Daily Archives: November 8, 2015


The Airbus Helicopters Tiger, formerly known as the Eurocopter Tiger, is a four-bladed, twin-engined attack helicopter which first entered service in 2003. It is manufactured by Eurocopter (now Airbus Helicopters), the successor company to Aérospatiale’s and DASA’s respective helicopter divisions, which designate it as the EC665. In Germany it is known as the Tiger; in France and Spain it is called the Tigre.


The Tiger has the distinction of being the first all-composite helicopter developed in Europe; even the earliest models also incorporate other advanced features such as a glass cockpit, stealth technology and high agility to increase its survivability. Improved variants have since entered service, outfitted with more powerful engines and compatible with a wider range of weapons.


The Tiger has a tandem-seat ‘glass cockpit’ and is operated by a two-man crew; the pilot is placed in the forward position, with the gunner seated behind. Either of the crew members can manage the weapon systems or the primary flight controls, switching roles if necessitated; in addition to flying the aircraft, the Tiger’s pilot would typically be in control of the self-defence systems and communications, as well as some secondary weapons functions. While some of the weapons use dedicated control interfaces, such as the anti-tank Trigat missile, air-to-air weapons can be managed via controls on both sets of collective and cyclic sticks.

TopOwl® helmet-mounted sight and display



TopOwl provides the pilot with optimum vision of the environment featuring unique visor-projected intensified night vision which is extremely comfortable to use.


To accomplish the mission, TopOwl can display before the pilot’s eyes images from any sensor located on the aircraft such as an FLIR HD. The high accuracy head tracking system is able to slave any weapon.


TopOwl provides the pilot with the best comfort, reducing pilot fatigue and improving performance over long and iterative missions.

TopOwl® has been chosen by 16 countries for their army, navy and/or air force attack and transport helicopters.

In full-rate production, TopOwl is operational on 5 major helicopter programmes: Tiger, NH90, Cobra AH-1Z, Huey UH-1Y and Rooivalk; T129 is in progress.

Main characteristics:

  • Binocular 40° field-of-view
  • Visor projection
  • Modular Integrated Image Intensifier
  • FLIR
  • Compatible with full weapon suite: Guns, Rockets, Missiles
  • Headborne weight < 2.2 kg
  • Customized helmet liner to pilot head
  • Integrated Display Capabilities:
    – Stroke symbology
    – Raster video image (FLIR)
    – Image intensified secure

Source thalesgroup.com



Image – Copyright © Flugzeuglexikon von Wolfgang Bredow – Berlin, Spandau

The protection systems employed on the Tiger includes stealth; aspects such as the visual, radar, infra-red and acoustic signatures have been minimised to better evade threats that may be present upon the battlefield. According to Andrew Warner, the Tiger’s survivability “relies on stealth and agility”. The fuselage is armoured and was developed to withstand small arms fire and 23 mm (0.91 in) cannon rounds. The helicopter has various radar/laser warning and missile-approach detection systems, including EADS’s AN/AAR-60 MILDS (Missile Launch Detection System), as well as flares and chaff dispensers.

EADS’s AN/AAR-60 MILDS (Missile Launch Detection System)

AMPS-configurationEADS’s AN/AAR-60 MILDS (Missile Launch Detection System)


MILDS AN/AAR-60 is a passive, true imaging sensordevice optimised to detect the radiation signature in the UV solar blind spectral band that is emitted from an
approaching hostile missile exhaust plume. MILDS AN/AAR-60 detects incoming missile threats and indicates the direction of arrival at maximum warning time. The inherently high spatial resolution of MILDS combined with advanced temporal processing enables a
very high declaration rate while virtually eliminating false alarms. MILDS comprises four to six selfcontained detectors that provide high resolution and high sensitivity
without extra cooling. Each sensor provides fully processed signals. In addition, no central processing unit is required.


MILDS represents high quality and stability, combined with integrity and expandability of the entire system without causing any electromagnetic compatibility problems on board. MILDS offers easy installation due to extremely low weight and size but at the same time high comfort and fast processing of missile threats. High MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) is possible because no moving parts are used in the MILDS systems sensors. Source hensoldt.net

Laith Jobran @flickr

Perhaps the most significant single avionics system fitted upon the Tiger is the mast-mounted Osiris sight/sensor; this incorporates optical TV and thermal cameras, a laser range finder/tracker/designator, and multiple gyroscopes for stabilisation.

Osiris sight/sensor

Eurocopter_Tiger_-_MastImage @bredow-web.de – Copyright © Flugzeuglexikon von Wolfgang Bredow – Berlin, Spandau

The Osiris mast-mounted sight for a helicopter is produced by SAGEM (formerly SFIM Industries) and was designed for both HOT and TRIGAT missiles. The Osiris electro-optical acquisition system provides passive detection, recognition and identification of the target. The mast-mounted sight is equipped with an IR CCD thermal imager and a CCD television camera on a gyrostabilised platform. Source army-technology.com

A full range of sensors:

  • visible and/or near infrared CCD TV camera
  • passive 3-5 or 8-12um thermal imagers
  • telemeter
  • laser pointer
  • laser designator or illuminator
  • laser spot tracker

A range of optronic sights:

  • Strix sight
    • HAP EC665 Tiger helicopters
    • HAD EC665 Tiger helicopters
  • Strix HA sight (laser designator)
    • ARH Tiger helicopters (army reconnaissance)
  • Osiris sight
    • multi-role UHT helicopters
  • Viviane sights
    • SA342 Gazelle helicopters (anti-tank)

Sagem also produces sights and gyrostabilized optronic pods, qualified on Eurocopter AS532 Cougar, EC725 Caracal, NH90, AS565 Panther and Denel AH-2 Rooivalk.

Source safran-electronics-defense.com


Osiris (CCD) – Visual

General data:
Type: Visual Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 55.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: LLTV, 3rd Generation (2000s/2010s)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual], LLTV / NVG / CCD (Night-Capable) / Searchlight [Visual Night-Capable]
Sensors / EW:
Osiris [CCD] – Visual
Role: LLTV, Surveillance Camera
Max Range: 55.6 km

Osiris (FLIR) – Infrared

General data:
Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 55.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual], LLTV / NVG / CCD (Night-Capable) / Searchlight [Visual Night-Capable]
Sensors / EW:
Osiris [FLIR] – Infrared
Role: Infrared, Surveillance FLIR
Max Range: 55.6 km

Osiris Laser Designator

General data:
Type: Laser Designator Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 27.8 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Not Applicable (N/A)
Sensors / EW:
Osiris [Laser Designator] – Laser Designator
Role: Laser Target Designator & Ranger (LTD/R)
Max Range: 27.8 km

STRIX turret-mounted, gyro-stabilised observation and sighting systems


The Strix is a roof-mounted sight designed for the Tiger attack helicopter. It includes IR and CCD-TV cameras, Laser range finder, and direct optics sight. Source deagel.com

Strix CCD – Visual

General data:
Type: Visual Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 55.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: LLTV, 3rd Generation (2000s/2010s)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual], LLTV / NVG / CCD (Night-Capable) / Searchlight [Visual Night-Capable]
Sensors / EW:
Strix [CCD] – Visual
Role: LLTV, Surveillance Camera
Max Range: 55.6 km

Strix FLIR

General data:
Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 55.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual], LLTV / NVG / CCD (Night-Capable) / Searchlight [Visual Night-Capable]
Sensors / EW:
Strix [FLIR] – Infrared
Role: Infrared, Surveillance FLIR
Max Range: 55.6 km

Strix Laser Rangefinder

General data:
Type: Laser Rangefinder Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 7.4 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Not Applicable (N/A)
Sensors / EW:
Strix [Laser Rangefinder] – Laser Rangefinder
Role: Laser Rangefinder
Max Range: 7.4 km

France to upgrade Tiger HAD to Mark II version



GRAM-S SEM-E architecture 24 channel continuous tracking on L1 & L2 frequency; C/A-, P-, and Y-Code. Designed in accordance with the GPS “Receiver Application Module Guidelines” (GRAM-S). PPS operation handled by US JPO approved Selective Availability AntiSpoofing Module (SAASM). Able to operate either as a stand-alone or aided receiver for better A-J performances. Roadmaps include GPS M code and Galileo PRS.

Anti-Jam Thales patented Anti-Jam non-linear measurement processing and hybridisation techniques provide additional Anti-Jam benefits, that surpass conventional tight or ultra-tight coupling. Fast Y code acquisition is achieved in the most severe jamming environment, using multi-correlation algorithms that can perform up to 2,000,000 signal detection each second using more than 12,000 Time/Frequency correlators.  Full details: Here

AGM-114 Hellfire 2

Image result for AGM-114 Hellfire 2

AGM-114K Hellfire II

  • Target: All armored threats
  • Range: 8,000 m (8,749 yd)
  • Guidance:
    • Semi-active laser homing with electro-optical countermeasures hardening
    • Digital autopilot improvements allow target reacquisition after lost laser lock
  • New electronic SAD
  • Warhead: 9 kg (20 lb) tandem shaped charge HEAT
  • Length: 163 cm (64 in)
  • Weight: 45.4 kg (100 lb)
  • Essentially the proposed AGM-114J w/ SAD

AGM-114R Hellfire II (Hellfire Romeo)

  • Target: All Target Types
  • Range: 8,000 m (8,749 yd)
  • Guidance:
    • Semi-active laser homing
  • Warhead: Multi-function warhead
  • Weight: 50 kg (110 lb)
  • Speed: Mach 1.3

France to launch mid-life upgrade for Tiger attack helicopter to Mk 3: Here


France is now prepared to set specifications, draw up contracts and identify risks for the midlife upgrade of its Tiger attack helicopter, following an investment meeting held May 2 by Armed Forces Minister Florence Parly.

Osiris performs as the main sensor for target observation and acquisition, providing firing and targeting data via the weapons computer; Osiris also enables entirely passive target acquisition to be undertaken and was developed to maximise the capabilities of the Trigat anti-tank missile developed in parallel to the Tiger itself. An alternative optical system to Osiris is mounted on the aircraft’s roof upon some variants.


France Orders More Tigers, Plans $41.6B Budget Increase: Here

Airbus declares that all Tiger combat helicopters are unsafe: Here


After the crash of a Tiger combat helicopter of the Bundeswehr in Mali on July 26,  the manufacturer company Airbus Helicopters issued a safety warning to all users of this helicopter type, which was supplemented on (today) Thursday again. In this, as a precaution, all variants of the helicopter used by the French, Spanish and Australian armed forces are declared insecure.

Operators: Here

Specifications (Tiger HAP)


Data from Wilson, McGowen

General characteristics

  • Crew:Two: pilot and weapon systems officer
  • Length:08 m fuselage (46 ft 2 in)
  • Rotor diameter:00 m (42 ft 8 in)
  • Height:83 m (12 ft 7 in)
  • Disc area:133 m² (1,430 ft²)
  • Empty weight:3,060 kg (6,750 lb)
  • Loaded weight:5,090 kg (11,311 lb)
  • takeoff weight:6,000 kg (13,000 lb))
  • Powerplant:2 × MTU Turbomeca Rolls-Royce MTR390 turboshafts, 958 kW (1.303 shp) each
  • Internal fuel capacity:1,080 kg (2,380 lb)

2 x MTU Turbomeca Rolls-Royce MTR390E turboshafts

MTR 390 @deagel.com

The MTR390 covers the 1,250 to 1,450 shp range. It is designed for six-to-seven ton military rotorcraft and is installed in the Airbus Helicopters Tiger attack helicopter. The development of the MTR390 is the result of a partnership between MTU Aero Engines, Rolls-Royce, ITP and Safran Helicopter Engines. Production began in 2000. Two versions are in service: the 2C fitted to the Tiger HAP, ARH and UHT variants; and the E, intended for the Tiger HAD. The in-service fleet has collectively logged over 130,000 operating hours.

With unrivaled power-to-weight and dimensions-to-power ratios, the MTR390 is designed for performance. The E model offers a maximum take-off power of 1,467 shp and, using the One Engine Inoperative (OEI) rating, is capable of 1,773 shp.


The MTR390 was designed to perform in the harshest of environments and to offer simple maintenance. It features three main modules: a compressor with two centrifugal stages (to cope with the most difficult conditions, including sandy environments); a single-stage high pressure turbine equipped with cooled single-crystal vanes; and a particularly robust two-stage power turbine. Servicing is based on the concept of on-condition maintenance and requires a simple set of standard tools.

The MTR390 is equipped with dual-channel Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) which, through allowing engine performance and usage monitoring, lightens air and ground crew workload while maximizing performance.

Eurocopter_Tiger_UHT_engineMTU Turbomeca Rolls-Royce MTR390 turboshafts, 958 kW (1.303 shp) each08.JPG

Source safran-helicopter-engines.com


  • Maximum speed:290 km/h with mast, 315 km/h without mast (157 knots, 181 mph with mast, 170 knots or 196 mph without mast)
  • Range:800 km (430 nm, 500 mi) combat (with external tanks in the inboard stations: 1,300km)
  • Service ceiling:4,000 m (13,000 ft)
  • Rate of climb:7 m/s (2,105 ft/min)
  • Power/mass:23 hp/lb (0.38 kW/kg)


  • Guns:
    • 1× 30 mm (1.18 in) GIAT 30 cannon in chain turret, with up to 450 rounds.

GIAT 30 mm cannon in chain turret


30 mm (1.18 in) GIAT 30 M781 cannon in chain turret muzzle velocity is 810 m/s (2. 657 ft/s) with a rate of fire of 750 rounds per minute.

On each of its two inner hardpoints and two outer hardpoints the Eurocopter Tiger can carry a combination of the following weapons:

  • Inner hardpoints:
    • 1x 20 mm (0.787 in) autocannon pods, or
    • 22x 68 mm (2.68 in) SNEB unguided rockets in a pod, or
    • 19x 70 mm (2.75 in) Hydra 70 unguided rockets in a pod or
    • 4x AGM-114 Hellfire missiles (Australia/France) or
    • 4x Spike-ER missiles (Spain) or
    • 4x PARS 3 LR missiles (Germany) or
    • 4x HOT3 missiles (Germany)
  • Outer hardpoints:
    • 2x Mistral air-to-air missiles, or
    • 2x FIM-92 Stinger air-to-air missiles (Germany), or
    • 12x 68 mm (2.68 in) SNEB unguided rockets in a pod or
    • 7x 70 mm (2.75 in) Hydra 70 unguided rockets in a pod

Laser-guided Rocket For the French Army: Details

TDA has developed and conducted live firings with a new-generation rocket launcher for the latest generations of combat aircraft such as the Rafale from DASSAULT AVIATION.

The TELSON 12 JF (Jet Fighter) rocket-launcher is designed for induction-activated rockets and is ideally suited to close air support missions.

The future Induction Laser Guided Rocket (ILGR) will provide a precision strike capability out to 10,000 metres, beyond the range of the most common MANPADS threats. Source tda-armements.com

MBDA and Roketsan will integrate Cirit rockets to the Tiger UHT helicopters: Details


2.75” Laser Guided Missile CİRİT

04_roketsan-7874Image @roketsan.com.tr

Properties of the Product

CİRİT, is a missile with the longest range in its class which provides a superior precision against light, armored/unarmored and stationary/mobile targets as well as being a cost effective solution.

Basic Specifications

  • The 2.75″ Missile with the Longest Range
  • Insensitive Munitions (Level V)
  • Multi Purpose (Armor Piercing, Anti Personnel and Incendiary) Warhead
  • Integration to Various Platforms (Helicopter, UAV, Land Vehicle, Stationary Platform, Light Assault Aircraft, Naval Platform)
  • Standard Mode and Smart Mode Pod Integration
  • Not a Guidance Kit, New Generation All-Up Round Missile System
  • Composite Propellent Technology with Reduced Smoke

In the Inventory of Turkish Armed Forces

Product Description

2.75” Laser Guided Missile CİRİT was designed for the purpose of filling the gap between cheap, unguided rockets with low precision and the high cost, guided anti-tank missiles.

CİRİT can be fired from standard CİRİT POD developed by Roketsan and as well as from Smart Pod. Smart Pod increases the capability envelope of CİRİT missile for inventory information exchange through the platform it possess prior to launch.

CİRİT is stored in the canister which facilities loading and unloading.

05_img_6527Image @roketsan.com.tr

CİRİT, by means of its aerodynamic shape and composite solid propellant rocket motor, has the longest range in its class, 8 km, as compared to classic 2.75” unguided rockets.

Moreover, CİRİT missile offers options, such as multipurpose warhead (Armor Piercing Anti-personnel and Incendiary) as well as High Explosive warhead.

CİRİT system defined as the official missile system of National Attack Helicopter (T – 129) under development and can be also integrated to various platforms (Helicopter, UAV, Land Vehicle, Light Assault Aircraft, Naval Platform).

Cirit canister
Diameter 2.75″ (70 mm)
Maximum Range 8 km
Minimum Range 1,5 km
Weight 15 kg (Without tube complete)
Propellant Type HTPB Based, Smokeless, Composite Solid Propellant
Warhead Type Multi Purpose Warhead, Armor Piercing, Personnel, Incendiary
Warhead Type High Explosive Warhead
Guidance Mid – Phase Guidance with MEMS – AÖB
Guidance Terminal Guidance with Semi-Active Laser Seeker
Target Types Light Armored / Unarmored Vehicles, Stationary and Moving Targets, Bunkers
Platforms Helicopters (AH – 1W, T – 129 ATAK etc.), UAV’s,  Land Vehicles, Light Assault Aircraft, Naval Platforms and Stationary Platforms

Data roketsan.com.tr

20 mm (0.787 in) autocannon pod & FIM-92 Stinger air-to-air missiles

800px-TigerUHT220 mm (0.787 in) autocannon pods and FIM-92 Stinger air-to-air missiles

AGM-114 Hellfire missiles


AGM-114 Hellfire missiles (right) air-to-ground missile developed primarily for the anti-armour.  Each Hellfire weighs 45.4kg-49kg including an 8kg-9kg multipurpose warhead. It has 8km (LOAL, high trajectory), 7.1km (LOAL, low / direct trajectory) and 11km (UAS: LOAL, high trajectory) range depending on the trajectory.

Spike-ER missiles and unguided rockets

yourfile (1)spike_er

Spike-ER missiles and unguided rockets in a pod Rafael, based in Haifa, Israel, manufactures the Spike family of anti-armour weapons. The weapons are lightweight fire-and-forget anti-tank missiles and use electro-optical and fibre-optic technologies (formerly known as NTD Dandy) with a range of 8,000m

PARS 3 LR missiles (TRIGAT LR)

pars_mmpP1450411725PARS 3 LR missiles (TRIGAT LR) The operating range is given as 500m to 5,000m, but the range is extendible to 7,000m. Salvo firing provides a firing rate of up to four missiles in eight seconds.

PARS 3 LR is a high precision fire-and-forget weapon system for the engagement of mobile and stationary targets equipped with the latest generation of armour protection as well as buildings, bunkers and other high-value targets.

The fire-and-forget capability of PARS 3 LR enables the platform system to leave its position immediately after firing the missile. In this way, platform and crew are exposed to the enemy’s reconnaissance and counter-action for a minimal amount of time. The precision and effectiveness of the missile is ensured over the entire firing range.




  • Fire-and-forget missile system
  • High precision and penetration power
  • Salvo-firing capability
  • Quick reaction time
  • Engagement of multiple targets

Source mbda-systems.com


TRIGAT LR is a third-generation anti-tank missile


TRIGAT LR is a third-generation anti-tank missile for long-range applications. The missile is also known as PARS-3 (panzerabwehr rakensystem 3) in Germany and AC 3G (antichar de 3e generation) in France. The missile is integrated on the Eurocopter Tiger helicopter developed for the French and German armies.

TRIGAT is a European programme involving France, Germany and the United Kingdom.

Both long-range and medium-range TRIGAT use thrust vector control for high agility in flight and precision targeting. The operating range is given as 500m to 5,000m, but the range is extendible to 7,000m. Salvo firing provides a firing rate of up to four missiles in eight seconds.

TRIGAT LR can be applied in direct attack or terminal dive modes. The system is equipped with a tandem shaped charge warhead for high lethality against modern reactive armour. A proximity charge detonates at an optimum distance from the target.

The dimensions of the TRIGAT LR missile are approximately length 1,500cm x body diameter 15cm. The missile weighs 49kg.  Source army-technology.com

HOT 3 is a long-range anti-tank weapon system


HOT 3 is a long-range anti-tank weapon system tube-launched, wire-guided missile has a 6.5kg tandem charge warhead which is effective against explosive reactive armour (ERA), penetrating up to 1,300mm range of the missile is from 75m to 4,000m

General data:
Type: Guided Weapon Weight: 34 kg
Length: 1.3 m Span: 0.31 m
Diameter: 0.15 Generation: None
Properties: Terrain Following, Level Cruise Flight
Targets: Surface Vessel, Land Structure – Soft, Land Structure – Hardened, Mobile Target – Soft, Mobile Target – Hardened
HOT 3 – (1994) Guided Weapon
Surface Max: 5.6 km. Land Max: 5.6 km.

19 tubes (FZ225) 


FZ225 is a lightweight composite material high-drag, straight cylindrical 19-tube reusable launcher designed for helicopter use. The FZ225 is equipped with removable universal dual purpose FZ125 detent mechanism enabling to fire FFAR and WA rockets.

It can be fitted with an optional removable rear fairing.

Mechanical characteristics

The FZ225 rocket launcher system includes a nineteen (19) tube rocket composite central section with equipped with a Launcher Interface Unit (LIU).

  • Outer diameter : 402 mm
  • Overall length : 1668 mm
  • Total mass (empty) : 45 kg

Mechanical interface

  • 14” NATO standard suspension lugs


  • Firing mode : ripple / single
  • Intervallometry : 80 ms (minimum)
  • Dual purpose : designed for firing both types of FZ 2.75″ FZ FFAR and WA rocket motors
  • Rocket warheads : designed for firing all types of conventional 2.75″ FZ rocket warheads equipped with a remote set fuze

7 tubes (FZ233)


FZ233 is a lightweight composite material high-drag, straight cylindrical 7-tube reusable launcher designed for helicopter use. The FZ233 is equipped with removable universal dual purpose FZ125 detent mechanism enabling to fire FFAR and WA rockets.

The design of the FZ233 is identical to that of the rocket launcher FZ220, but equipped with a LIU interface (Launcher Interface Unit).

It can be fitted with an optional removable rear fairing.

Mechanical characteristics

The FZ233 rocket launcher system includes a seven (7) tube rocket composite central section.

  • Height : 288.3 mm
  • Width : 243.4 mm
  • Overall length : 1653.5 mm
  • Total mass (empty) : 26kg

Mechanical interface

  • 14” NATO standard suspension lugs


  • Firing mode : ripple / single
  • Intervallometry : 80 ms (minimum)
  • Dual purpose : designed for firing both types of FZ 2.75″ FZ FFAR and WA rocket motors
  • Rocket warheads : designed for firing all types of conventional 2.75″ FZ rocket warheads  and are equipped with a remote set fuze

Source fz.be

Estimated cost: USD 45 million (wiki)

Source: miltechmag.com, deagel.com, army-technology.com, wikiwand

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Main image Laith Jobran @flickr

Updated May 09, 2018

Embraer EMB 314/A-29 Super Tucano – Brazil

The EMB-314 Super Tucano is an enhanced version, with faster speed and higher altitude, of the EMB-312 Tucano trainer aircraft which is operational in the air forces of 17 countries. The prototype of the Super Tucano first flew in 1992. Both Tucano and Super Tucano have been developed and built by Embraer of Brazil.

The main missions of the aircraft, in addition to basic and advanced pilot training, are border patrol and counter-insurgency operations.

The flight envelope of the aircraft is +7g and -3.5g. The aircraft’s small size, small visual and radar signatures, together with high speed and agility give the aircraft high survivability. Additional survivability features include armour protection and critical systems redundancy.

EMB-312 Tucano trainer aircraft

EMB-312 Tucano – Image courtesy of Mário Monte

By the mid-1970s, the FAB was again casting about for a new trainer. At the time, Brazil was under a military government and as a result the country was under arms embargoes. That made a locally-developed solution attractive, and in the spring of 1977 the MdA issued a requirement for a training and light strike aircraft. EMBRAER came up with two proposals, including the piston-powered “EMB-301” trainer and light strike aircraft, and the turboprop-powered “EMB-311” light attack aircraft. Sociedad Neiva also proposed a “YT-25B Universal II” trainer and light attack aircraft based on the Universal I; the firm built a flight prototype.

These designs were not what the FAB was thinking about, and so in the summer of 1977 the MdA issued another requirement, this time for a turboprop trainer and light attack aircraft. EMBRAER updated the EMB-311 into a trainer / light attack aircraft designated the “EMB-312”; it still wasn’t quite what was wanted, but it seemed on the right track, so in early 1978 EMBRAER engineers reworked the design further to conform to FAB desires. In September 1978 EMBRAER was authorized to begin full development, with work on four prototypes — two flight prototypes and two static-test prototypes — beginning in 1979.

EMB-312H_PT-ZTWEMB-312G1 prototype – wikiwand.com

Initial flight of the first EMB-312 prototype was on 16 August 1980, with retired FAB Colonel Luiz Fernando Cabral at the controls and engineer Gilberto Hideo Otaka in the back seat. Trials went well, with the type being given the name “Tucano” in October 1981; the pure trainer version was the “T-27”, while the trainer / light attack variant was the “A-27”.

One of the prototypes was lost in an accident on 10 August 1982, but a third fight prototype had been authorized and built by that time, with this machine performing its first flight six days later. The FAB had already placed an initial production order, with the first production machine being delivered on 29 September 1983. 133 were obtained by the FAB, with the Tucano becoming the mount for the FAB’s aerobatic display team, the Esquadrao de Demonstracio Aerea (EDA).

From the 1990s, the Brazilian government began to enhance on improving security in the wild backwoods regions of the Amazon basin, where drug traffickers and the like had long operated with impunity. The result was the formal establishment, in 1997, of the “SIstema de Vigilancia da AMazonia (SIVAM)” as a collaborative exercise between the FAB and other Brazilian government organizations. Tucanos were put to work under SIVAM as “gunfighters”, carrying out air attacks on illegal settlements in the jungle and intercepting suspicious aircraft that might be carrying drugs.

EMB-312 Tucano Described

As it emerged, the Tucano was a low-wing monoplane of all-metal construction, with retractable tricycle landing gear. It was powered by a Pratt & Whitney Canada (PWC) PT6A-25C turboprop providing 560 kW (750 SHP), driving a Hartzell three-bladed variable-pitch constant-speed propeller. There were two fuel tanks in each wing, providing four tanks with a total fuel capacity of 660 liters (174 US gallons). The aircraft was fully aerobatic.

Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-25C turboprop engine

pt6a-overhaul750hp (560kW) Pratt & Whitney PT6A-25C turboprop engine 
(Max. RPM)
PT6A ‘Small’
(A-11 to A-140)
600 to
500 to
1,900 to
21 to
21.5 61.5 to
* Powers are approximate values at take-off. Available at sea level, standard day, static conditions, uninstalled.
** Dimensions are approximate values.
*** Equivalent Shaft Horsepower: includes estimated equivalent contribution of exhaust thrust.

Source pwc.ca

All flight surfaces were unswept, but with tapered planforms. Flight control layout was conventional, with a one-piece slotted flap inboard on each wing plus an aileron outboard, with rudder and elevators on the tail assembly. Primary flight controls were manual, except for electrically actuated flaps. Trim tabs were fitted, as was a tailfin fillet extension, presumably to compensate for the Tucano’s long and high canopy. All landing gear had single wheels and were hydraulically retractable, with the steerable nose gear retracting backwards, while the main gear hinged from the wings to retract towards the fuselage.

Close view of the Embraer EMB 312 Tucano’s cockpit. Image courtesy of Guillaume Paumier

The crew sat in tandem on Martin-Baker BR8LC zero-zero (zero altitude, zero speed) ejection seats, under a jettisonable single-piece canopy that hinged open to the right. The cockpit was pressurized and climate-conditioned. Dual controls were standard.

Martin-Baker BR8LC zero-zero ejection seat


  • Operating Ceiling: 50000+ ft (15,250m)
  • Minimum height/Speed: Zero/70 knots in near level attitude
  • Crew boarding mass range: 78.2 to 116.2 kg
  • Crew size range: 5th to 95th percentile
  • Maximum Speed for ejection: 600 KIAS
  • Parachute type: GQ Type 1000 Mk 2
  • Parachute deployment: Drogue assisted
  • Drogue parachute type: 5ft
  • Drogue deployment: Drogue gun initiated by trip rod
  • Harness type: Combined
  • Ejection seat operation type: Ejection gun
  • Ejection gun: Single, two stage
  • Gun stroke length: Variant dependent
  • Ejection initiation: Handle on seat pan
  • Electronic Sequencer: No
  • Barostatic time-release unit: Yes + g-restrictor initiated by trip rod
  • Automatic backup unit: No
  • Manual override handle: Yes
  • Timers: No
  • Seat adjustment: Up/down. Actuator operated 28 Vdc
  • Arm restraints: No
  • Leg restraints: Yes, two garters
  • Oxygen supply: Bottled emergency oxygen; Onboard oxygen generating system connection
  • Personal survival pack: Yes
  • Aircrew services: Oxygen (main and emergency) and mic/tel
  • Command ejection: No
  • Canopy jettison: No
  • Miniature detonating cord: No
  • Interseat sequencing system: No

Source martin-baker.com

Two stores pylons could be fitted under each wing for a total of four, with typical stores being machine-gun pods, unguided rocket pods, or unguided bombs, to a total stores load of 1 tonne (2,200 pounds). A reflex gunsight was fitted in the cockpit for weapons aiming. The inboard stores pylons were “wet”, permitting carriage of a total of two ferry tanks, providing 330 liters (87 US gallons) of capacity each.

The Tucano proved popular in the export market, particularly with other Latin American countries:

  • Angola bought six new-production Tucanos plus two EMBRAER company demonstrators, with delivery in 1999, followed by the purchase of six more, with delivery in 2004. The Angolan Tucanos have mostly been employed as trainers, though some apparently did perform airstrikes during the war with UNITA insurgents.
  • Argentina bought 30 Tucanos for training, replacing the Morane-Saulnier MS-760 Paris, with deliveries in 1987 and 1988.
  • Colombia bought 14 Tucanos, with deliveries from late 1992. They were intended for training, replacing Lockheed T-33s, but they quickly got involved in the long-standing and brutal fight with Colombian FARC insurgents, performing strikes with 12.7 millimeter machine gun pods, unguided rocket pods, and unguided bombs.
  • Egypt was actually the Tucano’s first foreign buyer, initially ordering 40, including ten delivered from EMBRAER from 1984, and 30 assembled by Helwan in Egypt from EMBRAER-supplied kits from 1985, with the last of the Egyptian Tucanos rolled out in 1988. The order also included 80 machines assembled by kits by Helwan for Iraqi service. The Egyptians ordered 14 more in 1989, giving a total of 54, with the aircraft in that batch all delivered in the same year. They remain in service.
  • Honduras was the second Tucano export customer, obtaining eight in 1984 to replace North American T-28 Trojan trainers. While their primary mission was training, they also performed armed patrols with machine-gun pods, rocket pods, and dumb bombs; they have been credited with a number of “kills” of drug-running aircraft that refused to follow orders to land, and so were shot down.
  • Iran obtained 50 Tucanos in the late 1980s. This was after the Islamic Revolution, and the Tucano is one of the few Western aircraft to be acquired by Iran after the fall of the Shah. They remain in service in the training role.
  • Of the 80 Tucanos assembled for Iraq by Helwan in Egypt, many were destroyed or fled to Iran during the first Gulf War. It appears, however, that some did survive the second Gulf War, and are now in service with the new Iraqi state.
  • Paraguay bought six Tucanos in 1987. Six more were purchased in the late 1990s, but the deal fell through, and these machines ended up being the second batch sold to Angola.
  • Peru bought 20 Tucanos in 1986, replacing Cessna T-37s, with deliveries in 1987. They were put to intensive use in the war against drugs and destroyed over a dozen drug-running aircraft. Ten more Tucanos were purchased in 1991 to support the effort, and also fought in a border clash with Ecuador in 1995. Peruvian Tucanos are now mostly focused on the training mission.
  • Venezuela obtained 31 Tucanos in 1986, replacing the Hunting Jet Provost. The Tucanos saw limited action in several coup attempts in the early 1990s.

Shorts Tucano T.1 / French EMB-312F

In the early 1980s, the British Royal Air Force (RAF) was after a replacement for the aging Hunting Jet Provost trainer. A number of firms competed for the contract, with EMBRAER teaming up with Shorts of the UK to offer a Tucano derivative. The Tucano won the competition in May 1985.

RAF Short Tucano T1, in display colours for 2008 – wikiwand.com

Shorts was to perform license construction at a plant in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The RAF Tucanos were enhanced as per contract specification, being fitted with new avionics, a modified canopy, a hydraulically-actuated ventral airbrake, and in particular a more powerful engine — the Garrett TPE331-12B turboprop, providing 820 kW (1,100 SHP) and driving a four-blade propeller. A standard Tucano was fitted with the Garrett engine as a demonstrator, performing its first flight on 11 April 1986.

Garrett TPE331-12B turboprop

RAF Short Tucano T1 – igor113.livejournal.com

The first Shorts-built “Tucano Trainer Mark 1 (T.1)” performed its initial flight on 30 December 1986, with the first machine for evaluation delivered on 26 June 1987. Initial service delivery to the RAF was on 16 June 1988, with 131 Tucano T.1s being delivered up to final delivery in early 1993. They are used for primary training and apparently rarely, if ever, carry armament. The RAF is planning to replace them with the Raytheon T-6C Texan II.

RAF Short Tucano T1

Somewhat surprisingly, the terms of the deal between EMBRAER and Shorts allowed Shorts to sell Tucanos on the export market — EMBRAER officials no doubt felt that being handed the royalties was good enough. Twelve Shorts Tucano “T.51s” were sold to Kenya in 1988, replacing the BAC Strikemaster, being delivered in 1990; 16 “T.52s” were sold to Kuwait in 1989, though due to the first Gulf War, they weren’t delivered until 1995. Both the T.51 and T.52 were combat-capable, though they were employed as trainers.

French Air Force Embraer EMB 312 Tucano – AirExpo Muret 2007 – wikimedia.org

EMBRAER also developed a specialized variant of the Tucano for the Armee de l’Aire, the French Air Force, with the French buying what would end up being 49 machines in 1991 as replacements for the Fouga Magister jet trainer. These aircraft were designated “EMB-312F” and had various changes from Tucano standard, including a dashboard with LCD displays, ventral airbrake, de-icing gear, and structural reinforcements. They retained the PT6A powerplant. Deliveries were from 1993 to 1997.

Source airvectors.net

AT-6B Light Attack Aircraft / Trainer: Details

at-6_04_1024T-6C Texan II

Comparison between AT-6 and A-29 Super Tucano


Super Tucano ALX light attack aircraft

In 1995, Embraer was awarded a contract to develop a variant of the Super Tucano, known as the ALX or light attack aircraft, for the Brazilian Air Force (FAB). One of the main missions of the aircraft is border patrol under the sistema de vigilancia da Amazonia (SIVAM) programme and so the ALX was optimised for the environmental conditions of the Brazilian Amazon. The ALX is capable of operating day and night missions from remote bases and unpaved runways with minimal ground support. The first production aircraft was completed in 1999.

In August 2001, the Brazilian Air Force awarded Embraer a contract for 76 Super Tucano / ALX aircraft with options for a further 23. 51 of these aircraft are two seater versions, designated AT-29, which are stationed at the Natal Air Force Base and replace the AT-26 Xavante advanced jet trainers which are approaching the end of their operational lives. The remaining 25 aircraft are the single seat A-29 ALX version.


The first aircraft was delivered in December 2003. By September 2007, 50 aircraft had entered service. The 99th, and last A-29 aircraft was delivered in June 2012.

“The main missions of the EMB-314, in addition to basic and advanced pilot training, are border patrol and counter-insurgency operations.”


EMB-314 Super Tucano orders and deliveries

In August 2001, Embraer announced the signing of a contract with the Dominican Republic for ten Super Tucano aircraft, to be used for pilot training, internal security, border patrol and counter-narcotics trafficking missions. The order was reduced to eight aircraft in January 2009. The first two Super Tucano aircraft were delivered to the Dominican Republic on 18 December 2009. Three were delivered in June 2010 and the remaining three in October 2010.

Dominican Air Force

In February 2005, Venezuela selected the EMB-314 Super Tucano. 12 aircraft were to be ordered, with a further 12 planned. The sale fell through because it was thought the USA would block the transfer of US-built components.

In December 2005, the Columbian Air Force placed a contract for 25 Super Tucano aircraft. The first five were delivered in December 2006. Deliveries concluded in August 2008. The aircraft are used for border patrol and internal security. Elbit Systems was contracted to supply the avionics suite.

AIR_EMB-314_Drakos_Colombia_lgColombian Air Force

In April 2008, the Chilean Air Force selected the EMB-314 Super Tucano, with a requirement for 12 aircraft. A contract for the 12 aircraft was signed in August 2008. Embraer delivered first four of the 12 aircraft to Chilean Air Force on 23 December 2009. The Dominican Republic placed a contract for eight Super Tucano aircraft in late 2008

The Ecuadorian Air Force (EAF) ordered 24 Super Tucano aircraft in March 2009 as part of a $270m agreement signed with Embraer in 2008. A total of six Super Tucanos were delivered by April 2010. The EAF reduced its order from 24 to 18 in May 2010 to acquire 12 second-hand Cheetah C fighters from Denel Dynamics.

Embraer signed a contract with the Indonesian Ministry of Defence in November 2010 to supply eight A-29 Super Tucano light attack and advance trainer aircraft for superseding a fleet of OV-10 Broncos. It will also supply ground support stations and an integrated logistics package. The contract was finalised and became effective from 9 June 2011. The first four aircraft were delivered in August 2012.

Indonesian Air Force placed an order for a second batch of eight A-29 Super Tucano aircraft and a flight simulator in July 2012. Deliveries are expected to begin in 2014.

emb314_01Indonesian Air Force

In December 2011, the A-29 Super Tucano was selected by the US Air Force for its Light Air Support (LAS) programme. Under the $355m contract, 20 aircraft will be delivered in partnership with Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC), who is the prime contractor of the programme. In February 2012, the contract was cancelled due to concerns over the procurement process. The US Air Force is planning to restart the contract awarded process.

Embraer on track to deliver Super Tucanos to Lebanon: Here


13 JULY, 2016  BY: LEIGH GIANGRECO  LONDON – Production is under way on the first Embraer A-29 Super Tucanos for the Lebanese Air Force, with delivery to start at the beginning of 2017.

In November, the US government agreed a $173 million foreign military sales contract that will see Embraer’s US partner Sierra Nevada deliver six of the light-attack turboprops to the Lebanese air force by 2019.

The aircraft will be handed over to the US Air Force early next year, who then commission the fleet to Lebanon, says Geraldo Gomes, vice-president of business development for Embraer.

Philippine Air Force selects Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano: Here


The Philippine Air Force’s (PAF’s) longstanding requirement to procure a new close-air support (CAS) aircraft has finally progressed, with the Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano having been selected by the Department of National Defense (DND) as the programme’s single lowest bidder.

US approves Super Tucano attack planes for Nigeria: Here


After years of foot-dragging, the US State Department has finally approved a $593 million sale to Nigeria of A-29 Super Tucano attack planes with associated parts, training, facilities and weapons.

The Defense Security Cooperation Agency delivered their certification of the foreign military sale to Congress, as required by law, on August 2, according to United Press International.

The twelve A-29s, equipped with wing-mounted machine guns, weapons integration with advanced surveillance… precision-guided bombs, and even air-to-air missiles” are expected to be used by Nigeria to combat the Boko Haram insurgents and other extremist groups, such as the Islamic State West Africa splinter group. They will also serve to counter smuggling and other trafficking in Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea.

Embraer Announces Order For Six A-29 Super Tucanos: Here


Embraer has announced a firm order for six A-29 Super Tucano light attack and advanced training aircraft from an undisclosed customer. The aircraft can be used for tactical and advanced training as well as light attack and ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) missions. Deliveries will be concluded in 2018.

Embraer announces firm order from Philippines for 6 A-29 Super Tucanos: Here


Embraer announced today, November 30, a firm order of six A-29 Super Tucano light attack and advanced training aircraft for the Philippine Air Force (PAF). After a comprehensive public bidding process participated by several manufacturers from around the globe and complying with the stringent evaluation processes the Super Tucano was selected as part of the PAF’s ongoing modernization plan.

An Afghan A-29 pilot readies his aircraft for flight Sept. 10, 2017, at Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan. The A-29 is the premier fighter platform for the Afghan Air Force’s fight against anti-government insurgents and for providing close air attack support to troops on the ground. U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Alexander W. Riedel – defensemedianetwork.com

Operators: Here



Single-seater for attack and armed reconnaissance (on interdiction tasks), attack and cover (on close air support tasks), able to intercept and destroy low-performance aircraft, incorporates an additional fuel tank (+ 400 liters)
1438471_-_mainSingle-seater  – Image: from the net


Twin-seater for the same tasks as the single-seat version, also used in training and advanced aerial control (on monitoring tasks)
Twin-seater – Image: from the net

Source wikiwand.com


The all-glass cockpit is fully night vision goggle compatible. Brazilian AF ALX aircraft are equipped with avionics systems from Elbit Systems of Haifa, Israel, including a head-up display (HUD), advanced mission computer, navigation system and two 6in x 8in colour liquid crystal multi-function displays.

“The pilot is protected with Kevlar armour.”

The head-up display with 24° field of view and the advanced weapon delivery system are integrated through a MIL-STD-1553B data bus. The pilot is provided with a hands-on throttle and stick (HOTAS) control.

The pilot is protected with Kevlar armour and provided with a zero/zero ejection seat. The clamshell canopy, hinged at the front and rear and electrically activated, is fitted with a de-icing system and features a windshield capable of withstanding, at 300kt, the impact of a 4lb bird. A Northrop Grumman onboard oxygen generation system (OBOGS) is installed.

Embraer A29B Super Tucano Fotos: Henrique MatteEmbraer A29B Super Tucano Fotos: Henrique MatteEmbraer A29B Super Tucano Fotos: Henrique MatteEmbraer A29B Super Tucano Fotos: Henrique Matte

The Elbit avionics suite in the AL-X “is close to that of the Block 60 Lockheed Martin F-16”, says Berto. Designed for high reliability, low workload, redundancy and high commonality with state-of-the-art fighters, the multimode system is driven by two main mission and display computers via a 1553B multiplex databus. Configured for either light attack or advanced training, the panel is designed to be altered during base checks to suit the appropriate need.

The instrument panel is dominated by two 150 x 200mm flat-panel multifunction displays (MFD), an arm consent switch, a HUD and a subpanel with hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) controls. In the advanced training mode, the fighter subpanel, HOTAS and HUD are removed and the MFDs are “frozen”, says Berto. A “basic-T” made up of traditional instruments (air-speed and attitude indicators, basic flight instrument, vertical speed indicator, turn and bank indicator, standby horizon plus g meter), is dropped in its place. “The MFDs can be gradually phased in as the student gains experience,” Berto adds. Only two pages are available in training mode on the MFDs – a horizontal situation display and radio page on the left, and the electronic instrument and crew alerting system on the right. Source flightglobal.com

Martin Baker Mk10LCX zero-zero ejection seats


  • Operating Ceiling: 50,000+ ft (15,250m)
  • Minimum height/Speed: Zero/zero in near level attitude
  • Crew boarding mass range: 69.2 – 112.2 kg
  • Crew size range: 3rd to 99th percentile
  • Maximum Speed for ejection: 630 KIAS
  • Parachute type: GQ Type 1000 Mk 2
  • Parachute deployment: Drogue assisted
  • Drogue parachute type: 5ft and 22 in
  • Drogue deployment: Drogue gun, initiated by trip rod
  • Harness type: Integrated
  • Ejection seat operation type: Ejection gun and multi-tube rocket pack
  • Ejection gun: Single, two stage
  • Gun stroke length: 72 in
  • Ejection initiation: Handle on seat pan initiates gas operated seat firing system
  • Electronic Sequencer: No
  • Barostatic time-release unit: Yes, with 2 sec delay to give time for speed to decrease – trip rod initiated
  • Automatic backup unit: No
  • Manual override handle: Yes
  • Guillotine: Yes, early variant
  • Timers: 0.50 second Drogue Gun Delay Timer, and a BTRU (barostatic time release unit)
  • Seat adjustment: Up/down Actuator operated 28 Vdc
  • Arm restraints: Yes
  • Leg restraints: Yes, two garters
  • Oxygen supply: Bottled emergency oxygen, Main oxygen system connection
  • Personal survival pack: Yes, landscale, Liferaft option available
  • Aircrew services: Personal Equipment Connector (PEC) provides connections for main oxygen, back-up oxygen, emergency oxygen, anti-g suit and mic/tel
  • Command ejection: Yes
  • Canopy jettison: No
  • Miniature detonating cord: Yes
  • Interseat sequencing system: Yes, through command delay breech unit

Source martin-baker.com


The aircraft is fitted with two central mission computers. The integrated weapon system includes software for weapon aiming, weapon management, mission planning and mission rehearsal. Onboard recording is used for post mission analysis.

The aircraft has five hardpoints for carrying weapons, and is capable of carrying a maximum external load of 1,500kg. The aircraft is armed with two wing-mounted 12.7mm machine guns with a rate of fire of 1,100 rounds a minute and is capable of carrying general-purpose bombs and guided air-to-air and air-to-ground missiles. Brazilian AF aircraft are armed with the MAA-1 Piranha short-range infrared guided air-to-air missile from Orbita.

Wing-mounted 12.7mm machine guns

Super_Tucano_FN_Herstal_M3PSuper Tucano FN Herstal M3P – wikimedia.org

The FN® M3P is a .50-caliber (12.7x99mm) single-barrel high rate-of-fire machine gun optimized for remote firing from aircraft, ground vehicles and naval craft and provides both offensive and defensive firepower ranging out to nearly 1,850 meters. When used in various applications, the FN® M3P is able to engage light armored vehicles and provide suppressive fire against both ground and aerial threats. Additionally, the FN® M3P is suitable for applications in remote weapon stations and is able to fire at all elevations up to 90 degrees from horizontal.

Features unique to the FN® M3P are the 28V electrical interfaces that allow remote firing and clearing of the weapon system, as well as allowing the operator to remotely place the weapon on safe. Depending on configuration, the FN® M3P can be mounted in pods or on FN’s deFNder® Medium.


  • CALIBER: .50
  • WEIGHT: 80.5 lb.
  • MAXIMUM RANGE: 6,500m
  • OVERALL LENGTH: 66.1” (with short standard flash hider); 70.9” (with long standard flash hider)
  • TWIST RATE: 1:15” RH

Source fnamerica.com

12.7 mm (0.50 in) FN Herstal HMP for M3P machine gun under each wing


FN has developed a broad spectrum of machine gun pods designed for rotary-wing and subsonic fixed-wing combat aircraft capable of carrying the FN® M3P .50-caliber machine gun and multiple 2.75″ air-to-ground rockets with the FN® RMP variant. FN Pod Systems provide war fighters with a significant firepower advantage in every operational engagement and are in use by a number of NATO nations on both subsonic fixed and rotary-wing combat aircraft.


  • CALIBER: .50
  • MAG CAPACITY: Customer Specified
  • WEIGHT (EMPTY): 197 lb.
  • WEIGHT (LOADED): 305 lb.
  • HEIGHT: 17.1″
  • LENGTH: 76.4″
  • RATE OF FIRE: 950 – 1,100 RPM

Source fnamerica.com

1 x 20 mm (0.79 in) 650 rounds per minute GIAT M20A1 cannon below the fuselage

MAA-1 Piranha short-range infrared guided air-to-air missile


The MAA-1 Piranha is the first air-to-air missile developed by Brazil for its Air Force and Navy replacing the AIM-9 Sidewinder missile. Its development began in the middle 1990s, the original project was released in the late 1970s, and achieved some degree of operational capability in September 2002. It has been assumed that the missile achieved initial operational capability in 2003 coinciding with the last test campaign. The MAA-1 project has been handled by many Brazilian companies since its inception in the 1970s but finally was Mectron in the 1990s who developed the MAA-1 missile weapon system.

The MAA-1 Piranha is a supersonic, short-range air-to-air missile relying on infrared passive guidance which seeks the target’s heat emissions coming primarily from the engine/s. The infrared sensor uses two colors to discriminate countermeasures from the real target and was supplied by South Africa’s Kentron (Denel Group). The missile outstanding maneuverability allows it to perform at 50g. The Piranha performs as a ‘launch and forget’ missile, that means once launched the missile doesn’t require input data coming the aircraft’s sensors to hit its target, and a laser fuze is responsible for detonating the warhead. Externally, it is very similar to Rafael’s Python 3 air-to-air missile and the aerodynamic configuration is near the same.

Diameter: 150 millimeter (5.91 inch)
Length: 2.75 meter (108 inch)
Wingspan: 660 millimeter (26.0 inch)
Max Range: 6,000 meter (3.24 nautical mile)
Warhead: 12 kilogram (26.5 pound)
Weight: 89 kilogram (196 pound)

Source deagel.com


AIM-9L Sidewinder

AIM-9L Sidewinder

In 1971, the USAF and U.S. Navy agreed to jointly develop the AIM-9L, a vastly improved Sidewinder based on the AIM-9H. Major development goals were ALASCA (All-Aspect Capability) and effective use against violently manoeuvering and high-speed targets at all ranges. The AIM-9L had new long-span pointed double-delta canards, a modified MK 36 solid-fuel rocket motor (MODs 8 through 11), and a new AN/DSQ-29 solid-state guidance and control section. Additional improvements include a completely new Argon-cooled Indium Antimonide (InSb) seeker, a DSU-15/B AOTD (Active Optical Target Detector) laser proximity fuze, and an improved 9.4 kg (20.8 lb) WDU-17/B annular blast-fragmentation warhead. All AIM-9L features resulted in a vastly improved missile which could acquire targets at all aspects, and had a much improved tracking, manoeuvering, terminal homing, and killing performance. Production started in 1978, and more than 16000 AIM-9Ls have been built by Philco-Ford, Raytheon, BGT (Germany), and Mitsubishi (Japan). The AIM-9L was used very successfully by the Royal Navy in the Falklands War during 1982. Source designation-systems.net

AGM-65 Maverick 

agm65baf_02.jpgb7561800-3993-43a6-af3c-e25e84b4a3e5LargerAGM-65 Maverick  is an air-to-ground tactical missile (AGM) designed for close air support

Delilah AL icruise missile

33860Delilah AL is a cruise missile developed in Israel by Israel Military Industries (IMI). The missile is designed to target moving and re-locatable targets with a CEP of 1 metre

Originated from: Israel
Possessed by: Israel
Class: Subsonic land-attack cruise missile (LACM)
Basing: Air/Ship/Ground-Launched
Length: 2.71 m
Diameter: 0.33 m
Launch Weight: 185 kg
Payload: Single warhead, 30-54 kg
Warhead: High explosive
Propulsion: Turbojet with booster for ground- and ship-launched variants
Range: 250-300 km
Status: Operational
In Service: 1994

Source missilethreat.csis.org

2.75 in rocket pods

2.75 in rocket pods for 7 rockets

Dillon Aero M134 Minigun pod



The Dillon Aero Gun Pod is a self-contained M134D-H weapon system that mounts to either fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft. It utilizes 7.62x51mm NATO ammunition with M13 links, with a 3,000-round magazine capacity and a rate of fire of 3,000 rounds per minute.



  • Self-contained system
    –   Dillon M134D-H Minigun
    –   3,000-round magazine capacity
    –   Rapidly removable nose and tail cone for easy gun or magazine access
    –   Conformal Remote Gun Control Unit (RGCU)
    –   Conformal dedicated 24 VDC Li-ion battery
    –   Trickle charge capable from aircraft power
    –   Quick Change Ammunition Magazine
    –   Last Round Switch (approx. 100 rounds remaining) with pilot override interrupt
    –   Integral bore sight adjustment +/- 2.5°
    –   Mounts to 14” Standard NATO bomb rack
    –   Optional Dillon hardback mount available to integrate the Gun Pod onto the standard Russian bomb rack used on
    –   Russian aircraft, Mi-24, Mi-17 etc.
    –   Capable of 400 kt airspeed at sea level
  • Weight
    –   162 lb (73.5 kg) empty
    –   350 lb (158.8 kg) estimated when loaded
  • Dimensions
    –   Height: 15.4” (39.1 cm)
    –   Width: 13.1” (33.3 cm)
    –   Length: 92.9” (236 cm) with long barrels
  • Aircraft interface cabling
    –   Master arm
    –   Trigger
    –   Last round switch override
    –   Battery trickle charge
    –   Optional indicator light signals

Source dillonaero.com

GBU-12 Paveway II


The two seat AT-29 is fitted with a forward-looking infrared AN/AAQ-22 SAFIRE turret on the underside of the fuselage. The SAFIRE thermal imaging system supplied by FLIR Systems is for targeting, navigation and target tracking. The system allows the aircraft to carry out night surveillance and attack missions.

AN/AAQ-22 SAFIRE turret

Star SAFIRE II Features

  • High-performance, long range imaging
  • Mil-qualified
  • Multiple payloads
  • 5-Axis stabilization
  • Low-Light/Near IR CCD
  • Automatic target tracker
  • Industry leader


  • The Star SAFIRE II’s microscanned 320×240 mid-wave infrared array gives outstanding detection, recognition, and identification ranges in an affordable 15” imaging system
  • Star SAFIRE II’s hermetically sealed gimbal is battle-tested, AWR certified, and thrives in the harshest operating environments
  • Star SAFIRE II’s modular design and revolutionary optical bench allow simultaneous installation of up to 5 imagers in the same gimbal
  • The SAFIRE family of gimbals features 5-axis stabilization for solid imagery in rough conditions
  • The CCD-TV camera has a low-light, near-IR mode that is useful in areas with minimal illumination
  • Star SAFIRE II’s dynamic target Autotracker follows maneuvering targets from moving aircraft, decreasing operator workload
  • With over 3,000 SAFIRE systems installed on over 60 aircraft types around the world, the Star SAFIRE II is a solid performer in the definitive lineage of infrared imagers



In July 2012, Embraer and Boeing signed a cooperation agreement to add new weapons integration capacity on the A-29 Super Tucano to satisfy the requirements of the US Air Force LAS programme.


The aircraft is equipped with an advanced laser inertial navigation and attack system, a global positioning system (GPS) and a traffic alerting and collision avoidance system (TCAS).

PT6A-68A/3 turboprop engines

“The Super Tucano has five hardpoints for carrying weapons.”

The EMB-314 Super Tucano is powered by a PT6A-68A turboprop engine, developing 969kW. The power plant is fitted with automatic engine monitoring and control. The ALX aircraft has a more powerful engine than the EMB-314.

PT6A-68A/3 turboprop engine


(Max. RPM)
PT6A ‘Large’
(A-64 to A-68)
1,400 to
700 to
1,700 to
22 19.5 69 to
* Powers are approximate values at take-off. Available at sea level, standard day, static conditions, uninstalled.
** Dimensions are approximate values.
*** Equivalent Shaft Horsepower: includes estimated equivalent contribution of exhaust thrust.

The ALX’s Pratt and Whitney Canada PT6A-68/3 turboprop engine, rated at 1,600shp, drives a Hartzell five-bladed constant speed fully feathering reversible pitch propeller.

The fuel capacity is 695l, which gives a range of over 1,500km and endurance of 6hrs 30mins.



The EMB-314 can fly at the rate of 24m per second. The maximum and cruise speed of the aircraft are 530km per hour and 593km per hour, respectively. The range and service ceiling of the Super Tucano are 4,820km and 10,670m respectively. Its maximum endurance is six hours and 30 minutes. The aircraft weighs around 3,020kg and its maximum take-off weight is 5,200kg.


Main material source airforce-technology.com

Revised Dec 01, 2017

Saab 2000 Erieye AEW&C

The Saab 2000 AEW&C airborne early warning and control aircraft is a variant of the Saab 2000 regional transport turboprop aircraft equipped with the spine-mounted Saab Systems Erieye PS-890 side-looking reconnaissance radar.

The first customer for the Saab 2000 AEW&C, the Pakistan Fiza’ya (the Pakistan Air Force), placed the order with Saab, based in Stockholm, in June 2006 for Skr6.9bn. The Government of Pakistan renegogiated part of the contract in May 2007 due to financial crisis within the country. The contract value was reduced to Skr1.35bn.


The first of four aircraft was rolled out in April 2008 and entered into service in October 2009. The second aircraft was delivered to Pakistan in April 2010 to monitor Indian airspace. Thailand announced the selection of the Saab 2000 AEW&C in June 2007.

The aircraft, fully equipped for airborne early warning and control, can also be used for national security missions, border control, airborne command and control, disaster management coordination and for emergency air traffic control.

Saab 340 Erieye of Royal Thai Air Force: Details

Photo: Peter Liander/SAAB


The Pakistan Air Force’s (PAF) Chief of Air Staff (CAS) Air Chief Marshal (ACM) Sohail Aman told Air Forces Monthly (AFM) that the PAF will acquire three new Saab 2000-based Erieye airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft.

As per AFM, the first new Erieye AEW&C will be delivered in December, with the final two due for 2018.

These will join the PAF’s three existing Erieye AEW&C and four Y-8F600-based ZDK03 AEW&C – resulting in a total of 10 AEW&C aircraft by the end of this decade.

On May 15, Saab announced a $155 million U.S. order for its AEW&C business group with deliveries set to commence from 2017 and to conclude 2020. Saab expects the sale to be inked in six months, whereby financial and other conditions will be ‘fulfilled.’

Saab did not disclose the customer, which it had done for a prior United Arab Emirates (UAE) order. In light of recent information, it is possible that Pakistan is Saab’s latest customer.

The Erieye is a critical piece of the PAF’s air surveillance and early warning strategy. Centered on an active electronically-scanned array (AESA) radar, the Erieye provides stand-off range situational radar awareness to networked airborne and land-based assets. Saab positions the Erieye as an open platform, one that can communicate in Link-11, Link-16 and/or the end-user’s proprietary data-link protocol. Source quwa.org

Saab 2000 AEW&C programme


Saab Surveillance Systems is the lead contractor for the Saab 2000 AEW&C programme. Saab Aerotech is responsible for the development and modification of the Saab 2000 regional aircraft to the AEW&C configuration. Six other Saab business units are also contracted for major elements of the programme.

The outer wing sections have been strengthened, as has the roof of the fuselage, to accommodate the weight of the Erieye antenna and its housing. The vertical tail area has been increased to provide improved stabilisation.



Erieye is a complete AEW&C system that provides capabilities for both military and civilian needs.

  • Air Surveillance
  • Sea Surveillance
  • Intelligence
  • Command & Control

Multi-mission capability

Typical mission-types include:

  • Air and Sea surveillance including Intelligence
  • Airborne Early Warning
  • Control of own assets
  • Surveillance and control of national borders, assets and economic zones
  • Search and Rescue
  • Alert warning
  • Air policing

The extensive COM suite secures communication with participating assets and other control centres, on the ground or in the air. Source saab.com


Main cabin

2121217Saab 2000 cockpit

The main cabin is fitted with five mission operator consoles on the starboard side.

The windows on the starboard side of the main cabin have been removed. The cabin is air-conditioned and fitted with an active noise cancellation system.

The aft section of the main cabin accommodates fuel tanks and mission equipment. Two auxiliary fuel tanks are installed on the starboard side in the mid fuselage section immediately aft of the mission consoles.

Saab 2000 Airborne Early Warning and Control Aircraft erieye aewc awacs pakistan air force paf jf-17 thunder f-16 fighter jet fc20 j10 radar coverage 340 1000

The mission operator consoles perform: system and sensor management; mission planning and simulation; track data processing; asset management and control; identification and allocation. The display systems incorporate digital maps and use high-resolution flat-panel colour displays and touch input display controls. The main cabin aft section also accommodates the electronic warfare equipment, the Erieye equipment and the Erieye power units.

Erieye surveillance radar

Saab Microwave Systems (formerly Ericsson) is the lead contractor for the Erieye surveillance radar. The Erieye radar is operational on a number of other aircraft including the Saab 340, Embraer R-99 and Embraer EMB-145. Erieye is an active phased array pulse Doppler radar operating in the 3.1GHz to 3.3GHz band. The radar is operational from three minutes after take-off and during climb and provides an effective surveillance area of 500,000km².

The Erieye radar has an instrumental range of 450km and detection range of 350km against a fighter aircraft sized target in dense hostile electronic warfare environments and at low target altitudes. The system is capable of tracking multiple air and sea target over the horizon and provides above 20km altitude coverage, 360° coverage and has sea surveillance capability. The radar incorporates an identification friend or foe interrogator. The system comprises an active phased array pulse Doppler radar with a secondary surveillance radar.

The fixed dual sided electronically scanned antenna array is installed in a rectangular housing, dorsally mounted above the fuselage.


Electronic warfare suite

The aircraft’s electronic warfare suite is based on the Saab Avitronics HES-21 electronic support measures (ESM) and self-protection suite. The HES-21 also provides a ground-based support system (EGSS), which provides mission data for the aircraft electronic warfare system and for analysis of recorded data.


Electronic support measures

The electronic support measures (ESM) system comprises digital narrow band and wide band receivers and associated antennae, providing close to 100 % probability of intercept (POI). The digital receiver is equipped with interferometer antenna arrays.

The ESM obtains the electronic order of battle (EOB) data and intercepts, characterises and identifies signals, defines their direction of arrival, generating and displaying warning information. The ESM system operates autonomously and allows real time ESM analysis and presentation to the ESM operator on board the aircraft. ESM data is recorded during missions for post mission tactical and technical analysis. Information is transferred to other onboard systems including the command and control system and the radio data link-controller.

The radar receivers cover low band (7GHz to 2GHz), mid band (2GHz to 18GHz) and high band (28GHz to 40GHz).

The digital RF receiver provides very high sensitivity and selectivity and uses fast Fourier transforms (FFT) and channelisation signal processing techniques. The ESM’s wide band and narrow band receivers provide 360° coverage, and close to 100% probability of intercept. The system provides high sensitivity and selectivity in dense and hostile signal environments.

Self-protection system

The self-protection system (SPS) comprises: defensive aids control system, radar warning, laser warning, missile approach warning and chaff and flare dispenser systems. The self-protection suite provides selection and, in automatic mode, the initiation of the chaff and countermeasures sequences.

The laser warning system is based on the Saab Avitronics LWS-310 laser warner operating in the 0.5 to 17 microns wavelength bands. Spatial and spectral coverage is provided by an array of three sensors on each side of the aircraft.

The missile launch and approach warner (MAW) is based on the Saab Avitronics MAW-300, which can simultaneously monitor and track up to eight threats. It has four sensors, two on each side, and each with 110° azimuthal coverage to provide the overlapped 360° spatial coverage.

The chaff and flare dispensing system (CFDS) comprises a dispenser control unit, (CFDC) with a cockpit mounted display and control panel, defensive aids suite computer with a threat library database, two BOL electromechanical dispensers and six BOP pyrotechnical dispensers.

The BOL dispenser is a high-capacity, 160-cartridges, electro-mechanical chaff dispenser. The BOL dispensers are installed in the fairings under the wingtip-mounted radar warning pods. The dispenser incorporates vortex generators which provide chaff blooming characteristics and a chaff cloud Doppler response.

The BOP dispenser is a pyrotechnic dispenser carrying Nato standard rectangular cartridges or magazines of 39 1in² cartridges. The dispenser has the capability to dispense different ammunition types concurrently. The BOP dispensers are housed on each side of the underside of the fuselage to the aft of the wings.



Brian J. McMorrow

The aircraft is fitted with two Rolls-Royce AE 2100A turboprop engines developing 3,095kW. AE 2100A is a two shaft gas turbine engine equipped with a 14-stage high pressure (HP) compressor driven by a two-stage HP turbine. The engine also features a planetary reduction gearbox connected to the propeller. It also features a full authority digital engine control (FADEC) to manage both engine and propeller.

The length and diameter of the engine are 11.8in (0.29m) and 19in (0.48m) respectively.

Rolls-Royce AE 2100A turboprop engine

4408473_orig Allison AE 2100A turboprop, 3,096 kW (4,152 shp) each

Manufacturer: Rolls-Royce plc
AE 2100 A/P: 4,152 shp (3,096 kW)
AE 2100D2 and AE 2100D3: 4,637 shp (3,458 kW)
AE 2100J: 4,591 shp (3,423 kW)
Overall Pressure Ratio at Maximum Power: 16.6
Compressor: Two-spool, axial flow
Compressor Stages: 14 HP
Turbine: 2 HP + 2 PT
Engine Control: Dual FADEC
Combustor Type: Annular
Length: AE 2100D2 and AE 2100P: 118 in (2.99 m);
AE 2100D3: 124 in (3.15 m); AE 2100J: 114 in (2.89 m)
Diameter: 28.7 in (72.9 cm)
Dry Weight: AE 2100D2: 1,727 lbs (783 kg); AE 2100D3: 1,925 lbs (873 kg);
AE 2100J: 1,640 lbs (744 kg); AE 2100P: 1,610 lbs (730 kg)
AE 2100A: Saab 2000 (commercial)
AE 2100 D2/D2A: C-27J Spartan
AE 2100D3: C-130J Hercules; LM-100J
AE 2100J: ShinMaywa US-2
AE 2100P: Saab 2000 ERIEYE AEW&C

Source fi-powerweb.com

Saab 2000 performance


The aircraft can climb an altitude of 9,144m in 15 minutes. The maximum cruise and patrol speed of the aircraft are 629km/h and 296km/h respectively. The range is 3,218km. The take-off run of the aircraft is 1,400m and the maximum endurance is 9.5 hours. The aircraft weighs around 14,500kg and its maximum take-off weight is 23,000kg.

Key performance data

Max endurance > 9,5 hours
Max range > 2,000 NM
Time to climb 25,000 ft* 15 min
Cruise speed 340 knots (TAS)
Patrol speed 160 knots (IAS)
Takeoff distance 1,400 m
Service ceiling 30,000 ft

Source saab.com

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Revised Dec 11, 2017

Updated May 19, 2020