Daily Archives: November 22, 2015

DDG 1000 Zumwalt Class – Multimission Destroyer

DDG 1000 Zumwalt, the first vessel built under the US Department of Defense’s DD(X) programme, was delivered to the US Navy in May 2016.

In November 2001, the US Department of Defense announced that the DD 21 programme had been revised and would now be known as DD(X). The programme focus would now be on a family of advanced technology surface combatants, rather than a single ship class.

A revised request for proposals was issued and in April 2002, Northrop Grumman Ship Systems, Ingalls was selected as the lead design agent for DD(X). Northrop Grumman led the ‘gold team’, which included Raytheon Systems Company as the systems integrator.

The ‘gold team’ proposal incorporates ‘blue team’ leader Bath Iron Works (a General Dynamics company) as a subcontractor for design and test activities. Other major subcontractors include Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems Land and Armaments (formerly United Defense) and Boeing.

In November 2005, DD(X) was approved for system development and demonstration (SDD). In April 2006, the USN announced that the first ship of the class will be designated DDG 1000 Zumwalt.

The second ship was named as Michael Monsoor (DDG 1001) in October 2008.

The USN budget for the 2007 and 2008 financial year provided funding for the first two ships to be built by General Dynamics Bath Iron Works and Northrop Grumman Ship Systems, rather than hold a competition, as was previously anticipated. Bath Iron Works received a $250m contract to provide detailed design for the Zumwalt Class destroyers, in 2007.


The US Navy awarded the contract for the construction of the first two ships to General Dynamics (DDG 1000) and Northrop Grumman (DDG 1001) in February 2008.

The construction of DDG 1000 began in February 2009 and that of DDG-1001 began in September 2009. The DDG 1000 was launched in October 2013. The DDG-1001 is expected to be delivered by 2017.

The 1000-ton deckhouse of the future USS Zumwalt (DDG 1000) is craned toward the deck of the ship 
to be integrated with the ship’s hull at General Dynamics Bath Iron Works – December 2012 – seaforces.org

The number of ships required was planned to be between eight and 12 but, in July 2008, the US Navy announced that the DDG 1000 programme would be cancelled after completion of the first two ships. The USN will instead continue with construction of further Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) destroyers.

However, in August 2008, the USN announced its decision to provide funding for a third Zumwalt Class destroyer. In April 2009, it was announced the DDG-1000 programme would end with the third ship.

In August 2009, Temeku Technologies received a contract from the US Navy for the procurement of the flight deck lights (FDL) on Zumwalt Class destroyer.

In April 2010, Colfax Corporation received a contract from the US Navy to supply SMART technology systems to the first two DDG-1000 Zumwalt Class destroyers.


Ships in class

Ship Hull Number Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
Zumwalt DDG-1000 17 November 2011 28 October 2013 15 October 2016 Active
Michael Monsoor DDG-1001 23 May 2013 21 June 2016 Estimated 2019[50] Fitting out
Lyndon B. Johnson DDG-1002 30 January 2017 Estimated 2018[50] Under construction

Source wikiwand.com

Zumwalt Ship Facts

ddg1000_launched550USS Zumwalt was launched at Bath Iron Works, Maine – October 28, 2013 (General Dynamics photo via USN)

Construction on DDG 1000 (ZUMWALT) commenced in February 2009. Launch of the ship occurred on Oct. 29, 2013. The ship is currently conducting Hull, Mechanical, and Electrical (HM&E) test and trials with a subsequent period to follow for Combat and Mission System Equipment installation, activation and test to follow.

DDG 1001 was named MICHAEL MONSOOR in October 2008 by then-Secretary of the Navy Donald Winter, honoring Petty Officer 2nd Class Michael Monsoor, a Navy SEAL who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions in Ramadi, Iraq, Sept. 29, 2006. DDG 1001 start of fabrication took place in October 2009. In July 2014, Huntington Ingalls Industries (HII) delivered the DDG 1001 composite deckhouse to the Navy.

In April 2012, DDG 1002 was named LYNDON B. JOHNSON by Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus. The selection of Lyndon B. Johnson honors the nation’s 36th president and continues the Navy tradition of naming ships after presidents. DDG 1002 start of fabrication took place April 4, 2012.


  • DDG 1000 IS THE FIRST    U.S. Navy surface combatant to employ an innovative and highly survivable Integrated Power System (IPS). Key design features that make the DDG 1000 IPS architecture unique include the ability to provide power to propulsion, ship’s service, and combat system loads from the same gas turbine prime movers. DDG 1000’s power allocation flexibility allows for potentially significant energy savings and is well-suited to enable future high energy weapons and sensors.
  • THE WAVE-PIERCING TUMBLEHOME    ship design has provided a wide array of advancements. The composite superstructure significantly reduces cross section and acoustic output making the ship harder to detect by enemies at sea. The design also allows for optimal manning with a standard crew size of 175 sailors, with an air detachment of 28 thereby decreasing lifecycle operations and support costs.
  • MULTI-FUNCTION RADAR (MFR)    DDG 1000 will employ active and passive sensors and a Multi-Function Radar (MFR) capable of conducting area air surveillance, including over-land, throughout the extremely difficult and cluttered sea-land interface.
  • ADVANCED GUN SYSTEMS (AGS)    Each ship features a battery of two Advanced Gun Systems (AGS) firing Long-Range Land Attack Projectiles (LRLAP) that reach up to 63 nautical miles, providing a three-fold range improvement in naval surface fires coverage.
  • GENERAL DYNAMICS BATH IRON WORKS (BIW)    is responsible for design, construction, integration, testing and delivery of the DDG 1000 class, and DDG 1002 steel deckhouse, hangar and aft Peripheral Vertical Launch System (PVLS). Huntington Ingalls Industries (HII) is responsible for the fabrication of the composite deckhouse, helo hangar and aft PVLS for DDG 1000 and DDG 1001. Raytheon is responsible for software development and integration with BAE providing the AGS and LRLAP.
  • PEO SHIPS    and its industry partners worked diligently to mature the ship’s design and ready industrial facilities to ensure this advanced surface combatant is built on cost and on schedule. At 85 percent complete, the DDG 1000 design was more mature at start of fabrication than any lead surface combatant in history.

Source navy.mil

DDG-1001, left on June 26, 2016 – mdc.idv.tw

Recent developments of the Zumwalt programme

The US Navy awarded a task order to CSC in March 2011 to provide engineering and programme support for the DDG 1000 Zumwalt class destroyer.

In February 2011, General Dynamics Bath Iron Works received a contract to provide additional systems engineering services, which deal with detail design and construction of the Zumwalt (DDG 1000) class destroyer.

In September 2011, General Dynamics Bath Iron Works received a $1.8bn fixed-price-incentive contract to build DDG 1001 and DDG 1002. The contract excludes the superstructure of DDG 1001 which is being built by Northrop Grumman’s spun-off shipbuilding arm Huntington-Ingalls Industries.

US NAVY – DDG 1000 – Zumwalt Class Destroyer, Tumblehome Hull


In addition to having reservations regarding the DDG 1000’s general sea handling characteristics, would like to have seen more studies and or testing specifically orientated to address possible negative effects and new limits placed upon the full range of tumblehome vessel to vessel movement and intervention maneuvers, relative to other hull forms such the standard ONR “topside flared freeboard” or “topside flam freeboard” hull design series and nearly ubiquitous with current frigate and destroyer classes.

Images of obtuse angled, Flam (convex) and Flare (concave) hull designs compared to the acute hulled TumblehomeComparison images of obtuse angle (> 90 degrees) “V shape” (upper) and normal angle (~90 degrees) “H shape” or wallsided (center) hulls in Flam, convex (left) and Flare, concave (right) configurations compared to the acute angle (< 90 degrees) “inverted V shape” (lower) Tumblehome hull. phisicalpsience.com

Depending on sea state conditions and ship’s speed, this potentially large mass of water landing near or upon the forward AGS gun mount housing, resulting in undesirable additional exposure to high pressure water. The higher velocity water flowing over the lifting body like shape of the gun mount housings, given certain conditions while the bow is submerged, possibly resulting in hydrodynamic effects very similar to aerodynamic effects acting upon a foiled wing, generating a secondary lifting effect upon the gun mount. In very violent sea states, given a large volumes of water flowing over the gun mount housing, as the bow submerges below the water, perhaps sufficient in scale and velocity to lift if not wash away (exfoliate) the forward AGS gun mount from the weatherdeck, flooding the compartments below.

The signature like wash water characteristic shown with the model of the DDG 1000 being unique to the current list of commissioned US Naval combatant or non combatant ships currently on the vessel registry.

Laboratory tank test of DDG 1000 Zumwalt class Tumblehome Hull sea worthiness, and hull response during moderate to high sea states

Laboratory tank test, still frame images of the USS Zumwalt, DDG 1000 Tumblehome hull sea worthiness and hull response characteristics (Defense News, Fall 2007) during moderate to high sea state conditions. In the still frame at left (Image above), the stern along with both screws at the bottom of the tumblehome hull have risen completely out of the water (red arrow) with the portside (left) rudder visible as a dark rectangular object. This type of situation, potentially leading to a non turn related broaching of the ship, as the vessel is no longer being steered by the rudder. The effectiveness of the propulsion system, with the twin screws out of water and the underside of the hull exposed, being seriously reduced.


The video still frame at right reveals the simulated sea state conditions (light blue line) used during the tank test (Image above), relative to the scaled DDG 1000 model and minus wind effects upon the superstructure in this case the deckhouse. The largest single cress to trough height of the simulated waves measuring approximately 28′ – 30’feet (~8.5 – 9.1 meters) or sea state (dark blue arrow), the steady state waves being ~18′ – 20′ ft (~5.4 – 6.1 m) or sea state [6] using a vessel freeboard height at the hanger bay of 22 feet (~6.7 meters) for scale. The conditions stated in the ONR tank test report being sea state or ~30′ – 46′ ft (~9 – 14 m) (Menard, 2010). The entire foredeck and most of the leading AGS gun mount, fully submerged below the advancing wave, as the ship’s less buoyant non flaring bow pierces low into the cress of the advancing wave, as appose to riding higher. The water directly striking the planar face of the gun mount visible as two upward columns of water (two red arrows).

The above waterline segment, or inward tapered, inverted prow section of the bow of the USS Zumwalt, rather than displacing water away from the hull and vessel’s path as it moves forward, instead causing just the opposite effect, with the encouraging of water to directly encroach upon the vessel’s weather deck. This dangerous volume of water for personnel topside, being composed of plied waters directly in front of the ship’s bow to water immediately aft, to the port and starboard (white arrow) of the inward sloping piercing bow and hull. Source phisicalpsience.com

Northrop Grumman completed DDG 1000 system design and 11 engineering development models (EDM) and the system-wide critical design review was successfully completed in September 2005. The EDMs include: advanced gun system, integrated power system, composite deckhouse, peripheral vertical launch system, integrated sonar system (with advanced towed array and high-frequency active sonar) and dual band radar suite. A decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer (USS Arthur W Radford) serves as the test platform for the DDG 1000.

DDG 1000 replaces the DD 21 Zumwalt programme, which was for a class of 32 multi-mission destroyers to replace Oliver Hazard Perry Class frigates (FFG 7) and Spruance class destroyers (DD 963) from 2012.

Oliver Hazard Perry class Guided Missile Frigate

Oliver Hazard Perry – class (long hull) FFG 61 USS Ingraham

Specifications (US Navy ships only)

Builders: Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine: FFG 8, 11, 13, 15, 29, 32, 36, 39, 42, 45, 49, 50, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59.
Todd Shipyards, Seattle, Washington: FFG 28, 31, 37, 40, 48, 52.
Todd Shipyards, San Pedro, California: FFG 9, 12, 14, 19, 23, 30, 33, 38, 41, 43, 46, 51, 54, 57, 60, 61.
Displacement “short hull”: 3800 tons (full) (3860 metric tons)

“long hull”: 4100 tons (full) (4166 metric tons)

Length “short hull”: 445 feet (133,50 meters)

“long hull”: 453 feet (135,90 meters)

Beam 45 feet (13,50 meters)
Draft 24,5 feet (7,50 meters)
Max Speed 29+ knots (54+ km/h)
Propulsion 2 General Electric LM-2500 gas turbines1 shaft; 1 propeller (5 blades); 41000 shaft horsepower; 1 rudder;
Aircraft “short hull”: 2 SH-2F ‘Seasprite’ (LAMPS I) helicopter (retired in 1993);

“long hull”: 2 SH-60 ‘Seahawk’ (LAMPS III) helicopters;


as built

1 Mk.13 Mod.4 missile launcher (36 RIM-66 Standard / SM-1MR and 4 Harpoon missiles);

1 Mk.75 76mm/62cal (3 inch) rapid firing gun;

2 Mk.32 triple-torpedo tubes (24 Mk-46 torpedos);

2 Mk.38/25mm machine guns;

M2/.50 cal. Machine Guns;

1 Mk.15 Phalanx CIWS

Systems AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar
AN/SPS-55 Surface Search Radar
Mk92 Fire Control System
AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare System
AN/SQS-56 Sonar
Mk36 SRBOC Decoy System
AN/SQR-19 Towed Array Sonar System
AN/SQQ-89 ASW Integration System
Complement approx. 220

Source seaforces.org

Unlike previous classes of destroyer, which were primarily to counter deep-water threats, the DD 21’s primary mission would be to provide land attack support for ground forces and carry out traditional destroyer missions of anti-air, anti-surface and undersea warfare.

In April 2012, DDG 1002 was named as USS Lyndon B. Johnson, after the nation’s 36th president.

The USS Lyndon B. Johnson will be the third Zumwalt-class destroyer. Construction on the vessel began on 4 April 2012, with delivery scheduled in 2018.

New U.S. Navy destroyer’s seaworthiness, stability questioned

AP NOV 30, 2015

The Navy will soon learn how this modern take on the “tumblehome” hull holds up when the first-in-class Zumwalt heads out to sea in December for trials in the rough-and-tumble North Atlantic.

The Navy, which views the ship as an important part of the Obama administration’s Asia-Pacific strategy, cannot afford a flop after the cost of the first ship ballooned to at least $4.4 billion and construction fell behind schedule.

Amy Lent, of the Maine Maritime Museum, which works closely with the shipyard, said taxpayers need not worry, as the Navy and shipbuilder Bath Iron Works have “tested the hell out of it.”

The ship’s inverse bow juts forward to slice through waves. A composite deckhouse hides radar and antennas, lending a clean look, and its sharp angles deflect radar signals.

As is typical of tumblehomes, the hull slopes inward above the waterline, giving the Zumwalt something of a pyramid shape, which can cause problems in certain conditions, critics say.

Concerns have been voiced in the ship-design and shipbuilding communities about the warship’s overall stability — especially since any instability could be exacerbated if damage is sustained during battle, said Matthew Werner, dean at the Webb Institute, which teaches naval architecture and marine engineering.

But the hull’s sloping sides contribute to the Navy’s goal of stealth. The Navy contends the 15,000-ton behemoth will look like a small fishing boat on enemy radar.

“It’s a true engineering challenge. They’re trying to make a ship with stealth characteristics that requires certain shapes. To do that, they have to compromise,” Werner said.

Norman Polmar, a naval historian, analyst and author who is sometimes critical of the Navy’s decisions, said he has no concerns about the Zumwalt’s seaworthiness after a large-scale model was built to prove the concept.

“The technology today makes that concept doable and much more efficient,” Polmar said.

The ship is 50 percent bigger than the current generation of destroyers but has advanced automation to reduce the crew size. It will use turbines similar to those on a Boeing 777 to create electricity to drive the ship. It will also have new radar and sonar, and powerful guns with rocket-propelled projectiles.

“The Navy has validated the ship’s design through extensive computer modeling and simulation, as well as scale model testing in various sea states, speeds and weather conditions. We are confident the design is safe, that the ship is seaworthy, and its operating parameters are known and understood,” said Capt. Thurraya Kent, a spokeswoman.

The goal is to deliver the ship to the Navy sometime next year. Source THE JAPAN TIMES LTD. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Some Of The Numbers Behind The U.S. Navy’s New Zumwalt-Class Destroyer [Infographic]: Here



USS Mason, an Arleigh Burke destroyer, was attacked by missiles off the coast of Yemen last week. Even though the ship took defensive action and suffered no damage, the incident highlights one of the main reasons the Navy sought to acquire the Zumwalt in the first place. The new vessel is 40 percent larger than an Arleigh Burke destroyer but its radar cross-section is similar to that of a fishing boat, greatly reducing the threat of missile attack. 

How the Navy’s Zumwalt-Class Destroyers Ran Aground: Here


Based on the Navy’s 1999 assurances that each ship would cost just $1.34 billion and that the whole 32-ship program would come in at $46 billion, Congress committed to fund the program. But by 2001, cost growth prompted the Navy to lower the projected class size to only 16 ships. And by 2005, with the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimating costs of well over $3 billion per ship, the Navy decided to drop the number of ships to be built to just seven. Flash-forward to today and the Navy has capped production at just three ships, with each costing over $4.2 billion in construction costs alone. Toss in over $10 billion for development costs, and you end up at more than $7 billion per ship. Amazingly, this is actually more than the $6.2 billion we paid for our last Nimitz-class aircraft carrier.

U.S. Navy Second Zumwalt-Class Destroyer Michael Monsoor Started Sea Trials: Here


The second Zumwalt-class destroyer, the future USS Michael Monsoor (DDG 1001) sailed out of General Dynamics-Bath Iron Works (GD BIW) shipyard in Bath, Maine, yesteday for its very first sea trials (called builder trials). The Zumwalt-class is the largest class of destroyers ever built for the U.S Navy. This initial builder sea trials will help check basic systems onboard.

New Requirements for DDG-1000 Focus on Surface Strike: Here


The Navy is revamping the Zumwalt-class destroyer’s requirements and will morph it into a focused surface strike platform, the director of surface warfare (OPNAV N96) told USNI News today.

The ships were originally designed to support embarked forces ashore with long-range gunfire with GPS-guided shells fired at fixed targets. The new emphasis on surface strike would make the stealthy ship more effective against other surface ships in blue water as well as closer to shore.

The Navy’s stealth destroyers to get new weapons and a new mission: killing ships

US Zumwalt Destroyers may be armed with Nuclear Cruise Missiles in future

DDG 1000 Zumwalt Class design


DDG 1000 has a ‘tumblehome’ hull form, a design in which hull slopes inward from above the waterline. This significantly reduces the radar cross section since such a slope returns a much less defined radar image rather than a more hard-angled hull form.

Requirements for the integrated deckhouse EDM is that it is fully EMC (electromagetic compatibility) shielded with reduced infrared and radar signatures. Measures to fulfil these conditions include an all-composite superstructure, low-signature electronically steered arrays, an integrated multifunction mast, and low radar and infrared signatures. Other measures to reduce the vessel’s infrared signature include the development of an exhaust suppressor.

Harris Corporation has been awarded a contract for the development of the common data link (CDL) X/Ku-band phased array antenna systems, which are integrated into the integrated deckhouse assembly. The multibeam electronically steered antenna allows connectivity with up to eight CDL terminals.

The DDG 1000 has a displacement of 15,761t, with a sustained speed of 30kt.

Crew onboard the Multimission destroyer

DDG 1000 – mdc.idv.tw

DDG 1000 will have a crew of 158, including the aviation detachment. This represented major theoretical cost saving compared to crew levels of 330 on Spruance destroyers, and 200 on Oliver Hazard Perry frigates.

Boat compartment. Photo: Christopher Cavas

Zumwalt Class command and control


In November 2007, Raytheon IDS was awarded the contract as the prime mission systems integrator for all electronic and combat systems.

DDG 1000 bridge – mdc.idv.twDDG 1000 bridge

Raytheon delivered the first electronic modular enclosure (EME) for the Zumwalt Class destroyer (DDG 1000) in May 2010.

A diagram of the Zumwalt's control systems and their connections to the Total Ship Computing Environment.A diagram of the Zumwalt’s control systems and their connections to the Total Ship Computing Environment. arstechnica.com

The combat system is based on the total ship computing environment (TSCE), utilising open architecture, standardised software and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. Raytheon delivered more than six million lines of software for the DDG 1000 Zumwalt-class destroyer programme in January 2013.


General Dynamics is responsible for the common enterprise display system (CEDS).


DDG1000 weaponry

DDG 1000 features a sensor and weapons suite optimised for littoral warfare and for network-centric warfare. Northrop Grumman has proposed a solution based on a peripheral vertical launch system (PVLS).

The solution consists of 20 four-cell PVLS situated round the perimeter of the deck, rather than the usual centrally located VLS. This would reduce the ship’s vulnerability to a single hit.


The advanced vertical launch system (AVLS) that forms the basis of the PVLS was developed by BAE Systems Land and Armaments and Raytheon and has been designated the mk57 VLS.

Missile systems include tactical tomahawk (intended to succeed Tomahawk TLAM), standard missile SM-3 and the evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM) for air defence.

Tactical tomahawk Block IV TLAM-E

The Tactical Tomahawk is the latest and most advanced derivative of the Tomahawk cruise missile. It features the capability of reprogramming the missile while in-flight to attack another alternative target (flex-targeting), loitering capability over a target area for some time, battle damage assessment through on-board TV camera and production costs around a half of existing Block III missiles. The Tactical Tomahawk incorporates COTS technology to achieve the objective production costs. The Block IV missile will have a 15-year warranty and recertification cycle, compared to the Block III variant’s eight-year recertification cycle.

Diameter: 518 millimeter (20.4 inch)
Length: 6.25 meter (246 inch)
Wingspan: 2.67 meter
Max Range: 1,800 kilometer (972 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 1,008 kph (0.84 mach)
Service Life: 15 year
Warhead: 450 kilogram (992 pound)
Weight: 1,588 kilogram (3,501 pound)

Source deagel.com

Standard missile SM-3


Note: Data given by several sources show slight variations. Figures given below may therefore be inaccurate!

Data for RIM-161A:

Length (incl. booster) 6.55 m (21 ft 6 in)
Finspan 1.57 m (61.8 in)
Diameter 0.34 m (13.5 in)
Weight ?
Speed 9600 km/h (6000 mph)
Ceiling > 160 km (100 miles)
Range > 500 km (270 nm)
Propulsion Booster: United Techologies MK 72 solid-fueled rocket
Sustainer: Atlantic Research Corp. MK 104 dual-thrust solid-fueled rocket
3rd stage: Alliant Techsystem MK 136 solid-fueled rocket
Warhead Hit-to-kill kinetic warhead (KW)

SM-3 data designation-systems.net

Evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM)


RIM-162 ESSM was developed by the U.S. Navy in cooperation with an international consortium of other NATO partners plus Australia. ESSM is a short-range, semi-active homing missile that makes flight corrections via radar and midcourse data uplinks. The missile provides reliable ship self-defense capability against agile, high-speed, low-altitude anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs), low velocity air threats (LVATs), such as helicopters, and high-speed, maneuverable surface threats. ESSM is integrated with a variety of U.S. and international launchers and combat systems across more than 10 different navies.

General Characteristics:
Primary Function: Surface-To-Air and Surface-To-Surface radar-guided missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems, Tuscson, Ariz.
Date Deployed: 2004
Unit Cost: $787000 – $972000 depending on configuration
Propulsion: NAMMO-Raufoss, Alliant (solid fuel rocket)
Length: 12 feet (3,64 meters)
Diameter: 8 inches (20,3 cm) – 10 inches (25,4 cm)
Weight: 622 pounds (280 kilograms)
Speed: Mach 4+
Range: more than 27 nmi (more than 50 km)
Guidance System: Raytheon semi-active on continuous wave or interrupted continuous wave illumination
Warhead: Annular blast fragmentation warhead, 90 pounds (40,5 kg)

RIM-162 ESSM data Source seaforces.org

Standard Missile-6


The Standard Missile-6 (SM-6)—also known as the RIM-174—retains the Standard Missile airframe and propulsion elements and incorporates the advanced signal processing and guidance control capabilities of the Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM). It is the latest addition to the Standard Missile family of fleet air defense missiles and provides Joint Force and Strike Force Commanders fleet air defense against fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and land-attack anti-ship cruise missiles in flight. The cost to obtain and maintain the SM-6 is also comparatively lower, allowing more defensive interceptors to be employed in the battlespace, enhancing the U.S. Navy’s fleet air defense capability against numerous airborne threats.

The SM-6 is vital to the U.S. Navy’s Naval Integrated Fire Control—Counter Air (NIFC-CA) and provides surface vessels with increased battlespace protection against over-the-horizon anti-warfare threats. Retaining the Standard Missile legacy, the SM-6’s operational modes include semi-active homing and active homing to provide highly accurate target engagement. The SM-6 is vertically launched from a MK 41 VLS canister and is compatible with existing Aegis cruisers and destroyers. The missile interceptor receives midcourse flight control from the Aegis Combat System via the ship’s radar. Terminal flight control is autonomous via the missile’s active seeker or supported by the Aegis Combat System via the ship’s illuminator.

Dual-Mission Capability The SM-6 has dual-mission capability, meaning it can defend against both cruise and ballistic missile threats. This capability is called SM-6 Dual I and is designed to intercept short-range theater ballistic missiles in the terminal phase of their trajectory. SM-6 Dual I adds a critical layer to the ballistic missile defense network of the U.S. Navy. In 2015, the SM-6 Dual I was tested three times and successfully demonstrated its Sea-Based Terminal role (SBT) against ballistic missiles as well as its Air Warfare capability.

Similar to its precursor—the SM-2—the SM-6 also has limited offensive capabilities, and, when equipped with GPS, can carry out strikes on land and sea targets at a range of 200 miles. This new anti-ship capability is aimed at countering the surface strike threat posed by Chinese naval vessels with long-range anti-ship cruise missiles and would force them to stand off at ranges more favorable to U.S. aircraft carriers.

SM-6 Variants

SM-6 Block I The Block I has a Dual-Mode Seeker (Active and Semi-Active), a solid rocket booster, and dual thrust solid rocket motors. In 2013, the SM-6 Block I reached Initial Operating Capability when it was deployed aboard U.S. Aegis Destroyer the USS Kidd (DDG-100). During a test intercept in June 2014, the SM-6 Block I—fired from the USS John Paul Jones (DDG 53)—conducted the longest surface-to-air engagement in naval history. In 2015, the Block I carried out two successful intercepts, both of which involved cruise missile targets that were using electronic attacks against either the SM-6 missile or the Aegis shipboard radar. In February 2016, the two SM-6 Block I missiles successfully intercepted two cruise missile targets simultaneously.

SM-6 Block IA This SM-6 configuration is designed to address hardware and software improvements and advanced threats. In November 2014, the Block IA successfully intercepted a subsonic cruise missile over land, marking the second successful flight test of the SM-6 variant. This SM-6 variant was again successfully tested in June 2017 during a land-based test at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The successful test advanced the missile to the sea-based testing phase, possibly paving the way for low-rate production by the end of the year.

SM-6 Dual I The Dual I is designed to counter ballistic missiles in the terminal phase of their trajectory as well as cruise missiles and other air breathing threats. Dual I upgrades include a more powerful processor that runs a more sophisticated targeting software that allows the SM-6 Dual I to identify, track, and intercept targets descending from the upper atmosphere at high velocity. During an intercept test in July 2015, the SM-6 Dual I demonstrated its dual-mission capability when it successfully intercepted a short-range ballistic missile target, in addition to two different kinds of cruise missile targets. Source missiledefenseadvocacy.org

General Characteristics, SM-2 Block III/IIIA/IIIB Medium Range
Primary Function: Surface to air missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems.
Date Deployed: 1981 (SM-2 MR).
Propulsion: Dual thrust, solid fuel rocket.
Length: 15 feet, 6 inches (4.72 meters).
Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.3 cm).
Wingspan: 3 feet 6 inches (1.08 meters).
Weight: SM-2: 1,558 pounds (708 kg).
Range: Up to 90 nautical miles (104 statute miles).
Guidance System: Semi-active radar homing (IR in Block IIIB).
Warhead: Radar and contact fuse, blast-fragment warhead.
General Characteristics, SM-2 Block IV Extended Range
Primary Function: Fleet and extended area air defense.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems.
Date Deployed: 1998
Propulsion: Two-stage solid fuel rockets.
Length: 21 feet 6 inches with booster (6.55 meters).
Diameter: 21 inches (booster) (34.3 cm).
Wingspan: 3 feet 6 inches (1.08 meters).
Weight: 3,225 pounds (1466 kg).
Range: 100-200 nautical miles (115-230 statute miles).
Guidance System: Semi-active radar homing.
Warhead: Radar and contact fuse, blast-fragment warhead.
General Characteristics, SM-6 Block I Extended Range
Primary Function: Extended Range Anti Air Warfare with Over the Horizon Capability
Seeker: Dual-Mode Seeker (Active and Semi-Active)
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems
Date Deployed: Currently in Low Rate Initial Production, Initial Operating Capability scheduled for 2013
Propulsion: Solid rocket booster, dual thrust solid rocket motor
Length: Approx. 21 feet, 6 inches
Wingspan: Approx. 3 feet, 6 inches
Weight: Approx. 3,300 lbs.

Source navy.mil

US Navy

BAE Systems Land and Armaments has been awarded the contract to develop the EDM for the ship’s advanced gun system (AGS), building on development work carried out for DD-21.

It is equipped with a fully automated weapon handling and storage system and a family of advanced munitions and propelling charges, including the GPS-guided long-range land attack projectile (LRLAP). Up to 900 rounds of LRAP ammunition is carried.

Lockheed Martin has been awarded the contract for the LRAP EDM.

The family of munitions includes land attack and ballistic projectiles. Technologies derived from the US Navy’s extended-range guided munition (ERGM), the US Army 155mm XM-982 projectiles and the DTRA 5in projectile are being studied for incorporation into the projectile suite.

BAE Systems Land and Armaments developed advanced gun barrel technologies for the new AGS, with improvements to barrel life, overall system performance and lifecycle costs.

Advanced Gun System (AGS)


The Advanced Gun System is a 155 mm naval gun, two of which would be installed in each ship. This system consists of an advanced 155 mm gun and the Long Range Land-Attack Projectile. This projectile is in fact a rocket with a warhead fired from the AGS gun; the warhead weighs 11 kg / 24 lb and has a circular error of probability of 50 meters. This weapon system will have a range of 83 nautical miles (154 km) and the fully automated storage system will have room for up to 750 rounds. The barrel is water cooled to prevent over-heating and allows a rate of fire of 10 rounds per minute per gun. The combined firepower from a pair of turrets gives each Zumwalt-class destroyer firepower equivalent to 18 conventional M198 field guns. Source seaforces.org


In 2012 BAE proposed a light-weight version of the AGS for use on the DDG-51 Flight III class that had a simpler mounting. Called the “155mm Advanced Gun System-Lite (AGS-L),” this mounting would have limited ammunition compared to the 5″/62 (12.7 cm) Mark 45 Mod 4 or the standard AGS.

In November 2016 the USN announced that it was abandoning the LRLAP round as its cost had soared to $800,000 to $1 million US per round. A total of 90 rounds had been purchased as of this date primarily for evaluation testing. As AGS was designed specifically for the LRLAP and cannot use any other munition, this basically means that the 155 mm guns on these ships are useless until an alternative round can be developed, probably many years in the future.

In February 2017, Italy-based Leonardo announced a program to verify and test its Vulcano guided ammunition for possible use with the AGS. For data on the Vulcano munitions, see the Italy 127 mm/64 datapage.

Unless otherwise noted, the data that follows is for the standard AGS gun and mounting.

Gun Characteristics
Designation 155 mm/62 (6.1″) Mark 51 AGS
Ship Class Used On AGS – Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class [formerly DD(X) class]
AGS-L – proposed for DDG-51 class
Date Of Design 1996
Date In Service Planned introduction 2008
Gun Weight N/A
Gun Length oa N/A
Bore Length about 378 in (9.610 m)
Rifling Length N/A
Grooves N/A
Lands N/A
Twist N/A
Chamber Volume 1,800 in3 (29.5 dm3)
Rate Of Fire AGS: 10 rounds per minute
AGS-L: 5 to 6 rounds per minute
  1. This weapon was originally designed with a triangular barrel, but this has been dropped in favor of a conventional cylindrical, water-cooled design.
  2. A 2003 MIT study recommended that a prototype be mounted on USS Thorn (DD-988) for evaluation purposes, but this idea was not carried out and Thorn was sunk as a target in July 2006.

Source navweaps.com

US Navy DDG 1000 Zumwalt have no money for ammo

November 6, 2016

Washington – Barely two weeks after the US Navy commissioned its newest and most futuristic warship, armed with two huge guns that can hit targets 80 miles away, the service is moving to cancel the projectiles for the guns, citing excessive costs that run up to $800,000 per round or more.

The Long Range Land-Attack Projectile (LRLAP) is a guided precision munition that is key to the DDG 1000 Zumwalt-class’s mission as a land-attack destroyer, able to hit targets with such accuracy that, in the words of manufacturer Lockheed Martin, can “defeat targets in the urban canyons of coastal cities with minimal collateral damage.”

The LRLAP is the only munition designed to be fired from the DDG 1000’s Advanced Gun System (AGS), a 155mm/62-caliber gun with an automated magazine and handling system. Each of the three Zumwalts will carry two of the guns – the largest weapons to be designed for and fitted on a warship since World War II.

But the LRLAP’s unit price has jumped steadily as the numbers of Zumwalt-class destroyers were cut. From a total of 28 ships, to seven, and finally to three, the class shrank and costs did not.

“We were going to buy thousands of these rounds,” said a Navy official familiar with the program. “But quantities of ships killed the affordable round.”

Ironically, both the LRLAP and the AGS have had good reputations among the ten major technology development areas that make up the DDG 1000.

The Navy official noted there were no significant performance issues with the systems.

“Not that I’ve ever heard. Everything seems to have been performing correctly. I never saw any test results that showed we had problems,” the official said. “We don’t have an issue with the gun, and no issue with that ship carrying the gun. We have an issue on the price point.

“There is no blame on any individual,” the official added. “The round was working, the way forward was logical. It’s just that the cost with a three-ship buy became a very high cost.”

Even at $800,000 a copy, the LRLAP’s price could go higher. “That’s probably low,” the Navy official said. “That’s what the acquisition community wanted to get it down to.” The official added that there was no sense the contractor was “overcharging or anything.”

The decision to accept the LRLAP cancellation is part of the Program Objective Memorandum 2018 (POM18) effort, the Pentagon’s annual budget process. Although the Navy made a presentation to the Office of the Secretary of Defense on Nov. 2, the decision has yet to be signed off on.

For the record, the Navy would not comment directly on the effort to kill LRLAP.

“The Navy continuously monitors the gun and ammunition industry capability and capacities,” Capt. Thurraya Kent, spokesperson for the service’s acquisition directorate, said Nov. 4 in an e-mail. “To address evolving threats and mission requirements, the Navy is evaluating industry projectile solutions (including conventional and hyper-velocity projectiles) that can also meet the DDG 1000 deployment schedule and could potentially be used as an alternative to LRLAP for DDG 1000.”

Officials at Lockheed Martin could not be reached in time to comment for this story.

While LRLAP may be cancelled, the Navy intends to find another munition for the gun system.

“We are looking at multiple different rounds for that gun,” the Navy official said, adding that “three or four different rounds” have been looked at, including the Army’s Excalibur munition from Raytheon, and the Hyper Velocity Projectile (HVP), a project under development by the Office of Naval Research and BAE Systems.

“There are multiple companies that have looked at alternatives to get the cost down and use that delivery system,” the Navy official said.

But the likelihood is that there will be no LRLAP replacement before the Zumwalt enters operational service. While the ship was commissioned Oct. 15 in Baltimore, Maryland, another 18 months of shipyard work lies ahead in San Diego to complete installation of the ship’s combat system. After that, the Navy will run an extensive series of Combat Systems Ship Qualifications Trials (CSSQT) in 2018 to fully prove out the ship’s sensors and weapons.

Current plans call for the guns to be fired during CSSQT and, the Navy official said, “the intention is to shoot the guns.” The 2015 budget provided $113 million to buy 150 LRLAP rounds and associated items, and those rounds will be used for the tests.

No funds for LRLAP acquisition were included in the 2016 or 2017 budgets. The latter included $51 million in 2018 for the program, but it’s not clear whether or not that money will be requested.

While software changes will certainly be needed to incorporate other munitions into the AGS, adapting the handling system for a different round could be complex. The automated magazines, designed to hold 300 LRLAPs, are sized for that particular weapon and it’s unlikely another munition would have exactly the same dimensions.

Other rounds under development for the 127mm guns arming all other US destroyers and cruisers could be adapted to the AGS, but would likely need a sabot arrangement to adapt the smaller shell to the 155mm weapon.

While the Navy is stressing that high costs are directly behind the decision to eliminate LRLAP, it is not clear if there are deeper issues at play. The AGS/LRLAP combination was originally developed to provide Marines with a “persistent, precision fire support” capability, able to strike targets far inland with a high degree of accuracy.

But as the Zumwalt moved from shipyard to sea and to the fleet, the Navy has notably downplayed that attribute, and while the technical achievement of the cutting-edge DDG 1000 has been widely trumpeted this year, its ability to directly support Marines ashore has not.

There was no requirement for the AGS to strike seagoing targets, and the system does not have the programming to do so. But the big guns could be adapted to target ships if necessary, the Navy official said.

“We would have to do the software modifications to make that work.” Original post defensenews.com

Navy has no plan to introduce new ammo for Zumwalt destroyers: Here


It’s been more than a year since the Navy decided to cancel procurement of an expensive new ammunition for its Zumwalt-class destroyers, but the service is still pondering how to best replace the munition, a Navy official said Wednesday.

The ship’s close-in gun system (CIGS) is the BAE Systems Land and Armaments 57mm mk110 naval gun. The gun has a firing rate of 220 rounds a minute and range of 14km (nine miles). Raytheon IDS is supplying the ship’s electro-optical / infrared suite, which has five Lockheed Martin sensors and provides 360° surveillance and gun fire control.

Navy Swaps Out Anti-Swarm Boat Guns on DDG-1000s: Here

The following is NAVSEA’s complete statement to USNI News:

At the time of DDG 1000 Critical Design Review in 2005, the MK110 (57mm) close-in gun system (CIGS) was selected to meet the DDG 1000 ORD Key Performance Parameter. The basis of that decision was the expected performance of the gun and its munition, coupled with desire for commonality in USN and USCG. Through 2010, various analysis efforts were conducted to assess the performance of potential cost-saving alternatives to the Mk 110 CIGS, for both procurement and life-cycle costs. The results of the analysis for alternative systems to the MK110 CIGS were not conclusive enough to recommend a shift in plan.

A follow on 2012 assessment using the latest gun and munition effectiveness information, concluded that the MK46 was more effective than the MK110 CIGS. Based on that assessment, approval was received to change from the MK 110 CIGS to the MK 46 Gun System. In addition to the increased capability, the change from MK110 to MK46 resulted in reduction in weight and significant cost avoidance, while still meeting requirements. DDG 1000 is planned to have two medium range MK46, 30mm Close-in Gun Systems that will provide a robust rapid fire capability and increased lethality against hostile surface targets approaching the ship. Source usni.org

Mk 46 30 mm

Mk4630mmgunweaponsystemaboardUSSMesaVerdeLPD19-38429Mk 46 30 mm Gun System

The Mark 46 GWS is a remotely operated naval gun system that uses a 30mm high velocity cannon, a forward looking infrared sensor, a low light television camera, and a laser rangefinder for shipboard self-defense against small, high speed surface targets. The gun can be operated locally at the gun turret or remotely at the remote operating console in the Combat Information Center (LPD 17 & DDG 1000 classes)/Mission Control Center (LCS class).

The requirements documents for the DDG 1000, LPD 17 and LCS ship programs included the need for weapons systems capable of defeating small, fast, highly maneuverable surface craft. The Mark 46 GWS was selected to provide these ships a capability against small surface craft. The Mark 46 GWS is permanently installed aboard LPD 17 class ships. It is part of the Navy designed and developed surface warfare mission module for LCS class ships.

The Mark 46 Mod 2 GWS incorporates new open architecture, fault isolation software and an embedded trainer. The embedded trainer allows the operator to perform training exercises from the remote console without operating or supplying power to the turret.

General Characteristics
Primary Function: Shipboard self-defense against small, high-speed surface craft.
Date Deployed: 2005 (Mark 46 Mod 1)
Range: 4,400 yards – max effective range for full caliber ammunition. Effective range can be extended with sub-caliber munitions. Rate of Fire: 200 rounds/minute. Modes of fire: single round, five-round burst, or fully automatic. Gun may be fired locally at the gun mount or remotely from the Combat Information Center.
Magazine Capacity: 400 rounds (dual feed, 200 per side).
Caliber: The Mark 46 Mod 2 GWS includes the Mk 44 Mod 2 30mm cannon, a single barrel, open bolt, dual feed, electrically powered, chain driven automatic cannon.
Guidance System: A forward-looking infrared sensor, a low-light television camera, and a laser range finder provides inputs to a closed loop tracking system.
Platforms: Mark 46 Mod 2 – LPD 17 class (2 mounts per ship), DDG 1000 class (2 mounts per ship) and LCS class (2 mounts per ship).

Source navy.mil

Radar and sonar aboard the Zumwalt Class destroyer

The radar suite comprises dual-band radar for horizon and volume search, a Lockheed Martin S-band volume search radar (VSR) integrated with the AN/SPY-3 multifunction radar already being developed by Raytheon for the US Navy. The two radars are to be integrated at waveform level for enhanced surveillance and tracking capability.

The AN/SPY-3 multifunction radar (MFR) is an X-band active phased-array radar designed to detect low-observable anti-ship cruise missiles and support fire-control illumination for the ESSM and standard missiles.

AN/SPY-3 active electronically scanned array primarily X band radar

Related imagehuntingtoningalls.com

Dual Band Radar (DBR) is an active phased array radar system encompassing an X-band multi-functional radar known as AN/SPY-3 and an S-band Volume Search Radar (VSR) in a complementary manner to provide surveillance, target tracking and engagement support capabilities superior to those of conventional single-band radars. It is being developed for the US Navy’s DD(X)/DDG1000 destroyer program with Raytheon acting as the prime contractor and Lockheed Martin as subcontractor. In addition to DDG1000 Zumwalt-class destroyers, the DBR radar system will be installed on the CVN-21/CVN-78 aircraft carrier class and next generation amphibious landing ships.


The AN/SPY-3 is an active phased array X-band, multifunctional horizon search and fire control radar provided as the X-band radar for the DBR. It is anticipated that the SPY-3 radar system will combine the functions of more than five separate radar systems aboard current US Navy fighting ships. The DBR/SPY-3 radar system meets the requirements for low radar cross section, reduced manning, and low maintenance and service life costs. Its development began in 1999 and the first prototype was delivered to the US Navy in 2003. Source deagel.com


Type: Radar Altitude Max: 1005840 m
Range Max: 324.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Early 2010s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA), Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination
AN/SPY-3 MFR – (DDG 1000, AESA) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface, Long-Range
Max Range: 324.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

ELEC_DBR_Radar_CONOPS_lgDiagram of AN/SPY-3 vertical electronic pencil beam radar conex projections

The ship’s Raytheon AN/SQQ-90 integrated undersea warfare system includes AN/SQS-60 hull-mounted mid frequency sonar, AN/SQS-61 hull-mounted high-frequency sonar and AN/SQR-20 multifunction towed array sonar and handling system.

AN/SQS-60 hull-mounted mid frequency sonar, AN/SQS-61 hull-mounted high-frequency sonar

Two types of sonar arrays are gathered together in a single solution known as the Integrated Undersea Warfare system. High-frequency sonar is able to detect underwater minefields, while medium-frequency sonar sniffs out submarines and torpedoes. The dual-band sonar array is located in the bow of the ship, in a bulbous compartment that provides complete 360-degree coverage of the underwater environment. Source science.howstuffworks.com

AN/SQS-60 hull-mounted mid frequency sonar

The AN/SQS-60 is a hull-mounted mid-frequency sonar designed as part of the AN/SQQ-90 undersea warfighting capability for the US Navy’s DDG 1000 Zumwalt-class destroyer. Source deagel.com

Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 29.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 2010s
AN/SQS-60 – (DDG 1000, MF) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 29.6 km

Source cmano-db.com

AN/SQS-61 hull-mounted high-frequency sonar

General data:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active-Only Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 1.9 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 2010s
Properties: Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Shallow Water Capable (Full) [Classification Flag Required]
Sensors / EW:
AN/SQS-61 – (DDG 1000, HF) Hull Sonar, Active-Only
Role: Hull Sonar, Active-Only Shallow Water High-Definition Mine & Obstacle Avoidance
Max Range: 1.9 km

Source cmano-db.com


TB-37/U (AN/SQR-20) Multi-Function Towed Array (MFTA)


Tony Mori

The Lockheed Martin AN/SQR-20 Multi-Function Towed Array (MFTA) is a passive and active sonar receiver configured as a long three inch diameter array that can be towed behind surface ships. The MFTA has been designed to support the US Navy’s AN/SQQ-89A(V)15 antisubmarine warfare combat system replacing the AN/SQR-19 tactical towed array system (TACTAS). Compared with its predecessor, the MFTA offers several enhancements enabling greater coverage and increased capability and reliability. It contributes to the capability of surface ships to detect, localize and prosecute undersea threats, and is a critical sensor for the ship’s combat systems suite. The MFTA towed array system is scheduled for integration aboard latest Burke-class destroyers and upgraded Ticonderoga-class cruisers and slated for use on future DDG 1000 destroyers and the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). Source deagel.com

Type: TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 129.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 2010s
TB-37/U MFTA [AN/SQR-20] – (2010, CG Version) TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System
Role: TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System
Max Range: 129.6 km
Source cmano-db.com

The DDG 1000 ship design includes two landing spots for helicopters.


Helicopter hanger

Photo: Christopher Cavas

AN/SLQ-32(V)6 System ESM (?)


General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Early 2010s
Sensors / EW:
AN/SLQ-32(V)6 [ESM] – ESM
Max Range: 926 km

Source cmano-db.com


General data:
Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 185.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Sensors / EW:
CG/DD 21 IR – Infrared
Role: Infrared, Target Search, Slaved Tracking and Identification Camera
Max Range: 185.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

All electric propulsion system


Zumwalt is the first US Naval surface combatant to feature all-electric propulsion. The DDG 1000 integrates an all-electric drive with an integrated power system (IPS) consisting of two main turbine generators (MTG), two auxiliary turbine generators (ATG) and two 34.6MW advanced induction motors (AIM).

The electric drive eliminates the need for drive shaft and reduction gears and brings benefits in acoustic signature reduction, an increase in available power for weapon systems and improvements in the quality of life for crew. The all-electric propulsion of Zumwalt also generates 58MW of additional reserved power allowing the integration of future high-energy weapons and sensors.

DRS Technologies’ power technology unit received development contracts for the PMM motors, electric drive and control system for the IPS.


Most warships today use a traditional mechanical-drive propulsion system with two separate sets of turbines – one for propulsion, the other for generating electricity for shipboard use. The drawback to this type of propulsion system is an inability to shift power to where it’s needed most on the ship. Weapons, for example, can’t borrow power from the propellers during battle. The Zumwalt class destroyer will overcome this problem with an Integrated Power System, or IPS.

Here’s how the IPS works. The ship’s engines will no longer be connected to the propellers. Instead, the engines – four marine gas turbines that Rolls-Royce describes as the most powerful gas turbines available today – will power generators that produce a total of 80 megawatts of electricity. That electrical power will then be distributed to most of the ship’s systems and the electric motors that will drive the propellers. Because the power is centralized, it can be distributed as necessary to high-demand systems. Source science.howstuffworks.com

However in September 2007, Converteam (formerly Alsthom Power Conversion) was awarded the contract for the IPS with a solution based on advanced induction motors (AIM). In August 2009 Converteam received another contract from the US Navy to supply long-lead materials for Zumwalt Class destroyer DDG-1000 under the high-voltage power subsystem (HVPS) project.

The Rolls-Royce MT30 36MW gas turbine generator set has been selected to power the IPS EDM. Rolls-Royce delivered the first set in February 2005. Rolls-Royce was awarded a contract for four MT30 sets for the first two DDG-1000 destroyers in March 2007.

Rolls-Royce MT30 36MW gas turbine generator

Two Rolls-Royce Marine Trent MT30 36 MW (48,000 hp) gas turbine generator units

The MT30 has 80% commonality with the Rolls-Royce Trent 800 aero engine and Rolls-Royce states that it is the most powerful marine gas turbine in the world. CAE supplies the integrated platform management system.

GE Power Conversion was chosen to supply electric propulsion and power management systems for three Zumwalt Class vessels.


Displacement: approx. 14500 tons (full load)
Length: 182,90 meters
Beam: 24,60 meters
Draft: 8,40 meters
Speed: 30+ knots (56 km/h)
Propulsion: Integrated Power System (IPS)
78 megawatts installed power
2 Main Gas Turbines (Rolls-Royce Marine Trent-30) – 78 Megawatt (105000 shp)
Aircraft: flight deck and hangar for up to 2 SH-60B or MH-60R helicopter

or 3 MQ-8 Fire Scout VT-UAV’s

Crew: 140
Armament: 20 x Mk.57 VLS modules (80 launch cells)

> RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM) – 4 per cell

> BGM-109 Tactical Tomahawk Block IV Vertical Launch – 1 per cell

> RUM-139 Vertical Launch Anti-Submarine Rocket (VL-ASROC) – 1 per cell


2 x 155mm Advanced Gun System (AGS)

2 x Mk.110 57mm Close-in-Weapon-System (CIWS)

Radar: AN/SPY-3 Multi-Function Radar

Source seaforces.org

Main material source naval-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Revised Dec 10, 2017

Updated Oct 15, 2019

H225M/EC 725 Cougar Medium Multimission Helicopter

The H225M (previously known as EC 725) medium-sized (11t), twin-engine helicopter is a member of the Cougar helicopter family developed by Eurocopter. The helicopter has been developed in the military H225M version and in a civil EC 225 version.

The helicopter completed its first flight in November 2000 and is now in service in ten countries worldwide. The French Air Force, the launch customer, ordered six H225Ms for use in a combat search-and-rescue (CSAR) role. The first was delivered in February 2005 and deliveries concluded in May 2007. The French Special Operations Command ordered eight H225M helicopters in November 2002.

French H225M helicopters were deployed in 2006 in Lebanon to aid evacuation of personnel, as well as in Afghanistan. Two helicopters have been stationed in Kabul since the beginning of 2007, in support of the Nato International Security Force. The H225M is used for more than 95% of operations in Kabul.

Orders and deliveries of Eurocopter’s helicopter


In April 2009, an additional five H225M helicopters were ordered by the French Defence Ministry as part of the government’s €220m ($314m) economic recovery plan. The first of five H225M helicopters was delivered in June 2011. The remaining four are scheduled for delivery in 2012.

Two H225M helicopters have also been ordered by Dirgantara for the Indonesian Air Force. In April 2012, Eurocopter received an order from PT Dirgantara Indonesia / Indonesian Aerospace to supply six additional helicopters for the Indonesian Air Force. The delivery of first helicopter was concluded in November 2014.

unnamedIndonesian Air Force

In September 2008, Malaysia announced the selection of the H225M for an initial order of 12 helicopters. However, the contract award has been indefinitely delayed due to budgetary constraints. Eurocopter signed a cooperation contract with the Malaysian Ministry of Defence at the 49th Paris air show in June 2011, related to the supply of the 12 H225M helicopters to the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) for search and rescue (SAR) operations.

m55-02-royal-malaysian-air-force-rmaf-malaysia-eurocopter-ec725-super-cougar_PlanespottersNet_369985Royal Malaysian Air Force

These new aircraft replaced the existing fleet of Sikorsky S-61 Sea King rotorcraft. The first two helicopters were delivered in December 2012 and the remaining were delivered between 2013 and 2014.


In December 2008, Brazil placed a €1.9bn ($2.72bn) order for 50 H225M helicopters; 16 for the navy, 16 for the army and 18 for the air force. The helicopters are being manufactured in Brazil by Eurocopter’s subsidiary Helibras. The first three H225M helicopters were delivered to Brazil in December 2010. The first indigenously-built H225M helicopter was delivered to Brazilian Navy in June 2014. Deliveries are scheduled for completion by 2016.

Brazilian Navy H225M in naval combat version


  • Helibras presents the first H225M in naval combat version, developed for the Brazilian Navy
  • Advanced anti-surface warfare and tactical capabilities open new mission capabilities for the multirole H225M utility helicopter.
  • Flight-test will pave the way for military certification in 2018.

Helibras and Airbus Helicopters have opened a new chapter in the history of the H225M multirole utility helicopter with the official presentation of the first aircraft in naval combat configuration. Developed and assembled locally by Helibras, Airbus Helicopters’ subsidiary in Brazil, this new H225M version is designed to meet the demanding requirements of the Brazilian Navy, with mission capabilities including anti-surface warfare and maritime surveillance.

This evolution of the H225M is built around a Helibras-developed tactical mission system including an APS-143 surveillance radar, advanced self-protection systems as well as signals intelligence capabilities. The helicopter is also equipped with two AM39 Exocet anti-ship missiles, while the cargo bay accommodates a dedicated sensor operator console providing the mission commander with an overview of the tactical situation. An automatic identification system (AIS) will also allow crew members to gather information on surface vessels.

“I am particularly proud to present this new version”, said Helibras president Richard Marelli. “This latest and unique version of the H225M is a testimony of the hard work our teams have been doing here in Brazil in close collaboration with Brazilian military customers. It also demonstrates our ability to effectively transfer technology, skills and know-how to Brazil, and our commitment to support the development of the country’s aerospace industry”.

The helicopter unveiled this week in Itajubá will be the first H225M in naval combat version to be delivered to the Brazilian Navy in 2018, after the end of military certification trials. It is part of a global order for 50 H225Ms for the Brazilian armed forces, 26 of which have already been delivered to the Brazilian Air Force, Navy and Army. Helibras is in charge of the complete assembly of H225Ms in Itajubá, including integration of mission equipment, flight line activities and industrial acceptance. With a target to achieve 50% of national content by 2020, Helibras has developed a local supply chain which includes more than 37 Brazilian companies. Source airbushelicopters.com

ec725-exocet12 x AM39 Exocet anti-ship missiles

In March 2010, the Mexican Air Force ordered six H225M helicopters from Eurocopter. These helicopters will be used for transport and civil security missions. Another six H225M rotorcraft were ordered by the Mexican Air Force in September 2010, increasing the total number of aircraft orders to 12. The Mexican Navy ordered nine H225M helicopters to carry out CSAR, medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) and troop transport missions.

caracale-bez-tajemnic3Troop transport – Image: dlapilota.pl

In July 2009, the H225M was presented on the static display at the Royal International Air Tattoo, at RAF Fairford. In September 2009, it was displayed at Defence Systems & Equipment International event, held in London.

The new H225M is based on the proven fuselage and structural design of the Cougar mk2, with a new five-bladed main rotor and reinforced main gearbox. The helicopter also has a new integrated display suite and piloting system. The new H225M version is able to carry a much higher military payload at a faster speed, while it also has an increased range.

In May 2012, Eurocopter received a letter of intent (LoI) from the Republic of Kazakhstan to deliver 20 H225M helicopters.

In September 2012, the Royal Thai Air Force ordered four H225M search and rescue helicopters. Deliveries were concluded in August 2015. Two more helicopters were ordered in 2014 for delivery in 2016.


Royal Thai Air Force places order for two additional EC725s: Here

Kuwait Signs Contract for 30 H225M Caracal Helicopters: Here

Singapore Ministry of Defence orders H225M helicopters: Here

Operators: Here

Capabilities of the H225M Cougar

The aircraft is suitable for a wide range of missions such as tactical troop transport, special operations, SAR, CSAR, maritime surveillance, humanitarian support logistic ground support, medical evacuation and shipborne operations. The ferry flight range is more than 1,200nm.


In the tactical troop transport role, the helicopter can carry 19 troops over a 250nm radius of action. In the CSAR role, the H225M is able to rescue a downed crew at a radius of action of 280nm.

Design features of the twin-engine helicopter


The fuselage is of light alloy material with a large composite intermediate structure and cowlings. The machine-milled frames are strengthened for crashworthiness. The crew and troops are protected by removable armour plating. The maximum seat capacity is two crew and 29 troops.

The helicopter is fitted with a dual hoist system and has a sling capacity of 5t.

Dual hoist system  

The helicopter is equipped with new ‘Spheriflex’ main and tail rotorheads. The diameter of the main rotor system is 16.2m. The five-bladed main rotor is fully composite, with a composite spar, multiple box structure and anhedral tipcaps. The five-blade arrangement provides a very low level of vibration. The rotors and horizontal stabiliser can be equipped with an anti-icing and de-icing system.

Air refueling

Air refueling probe (probe) – portaldefesa.com

Helicopter cockpit and weapon systems


The H225M is equipped with an all-glass cockpit, with new avionics and a new integrated display system, including a digital map.

The display suite includes seven active matrix liquid crystal displays: four multifunction 6in x 8in displays and two 4in x 5in helicopter parameter displays.

The advanced helicopter cockpit and avionics system (AHCAS) includes an automatic flight control system developed by SAGEM, integrating the flight, navigation and tactical mission data.


The helicopter is equipped with radar and FLIR (forward-looking infrared) for day and night-time SAR capabilities. The navigation suite includes Doppler radar, global positioning system and inertial navigation system.

Euroflir™ 350: Long-range electro-optical system

The Euroflir™ 350 provides long-range observation and targeting capabilities enabling unsurpassed image quality thanks to advanced local image processing within a compact and lightweight system.

The combat-proven Euroflir™ 350 is already used on many French Army and other nations’s rotary-wings (H125M Fennec, AS350 Ecureuil, AS532 Cougar, H225M Caracal, etc.) deployed in today’s most demanding theaters. Source: safran-electronics-defense.com

Brazilian Air Force H225 operate Star SAFIRE III

Star SAFIRE III – portaldefesa.com

Star SAFIRE III Features

  • Multi-mission capable
  • High-resolution color spotter scope
  • Matched multi-FOV optics
  • Image intensified low-light camera
  • Image blending
  • Reliable 24/7 operation
  • Optimized usability
  • Multiple laser payloads
  • Maintain Star SAFIRE family compatibility
  • Commercially developed, MIL qualified


  • Can be used in applications as diverse as land force protection, shipboard open ocean and littoral patrol, and long range airborne reconnaissance
  • Extends identification range performance by providing maximum detail from covert stand-off distances
  • All cameras feature multiple FOVs maintaining situational awareness while also achieving long range performance and enabling Image Blending
  • Brings true all day and all night imaging capability in multiple wavebands, and forms the basis for image blending
  • Combine critical spectral information from IR imager with image intensified low-light camera or long range spotter scope
  • High MTBF and proven combat survivability in demanding arctic and desert environments
  • View and track ground locations using the fully-embedded IMU; follow moving targets with the multi-mode Autotracker
  • Covertly illuminate wide areas, point out distant targets to other forces, and determine target distance and location
  • Total cable compatibility allows operators to upgrade existing Star SAFIRE family installations with plug-and-play simplicity
  • All-weather design is qualified to the most demanding requirements of MIL-STD-810 and 461
Star SAFIRE III – portaldefesa.com

Star SAFIRE III Source flir.com

Sigma 95N Inertial Navigation System

Sigma 95N is a high-performance navigation system designed for most demanding aeronautic applications that require high navigation and guidance accuracy.

The Sigma 95N INS is based upon three highly accurate digital laser gyroscopes. It is equipped with a GPS or GPS/Glonass receiver and makes use of a powerful multimode Kalman filter to optimize performance by hybridizing inertial and satellite data. It can also integrate NATO’s new Selective Availability/Anti-Spoofing Module (SAASM) and in the close future, the Europe’s upcoming Gallileo system. Its open design and versatile interfaces (Mil-Std-1553B, Arinc, Gost, etc.) allow easy integration in all types of avionic configurations and platforms.

Source safran-electronics-defense.com

The SAR system can be programmed to provide automatic search patterns, transition and hover.

Automatic search patterns

The helicopter can carry side-firing armaments, such as two 7.62mm general purpose machine guns and a 20mm cannon. The helicopter can also be fitted with axial pods, such as two 68mm rocket launchers or two 20mm cannons.

7.62 mm FN MAG machine gun

Calibre 7.62x51mm NATO
Operating principle Gas operated, open breech
Overall length 1260mm (49.6″)
Weapon width 118.7mm (4.67″)
Weapon width with bipod extended 408mm (16.1″)
Weapon width with bipod folded 160mm (6.3″)
Weapon height 263mm (10.35″)
Weapon height with bipod extended 318mm (12.5″)
Weapon height with bipod folded 225mm (8.86″)
Weapon weight 11,8 kg (26.01 lb)
Barrel type Long
Barrel weight 3.05 kg (6.75 lb)
Barrel length 630mm (24.80″)
Buttstock type Fixed
Cyclic rate of fire 650 to 1,000 RPM
Feed Belt
Firing mode Full auto
Handguard type N/A
Role General Purpose Machine Gun

Source fnherstal.com

Dillon Aero M134D

The Dillon M134D Gatling Gun is the finest small caliber, defense suppression weapon available. It is a six barreled, electrically driven machine gun chambered in 7.62mm NATO and fires at a fixed rate of 3,000 shots per minute. Gatling Guns typically feed from a 3,000 or 4,000 round magazine. They are capable of long periods of continuous fire without threat or damage to the weapon making them an excellent choice for defensive suppression.

Dillon Guns are reliable. The M134D has system life in excess of 1,500,000 rounds and an average time between stoppage greater than 30,000 rounds. In the unlikely event of a stoppage the weapon can be serviced and made operational again in under one minute. The multi barrel design means that each barrel only experiences a 500 round per minute rate of fire. This allows for repeated long bursts of fire and a barrel group life of 200,000 rounds. Source: dillonaero.com

Type Minigun
Caliber 7.62x51mm NATO
Magazine Belt fed, 4.000 rounds
Operation Gatling principle, externally powered
Fire selector 0-F
Rate of fire 3.000 rpm
Barrel length 559 mm
Rifling ?
Muzzle velocity 869 m/s
Length 749 mm
Width ?
Height ?
Weight 15.88 kg
Sights Various optional optical sights

Source weaponsystems.net

Two 70mm rocket launchers or two 20mm cannons

ec725_4H225M with rocket launcher and in flight refuelling probe on the left and 20mm cannon on the right. Image: airforce-technology.com

NC 621 cannon pod


The NC 621 cannon pod extends the range of missions (attack, close fire support, protection, self-defence) of the helicopters and lightest aircrafts. It provides airplanes with 20mm firepower previously restricted to 0.50 weapons. The NC 621 has been developed around the 20 M 621 cannon which is well known for its high accuracy, for simplicity (operation and maintenance) and which fires the 20mm x 102 NATO standard ammunition. The effectiveness and reliability of the NC 621 has been widely proven on various platforms.

– Gaz operated,
– Average firing rate: 750 rounds per minute,
– Ammunition stowage capacity: 180 or 250 ammunition
– Effective range: up to 2,000m
Source nexter-group.fr

70 mm rocket system FZ225


FZ225 is a lightweight composite material high-drag, straight cylindrical 19-tube reusable launcher designed for helicopter use. The FZ225 is equipped with removable universal dual purpose FZ125 detent mechanism enabling to fire FFAR and WA rockets.

It can be fitted with an optional removable rear fairing.

Mechanical characteristics

The FZ225 rocket launcher system includes a nineteen (19) tube rocket composite central section with equipped with a Launcher Interface Unit (LIU).

  • Outer diameter : 402 mm
  • Overall length : 1668 mm
  • Total mass (empty) : 45 kg

Mechanical interface

  • 14” NATO standard suspension lugs


  • Firing mode : ripple / single
  • Intervallometry : 80 ms (minimum)
  • Dual purpose : designed for firing both types of FZ 2.75″ FZ FFAR and WA rocket motors
  • Rocket warheads : designed for firing all types of conventional 2.75″ FZ rocket warheads equipped with a remote set fuze


FZ275 LGR : Semi-Active Laser (SAL) Guided Rocket

n1_Laser guided Rocket FZ275LGR

The FZ275 LGR guided rocket closes the gap between the long-range high-value missiles and the shorter range guns/cannon and unguided rockets, thus affording a full range of precision effects from a platform to defeat soft and light armoured targets.

This rocket complies with the armies’ requirement for precise and reliable ammunitions capable of reducing exposure to danger and avoiding collateral damage which nowadays causes injuries to civilians.


  • Calibre : 2.75” (70mm)
  • Nominal length : ~1800mm
  • All up round weight : 12.5 kg (before burn)/9.1 kg (after burn)
  • Guidance : SAL (Semi-Active Laser)
  • Steering type : 4 folding canards
  • Laser : compatible with STANAG 3733 or used defined code


  • Range : 1500m up to 6000m
  • CEP<1m (at 6km range)

SAL technology

The SAL-Laser Guided Rocket FZ275 LGR requires designation of the target by a laser designator.

The rocket has an in-built laser seeker that can read a specially coded laser being reflected off a target. This target can be marked either before launching the rocket (LOBL), after launch (LOAL) or even by a remote source, such as a soldier on the ground or another second flying platform. This versatility provides the helicopter with a far greater survivability and the ability to attack without moving into a target’s vision.


FZ has developed 2 different configurations for its laser guided rocket :

  • stand alone : easy and quick implementation of laser guided rocket FZ275LGR on platforms with FZ rocket system requiring any major modification
  • integrated : full integration with full functionality increasing the capability envelope of FZ275LGR guided rocket :
    • inventory information exchange through the platform it possesses prior to launch
    • in-flight laser code implementation
    • LOBL (Lock-On-Before-Launch)
    • Two (bidirectional) way communication between rocketrocket launcher and the platform (cockpit)


FZ275 LGR offers different warheads such as High Explosive warheads.

Source fz.be


The helicopter’s electronic warfare systems include a radar warning receiver, laser warning receiver, missile approach warner and chaff and flare dispensers.

System IDAS / CIDAS SAAB (Brazilian Air Force)

The Integrated Defensive Aids Suite (IDAS)  or S uite Auxiliary Equipment Integrated Defense Swedish of SAAB , is responsible for peripheral self-protection H-225M and aims to increase their ability to survive in modern conflict scenarios, consisting of sensors working alerting with advance to the crews of radar, laser emission and hostile missile threats.

MAW-300 (Missile Aproach Warning)

The missile approach, works the UV spectrum (Ultra Violet), through special filters with capacity to “capture” photons (wavelength) at long distance. Using what the manufacturer calls the “neural classifier network,” it works with the positioning of the platform in space with respect to its in-flight displacement, using the aircraft’s native INS / GPS data, allows, once a threat is detected , its discard when it is a false alarm, or when valid, it classifies its degree of risk, projecting, by probability, the future trajectory of the missile, being able to trigger defensive measures with Flare / Chaff directing to the threat. Each sensor that has a field of action in 110º, has its own processor, uses digital signal with hierarchical architecture of data processing, to optimize information in real time. The data of each sensor, which can detect and process multiple potential targets, is transferred to a digital control unit (MAW controller) in the Electronic Warfare Controller (EWC). Four sensors are used in each quadrant of the helicopter, providing 360º coverage, two front and one above the pilot / co-pilot window and two behind, at the end of the main landing gear fairing in a triple conjugate station with two more sensors ( LWS-310 / RWS-300).

LWS-310 (Laser Warning System)

System laser Alert , is operable using four sensors connected to EWC (Electronic Warfare Controller), hardware responsible for processing data obtained by sensors. The LWS-310 sensor is an arc-shaped cube containing eight multidirectional mini-windows with a large angular aperture and capable of reading  0.5-1.7 μm (microns) wavelength , with high sensitivity to various lasers. It can classify threats as  laser rangefinders , designators and lasers used for missile guidance with an embedded system that has data library. Like the MAW-300, the LWS-310 is installed in the quadrants of the H-225M, being in the back in the triple station, in the front is in dual station conjugated with the RWS-300 sensor on the sides near the junction of the radar dome.

RWS-300 (Radar Warning System)

System Radar Warning is composed of the RWS-300 sensor, it is the antenna (SAM Spiral Antenna Module) card , an antenna spiral shape covered by a cylindrical hood, is capable of approved varying electro-magnetic emissions simultaneously with set range between 0.7-40 GHz (pulse radar) and 0.7-18 GHz (counter measures) frequency. It has the same operating principle of the MAW system using the EWC (Electronic Warfare Controller) can trigger the defensive systems of the helicopter in case of detection of threats.

BOP-L (Countermeasures-dispensing function)

Dispensador Counter-measures , shaped device shelter (box) that is installed on each side of the helicopter tail cone. In an internal drawer is the pyrotechnic ejection loads of CHAFF and FLARE, electronically driven. CHAFF has the function of trying to confuse the firing radar system that makes up the ground anti-aircraft batteries or guidewires that are embedded in the missiles that are engaging the helicopter. When a critical radar threat is detected (missile coming in), shelter charges that blow up in the air are ejected, releasing up to thousands of ultra thin blades forming a cloud, made up of metals or special material with properties to better reflect radar waves, can to simulate fake targets for an acquisition system, with a great chance of diverting the radar-guided missile into the aircraft. FLARE is intended to attract and divert missiles with heat guidance (IR). Composed of white phosphorus (WP) material, when ejected from its capsule and due to its chemical properties, it is in high combustion in contact with oxygen, producing intense heat, the heat produced can confuse the IR missile seeker in pursuit by diverting it, in evasive maneuver, several charges are launched simultaneously to increase the chances of success. The BOP-L can be easily replenished by changing the drawer, has a low weight, can be pre-programmed in the sequence, BIT (check ground), and can carry up to 32 loads. Source portaldefesa.com

HForce GWC modular weapons system

A company-owned H225M testbed platform equipped with the Airbus Helicopters HForce GWC modular weapons system. Initial live-fire tests took place at a test range in Belgium from 25 May to 3 June. Source: IHS/Gareth Jennings

Option 0 – the helicopter is provisioned for the HForce GWC for later retrofit, but not yet equipped with it.

Option 1 – Ballistic firing with HMSD. This includes pilot HMSD, plus the integration of a combination of 12.7 mm HMPs, 20 mm cannons, and unguided rockets.

Option 2 – Ballistic firing with HMSD and electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) targeting. This includes Option 1, plus pilot and co-pilot/gunner HMSD, and EO/IR targeting.

Option 3 – Ballistic firing with HMSD and EO/IR and guided weapons. This includes Option 2, plus air-to-surface and air-to-air missiles, and laser-guided rockets.

Thales Scorpion Helmet Mounted Cueing Systems (HMCS)

Thales to supply Scorpion® helmet display

Key points

  • This is the first helmet mounted display that features colour symbology and video imaging for both daytime and nighttime missions.
  • Thales will be responsible for the viability study, testing phase, integration with test aircraft, qualification support and integration in the fleet.

Thales will also be responsible for the development and production of the specific configuration for the Spanish Air Force EF-18. The system is already operational in multiple platforms in the United States


Scorpion® is a ‘force multiplier’ system offering full colour symbology (navigation, intelligence, combat, etc.) for both nighttime and daytime missions, in addition to target cueing in potentially degraded visual environments, therefore easily allowing target designation and allocation of points of interest with the aircraft’s sensors. Scorpion® is fully interchangeable between helmets/pilots as it is installed directly over standard helmets, allowing the total amount of equipment necessary for the fleet to be reduced, thus favouring maintenance and reducing life-cycle costs.

Sensor Video Capability – thalesvisionix.com

Thales will be responsible for the viability study, testing phase, integration with test aircraft, qualification support and integration in the fleet. Thales will also be responsible for the development and production of the specific Scorpion® configuration for the Spanish EF-18 including ejection safety analysis. The qualification phase includes inter-operability with the IRIS-T missile and the daytime/ nighttime-imaging pod for cueing lightening targets.

Note to editors

The HMCS uses the patented and innovative HObIT (Hybrid Optical based Inertial Tracking) technology, the hybrid reference system that warrants high precision with minimum cabin intrusion. For nighttime missions, Scorpion can be operated with standard unmodified night vision goggles (NVG), therefore offering the same quality colour/video imaging symbol combination.

The system is already operational on multiple platforms in the United States such as the F16 Block 30/32 and the A10 ‘Thunderbolt II’ and has been flight tested on the F-22, the NH-90 and many other platforms. At present, the system is being actively evaluated by other clients globally. Source thalesgroup.com

Turbomeca Makila 2A turboshaft engines


The helicopter is powered by two Turbomeca Makila 2A turboshaft engines, each providing 1,800kW of power, an increase of 14% over the previous 1A2 engine version.

Each engine, complete with systems and accessories, is independent. An infrared suppression system is installed to reduce the thermal signature of the helicopter.

The engines are equipped with dual-channel full authority digital engine control (FADEC), while protective air intake grids prevent ingestion of debris into the engines. The free turbine features blade shedding architecture for high reliability and safety.

2 × Turboméca Makila 2A1 turboshaft engine


Launched at the end of the 90s, the Makila 2A features a new, higher-performing compressor module as well as dual-channel Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC). The Makila 2A powers the EC225 and H225M Caracal helicopters manufactured by Airbus Helicopters.

The Makila 2A is fourteen per cent more powerful than the 1A. It delivers a take-off power of 2,101 shp and a cruising power of 1,970 shp. Maximum power using the One Engine Inoperative (OEI) rating is 2,415 shp. Time Between Overhaul (TBO) is 3,500 hours. It was certified in 2004.

In 2014, Safran Helicopter Engines launched the Makila 2B, a revision of the 2A, intended for the H225 helicopter manufactured by Airbus Helicopters. The 2B has a new combustion chamber and new high-pressure turbine blades for increased take-off performance and, in particular, payload. The Makila 2B underwent initial flight testing in 2014 and progress in ongoing. Source safran-helicopter-engines.com

ART2 units are installed on EC 225 and EC 725 Caracal helicopters.

  • MTR390 control unit:
    • for the turbine engine of the same name produced by the MTR consortium (MTU, Turbomeca, Rolls Royce),
    • modular control unit,
    • embedded system that monitors the craft’s operation status.

Source safran-electronics-defense.com

The main fuel tanks, with a capacity of 2,539l, are installed beneath the floor of the cabin. Auxiliary tanks can be installed in the cargo hook well (capacity of 324l) or at the rear of the cabin (990l). The helicopter can be equipped with a probe for air-to-air refuelling. The refuelling system has already been validated on the Cougar mk2.

Saphir 20 APU

The Saphir 20 Auxiliary Power Unit has been designed to meet the on-board power requirements of the Super Puma multi-role helicopter.

With its excellent compactness-weight-power ratio, the Saphir 20 makes the aircraft totally self-sufficient for starting and ground operation through the supply of 30 kVA of electrical power.
It powers several systems through the helicopter’s batteries in complete safety.
ts reliability allows it to operate in severe conditions.

The electrical power delivered by the Saphir 20 can supply the following ground functions:

  • Air conditioning including cockpit heating
  • Power generation for:
    • starting the main engines
    • supplying equipment (standby, verification and maintenance phases)
  • Back-up electricity generation
  • Hydraulic power for flight controls
APU exhaust – portaldefesa.com
APU exhaust closeup – portaldefesa.com

Main gearbox and landing gear of Eurocopter’s H225M Cougar

The H225M main gearbox is reinforced for compatibility with the increased turbine engine power and the increase in the helicopter’s maximum weight. The helicopter uses the gear train identical to that of the Cougar mk2. An emergency lubrication spray is installed in the gearbox to allow a 30-minute flight with no oil.

The helicopter has retractable crashworthy tricycle-type landing gear supplied by Messier-Bugatti. Each unit retracts rearward and is fitted with dual chamber oleo pneumatic shock absorbers. Emergency floatation units can be installed on the main landing gear fairings and on the forward section of the fuselage.

The H225M is equipped with landing gears designed, developed and manufactured by Safran (Safran Landing Systems).

Performance of the Cougar-family helicopter


The H225M can climb at the rate of 3.6m/s. The maximum and cruise speeds of the aircraft are 324km/h and 277km/h respectively. The range is 1,482km and service ceiling is 6,095m.


long-range tactical transport helicopter
Country user
Brazil, France, Indonesia, saudi Arabia, malaysia, Mexico
Country producer
1 or 2 pilot
2 × Turbomeca Makila 2A1 turboshafts, 1,776 kW (2,382 shp) each
Maximum speed: 262 km/h
1,339 km maximum
5,330 kg empty
Advanced helicopter cockpit and avionics system (AHCAS), radar and FLIR (forward-looking infrared) for day and night-time search and rescue capability, Doppler radar, global positioning system and inertial navigation system.
Length: 19.50 m; Rotor Diameter: 16.2 m;
Height: 4.6 m

Technical data airrecognition.com

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Revised Nov 26, 2017

Updated Feb 16, 2020