Ka-52 Alligator Attack Helicopters

Ka-52 Alligator is an all-weather attack helicopter operated by the Russian Air Force. Developed by Kamov Design Bureau (part of Russian Helicopters), Ka-52 is a twin-seat variant of the Ka-50 attack helicopter.

Kamov Ka-50 Hokum: Here


The Ka-52 helicopter can destroy enemy armoured and unarmoured ground targets, low-speed aerial targets and personnel at the frontline and in tactical depth. It is also deployed as a surveillance platform and aerial command post for a group of attack helicopters.


The first Ka-52 helicopter was rolled out in December 1996. The helicopter completed its first flight in June 1997. The serial production of Ka-52 began in 2008 at Progress Arsenyev Aviation plant in the Primorye region of Russia.

Orders and deliveries of the Russian helicopter


In December 2010, the Russian Air Force’s 334th Tactical Deployment Centre in Torzhok received three Ka-52s. The twin-seat Ka-52 will serve in the air force as a special mission helicopter.

The Russian Air Force began fielding Ka-52 helicopters in April 2011. The Ka-52 will replace the Ka-50 Black Shark fleet that is in service with the Russian Air Force.

Egypt to Get Ka-52s for their Mistrals: Here


Ka-52K completes initial marine testing: Here


The test phase, which took place from late 2016 to early 2017, involved two Ka-52K helicopters. According to Russian Helicopters deputy CEO for sales Vladislav Savelyev, the helicopters performed well in difficult marine conditions and will now move on to further testing on aircraft carriers.

Tests of the Ka-52K helicopter will be completed before the end of 2019: Here


The tests for the Ka-52K shipborne helicopter will be completed before the end of 2019 and then the deliveries to the Defense Ministry will start, Russian Helicopters (part of Rostech) told TASS on Thursday.

“The helicopter trials are planned to be completed before the end of 2019. So, the deliveries to the Defense Ministry will start right after the trials,” the company said.

In May, Russian Helicopters reported that the helicopter had successfully completed the first phase of testing. It was tested from late 2016 until early 2017.

Russia’s Alligator attack helicopter’s land version to get folding blades: Here


The land version of the Kamov Ka-52 Alligator (NATO reporting name: Hokum-B) reconnaissance/attack helicopter is expected to get folding blades as part of its upgrade, Russian Helicopters Group, part of Russia’s state hi-tech corporation Rostec, told TASS on Monday.

Ka-52K landing on Pr.22350 Admiral Gorshkov Frigate during 21-22Jul takeoff/landing tests – Video

Ka-52 helicopter to be armed with new defense system

Ka-52 design, cockpit and avionics

Ka-52 incorporates a slightly modified design of the Ka-50 helicopter. The helicopter features a wider nose and an extended fuselage due to its twin-seat cockpit. The commonality of the airframe, components and systems of the two variants is about 85%.


The helicopter has a length of 16m, height of 4.9m and main rotor diameter of 14.5m. The maximum take-off weight of the Ka-52 is 10,800kg.


890db03f29eb418fc7a21f95c6101470171Modern glass cockpit is equipped with a head-up-display (HUD), four SMD 66 multifunction displays.0_625ac_c37c46dd_origIgor Djadan
Igor Djadan

From the book of A. Mazepov, A. Mihkaev, V. Zenkin, A Zhirnov and A. Fomin about the Ka-50 called Polygon from 1996, on Page 31, there is said how the Armor was made on Ka-50 and after that also installed on Mi-28.

It is  a 3 hardlinered armor, the inner cockpit section made of a full single titanium alloy “bathtub” covering both pilots, followed by a middle liner of ceramic plates, which caused trouble first after a single shot they break apart and lost all its protective abilities, they avoided that by covering this ceramic plates with kevlar/aramid that was glued on tightend and the outer liner which gives the aerodynamic shape and is made of alluminium alloy with a part carbon in it. The total armor per pilot for russian Ka-50 which they could use was about 300kg while the Apache uses about 90kg of armor per pilot. The Mi-28 has about 250-280kg which was mentioned somewhere else. The Ka-52 has less armor than both Mi-28 and Ka-50 spend for each pilot but it is still in the figure of 150-200kg. Source:Russian Defense

Helmet-mounted sight display

Helmet-mounted sight display, image intensifiers and a GPS receiver

The twin-seat cockpit accommodates two crew members in side-by-side arrangement. Both the crew members are seated on identical K-37-800M ejection seats. The modern glass cockpit is equipped with a head-up-display (HUD), four SMD 66 multifunction displays, helmet-mounted sight display, image intensifiers and a GPS receiver. The helicopter also integrates a FAZOTRON cabin desk radio-locator and navigation and attack system for helicopters (NASH).

Ejection & Shock-Absorbing System К-37-800М

34k37_800m_1_0K-37-800M ejection seats


The К-37-800М ejection & shock-absorbing system features:

  • comfortable cockpit accommodation and a reliable crewmember restraint system;
  • safe emergency escape from the air vehicle by ejection;
  • reduction of emergency landing impact G-loads to the values a human being can withstand by the way of shock-absorption.

There are no analogues of this system.

Design description:

The К-37-800М system consists of two parts: a seat and an onboard part. The system is designed to serve as a working station for Ка-50 and Ка-52 helicopter pilot and provide (in complete with the ZSH-7ВS crash helmet and the ККО-VК-LP oxygen equipment) safe emergency escape by ejection with the use of the towing rocket motor at an equivalent air speed from 90 to 350 km/h in the range of altitudes from 0 to 5000 m; moreover, the system reduces the G-loads the pilot is exposed to at emergency landing by the seat’s shock-absorbing suspension.

At simultaneous ejection from two-seat air vehicles, the trajectories of the pilots and their parachutes may be diverged.

The ejection & shock-absorbing system is produced in several versions.

The ejection & shock-absorbing system is combined with:

  • flight suit (summer, demi-season or winter);
  • ККО-VК-LP onboard oxygen equipment;
  • ZSH-7ВS (ZSH-7В) crash helmet, including the night-vision goggles;
  • NAZ-Ir survival kit;
  • МSК-5 immersion suit;
  • АSP-74 aviation life belt;
  • underwater breathing unit (from the Survival Equipment Seat).


  • Ejection speed range: from 90 to 350 km/h;
  • Ejection altitude range: from 0 to 5000 m;
  • Total mass of the pilot gear: from 6.5 to 12.8 kg;
  • Allowable pilot parameters:
    • weight:  from 57.0 to 91.4 kg;
    • sitting stature: from 810 to 980 mm;
  • Mass of the seat loaded with pyrocharges: no more than 57.25 kg.

Year of development: 2007

Source zvezda-npp.ru

Armaments on the attack helicopter

The starboard side of the fuselage is fitted with a NPPU-80 movable gun mount installed with 2A42 30mm automatic gun. The six wing-mounted external hardpoints can be attached with different combinations of weapons.

2A42 30mm automatic gun


The 30mm automatic gun is designed for firing at light armored targets within a distance up to 1500 m, non-armored targets within a distance up to 4000 m and also at low-flying subsonic air targets up to 2000 m within a slant distance of 2500m. The gun can be fired in single shots or in burst (low or high rate of fire). It offers reliable functioning under severe conditions, such as temperature range from +50°C up to -50°C, in rain, dust, frost and in very dry environment.


Caliber 30 mm
Number of grooves 16
Twist of grooves 715,5 mm
Rate of fire high min 550 rounds/min
low 200-300 rounds/min
Gun weight 115 kg
Barrel weight 38,5 kg
Recoiling force 40-50 Kn
Length of the gun 3 027 mm
Voltage of the trigger electric source, contact system 27 +2/-5 V
Feeding Two belt type
Recocking Pyrotechnical or manual
Number of powder cartridges 3
Force required to cock the gun by hand for:
– loading up to 400 N
– re-loading with simultaneous extraction of misfired round up to 600 N

2A42 30mm specification source ztsspecial.sk

30_62586_86387763_orig2A42 30mm automatic gun has a dual feed system one is for HE-T and the other for AP-T rounds. The gunner can select one of two rates of full automatic fire, low at 200 to 300 rds/min and high at 550 to 800 rds/min. According to the manufacturer, effective range whenengaging ground targets such as light armoured vehicles is 1,500 m while soft-skinned targets can be engaged out to 4,000 m.

The hardpoints can carry VIKHR anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM), ATAKA missiles with laser guidance system and B8V-20 rocket launchers for 80mm unguided S-8 rockets. VIKHR anti-tank missile has a range of eight to ten kilometres. The Ka-52s can also be armed with IGLA-V anti-aircraft guided missiles.

VIKHR anti-tank guided missiles


VIKHR anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM) The missile is designed to engage vital ground targets, including armoured targets fitted out with built-in and add-on explosive reactive armor, at a range of upto 8 km when fired from a helicopter and 10 km when fired from a fixed-wing aircraft in daytime and up to 5 km at night, as well as air targets in conditions of air defense assets activity.

Weight 45 kg
Length 2.80 m
Diameter 130 mm
Warhead 8-12 kg tandem HEAT charge, armor penetration behind ERA, 1,000 mm
Proximity and Impact
Engine solid-fuel rocket
Wingspan 380 mm
Propellant solid fuel
8-10 km
Speed 600m/s, Mach 1.8
Laser beam riding

  • Ka-50
  • Ka-52


  • Su-25T/25TM


  • AK-630 Vikhr-K

Source wikipedia.org

ATAKA missiles


ATAKA missiles with laser guidance system  range of 8,000 m t0 10,000 m. The improved warhead can penetrate over 950 mm of RHA after ERA.

B-8 V20A rocket pods


B-8 V20A rocket pods The S-8 is a rocket weapon developed by the Soviet Air Force for use by military aircraft. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force and various export customers. the S-8 is an 80 mm (3.1 in) rocket used by fighter bombers and helicopters range is 2 to 4 kilometers.



7efa308b5a9e9bb215aeb7e5a4dfca04IGLA-V anti-aircraft guided missiles

Sensors, radars and countermeasures

The Ka-52 helicopter is fitted with a mast-mounted radome housing a Phazotron FH-01 Millimeter Wave Radar (MMW) radar with two antennas for aerial and ground targets.

Phazotron FH-01 Millimeter Wave Radar (MMW) radar


Arbalet-M, Arbalet 52

More capable version of Arbalet, using Baguet series processor. Designed for the Ka-52.

  • Data processor: Ts181F
  • Signal processor: Baget-55-04.01
  • MTBF: 150 h
  • Total weight: 140kg

Air-to-surface modes

  • Various mapping modes
  • Moving Target Selection of ground and air targets
  • Determination of priority of objects
  • Determination of terrain contours and obstacle detection during low-altitude flight
  • Missile approach warning
  • Support/cueing of EO targetting systems
  • Detection of dangerous weather formations
  • Navigation systems update/correction
  • Missile and rocket control
  • Target type classification (in conjunction with IFF)
  • Azimuth coverage: 120°
  • Mapping range: 32 km
  • Range of detection of ground target: bridge: 25 km, tank: 12 km
  • Measurement precision: azimuth: 12 min, elevation: 17 min, distance: 20 m
  • Range of detection of ground-based obstacles and terrain detection/avoidance- Electricity cables: 0.4 km, 10° sloping terrain: 1.5 km
  • Tracks 20 targets at once

Air-to-air modes

  • Search limits, azimuth: 360°, elevation ±30°
  • Detection range for Attack aircraft: 15 km, Stinger missile: 5 km
  • Tracking limits, azimuth: ±60°, elevation: ±30°
  • Tracks up to 20 targets

Source aerospace.boopidoo.com

LLTV, Weapon Director & Target Search, Tracking and Identification


General data:
Type: Visual Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 83.3 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: LLTV, 3rd Generation (2000s/2010s)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual], LLTV / NVG / CCD (Night-Capable) / Searchlight [Visual Night-Capable]
Sensors / EW:
Generic LLTV – (3rd Gen, Weapon Director & Target Search, Tracking and Identification) Visual
Role: LLTV, Weapon Director & Target Search, Tracking and Identification
Max Range: 83.3 km

Laser Target Designator & Ranger (LTD/R)

General data:
Type: Laser Designator Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 18.5 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Not Applicable (N/A)
Sensors / EW:
Generic Laser Designator – (Surface Only) Laser Designator
Role: Laser Target Designator & Ranger (LTD/R)
Max Range: 18.5 km

Source cmano-db.com

Ka-52K attack helicopter poised for AESA radar upgrade

The navalised variant of the the Kamov Ka-52 Alligator (Hokum-B) attack/reconnaissance helicopter – the Ka-52K Katran – will be equipped with a compact active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar from Russian defense contractor Radio-Electronic Technologies (KRET), a company spokesperson told IHS Jane’s .

KRET claims that its AESA radar will be able to operate in the millimetric wavelength for effective ground target acquisition as well as the centimetric spectrum to enable large naval targets to be detected at a range of 180 km.

The radar is also capable of detecting low-altitude aerial targets such as cruise missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), providing data to cue onboard electro-optical devices and corresponding weapons to these targets.

Flight safety is enhanced with ground moving target indication and tracking modes, which assists the crew in coping with low visibility conditions such as fog, dust and night-time operations. The radar also detects ground obstacles including transmission towers and power lines.

ka-52-ka-52k-alaImage: charly015.blogspot.com

Optoelectronic System OES-52 for KA-52K Helicopter

ka-52-oes-52Image: charly015.blogspot.com
cpqxb5fw8aap5eo-1-696x466Image: charly015.blogspot.com


The composition of ECO-52:
• Optical-mechanical unit (BOM-52);
• information processing unit (BOI-52);
• power supply unit (BP-52);
• Optical-digital switch (BCC);
• module of electronic laser guidance system (ME LSM);
• the module of an electronic laser-beam control channel (ME LLKU);
• set of cables.

Main functions:
• Providing round-the-clock search, detection and recognition by the operator of the on-board video indicator on the screen of the on-board, surface and low-speed air targets;
• measurement of the angular coordinates of the line of sight;
• capture and tracking of targets or areas of the terrain;
• measurement of the inclined range to the target or point of the terrain, measurement of the relative velocity;
• laser target illumination;
• search, detection and automatic tracking of the target, illuminated by laser radiation from an external ground or aircraft illuminator;
• targeting of guided missiles of various types;
• Ensuring the mutual alignment of channels and automatic built-in control.

Source npk-spp.ru

The Ka-52K helicopter – developed to sink amphibious landing ships as well as the transports of enemy strike groups and convoys with its ability to employ anti-ship cruise missiles such as the high-speed Kh-31AD – was originally slated for deployment aboard the two French-built Mistral-class amphibious command ships originally destined for the Russian Navy.

However, delivery of the ships to Russia had subsequently been cancelled by France due to the former’s annexation of Crimea.

There are now plans to add the helicopters already constructed to the air wing of the Project 11435 Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier. Posted on 08 August 2016 janes.com

Folding blades


Kh-31AD anti-ship cruise missile


Kh-31AD airborne anti-ship guided missile is designed for hitting combat (assault landing) surface ships and cargo ships from the striking force (convoys) and single ships. This particular missile has a warhead power increased to 15% in compare with its prototype Kh-31A. Launch range is increased up to 120-160 km almost in two times.


Developer and manufacture:

Tactical Missiles Corporation JSC


Maximum launch range
(carrier flight parameters: H=15 km, M=1.5 km), km 120 to 160
Launch altitrudes, km 0,1 to 15
Launch speeds (M number) 0,65 to 1,5
Aiming system inertial + active radio homing head
Active radio homing head angle of sight in vertical plane, degree +10 to -20
Active radio homing head angle of sight in horizontal plane, degree up to +/-27
type universal
weight, kg 110
Fuel gasoline
Missile start weight (maximum), kg 715
Lengthxdiameter, m 5,340×0,360
Weather conditions for use any conditions at sea roughness
up to 4-5
Carriers aircrafts Su-30MK (MKI, MKM, MK2),
Su-35, Mig-29K, Mig-29KUB, Mig-35
and etc.
Average number of missile hits required to make enemy’s destroyer
ineffective 2,0

Kh-31AD missile specification ktrv.ru

The countermeasures are supported by active IR and electronic jammers, radar warning receiver (RWR), laser detection system, IR missile approach warning sensor and UV-26 flare / chaff dispensers in wing-tip fairings.

SPO-32 / L150 Pastel digital receiver


Pastel entered development in 1982, possibly as a reaction to poor performance of Soviet fighters in the Middle East. By 1983 the initial design was produced. It was intended for the Mi-28, MiG-29K/M, Su-27M and others.

Pastel is a family of new generation digital RWRs.

Su-25TM installation

Scans from 1.2-18GHz threat frequencies.

Accuracy is 3-5° with pinpoint location antenna, 10° in rough location antenna. 128 reprogrammable radar types. Detection range minimum of 120% of the radar’s range. 3 modes- operational target, programmed target, most dangerous target.

Detects and finds direction for pulse, pulse-doppler and CW mode radars in search, track and illumination modes. Classifies multiple threats by danger, with full display of all information about most threatening radar presented to crew. Controls EW systems, has the ability to control and assign targets to 6 anti-radiation missiles such as the Kh-31. Aural warnings for high threat situations.

Pastel may be made available for upgrade packages or built into new export models of the Mig-29 and Su-27 families. Source aerospace.boopidoo.com

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 222.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 2000s
Sensors / EW:
SPO-32 Pastel [L-150] – ESM
Role: RWR, Radar Warning Receiver
Max Range: 222.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

UV-26 flare / chaff dispensers


It is intended to protect aircraft and helicopters against guided missiles by jamming their guidance systems and actuators in the optical and radio wavelengths of electromagnetic waves. The composition of the device – control unit, control unit, power switches, emission units (of embodiment A or B). Option device depends on the type of aircraft to equip. Operating modes – manual, auto, fast shooting, the built-in control. The device operates as part of the on-board or off-defense complex. Parameters shooting programs – volley, series, series interval sequence, the interval sequence. The shooting noise is produced from the left, right or on both sides simultaneously. Provides compensation for single and multiple combat damage, faults (with the implementation of a given program). Output digital display of the current availability of cartridges – on the remote control or on-board LED. Source vympelmkb.com

Ka-52K “Katran”: combat helicopters taking off from the deck of “Kuznetsov”- Video

Ka-52K Kaiman (NATO reporting name: Hokum-B) marinized attack-reconnaissance helicopter

The main difference in the naval variant from the basic Ka-52 Alligator attack helicopter is the folding main rotor blades and folding half-wings. The new version will also be adapted for naval use by increased corrosion protection and an adjusted air conditioning system. Ka-52K will receive a special avionics suite to enable instrument landing on the ship’s deck. The crew life support system will be upgraded to allow the pilots to work in immersion suits. Source aviationweek.com


The latest Russian combat helicopter Ka-52K Katran, developed to be operated from Mistral helicopter carriers, is able to detect and identify targets at a distance 1,5 times longer compared to Ka-52 Alligator thanks to Okhotnik video image processing system, RIA Novosti reports with reference to Radio electronic Technologies Concern (KRET, part of Rostec State Corporation) First Deputy CEO, Igor Nasenkov.

Okhotnik video image processing system allows detecting and identifying targets at a distance 1,2 – 1,5 times longer as well as increasing operating time of a TV-channel within 24 hours. Automatic tracking allows stabilizing association of video channels’ field of view with a desired area and reporting mismatch of a target against the line of sight in the form of error codes sent to the tele-orientation system,” Nasenkov said.


KRET manufactures a number of systems for Ka-52K helicopter. In particular, it is fitted with highly efficient Vitebsk electronic warfare suite, GOES-451 gyro-stabilized electro-optical station, Arbalet radar station, laser guidance system, and SAU-800 automatic control system.

«The SAU-800 automatic control system allows piloting the helicopter in manual, automated and automatic modes. The SAU-800 is integrated with the SIVPV-52 aerometric data recording and processing system allowing a pilot to focus on usage of weapons,» Nasenkov said.

He noted that thanks to KRET Ka-52K is able to “carry out missions under any weather and lighting conditions. This vehicle is able to do much more than just provide support to assault forces”.

The Ka-52K may get anti-ship weapons in the future, but it will initially carry the same weapons as the baseline variant. The standard weapons set includes one 30-mm 2A42 integrated automatic cannon, S-8 unguided rockets, Vikhr (AT-12) laser-guided or Ataka-V radio-guided antitank missiles or underwing Strelets launchers with Igla surface-to-air missiles. The new radar would enable the Ka- 52K to use Kh-31 (AS-17 Krypton) and Kh-35 (AS-20 Kayak) anti-ship missiles. (ato.ru)

“For example, thanks to the radar developed by KRET, this helicopter is able to detect enemy ships at a distance of 200 km and destroy them using X-31 and X-35 anti-ship missiles. This fact makes the helicopter closer to Su-33 and MiG-29K carrier-based fighters in terms of combat capabilities,” the source noted.

Radioelectronic Technologies Concern (KRET) is the Russia’s largest holding company in the radio electronics industry; it was established in 2009 and it is a part of Rostec State Corporation. Its major areas of activities are: development and production of avionics suites for civil and military aircraft, radars, friend-or-foe identification systems, EW suites, measuring equipment, electric connectors, cable assemblies, etc. Source ruaviation.com

Kamov design bureau (a subsidiary of the Russian Helicopters holding) started the preliminary trials of Ka-52K Kaiman (NATO reporting name: Hokum-B) marinized attack-reconnaissance helicopter last year, according to the company`s 2015 annual report.

Russia launches new engine production for military helicopters

Турбовальный двигатель ТВ7-117В (TV7-117V engine)

Турбовальный двигатель ТВ7-117В (TV7-117V engine)Image @vitalykuzmin.net

The new engines will be used on the military helicopters Ka-52 and Mi-28 as well as the newest Mi-38.

The United Engine Corporation has launched production of TV7-117V engines for the newest Mi-38 multi-purpose helicopter, as well as for the Ka-52 and Mi-28 attack helicopters. Previously, these rotorcrafts used engines made by Ukraine’s Motor Sich plant.

The decision to design and produce Russia’s own technology was made after the introduction of U.S. and EU sanctions and the complete rupture of military and technical cooperation between Russia and Ukraine in 2014. The original plan was to equip the latest Mi-38s with engines made by U.S. aerospace manufacturer Pratt & Whitney for supplies to Russia’s European and American partners. Source rbth.com

Image @rostec.ru

Universal platform

Two versions of the engine are produced:

  • with the power shaft in front – the TV7-117V/VM model for the Mi-38 helicopter and its versions;
  • with the power shaft in the rear – the TV7-117VK model for upgrading Mi-28 and Ka50/Ka52 helicopters.


  • To be installed on Mi-38 helicopters
  • Certification expected in 2009
  • Power class: 2500 – 3000 hp

Principal specifications of the TV7-117V:

Versions TV7-117V(VM) ТV7-117VK
Emergency performance (Н=0, V=0):
emergency power sustained for 30 seconds (ISA+5°С), hp 3750
emergency power sustained for 2-5 minutes (ISA+15°С), hp 3500
emergency power sustained for 30 minutes (ISA+20°С), hp 3000 2800
Takeoff performance (Н=0, V=0):
power (ISA+20°С), hp 2800 2500
specific fuel consumption, g/hp/hr 199 201
Cruising performance (Н=0, V=0):
power (ISA+20°С), hp 2000 1800
specific fuel consumption, g/hp/hr 220 230
Dimensions, mm:
Length 1614 2077
Width 640 685
Height 820 820
Weight, kg 360 380

Data klimov.ru

Operators: Here

Specifications (Ka-52)


Static ceiling
Up to 4,000m
Operational ceiling
2 x VK-2500 or VK-2500P
Take-off power
2 x 2,400hp
Maximum acceleration at sea level
Vertical acceleration at sea level
Maximum speed
Cruising speed
Ferry range
Practical range (internal fuel tanks)

Source russianhelicopters.aero

VK-2500_HeliRussia_2011VK-2500 (2,400 shp) each101984343677374810001_3038394836001_video-still-for-video-3038491632001

Source: Air Force Technology, Wiki, russianhelicopters.aero, motorold.com

Updated Feb 26, 2018


One thought on “Ka-52 Alligator Attack Helicopters

  1. Pingback: Russia to reply to Egypt’s requests for purchasing wide range of armaments soon | thaimilitaryandasianregion

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