Kawasaki XC-2 is an advanced military transport aircraft designed and being manufactured by Japan-based Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI). The aircraft is suitable for military as well as commercial transport. It is being built to meet the requirements of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF).
The XC-2 is derived from the Kawasaki C-1 transport aircraft. Approximately 40 XC-2s are scheduled to be manufactured initially.
The Kawasaki C-1 is a short-range military transport aircraft, used by Japan Air Self-Defense Forces (JASDF). Development began in 1966. This aircraft was developed to meet the JASDF requirement to replace the previous fleet of World War II era transports, such as Curtis C-46 Commando. The Lockheed C-130 Hercules was initially considered, but it was instead decided to develop an indigenous transport aircraft. As the Japanese Islands did not present a very large geographical area, the JASDF opted for a short-haul aircraft with a relatively light payload. The NAMC (Nihon Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation) consortium was assigned to develop this aircraft. Kawasaki Heavy Industries was the prime contractor and carried out most of the work. The XC-1 prototype made its first flight in 1970. Production commenced in 1971. The first operational aircraft was formally introduced into JASDF service in 1974. The final production C-1 model was delivered in 1981. Only 31 airframes were built, not including prototypes and a few specialized aircraft. The C-1 was assigned to two formations in the JASDF; the 402nd and 403rd Transport Squadrons. As of 2014, the JASDF is slowly beginning to phase-out the C-1 from active service. It is planned that they will be replaced with the new Kawasaki C-2 tactical airlifter.
This aircraft has a maximum payload capacity of 11.9 t. Range of this aircraft with maximum payload is only 1 300 km. Range of this aircraft was deliberately cut-down in order to keep aircraft operational range inside Japan. It was done in order to comply with Japanese policies not to have offensive capabilities.
|Country of origin||Japan|
|Dimensions and weight|
|Wing span||30.6 m|
|Weight (empty)||23.32 t|
|Weight (maximum take off)||38.7 t|
|Engines and performance|
|Engines||2 x Pratt & Whitney JT8D-M-9 turbofan|
|Traction||2 x 64.5 kN|
|Maximum speed||806 km/h|
|Cruising speed||657 km/h|
|Service ceiling||11.6 km|
|Range (with maximum fuel)||?|
|Range (with maximum payload)||1 300 km|
|Ferry range||3 300 km|
|Maximum payload||11.9 t|
|Troops||60 troops, or 45 paratroops or 36 litters with medical attendants|
|Vehicles||3 light utility vehicles or one light truck|
|Cargo compartment dimensions||?|
Kawasaki C-1 Source military-today.com
Kawasaki has built two prototypes of the XC-2. The maiden flight of the first prototype took place at Kakamigahara in Gifu Prefecture in January 2010. The prototype was delivered to the JASDF in March 2010.
The second prototype completed its maiden flight in January 2011. It was delivered to the JASDF in March 2011.
The aircraft can transport troops, drop supplies and undertake medical evacuation during the day and night, even in hostile environments.
C-X and P-X transport and partol aircraft programmes
The C-X and P-X programme was launched by the Japan Defence Agency (Japan’s Ministry of Defence) in July 2007.
The C-X development aims to replace the ageing C-1 and C-130J Super Hercules transport aircraft fleet in the JASDF.
The Kawasaki C-2 is the new Japanese medium-range transport aircraft. It was developed and manufactured by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for Japan Air Self-Defense Forces (JASDF). The JASDF had a requirement for a modern medium-range transport aircraft. After researching foreign aircraft like the Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules, Boeing C-17 Globemaster III and Airbus A400M the Japan Ministry of Defense concluded that none of these aircraft has the capabilities required by JASDF. So Japanese MoD decided to develop indigenous transport aircraft. Development of the XC-2 commenced in 2001. It made its first flight in 2010 and was delivered to JASDF for trials and evaluation in 2011. First production aircraft was planned to be delivered to JASDF in 2014. However it was delayed to to some unresolved design problems. The Kawasaki C-2 aircraft became operation with the JASDF in 2016. A total of 30-40 aircraft are planned to be delivered. These will eventually replace a fleet of older Kawasaki C-1 and Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules tactical cargo aircraft. The C-2 can carry much more cargo and has longer range than the previous C-1 and C-130 Hercules. Source military-today.com
The P-X development is aimed at superseding the P-3C patrol aircraft currently in service with Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF).
The programme utilises combined-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology to decrease the development and production cost. It is the first indigenous development programme involving development of two aircraft in a single project.
Kawasaki Delivers First Mass-produced C-2 Transport Aircraft to JASDF: Here
Tokyo, June 30, 2016 – Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. today delivered the first in a series of mass-produced C-2 transport aircraft at the company’s Gifu Works to the Japanese Ministry of Defense (MOD). The aircraft will be used by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF).
The C-2, in development by the MOD since FY 2001, is slated to serve as a replacement for existing C-1 transport aircraft. This new model is larger than the C-1, enabling the transport of greater amounts of cargo. The adoption of a newly developed flight management system achieves greater aircraft control at low altitudes, and the cargo handling system enables centralized control of cargo loading and unloading operations to reduce human labor, both of which lessen demands placed on pilots and other crew members. Furthermore, the C-2 features engines produced by the General Electric Company, which enable significantly improved speeds, an extended flight range and other advantages over the C-1.
Ministry of Defense conducted the first landing test on an unpaved runway with the latest transport aircraft C2: Details
JASDF deploys C-2 transports to Miho Air Base
The Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) has begun deploying its locally developed Kawasaki C-2 medium transport aircraft to Miho Air Base in Tottori Prefecture, western Japan, following years of delays.
A ceremony was held at the base on 30 March to mark the deployment of three C-2s, all of which are expected to be used in operations to defend Japan’s southwestern islands as well as in disaster relief missions overseas.
A total of 10 C-2s are set to be deployed to the base by the end of March 2021, the Kyodo news agency quoted JASDF officials as saying.
“Reinforcing our aviation transportation capacity is a pressing task amid the increasingly severe security environment, so the role of the C-2 is important,” Colonel Yasuji Kitamura, the top officer at Miho Air Base, was quoted as saying.
The JASDF requires up to 60 C-2s to replace ageing Kawasaki C-1 and Lockheed Martin C-130H transports.
The 44-m long C-2 is the largest transport aircraft in service with the JASDF. It is intended to provide much greater range than the platforms it is replacing, with a stated range of 3,024 n miles (5,600 km; 3,480 miles) when carrying its maximum payload of 30 tonnes, according to Jane’s All The World’s Aircraft: Development & Production . Source janes.com
ELINT version of C-2 transport conducts flight tests
Design and avionics of the advanced military transport aircraft
The XC-2 has been designed to take-off and land on unprepared airstrips or short runways such as grass, snow and mud. The 43.9m long, 44.4m wide and 14.2m high XC-2 features a high wing monoplane design.
The aircraft has a glassed-in nose, a pressurised flight deck, cargo hold and a rear loading ramp, which can open in-flight.
The aircraft has cockpit panel and windows, a horizontal stabiliser, an auxiliary power unitand anti-collision light and gear control unit.
The tricycle type landing gear includes low pressure tyres and disc brakes. The aircraft can carry 20 A-22 containers or eight 463L pallets in its cargo compartment.
Integration of advanced technologies provides the XC-2 with faster and superior cruise, greater flight range, heavier payload and spacious cargo compartments, compared to the C-1 aircraft.
The HCU-6/E or 463L Master Pallet is a standardized pallet used for transporting military air cargo. It is the main air-cargo pallet of the United States Air Force, designed to be loaded and offloaded on today’s military airlifters as well as many civilian Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) cargo aircraft.
The “463L Master Pallets” can be unloaded on the ground in peacetime or in combat, or airdropped with a parachute.
They are built of a balsa wood core and surrounded by a thin aluminum skin. There are 22 tie-down rings surrounding the edge, each rated at 7,500 lb (3,400 kg).
The avionics suite installed in the XC-2 includes tactical flight management system, in-flight refuelling facility and night vision system. The aircraft is also equipped with an automatic loading and unloading system for handling cargo.
Ram Air Turbine (RAT) emergency power system
Example of RAT – Image enseeiht.fr
JAPAN AEROSPACE: Kawasaki sees unique niche for C-2 transport: Here
Kawasaki Heavy Industries expects to deliver its second C-2 transport aircraft to the Japanese Air Self Defence Force (JASDF) in 2017.
The first aircraft is already in service with JASDF after being delivered in June, says a company representative.
He did not give firm numbers on the total to be delivered, but expects that Tokyo will need 20-40 examples of the airlifter to replace the nation’s fleet of C-1s. Production could ramp up to 3-4 aircraft annually, but this is contingent on Tokyo’s defence budget.
He adds that the C-2, which is powered by a pair of General Electric CF6 turbofans, has a unique niche in the transport mission. He says that the aircraft can fly 30t to just under 6,000km.
Data from Japanese MoD, page 4 flightglobal.com
- Crew: 3: 2 pilots, 1 loadmaster
- Payload: 37,600 kg (37.6 tonnes) (84,000 lb)
- Length: 43.9 m (144 ft)
- Wingspan: 44.4 m (145 ft 8 in)
- Height: 14.2 m (46 ft 7 in)
- Empty weight: 60,800 kg (133,920 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 141,400 kg (311,734 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × GE CF6-80C2K1F, 59,740 lbf (266 kN) each
GE CF6-80C2K1F engine
The C-2 is powered by two GE CF6-80C2K1F engines designed and manufactured by General Electric Aviation. Each engine can produce a maximum of 266kN thrust.
It is equipped with a single fan, four-stage low-pressure and 14-stage high-pressure axial compressors, a five-stage low-pressure turbine, a dual-stage high-pressure turbine and an annular combustor.
|Low-Pressure Turbine / High-Pressure Turbine||5/2||4/2||4/2||5/2||5/2|
|Maximum Diameter (Inches)||57||105||98-106||106||106-114|
|Max Power at Sea Level||41,500||51,500-54,000||48,000-50,000||52,200-61,960||65,800-69,800|
|Overall Pressure Ratio at Max Power||25-25.2||29.2-31.1||27.3-28.4||27.1-31.8||32.4-34.8|
- Cruise speed: Mach 0.8 (550 mph, 890 km/h)
- Range: 6500 km (4,039 mi; 3,510 nmi) at 12t payload
- Ferry range: 10,000 km (6,214 mi; 5,400 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 12,200 m (40,000 ft)
Source: airforce-technology.com, Wiki
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Updated Feb 17, 2021