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Zumwalt-class destroyer

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The Zumwalt-class destroyers are a class of United States Navy guided missile destroyers designed as multi-mission stealth ships with a focus on land attack. The class emerged from the previous DD-21 vessel program. The program was previously known as the “DD(X)”. The class is multi-role and designed for surface warfare, anti-aircraft warfare, and naval gunfire support. They take the place of battleships in filling the former congressional mandate for naval fire support, though the requirement was reduced to allow them to fill this role. The vessels’ appearance has been compared to that of the historic ironclad warship.

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The class has a low radar profile; an integrated power system, which can send electricity to the electric drive motors or weapons, which may someday include a railgun or free-electron lasers; total ship computing environment infrastructure, serving as the ship’s primary LAN and as the hardware-independent platform for all of the ship’s software ensembles; automated fire-fighting systems and automated piping rupture isolation. The class is designed to require a smaller crew and be less expensive to operate than comparable warships. It will have a wave-piercing tumblehome hull form whose sides slope inward above the waterline. This will reduce the radar cross-section, returning much less energy than a conventional flare hull form.

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The lead ship is named Zumwalt for Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, and carries the hull number DDG-1000. Originally 32 ships were planned, with the $9.6 billion research and development costs spread across the class, but the quantity was reduced to 10, and finally to 3, greatly increasing the cost-per-ship

Northrop Grumman was awarded a $90M contract modification for materials and production planning on 13 November 2007. On 14 February 2008, Bath Iron Works was awarded a contract for the construction of the USS Zumwalt (DDG-1000), and Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding was awarded a contract for the construction of USS Michael Monsoor (DDG-1001), at a cost of $1.4 billion each.

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On 11 February 2009, full-rate production officially began on the first Zumwalt-class destroyer. Construction on the second ship of the class, Michael Monsoor, began in March 2010.The keel for the first Zumwalt-class destroyer was laid on 17 November 2011. This first vessel was launched from the shipyard at Bath, Maine on 29 October 2013.

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The construction timetable in July 2008 was:

  • October 2008: DDG-1000 starts construction at Bath Iron Works
  • September 2009: DDG-1001 starts construction at Bath Iron Works.
  • April 2012: DDG-1002 starts construction at Bath Iron Works
  • April 2013: DDG-1000 initial delivery
  • May 2014: DDG-1001 delivery
  • March 2015: Initial operating capability
  • Fiscal 2018: DDG-1002 delivery

The navy plans for the USS Zumwalt to reach initial operating capability (IOC) in 2016. The second ship, the USS Michael Monsoor, is to reach IOC in 2018, and the third ship, the USS Lyndon B Johnson, is to reach IOC in 2021

Design elements

0210ct_ei2Image: extremetech.comgraphic_netSHIP_DDG-1000_Critical_Tech_Status_2006_lgPlanned features of the DDG-1000
As of January 2009, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) found that four out of 12 of the critical technologies in the ship’s design were fully mature. Six of the critical technologies were “approaching maturity”, but five of those would not be fully mature until after installation.

Stealth

Despite being 40% larger than an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer the radar cross-section is more akin to a fishing boat, according to a spokesman for Naval Sea Systems Command;The tumblehome hull reduces radar return and the composite material deckhouse also has a low radar return. Overall, the destroyer’s angular build makes it “50 times harder to spot on radar than an ordinary destroyer.
ship 1Comparison between the Zumwalt-class destroyer  and the Arleigh Burke-class destroyer
Acoustic signature is comparable to that of the Los Angeles-class submarines.
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Water sleeting along the sides, along with passive cool air induction in the mack reduces infrared signature.

Tumblehome wave piercing hull

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A return to a hull form not seen since the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, the Zumwalt-class destroyer reintroduces the tumblehome hull form. Originally put forth in modern steel battleship designs by the French shipyard Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée in La Seyne in Toulon, French naval architects believed that tumblehome, in which the beam of the vessel narrowed from the water-line to the upper deck, would create better freeboard, greater seaworthiness, and, as Russian battleships were to find, would be ideal for navigating through narrow constraints (canals). On the down side, the tumblehome battleships experienced losses in watertight integrity and/or stability problems (especially in high speed turns). 21st century tumblehome is being reintroduced to reduce the radar return of the hull. The inverted bow is designed to cut through waves rather than ride over them.As mentioned above, the stability of this hull form in high sea states has caused debate among naval architects. The tumblehome has not been featured in USN concept designs since the Zumwalt-class.
hull_test-rough_sea-7zg-m-c2-2Zumwalt-class destroyer tumblehome hull form during test

Advanced Gun System

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The Advanced Gun System is a 155 mm naval gun, two of which would be installed in each ship. This system consists of an advanced 155 mm gun and the Long Range Land Attack Projectile. This projectile is a rocket with a warhead fired from the AGS gun; the warhead weighs 11 kg / 24 lb and has a circular error of probability of 50 meters. This weapon system will have a range of 83 nautical miles (154 km); the fully automated storage system will have room for up to 750 rounds. The barrel is water-cooled to prevent overheating and allows a rate of fire of 10 rounds per minute per gun. The combined firepower from a pair of turrets gives each Zumwalt-class destroyer firepower equivalent to 12 conventional M198 field guns.

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In order to provide sufficient stability to fire these guns, the Zumwalt will use ballast tanks to lower itself into the water.

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Peripheral Vertical Launch System

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The Peripheral Vertical Launch System (PVLS) is an attempt to reclaim the prized center space of the hull while increasing the safety of the ship from the loss of the entire missile battery and the loss of the ship in the case of a magazine explosion. The system scatters pods of VLS around the outer shell of the ship having a thin steel outer shell and a thick inner shell. The design of the PVLS would direct the force of the explosion outward rather than ripping the ship in half. Additionally this design keeps the loss of missile capacity down to just the pod being hit.

Boat and helicopter arrangements

ddg-1000_vs_ddg-51-flt2a-c-mImage: phisicalpsience.com

Two spots will be available on a large aviation deck with a hangar capable of housing two full size SH-60 helicopters. Boat handling is to be dealt within a stern mounted boat hangar with ramp. The boat hangar’s stern location meets high sea state requirements for boat operations.

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Radar

3d-radarpELEC_DBR_Radar_CONOPS_lgDiagram of AN/SPY-3 vertical electronic pencil beam radar conex projections
Originally, the AN/SPY-3active electronically scanned array primarily X band radar the SPY-3 radar is to have software modifications so as to perform a volume search functionality. Shipboard operators will be able to optimize the SPY-3 for either horizon search or volume search. While optimized for volume search, the horizon search capability is limited. The DDG-1000 is still expected to perform local area air defense. This system is thought to provide high detection and excellent anti-jamming capabilities.

Common Display System

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The ship’s Common Display System, nicknamed “keds”: Sailors operate keds via “trackballs and specialized button panels,” with the option to “interface by using touchscreens”. The technology array allowing sailors to monitor multiple weapons systems or sensors, saving manpower, and allowing it to be steered from the ops center.

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Sonar

A dual-band sonar controlled by a highly automated computer system will be used to detect mines and submarines. It is claimed that it is superior to the Burke‍ ’s sonar in littoral ASW, but less effective in blue water/deep sea areas.

  • Hull-mounted mid-frequency sonar (AN/SQS-60)
  • Hull-mounted high-frequency sonar (AN/SQS-61)
  • Multi-function towed array sonar and handling system (AN/SQR-20)6e835208932efe42a4134e04a825649a4bb7c47

Although Zumwalt ships have an integrated suite of undersea sensors and a multi-function towed array, they are not equipped with onboard torpedo tubes, so they rely on their helicopters or ASROC missiles to destroy submarines that the sonar picks up.

Propulsion

The DDX proposed to use a permanent-magnet motor (PMM) within the hull. An alternate twin pod arrangement was rejected as the ramifications of pod drives would require too much development and validation cost to the vessel. The PMM is considered to be another technology leap and is the cause of some concern (along with the radar system) from Congress. As part of the design phase, Northrop Grumman had built the world’s largest permanent magnet motor, designed and fabricated by DRS Technologies. This proposal was dropped when the PMM motor failed to demonstrate that it was ready to be installed in time.

Zumwalt will have Converteam’s Advanced Induction Motors (AIM), rather than DRS Technologies’ Permanent Magnet-Synchronous Motors (PMM).Machinery_ConverteamAPM_001_zpsfc411de9Machinery_ConverteamAPM_002_zpsd29a68a5

Source: warships1discussionboards.yuku.com

Missile capacity

The original DD21 design, displacing around 16,000 tons, would have accommodated between 117 and 128 VLS cells. However, the final DDG-1000 design was considerably smaller than that of the DD21, resulting in room for only 80 VLS cells. Given the vessel’s expected role, the Zumwalt-class destroyers will likely carry many more Tomahawk missiles than either the Ticonderoga – or Arleigh Burke-class ships.

20 × MK 57 VLS modules, with a total of 80 launch cell

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Each VLS cell can be quad packed with RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missiles (ESSM). This gives a maximum theoretical ESSM load out of 320 missiles. The ESSM is considered a point defense weapon not generally used for fleet area defense, although the ESSM has a range (27 NM) exceeding that of the earlier Naval Tartar anti-aircraft missile (17.5 NM RIM-24C).
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Secondary guns

In 2005, a Critical Design Review (CDR) of the DDG-1000 led to the selection of the Mk 110 57 mm cannon to defend the destroyer against swarming attacks by small fast-boats; the Mk 110 has a rate of fire of 220 rpm and a range of 9 nmi (10 mi; 17 km). From then to 2010, various analysis efforts were conducted to assess potential cost-saving alternatives. Following a 2012 assessment using the latest gun and munition effectiveness information, it was concluded that the Mk 46 30 mm Gun System was more effective than the Mk 110 with increased capability, reduced weight, and significant cost avoidance. The Mk 46 has a rate of fire of 200 rpm and a range of 2.17 nmi (2.50 mi; 4.02 km)mk46iiisdufis2

Mk 46 30 mmMk4630mmgunweaponsystemaboardUSSMesaVerdeLPD19-38429Mk 46 30 mm Gun SystemAmericas-next-generation-Destroyer-has-set-sail-5800px-Uss_Zumwaltzumwalt (16)_bndc

Source: wikipedia/from the net

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