT Krasnogorsk plant
“Operational range of the Irbis-based gunner’s sight is 8-12 micron”, says Viktor Murakhovsky. “Thus, it is a real MCT matrix, but what kind of it, a tracking or a scanning one, is unclear yet. If in Russia, particularly at Vologda, Krasnogorsk or Kazan optical factories, they have already launched production of such heat-vision devices, that’s a great success. A couple of years ago there were some serious issues with them; sometimes it was discussed to redesign the sighting system. By now, we have learned how to make scanning MCT matrixes, however, one need time and huge funds to transfer the technology from labs to mass production at factories”.
“Besides, as far as I know, Irbis has not been massively mounted anywhere yet”, added Murakhovsky. “Perhaps, the sight has got the prototype of such matrix, and modernized tanks T-72B3 and T-90 will help to perfect the new technology”, summarized the expert.
In 2017, Russia marks the 57-th anniversary of the first MCT researches and 45-th anniversary of works on MCT matrix heat-vision devices at the Scientific and Research Institute of Applied Physics (NPO Orion), the State Institute of Applied Optics (Kazan), and the Ioffe Institute (Saint Petersburg). Source: mil.today
The gunner’s fire control system is designated 1A42. It consists of the 1A43 sight system, the 2E42-4 stabilizer and the PT-800 inverter. The later ones ensures 36V AC for the turret systems. The 2E42-4 is used to drive the turret in the horizontal plane and the main gun in the vertical one. The turret drive is electrically powered, while the main gun one is electro-hydraulic. The system also ensures the stabilization of turret and armament in any terrain while the tank is moving. It ensures the synchronization of main gun and sight aiming points.
The gunner sight is the 1A43 FCS
Central point of the fire control system is the 1A43 sight system. It covers the gunner’s sight, the ballistic computer and the control unit for the different ammunition types.
Gunner’s main sight 1G46
The gunner’s main sight is the 1G46. It is used to observe the battlefield and aim the main gun. The sight is fully stabilized in both planes and independently from turret and main gun. 1G46 contains several sub systems, which are partially attached as modules. The sight contains a day channel with a variable magnification between 2.7 and 12x. Compared to the previously used TPD-K1, this is a massive improvement to the gunner. It does not just give more flexibility to the gunner, but also allows a much wider field of view if needed. The 1G46 is also equipped with a laser range finder and a boresighting deice for the main gun. Calculation of the firing solution is done by the 1V528-1 ballistic computer. Besides values for turret, main gun and aiming point of the main gun, it also takes values for vehicle speed, cant, target speed, turret angle, temperature, wind speed and direction, as well as wear of the main gun into account. On top come the different parameters for the used ammunition type. These correction values are fed in thru the 1V216 switch block. It is able to store values for up to 14 different ammunition types, of which 3 can be used at the same time.
Night sight TO1-KO1 system
The night sight of the gunner is the TO1-KO1 system. It consists of the TPN-4 Buran-PA sight, electronic units and the TShU-1 emitters of Shtora-1. TPN-4 is an image intensified, able to work in active or passive mode. The max. operational range is given with 1.500m under optimal conditions. The sight is mounted to the left side of the 1G46 and mechanically connected. It does not contain its own stabilization, but it is connected to the main gun. This means the sight is following the vertical movement of the main gun with all the disadvantages such a setup brings. TPN-4 does not include a laser range finder. The gunner needs to range manually and enter the values in the ballistic computer. Theoretically it is also possible to boresight TPN-4 and 1G46 properly, which allows the usage of the laser range finder. Practically this is not done.
Not officially part, but connected to the 1A42 fire control system is the 9K119 ATGM system. It enables the T-90 to fire laser guided missiles at ranges between 100 and 5.000m. 9K119 consists of the 9S516 control unit, 9S517 control panel and the 9S831 voltage converter. The later one ensures constant availability of electric power to the system, as 9K119 can be used for different vehicles. The main system is the 9S516. It is a large block, mounted to the right of the 1G46 gunner’s sight. The control unit calculates the control parameters for the ATGM, encodes them and transmits the guiding signal. It is a laser beam, which is emitted thru the gunner’s sight. Depending on the operational mode of the system, guiding signal can be sent forward on o the target or slightly upward to allow a terminal homing approach. Calculation of the control data is fully done inside the 9S516 based on the data delivered from the 1G46 sight. To use the ATGM, the commander needs to activate the 9K119 system on the control panel mounted to his right and select the operational mode. The gunner then selects the ammunition type ATGM and off you go. Source kampfpanzer.de
ESSA thermal viewer (replace TO1-KO1)
Thermal sight ESSA ensures the following:
- effective firing using all types of ammunition by gunner and commander while on the move and at halts by day and at night
- stabilization of field of view in elevation and azimuth
- automatic tracking of 1G46 sighting line by ESSA sighting line
- display of operational modes of fire control system on the video-viewing devices
Gunner station – Image: vitalykuzmin.net
The commander’s PNK-4S sight includes a TKN-4S (Agat-S) day / night sight which has identification ranges of 800m (day) and 700m (night).
PNK-4S Tank commander day-night sighting and observation system
TKN-4S sight and to the right PZU-7 anti-aircraft sight
The commander’s fire control system is called PNK-4S. It provides the commander with the following functions:
– Observation and directing of the cupola/AA-MG using the TKN-4S sight
– Observation and direction of the cupola/AA-MG using the PZU-7
– Controlling the turret using the TKN-4S sight (turret horizontal drive plus armament except ATGM)
– Assign turret horizontally to designated targets and handover to gunner
– Directing the turret into direction of incoming laser signal based on Shtora-1
The PNK-4S of the commander is fully based around the cupola. It is electrically powered and can be turned 360deg. Practically, this would not happen, as the commander’s seat does not rotate with it. Actual fire control functionality is enabled by the 1ETs29-4S. It powers the cupola and AA gun mounts, enables vertical stabilisation, collects data from the different sensors and allows access to the turret drive and gun controls.
The cupola and the anti-aircraft machine gun mounted are electrically powered. The cupola itself is not directly stabilized, but indirectly in the horizontal plane thru the stabilization of the turret itself. The AA mount is stabilized in the vertical plane. In emergency situations, cupola and machine gun can be operated manually from inside the tank.
There are two sights available for the commander. The most important one is the TKN-4S, mounted inside the cupola infront of the commander. The binocular sight contains day and night channel and is stabilized in the vertical plane. It is used by the commander for observing the battlefield, as well as directing the main gun or the AA MG. The sight does not contain any laser range finder, ranging is only possible manually. The day sight has an 8x magnification. Directly above the eyepiece is a mirror, which allows an unmagnified view thru the sight. This can become very handy to observe objects close to the vehicle. The night sight is operating an image intensifier, which can be used in active or passive mode. Active mode would use IR searchlights as support. Source kampfpanzer.de
PNK-4S-01 is designed for surveillance, search, detection and recognition of targets on the battlefield, aimed fire in the mode of duplication of the main guns, anti-aircraft and coaxial machine gun object in day and night conditions. The system is mounted on tank T-72, T-80, T-90 and their modifications.
The complex includes: sight TKN-4S-01, the gun position sensor electric unit stabilizer, protective glass tower.
The main performance characteristics:
Range night vision sight channel type target “tank” Browse “trunk line” standard green colored paint and a bead situated to the observer in the open area at the minimum atmospheric transmission coefficient of 0.85 to 1 km:
|at the sight in the passive mode, and the level of natural night
illumination (ENO), (4 ± 1) x 10 -3 lux
– detecting, m, at least
– recognition, m, not less
|at the sight in the awake mode (illuminance – below EHO) and
target illumination IR illuminator:
– detecting, m, at least
– recognition, m, not less
|Range of vision in daily multiple channel at sight
meteorological visibility range of not less than 10 km:
– recognition, m, not less
|The angles of rotation of BH stabilized line of sight from the locked position to the mirror head stops, … °||from minus 20 to + 30|
|It provides a stabilized sight observation mode when the hatch speeds of GBV deg / s||0 ÷ 35|
|Minimum speed guidance stabilized line of sight, deg / s, not more than||0.05|
|The maximum speed of the line of sight stabilized guidance, deg / s, not less||3|
|Swapping the speed of the line of sight, degree / s||16 ÷ 24|
|Stabilization accuracy in targeting a range of angles from -10 ° to + 20 °, etc., no more than||0.3|
|Optical characteristics of the sight TKN-4S-01 correspond to the following values:|
|Day single channel:|
|Magnification, at least||1|
|Angular field of view, degree, not less than
– for BH
– by GN
7 ° 15 ‘
27 ° 40 ‘
|Angle of view, degree, not less than
– for BH
– by GN
47 ° 30 ‘
|Magnification||8 ± 0,4|
|Angular field of view, degree, not less than
– for BH
– by GN
7 ° 15 ‘
|Resolution limit, arcsec, not more||8|
|Exit Pupil Diameter, mm, not less than||4.75|
|Exit Pupil Distance, mm||27 ± 6|
|Night multiple channel|
|Angular field of view, degree, not less than||9|
|Limiting resolution (at optimum luminance), arcsec, no more||50|
|Tools resolution (at a specified value of illumination) arcsec, max||60|
|Exit Pupil Diameter, mm, not less than||5.5|
|Exit Pupil Distance, mm||27 ± 6|
|Range of diopter setting eyepiece diopter, not less||± 4|
|operating temperature range during operation, ° C||from minus 50 to + 50|
|PNK-4S-01 is operable in the range of the supply dc voltage of 22 V to 29 V and at a three-phase alternating voltage (36 ± 1,8) B, (400 ± 8) Hz.|
|Time availability of sight to work after the line of sight of the stabilizer, min, max||2|
|The response time of the electromechanical built night channel gate sec||0.5|
|Periskopichnost sight, mm||250 ± 2|
|Mass sight, kg, not more than||43|
|Mass electrical installation EB-041 kg, not more than||4.2|
|DP position sensor Weight, no more||10.8|
Translated by google – Source romz.ru
Night – Image: thesovietarmourblog.blogspot.comDay – Image: thesovietarmourblog.blogspot.comCommander station – Image: vitalykuzmin.net
PZU-7 anti-aircraft sight
The sight provides direct fire targeting when shooting from the tank anti-aircraft mount. It is an optical monocular periscope sight with rotating prism, electrically heated windows, and illuminated sight grid.
- Zoom: 1.2 times
- Field of view: 50 degrees
- Exit pupil diameter: 5 mm
- Distance of the exit pupil from the outside of the last ocular lens: 23 mm
- Threshold of resolution in the central third of the optical system’s field of view: not more than 60″
- Transmittance factor: not less than 0.2
- Periscope line-of-sight height: 220 mm
- Ocular diopter setting: from -4 diopter to +4 diopter
- Sighting in the range of: from -10 degrees to +85 degrees
- Horizontal internal zeroing from the zero point: ±(00 – 25) mils
- Guaranteed service life: not less than 500 hours
|Horizontal field of view (degrees)||
|Input voltage (V DC)||
The tank commander is given a PNK-4S system, comprising the TKN-4S Agat-S day/night sight (range 800/700 day/night) and PZU-7 anti-aircraft sight on the left.
The driver is equipped with a TVN-5 infrared night viewer.
TVK-2 (TNPO-168) Driver’s vision device
Of the TNPO-168, TVN-5 analog.
TVN-5 Driver infrared night viewer
|Input voltage (V DC)||
©Copyright 2008 Prime Portal All Rights Reserved Prism surveillance device TNPO-168 with a wide field of view. For driving at night instead can be mounted night vision TVN-5 active-passive type – Image: agtf.ruDriver station – Image: agtf.ruInstruments and toggle switches are protected from damage or accidental switching – Image: agtf.ruGear – Image: agtf.ru
©Copyright 2008 Prime Portal All Rights Reserved
The T-90S has a liquid-cooled V-84MS 618kW (840hp) four-stroke V-12 piston engine. This engine can be fuelled by T-2 or TS-1 kerosene and A-72 benzine, in addition to diesel. The tank can carry up to 1,600 litres of fuel in the main fuel tanks and fuel drums. The fuel tanks are reinforced with armour plating. *Note engine is Diesel engine B-92 C2 (V-92S2)
Diesel engine B-92 C2 (V-92S2)
|Engine type||4-steps, V-form, 12-cylinder, burning several grades of fuel, liquid-cooled gas turbocharged engine|
|Fuel-mixture formation system||direct fuel injection|
|Engine power without input and output resistance kWt (hp)||736 (1000)|
|Rotation frequency S-1 (R.P.M.)||33,3 (2000)|
|Tarque margin, %||25|
|Specific fuel consumption h/kWt per hour (h/hp per hour)||212 (156)|
|Specific power, kWt/kg||0,7 (0,95)|
|Cylinder diameter, mm||150,0|
|Piston stroke in cylinder with master connecting rod, mm||180,0|
|Piston stroke in cylinder with artieulated connecting rod, mm||186,7|
|Operating displacement, l||38,88|
|Minimum temperature for reliable starting
of enginew/o warming before °С
|Limited engine operation conditions:|
|– ambient temperature||from -50°С up to +50°С|
|– relative humidity||up to 98% by 20°С|
|– sea level||up to 3000 m|
|Explosion sequence||preportionate, every 60° crankshaft reversion|
|Balance level||full dynamic balance|
The tank is provided with a snorkel for deep fording and can ford 5m of water with equipment which can be deployed in 20 minutes.
The mechanical transmission includes primary reduction gear, two planetary final gearboxes and two planetary final drives. The running gear features torsion bar suspension with hydraulic shock absorbers at one, two and six road wheel stations and tracks with rubber-metallic pin hinges.
|Combat weight, t||46.5|
|Length with gun, mm:|
|Bore size, mm||125|
|Rate of fire, rounds/min||7|
|Ammunition allowance (including automatic loading gear)||42 (22)|
|Stabilizer, type||Electrohydraulic power elevation Electromechanical power traverse|
|Auxiliary armament: antiaircraft machine gun mount|
|Bore size, mm||7.62|
|Ammunition allowance, pcs||2000|
|Auxiliary armament: machine gun|
|Bore size, mm||12.7|
|Ammunition allowance, pcs||300|
|Round of guided missile||ZUBK14 with missile 9M119 ZUBK20 with missile 9M119 M|
|Missile guidance system|
|Maximum range of fire, m||5000|
|Fire Control System|
|Commander’s sighting and vision system||T01-K04|
|Gunner’s range finder||1G46|
|Double control of the fire from the commander’s station||Available|
|Gunner’s night sight||Thermal Imager ESSA|
|Night identification range of tank side projection, m||4000|
|Armour guard, type||Combined turret from the rolled armour|
|Explosive reactive armour, type||Multipurpose|
|Opto-electronic suppression system||Available|
|NBC protection system||Crew protection|
|Mobility and Cross-Country Ability|
|Max highway speed, km/h||60|
|Fuel distance with barrels, km||550|
|Trench, m||2.6 … 2.8|
|Obstacle ability, m||0.85|
|Engine type||B-92C2 (diesel)|
|Gross horsepower, kW (hp)||736 (1000)|
|Number of cylinders, pc||12|
|Cylinder arrangement||V-type, at 60°|
|Type||Mechanical, with transmission gear unit, two final gear boxes and coaxial final drives|
|Number of gears||Seven-forward and one-reverse|
|Stopping brake||Disk type. Oil operated|
|Drive control||Drive control|
|Shock absorbers, type||Hydraulic, vane-type (6pcs)|
|Number of road wheels and track support rollers per one side||6 road wheel 3 track support roller|
|Track||With stamped tracks and rubber-bushed gearing, adapted to accommodate rubber pads|
|Crew friendliness||The conditioner is available|
Main material source army-technology.com
Revised Jun 08, 2017
Updated Sep 20, 2017