DDG 1000 Zumwalt, the first vessel built under the US Department of Defense’s DD(X) programme, was delivered to the US Navy in May 2016.
In November 2001, the US Department of Defense announced that the DD 21 programme had been revised and would now be known as DD(X). The programme focus would now be on a family of advanced technology surface combatants, rather than a single ship class.
A revised request for proposals was issued and in April 2002, Northrop Grumman Ship Systems, Ingalls was selected as the lead design agent for DD(X). Northrop Grumman led the ‘gold team’, which included Raytheon Systems Company as the systems integrator.
The ‘gold team’ proposal incorporates ‘blue team’ leader Bath Iron Works (a General Dynamics company) as a subcontractor for design and test activities. Other major subcontractors include Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems Land and Armaments (formerly United Defense) and Boeing.
In November 2005, DD(X) was approved for system development and demonstration (SDD). In April 2006, the USN announced that the first ship of the class will be designated DDG 1000 Zumwalt.
The second ship was named as Michael Monsoor (DDG 1001) in October 2008.
The USN budget for the 2007 and 2008 financial year provided funding for the first two ships to be built by General Dynamics Bath Iron Works and Northrop Grumman Ship Systems, rather than hold a competition, as was previously anticipated. Bath Iron Works received a $250m contract to provide detailed design for the Zumwalt Class destroyers, in 2007.
The US Navy awarded the contract for the construction of the first two ships to General Dynamics (DDG 1000) and Northrop Grumman (DDG 1001) in February 2008.
The construction of DDG 1000 began in February 2009 and that of DDG-1001 began in September 2009. The DDG 1000 was launched in October 2013. The DDG-1001 is expected to be delivered by 2017.
The 1000-ton deckhouse of the future USS Zumwalt (DDG 1000) is craned toward the deck of the ship
to be integrated with the ship’s hull at General Dynamics Bath Iron Works – December 2012 – seaforces.org
The number of ships required was planned to be between eight and 12 but, in July 2008, the US Navy announced that the DDG 1000 programme would be cancelled after completion of the first two ships. The USN will instead continue with construction of further Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) destroyers.
However, in August 2008, the USN announced its decision to provide funding for a third Zumwalt Class destroyer. In April 2009, it was announced the DDG-1000 programme would end with the third ship.
In August 2009, Temeku Technologies received a contract from the US Navy for the procurement of the flight deck lights (FDL) on Zumwalt Class destroyer.
In April 2010, Colfax Corporation received a contract from the US Navy to supply SMART technology systems to the first two DDG-1000 Zumwalt Class destroyers.
Ships in class
|Ship||Hull Number||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Status|
|Zumwalt||DDG-1000||17 November 2011||28 October 2013||15 October 2016||Active|
|Michael Monsoor||DDG-1001||23 May 2013||21 June 2016||Estimated 2019||Fitting out|
|Lyndon B. Johnson||DDG-1002||30 January 2017||Estimated 2018||Under construction|
Zumwalt Ship Facts
USS Zumwalt was launched at Bath Iron Works, Maine – October 28, 2013 (General Dynamics photo via USN)
Construction on DDG 1000 (ZUMWALT) commenced in February 2009. Launch of the ship occurred on Oct. 29, 2013. The ship is currently conducting Hull, Mechanical, and Electrical (HM&E) test and trials with a subsequent period to follow for Combat and Mission System Equipment installation, activation and test to follow.
DDG 1001 was named MICHAEL MONSOOR in October 2008 by then-Secretary of the Navy Donald Winter, honoring Petty Officer 2nd Class Michael Monsoor, a Navy SEAL who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions in Ramadi, Iraq, Sept. 29, 2006. DDG 1001 start of fabrication took place in October 2009. In July 2014, Huntington Ingalls Industries (HII) delivered the DDG 1001 composite deckhouse to the Navy.
In April 2012, DDG 1002 was named LYNDON B. JOHNSON by Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus. The selection of Lyndon B. Johnson honors the nation’s 36th president and continues the Navy tradition of naming ships after presidents. DDG 1002 start of fabrication took place April 4, 2012.
- DDG 1000 IS THE FIRST U.S. Navy surface combatant to employ an innovative and highly survivable Integrated Power System (IPS). Key design features that make the DDG 1000 IPS architecture unique include the ability to provide power to propulsion, ship’s service, and combat system loads from the same gas turbine prime movers. DDG 1000’s power allocation flexibility allows for potentially significant energy savings and is well-suited to enable future high energy weapons and sensors.
- THE WAVE-PIERCING TUMBLEHOME ship design has provided a wide array of advancements. The composite superstructure significantly reduces cross section and acoustic output making the ship harder to detect by enemies at sea. The design also allows for optimal manning with a standard crew size of 175 sailors, with an air detachment of 28 thereby decreasing lifecycle operations and support costs.
- MULTI-FUNCTION RADAR (MFR) DDG 1000 will employ active and passive sensors and a Multi-Function Radar (MFR) capable of conducting area air surveillance, including over-land, throughout the extremely difficult and cluttered sea-land interface.
- ADVANCED GUN SYSTEMS (AGS) Each ship features a battery of two Advanced Gun Systems (AGS) firing Long-Range Land Attack Projectiles (LRLAP) that reach up to 63 nautical miles, providing a three-fold range improvement in naval surface fires coverage.
- GENERAL DYNAMICS BATH IRON WORKS (BIW) is responsible for design, construction, integration, testing and delivery of the DDG 1000 class, and DDG 1002 steel deckhouse, hangar and aft Peripheral Vertical Launch System (PVLS). Huntington Ingalls Industries (HII) is responsible for the fabrication of the composite deckhouse, helo hangar and aft PVLS for DDG 1000 and DDG 1001. Raytheon is responsible for software development and integration with BAE providing the AGS and LRLAP.
- PEO SHIPS and its industry partners worked diligently to mature the ship’s design and ready industrial facilities to ensure this advanced surface combatant is built on cost and on schedule. At 85 percent complete, the DDG 1000 design was more mature at start of fabrication than any lead surface combatant in history.
DDG-1001, left on June 26, 2016 – mdc.idv.tw
Recent developments of the Zumwalt programme
The US Navy awarded a task order to CSC in March 2011 to provide engineering and programme support for the DDG 1000 Zumwalt class destroyer.
In February 2011, General Dynamics Bath Iron Works received a contract to provide additional systems engineering services, which deal with detail design and construction of the Zumwalt (DDG 1000) class destroyer.
In September 2011, General Dynamics Bath Iron Works received a $1.8bn fixed-price-incentive contract to build DDG 1001 and DDG 1002. The contract excludes the superstructure of DDG 1001 which is being built by Northrop Grumman’s spun-off shipbuilding arm Huntington-Ingalls Industries.
US NAVY – DDG 1000 – Zumwalt Class Destroyer, Tumblehome Hull
In addition to having reservations regarding the DDG 1000’s general sea handling characteristics, would like to have seen more studies and or testing specifically orientated to address possible negative effects and new limits placed upon the full range of tumblehome vessel to vessel movement and intervention maneuvers, relative to other hull forms such the standard ONR “topside flared freeboard” or “topside flam freeboard” hull design series and nearly ubiquitous with current frigate and destroyer classes.
Comparison images of obtuse angle (> 90 degrees) “V shape” (upper) and normal angle (~90 degrees) “H shape” or wallsided (center) hulls in Flam, convex (left) and Flare, concave (right) configurations compared to the acute angle (< 90 degrees) “inverted V shape” (lower) Tumblehome hull. phisicalpsience.com
Depending on sea state conditions and ship’s speed, this potentially large mass of water landing near or upon the forward AGS gun mount housing, resulting in undesirable additional exposure to high pressure water. The higher velocity water flowing over the lifting body like shape of the gun mount housings, given certain conditions while the bow is submerged, possibly resulting in hydrodynamic effects very similar to aerodynamic effects acting upon a foiled wing, generating a secondary lifting effect upon the gun mount. In very violent sea states, given a large volumes of water flowing over the gun mount housing, as the bow submerges below the water, perhaps sufficient in scale and velocity to lift if not wash away (exfoliate) the forward AGS gun mount from the weatherdeck, flooding the compartments below.
The signature like wash water characteristic shown with the model of the DDG 1000 being unique to the current list of commissioned US Naval combatant or non combatant ships currently on the vessel registry.
Laboratory tank test, still frame images of the USS Zumwalt, DDG 1000 Tumblehome hull sea worthiness and hull response characteristics (Defense News, Fall 2007) during moderate to high sea state conditions. In the still frame at left (Image above), the stern along with both screws at the bottom of the tumblehome hull have risen completely out of the water (red arrow) with the portside (left) rudder visible as a dark rectangular object. This type of situation, potentially leading to a non turn related broaching of the ship, as the vessel is no longer being steered by the rudder. The effectiveness of the propulsion system, with the twin screws out of water and the underside of the hull exposed, being seriously reduced.
The video still frame at right reveals the simulated sea state conditions (light blue line) used during the tank test (Image above), relative to the scaled DDG 1000 model and minus wind effects upon the superstructure in this case the deckhouse. The largest single cress to trough height of the simulated waves measuring approximately 28′ – 30’feet (~8.5 – 9.1 meters) or sea state (dark blue arrow), the steady state waves being ~18′ – 20′ ft (~5.4 – 6.1 m) or sea state  using a vessel freeboard height at the hanger bay of 22 feet (~6.7 meters) for scale. The conditions stated in the ONR tank test report being sea state or ~30′ – 46′ ft (~9 – 14 m) (Menard, 2010). The entire foredeck and most of the leading AGS gun mount, fully submerged below the advancing wave, as the ship’s less buoyant non flaring bow pierces low into the cress of the advancing wave, as appose to riding higher. The water directly striking the planar face of the gun mount visible as two upward columns of water (two red arrows).
The above waterline segment, or inward tapered, inverted prow section of the bow of the USS Zumwalt, rather than displacing water away from the hull and vessel’s path as it moves forward, instead causing just the opposite effect, with the encouraging of water to directly encroach upon the vessel’s weather deck. This dangerous volume of water for personnel topside, being composed of plied waters directly in front of the ship’s bow to water immediately aft, to the port and starboard (white arrow) of the inward sloping piercing bow and hull. Source phisicalpsience.com
Northrop Grumman completed DDG 1000 system design and 11 engineering development models (EDM) and the system-wide critical design review was successfully completed in September 2005. The EDMs include: advanced gun system, integrated power system, composite deckhouse, peripheral vertical launch system, integrated sonar system (with advanced towed array and high-frequency active sonar) and dual band radar suite. A decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer (USS Arthur W Radford) serves as the test platform for the DDG 1000.
DDG 1000 replaces the DD 21 Zumwalt programme, which was for a class of 32 multi-mission destroyers to replace Oliver Hazard Perry Class frigates (FFG 7) and Spruance class destroyers (DD 963) from 2012.
Oliver Hazard Perry class Guided Missile Frigate
Specifications (US Navy ships only)
|Builders:||Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine: FFG 8, 11, 13, 15, 29, 32, 36, 39, 42, 45, 49, 50, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59.
Todd Shipyards, Seattle, Washington: FFG 28, 31, 37, 40, 48, 52.
Todd Shipyards, San Pedro, California: FFG 9, 12, 14, 19, 23, 30, 33, 38, 41, 43, 46, 51, 54, 57, 60, 61.
|Displacement||“short hull”: 3800 tons (full) (3860 metric tons)
“long hull”: 4100 tons (full) (4166 metric tons)
|Length||“short hull”: 445 feet (133,50 meters)
“long hull”: 453 feet (135,90 meters)
|Beam||45 feet (13,50 meters)|
|Draft||24,5 feet (7,50 meters)|
|Max Speed||29+ knots (54+ km/h)|
|Propulsion||2 General Electric LM-2500 gas turbines; 1 shaft; 1 propeller (5 blades); 41000 shaft horsepower; 1 rudder;|
|Aircraft||“short hull”: 2 SH-2F ‘Seasprite’ (LAMPS I) helicopter (retired in 1993);
“long hull”: 2 SH-60 ‘Seahawk’ (LAMPS III) helicopters;
|1 Mk.13 Mod.4 missile launcher (36 RIM-66 Standard / SM-1MR and 4 Harpoon missiles);
M2/.50 cal. Machine Guns;
|Systems||AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar
AN/SPS-55 Surface Search Radar
Mk92 Fire Control System
AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare System
Mk36 SRBOC Decoy System
AN/SQR-19 Towed Array Sonar System
AN/SQQ-89 ASW Integration System
Unlike previous classes of destroyer, which were primarily to counter deep-water threats, the DD 21’s primary mission would be to provide land attack support for ground forces and carry out traditional destroyer missions of anti-air, anti-surface and undersea warfare.
In April 2012, DDG 1002 was named as USS Lyndon B. Johnson, after the nation’s 36th president.
The USS Lyndon B. Johnson will be the third Zumwalt-class destroyer. Construction on the vessel began on 4 April 2012, with delivery scheduled in 2018.
New U.S. Navy destroyer’s seaworthiness, stability questioned: Here
As is typical of tumblehomes, the hull slopes inward above the waterline, giving the Zumwalt something of a pyramid shape, which can cause problems in certain conditions, critics say.
Concerns have been voiced in the ship-design and shipbuilding communities about the warship’s overall stability — especially since any instability could be exacerbated if damage is sustained during battle, said Matthew Werner, dean at the Webb Institute, which teaches naval architecture and marine engineering.
Some Of The Numbers Behind The U.S. Navy’s New Zumwalt-Class Destroyer [Infographic]: Here
USS Mason, an Arleigh Burke destroyer, was attacked by missiles off the coast of Yemen last week. Even though the ship took defensive action and suffered no damage, the incident highlights one of the main reasons the Navy sought to acquire the Zumwalt in the first place. The new vessel is 40 percent larger than an Arleigh Burke destroyer but its radar cross-section is similar to that of a fishing boat, greatly reducing the threat of missile attack.
Despite the huge cost of the Zumwalt program, it should prove beneficial to the U.S. military as it seeks to develop a new destroyer by the early 2030s to eventually replace the Burke class. The Zumwalt ships are likely to be involved in the development of new advanced sensors and weapons including electromagnetically powered rail guns and lasers. It already wields a new gun system capable of firing 600 rocket-powered projectiles at targets over 70 miles away.
How the Navy’s Zumwalt-Class Destroyers Ran Aground: Here
Based on the Navy’s 1999 assurances that each ship would cost just $1.34 billion and that the whole 32-ship program would come in at $46 billion, Congress committed to fund the program. But by 2001, cost growth prompted the Navy to lower the projected class size to only 16 ships. And by 2005, with the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimating costs of well over $3 billion per ship, the Navy decided to drop the number of ships to be built to just seven. Flash-forward to today and the Navy has capped production at just three ships, with each costing over $4.2 billion in construction costs alone. Toss in over $10 billion for development costs, and you end up at more than $7 billion per ship. Amazingly, this is actually more than the $6.2 billion we paid for our last Nimitz-class aircraft carrier.
To make matters worse, this cost is still rising — the Navy actually took delivery of, and commissioned, a ship that is far from complete and years away from being ready for combat. To obfuscate this fact, many future “modernization costs,” new threat upgrades, and the like will appear, all funded under new programs with the goal of pumping more money into the Zumwalt to get it to where it should have been when it was commissioned. Unsurprisingly, as of May of 2016, the GAO reports that only three of eleven critical technologies the Zumwalt relies upon were considered mature.
U.S. Navy Second Zumwalt-Class Destroyer Michael Monsoor Started Sea Trials: Here
The second Zumwalt-class destroyer, the future USS Michael Monsoor (DDG 1001) sailed out of General Dynamics-Bath Iron Works (GD BIW) shipyard in Bath, Maine, yesteday for its very first sea trials (called builder trials). The Zumwalt-class is the largest class of destroyers ever built for the U.S Navy. This initial builder sea trials will help check basic systems onboard.
New Requirements for DDG-1000 Focus on Surface Strike: Here
The Navy is revamping the Zumwalt-class destroyer’s requirements and will morph it into a focused surface strike platform, the director of surface warfare (OPNAV N96) told USNI News today.
The ships were originally designed to support embarked forces ashore with long-range gunfire with GPS-guided shells fired at fixed targets. The new emphasis on surface strike would make the stealthy ship more effective against other surface ships in blue water as well as closer to shore.
Service leadership is reviewing the recommendations of a Zumwalt Requirements Evaluation Team, which sought to bring together acquisition, requirements and operational experts to generate a cost-effective plan that generations the most warfighting utility for the three DDG-1000 ships – using the same rapid requirements-generation model the Navy used for the frigate program.
The Navy’s stealth destroyers to get new weapons and a new mission: killing ships
US Zumwalt Destroyers may be armed with Nuclear Cruise Missiles in future
DDG 1000 Zumwalt Class design
DDG 1000 has a ‘tumblehome’ hull form, a design in which hull slopes inward from above the waterline. This significantly reduces the radar cross section since such a slope returns a much less defined radar image rather than a more hard-angled hull form.
Requirements for the integrated deckhouse EDM is that it is fully EMC (electromagetic compatibility) shielded with reduced infrared and radar signatures. Measures to fulfil these conditions include an all-composite superstructure, low-signature electronically steered arrays, an integrated multifunction mast, and low radar and infrared signatures. Other measures to reduce the vessel’s infrared signature include the development of an exhaust suppressor.
Harris Corporation has been awarded a contract for the development of the common data link (CDL) X/Ku-band phased array antenna systems, which are integrated into the integrated deckhouse assembly. The multibeam electronically steered antenna allows connectivity with up to eight CDL terminals.
The DDG 1000 has a displacement of 15,761t, with a sustained speed of 30kt.
Crew onboard the Multimission destroyer
DDG 1000 will have a crew of 158, including the aviation detachment. This represented major theoretical cost saving compared to crew levels of 330 on Spruance destroyers, and 200 on Oliver Hazard Perry frigates.
Zumwalt Class command and control
In November 2007, Raytheon IDS was awarded the contract as the prime mission systems integrator for all electronic and combat systems.
Raytheon delivered the first electronic modular enclosure (EME) for the Zumwalt Class destroyer (DDG 1000) in May 2010.
A diagram of the Zumwalt’s control systems and their connections to the Total Ship Computing Environment. arstechnica.com
The combat system is based on the total ship computing environment (TSCE), utilising open architecture, standardised software and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. Raytheon delivered more than six million lines of software for the DDG 1000 Zumwalt-class destroyer programme in January 2013.
General Dynamics is responsible for the common enterprise display system (CEDS).
Raytheon awarded contract for computer systems on Zumwalt-class destroyers: Here
Department of Defense officials announced Wednesday that Raytheon Co., Integrated Defense Systems has been awarded a modified $29 million contract for mission systems equipment for the Navy’s Zumwalt-class destroyer, the largest and most technologically advanced guided missile surface combatant ship in the world.
Raytheon has been contracted to deliver total ship computing environment hardware, and software research, test and development for the Zumwalt class of destroyers.
DDG 1000 features a sensor and weapons suite optimised for littoral warfare and for network-centric warfare. Northrop Grumman has proposed a solution based on a peripheral vertical launch system (PVLS).
The solution consists of 20 four-cell PVLS situated round the perimeter of the deck, rather than the usual centrally located VLS. This would reduce the ship’s vulnerability to a single hit.
The advanced vertical launch system (AVLS) that forms the basis of the PVLS was developed by BAE Systems Land and Armaments and Raytheon and has been designated the mk57 VLS.
Missile systems include tactical tomahawk (intended to succeed Tomahawk TLAM), standard missile SM-3 and the evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM) for air defence.
Tactical tomahawk Block IV TLAM-E
The Tactical Tomahawk is the latest and most advanced derivative of the Tomahawk cruise missile. It features the capability of reprogramming the missile while in-flight to attack another alternative target (flex-targeting), loitering capability over a target area for some time, battle damage assessment through on-board TV camera and production costs around a half of existing Block III missiles. The Tactical Tomahawk incorporates COTS technology to achieve the objective production costs. The Block IV missile will have a 15-year warranty and recertification cycle, compared to the Block III variant’s eight-year recertification cycle.
Diameter: 518 millimeter (20.4 inch)
Length: 6.25 meter (246 inch)
Wingspan: 2.67 meter
Max Range: 1,800 kilometer (972 nautical mile)
Top Speed: 1,008 kph (0.84 mach)
Service Life: 15 year
Warhead: 450 kilogram (992 pound)
Weight: 1,588 kilogram (3,501 pound)
Standard missile SM-3
Note: Data given by several sources show slight variations. Figures given below may therefore be inaccurate!
Data for RIM-161A:
|Length (incl. booster)||6.55 m (21 ft 6 in)|
|Finspan||1.57 m (61.8 in)|
|Diameter||0.34 m (13.5 in)|
|Speed||9600 km/h (6000 mph)|
|Ceiling||> 160 km (100 miles)|
|Range||> 500 km (270 nm)|
|Propulsion||Booster: United Techologies MK 72 solid-fueled rocket
Sustainer: Atlantic Research Corp. MK 104 dual-thrust solid-fueled rocket
3rd stage: Alliant Techsystem MK 136 solid-fueled rocket
|Warhead||Hit-to-kill kinetic warhead (KW)|
SM-3 data designation-systems.net
Evolved Sea Sparrow missile (ESSM)
RIM-162 ESSM was developed by the U.S. Navy in cooperation with an international consortium of other NATO partners plus Australia. ESSM is a short-range, semi-active homing missile that makes flight corrections via radar and midcourse data uplinks. The missile provides reliable ship self-defense capability against agile, high-speed, low-altitude anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs), low velocity air threats (LVATs), such as helicopters, and high-speed, maneuverable surface threats. ESSM is integrated with a variety of U.S. and international launchers and combat systems across more than 10 different navies.
Primary Function: Surface-To-Air and Surface-To-Surface radar-guided missile.
Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems, Tuscson, Ariz.
Date Deployed: 2004
Unit Cost: $787000 – $972000 depending on configuration
Propulsion: NAMMO-Raufoss, Alliant (solid fuel rocket)
Length: 12 feet (3,64 meters)
Diameter: 8 inches (20,3 cm) – 10 inches (25,4 cm)
Weight: 622 pounds (280 kilograms)
Speed: Mach 4+
Range: more than 27 nmi (more than 50 km)
Guidance System: Raytheon semi-active on continuous wave or interrupted continuous wave illumination
Warhead: Annular blast fragmentation warhead, 90 pounds (40,5 kg)
RIM-162 ESSM data Source seaforces.org
The Standard Missile-6 (SM-6)—also known as the RIM-174—retains the Standard Missile airframe and propulsion elements and incorporates the advanced signal processing and guidance control capabilities of the Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM). It is the latest addition to the Standard Missile family of fleet air defense missiles and provides Joint Force and Strike Force Commanders fleet air defense against fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and land-attack anti-ship cruise missiles in flight. The cost to obtain and maintain the SM-6 is also comparatively lower, allowing more defensive interceptors to be employed in the battlespace, enhancing the U.S. Navy’s fleet air defense capability against numerous airborne threats.
The SM-6 is vital to the U.S. Navy’s Naval Integrated Fire Control—Counter Air (NIFC-CA) and provides surface vessels with increased battlespace protection against over-the-horizon anti-warfare threats. Retaining the Standard Missile legacy, the SM-6’s operational modes include semi-active homing and active homing to provide highly accurate target engagement. The SM-6 is vertically launched from a MK 41 VLS canister and is compatible with existing Aegis cruisers and destroyers. The missile interceptor receives midcourse flight control from the Aegis Combat System via the ship’s radar. Terminal flight control is autonomous via the missile’s active seeker or supported by the Aegis Combat System via the ship’s illuminator.
Dual-Mission Capability The SM-6 has dual-mission capability, meaning it can defend against both cruise and ballistic missile threats. This capability is called SM-6 Dual I and is designed to intercept short-range theater ballistic missiles in the terminal phase of their trajectory. SM-6 Dual I adds a critical layer to the ballistic missile defense network of the U.S. Navy. In 2015, the SM-6 Dual I was tested three times and successfully demonstrated its Sea-Based Terminal role (SBT) against ballistic missiles as well as its Air Warfare capability.
Similar to its precursor—the SM-2—the SM-6 also has limited offensive capabilities, and, when equipped with GPS, can carry out strikes on land and sea targets at a range of 200 miles. This new anti-ship capability is aimed at countering the surface strike threat posed by Chinese naval vessels with long-range anti-ship cruise missiles and would force them to stand off at ranges more favorable to U.S. aircraft carriers.
SM-6 Block I The Block I has a Dual-Mode Seeker (Active and Semi-Active), a solid rocket booster, and dual thrust solid rocket motors. In 2013, the SM-6 Block I reached Initial Operating Capability when it was deployed aboard U.S. Aegis Destroyer the USS Kidd (DDG-100). During a test intercept in June 2014, the SM-6 Block I—fired from the USS John Paul Jones (DDG 53)—conducted the longest surface-to-air engagement in naval history. In 2015, the Block I carried out two successful intercepts, both of which involved cruise missile targets that were using electronic attacks against either the SM-6 missile or the Aegis shipboard radar. In February 2016, the two SM-6 Block I missiles successfully intercepted two cruise missile targets simultaneously.
SM-6 Block IA This SM-6 configuration is designed to address hardware and software improvements and advanced threats. In November 2014, the Block IA successfully intercepted a subsonic cruise missile over land, marking the second successful flight test of the SM-6 variant. This SM-6 variant was again successfully tested in June 2017 during a land-based test at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The successful test advanced the missile to the sea-based testing phase, possibly paving the way for low-rate production by the end of the year.
SM-6 Dual I The Dual I is designed to counter ballistic missiles in the terminal phase of their trajectory as well as cruise missiles and other air breathing threats. Dual I upgrades include a more powerful processor that runs a more sophisticated targeting software that allows the SM-6 Dual I to identify, track, and intercept targets descending from the upper atmosphere at high velocity. During an intercept test in July 2015, the SM-6 Dual I demonstrated its dual-mission capability when it successfully intercepted a short-range ballistic missile target, in addition to two different kinds of cruise missile targets. Source missiledefenseadvocacy.org
|General Characteristics, SM-2 Block III/IIIA/IIIB Medium Range|
|Primary Function: Surface to air missile.|
|Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems.|
|Date Deployed: 1981 (SM-2 MR).|
|Propulsion: Dual thrust, solid fuel rocket.|
|Length: 15 feet, 6 inches (4.72 meters).|
|Diameter: 13.5 inches (34.3 cm).|
|Wingspan: 3 feet 6 inches (1.08 meters).|
|Weight: SM-2: 1,558 pounds (708 kg).|
|Range: Up to 90 nautical miles (104 statute miles).|
|Guidance System: Semi-active radar homing (IR in Block IIIB).|
|Warhead: Radar and contact fuse, blast-fragment warhead.|
|General Characteristics, SM-2 Block IV Extended Range|
|Primary Function: Fleet and extended area air defense.|
|Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems.|
|Date Deployed: 1998|
|Propulsion: Two-stage solid fuel rockets.|
|Length: 21 feet 6 inches with booster (6.55 meters).|
|Diameter: 21 inches (booster) (34.3 cm).|
|Wingspan: 3 feet 6 inches (1.08 meters).|
|Weight: 3,225 pounds (1466 kg).|
|Range: 100-200 nautical miles (115-230 statute miles).|
|Guidance System: Semi-active radar homing.|
|Warhead: Radar and contact fuse, blast-fragment warhead.|
|General Characteristics, SM-6 Block I Extended Range|
|Primary Function: Extended Range Anti Air Warfare with Over the Horizon Capability
Seeker: Dual-Mode Seeker (Active and Semi-Active)
|Contractor: Raytheon Missile Systems|
|Date Deployed: Currently in Low Rate Initial Production, Initial Operating Capability scheduled for 2013|
|Propulsion: Solid rocket booster, dual thrust solid rocket motor|
|Length: Approx. 21 feet, 6 inches|
|Wingspan: Approx. 3 feet, 6 inches|
|Weight: Approx. 3,300 lbs.|
BAE Systems Land and Armaments has been awarded the contract to develop the EDM for the ship’s advanced gun system (AGS), building on development work carried out for DD-21.
It is equipped with a fully automated weapon handling and storage system and a family of advanced munitions and propelling charges, including the GPS-guided long-range land attack projectile (LRLAP). Up to 900 rounds of LRAP ammunition is carried.
Lockheed Martin has been awarded the contract for the LRAP EDM.
The family of munitions includes land attack and ballistic projectiles. Technologies derived from the US Navy’s extended-range guided munition (ERGM), the US Army 155mm XM-982 projectiles and the DTRA 5in projectile are being studied for incorporation into the projectile suite.
BAE Systems Land and Armaments developed advanced gun barrel technologies for the new AGS, with improvements to barrel life, overall system performance and lifecycle costs.
Advanced Gun System (AGS)
The Advanced Gun System is a 155 mm naval gun, two of which would be installed in each ship. This system consists of an advanced 155 mm gun and the Long Range Land-Attack Projectile. This projectile is in fact a rocket with a warhead fired from the AGS gun; the warhead weighs 11 kg / 24 lb and has a circular error of probability of 50 meters. This weapon system will have a range of 83 nautical miles (154 km) and the fully automated storage system will have room for up to 750 rounds. The barrel is water cooled to prevent over-heating and allows a rate of fire of 10 rounds per minute per gun. The combined firepower from a pair of turrets gives each Zumwalt-class destroyer firepower equivalent to 18 conventional M198 field guns. Source seaforces.org
In 2012 BAE proposed a light-weight version of the AGS for use on the DDG-51 Flight III class that had a simpler mounting. Called the “155mm Advanced Gun System-Lite (AGS-L),” this mounting would have limited ammunition compared to the 5″/62 (12.7 cm) Mark 45 Mod 4 or the standard AGS.
In November 2016 the USN announced that it was abandoning the LRLAP round as its cost had soared to $800,000 to $1 million US per round. A total of 90 rounds had been purchased as of this date primarily for evaluation testing. As AGS was designed specifically for the LRLAP and cannot use any other munition, this basically means that the 155 mm guns on these ships are useless until an alternative round can be developed, probably many years in the future.
In February 2017, Italy-based Leonardo announced a program to verify and test its Vulcano guided ammunition for possible use with the AGS. For data on the Vulcano munitions, see the Italy 127 mm/64 datapage.
Unless otherwise noted, the data that follows is for the standard AGS gun and mounting.
|Designation||155 mm/62 (6.1″) Mark 51 AGS|
|Ship Class Used On||AGS – Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class [formerly DD(X) class]
AGS-L – proposed for DDG-51 class
|Date Of Design||1996|
|Date In Service||Planned introduction 2008|
|Gun Length oa||N/A|
|Bore Length||about 378 in (9.610 m)|
|Chamber Volume||1,800 in3 (29.5 dm3)|
|Rate Of Fire||AGS: 10 rounds per minute
AGS-L: 5 to 6 rounds per minute
- This weapon was originally designed with a triangular barrel, but this has been dropped in favor of a conventional cylindrical, water-cooled design.
- A 2003 MIT study recommended that a prototype be mounted on USS Thorn (DD-988) for evaluation purposes, but this idea was not carried out and Thorn was sunk as a target in July 2006.
US Navy DDG 1000 Zumwalt have no money for ammo: Here
The LRLAP is the only munition designed to be fired from the DDG 1000’s Advanced Gun System (AGS), a 155mm/62-caliber gun with an automated magazine and handling system. Each of the three Zumwalts will carry two of the guns – the largest weapons to be designed for and fitted on a warship since World War II.
But the LRLAP’s unit price has jumped steadily as the numbers of Zumwalt-class destroyers were cut. From a total of 28 ships, to seven, and finally to three, the class shrank and costs did not.
“We were going to buy thousands of these rounds,” said a Navy official familiar with the program. “But quantities of ships killed the affordable round.”
Navy has no plan to introduce new ammo for Zumwalt destroyers: Here
It’s been more than a year since the Navy decided to cancel procurement of an expensive new ammunition for its Zumwalt-class destroyers, but the service is still pondering how to best replace the munition, a Navy official said Wednesday.
In 2016, the Navy decided to stop buying the Long Range Land-Attack Projectile, or LRLAP, after discovering that its price had spiked to $800,000 per round. LRLAP was the only ammo developed specifically for the ship’s Advanced Gun System.
The problem, sources told Defense News then, didn’t lie with manufacturer Lockheed Martin, but with a program of record that decreased to three ships, making it impossible to benefit from economies of scale.
The ship’s close-in gun system (CIGS) is the BAE Systems Land and Armaments 57mm mk110 naval gun. The gun has a firing rate of 220 rounds a minute and range of 14km (nine miles). Raytheon IDS is supplying the ship’s electro-optical / infrared suite, which has five Lockheed Martin sensors and provides 360° surveillance and gun fire control.
Navy Swaps Out Anti-Swarm Boat Guns on DDG-1000s: Here
The following is NAVSEA’s complete statement to USNI News:
At the time of DDG 1000 Critical Design Review in 2005, the MK110 (57mm) close-in gun system (CIGS) was selected to meet the DDG 1000 ORD Key Performance Parameter. The basis of that decision was the expected performance of the gun and its munition, coupled with desire for commonality in USN and USCG. Through 2010, various analysis efforts were conducted to assess the performance of potential cost-saving alternatives to the Mk 110 CIGS, for both procurement and life-cycle costs. The results of the analysis for alternative systems to the MK110 CIGS were not conclusive enough to recommend a shift in plan.
A follow on 2012 assessment using the latest gun and munition effectiveness information, concluded that the MK46 was more effective than the MK110 CIGS. Based on that assessment, approval was received to change from the MK 110 CIGS to the MK 46 Gun System. In addition to the increased capability, the change from MK110 to MK46 resulted in reduction in weight and significant cost avoidance, while still meeting requirements. DDG 1000 is planned to have two medium range MK46, 30mm Close-in Gun Systems that will provide a robust rapid fire capability and increased lethality against hostile surface targets approaching the ship. Source usni.org
Mk 46 30 mm
Mk 46 30 mm Gun System
The Mark 46 GWS is a remotely operated naval gun system that uses a 30mm high velocity cannon, a forward looking infrared sensor, a low light television camera, and a laser rangefinder for shipboard self-defense against small, high speed surface targets. The gun can be operated locally at the gun turret or remotely at the remote operating console in the Combat Information Center (LPD 17 & DDG 1000 classes)/Mission Control Center (LCS class).
The requirements documents for the DDG 1000, LPD 17 and LCS ship programs included the need for weapons systems capable of defeating small, fast, highly maneuverable surface craft. The Mark 46 GWS was selected to provide these ships a capability against small surface craft. The Mark 46 GWS is permanently installed aboard LPD 17 class ships. It is part of the Navy designed and developed surface warfare mission module for LCS class ships.
The Mark 46 Mod 2 GWS incorporates new open architecture, fault isolation software and an embedded trainer. The embedded trainer allows the operator to perform training exercises from the remote console without operating or supplying power to the turret.
|Primary Function: Shipboard self-defense against small, high-speed surface craft.|
|Date Deployed: 2005 (Mark 46 Mod 1)|
|Range: 4,400 yards – max effective range for full caliber ammunition. Effective range can be extended with sub-caliber munitions. Rate of Fire: 200 rounds/minute. Modes of fire: single round, five-round burst, or fully automatic. Gun may be fired locally at the gun mount or remotely from the Combat Information Center.|
|Magazine Capacity: 400 rounds (dual feed, 200 per side).|
|Caliber: The Mark 46 Mod 2 GWS includes the Mk 44 Mod 2 30mm cannon, a single barrel, open bolt, dual feed, electrically powered, chain driven automatic cannon.|
|Guidance System: A forward-looking infrared sensor, a low-light television camera, and a laser range finder provides inputs to a closed loop tracking system.|
|Platforms: Mark 46 Mod 2 – LPD 17 class (2 mounts per ship), DDG 1000 class (2 mounts per ship) and LCS class (2 mounts per ship).|
Radar and sonar aboard the Zumwalt Class destroyer
The radar suite comprises dual-band radar for horizon and volume search, a Lockheed Martin S-band volume search radar (VSR) integrated with the AN/SPY-3 multifunction radar already being developed by Raytheon for the US Navy. The two radars are to be integrated at waveform level for enhanced surveillance and tracking capability.
The AN/SPY-3 multifunction radar (MFR) is an X-band active phased-array radar designed to detect low-observable anti-ship cruise missiles and support fire-control illumination for the ESSM and standard missiles.
AN/SPY-3 active electronically scanned array primarily X band radar
Dual Band Radar (DBR) is an active phased array radar system encompassing an X-band multi-functional radar known as AN/SPY-3 and an S-band Volume Search Radar (VSR) in a complementary manner to provide surveillance, target tracking and engagement support capabilities superior to those of conventional single-band radars. It is being developed for the US Navy’s DD(X)/DDG1000 destroyer program with Raytheon acting as the prime contractor and Lockheed Martin as subcontractor. In addition to DDG1000 Zumwalt-class destroyers, the DBR radar system will be installed on the CVN-21/CVN-78 aircraft carrier class and next generation amphibious landing ships.
The AN/SPY-3 is an active phased array X-band, multifunctional horizon search and fire control radar provided as the X-band radar for the DBR. It is anticipated that the SPY-3 radar system will combine the functions of more than five separate radar systems aboard current US Navy fighting ships. The DBR/SPY-3 radar system meets the requirements for low radar cross section, reduced manning, and low maintenance and service life costs. Its development began in 1999 and the first prototype was delivered to the US Navy in 2003. Source deagel.com
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 1005840 m|
|Range Max: 324.1 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.2 km||Generation: Early 2010s|
|Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA), Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination|
|SENSORS / EW:|
|AN/SPY-3 MFR – (DDG 1000, AESA) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface, Long-Range
Max Range: 324.1 km
Diagram of AN/SPY-3 vertical electronic pencil beam radar conex projections
The ship’s Raytheon AN/SQQ-90 integrated undersea warfare system includes AN/SQS-60 hull-mounted mid frequency sonar, AN/SQS-61 hull-mounted high-frequency sonar and AN/SQR-20 multifunction towed array sonar and handling system.
AN/SQS-60 hull-mounted mid frequency sonar, AN/SQS-61 hull-mounted high-frequency sonar
Two types of sonar arrays are gathered together in a single solution known as the Integrated Undersea Warfare system. High-frequency sonar is able to detect underwater minefields, while medium-frequency sonar sniffs out submarines and torpedoes. The dual-band sonar array is located in the bow of the ship, in a bulbous compartment that provides complete 360-degree coverage of the underwater environment. Source science.howstuffworks.com
AN/SQS-60 hull-mounted mid frequency sonar
The AN/SQS-60 is a hull-mounted mid-frequency sonar designed as part of the AN/SQQ-90 undersea warfighting capability for the US Navy’s DDG 1000 Zumwalt-class destroyer. Source deagel.com
|Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 29.6 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Early 2010s|
|SENSORS / EW:|
|AN/SQS-60 – (DDG 1000, MF) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 29.6 km
AN/SQS-61 hull-mounted high-frequency sonar
|Type: Hull Sonar, Active-Only||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 1.9 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Early 2010s|
|Properties: Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Shallow Water Capable (Full) [Classification Flag Required]|
|Sensors / EW:|
|AN/SQS-61 – (DDG 1000, HF) Hull Sonar, Active-Only
Role: Hull Sonar, Active-Only Shallow Water High-Definition Mine & Obstacle Avoidance
Max Range: 1.9 km
TB-37/U (AN/SQR-20) Multi-Function Towed Array (MFTA)
The Lockheed Martin AN/SQR-20 Multi-Function Towed Array (MFTA) is a passive and active sonar receiver configured as a long three inch diameter array that can be towed behind surface ships. The MFTA has been designed to support the US Navy’s AN/SQQ-89A(V)15 antisubmarine warfare combat system replacing the AN/SQR-19 tactical towed array system (TACTAS). Compared with its predecessor, the MFTA offers several enhancements enabling greater coverage and increased capability and reliability. It contributes to the capability of surface ships to detect, localize and prosecute undersea threats, and is a critical sensor for the ship’s combat systems suite. The MFTA towed array system is scheduled for integration aboard latest Burke-class destroyers and upgraded Ticonderoga-class cruisers and slated for use on future DDG 1000 destroyers and the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). Source deagel.com
|Type: TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 129.6 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Early 2010s|
|SENSORS / EW:|
|TB-37/U MFTA [AN/SQR-20] – (2010, CG Version) TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System
Role: TASS, Passive-Only Towed Array Sonar System
Max Range: 129.6 km
The DDG 1000 ship design includes two landing spots for helicopters.
AN/SLQ-32(V)6 System ESM (?)
EWIP Block 2 System on DDG-96 for operational testing (Lower right square shaped) – lockheedmartin.com
|Type: ESM||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 926 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Early 2010s|
|Sensors / EW:|
|AN/SLQ-32(V)6 [ESM] – ESM
Max Range: 926 km
CG/DD 21 IR
|Type: Infrared||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 185.2 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)|
|Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]|
|Sensors / EW:|
|CG/DD 21 IR – Infrared
Role: Infrared, Target Search, Slaved Tracking and Identification Camera
Max Range: 185.2 km
All electric propulsion system
Zumwalt is the first US Naval surface combatant to feature all-electric propulsion. The DDG 1000 integrates an all-electric drive with an integrated power system (IPS) consisting of two main turbine generators (MTG), two auxiliary turbine generators (ATG) and two 34.6MW advanced induction motors (AIM).
The electric drive eliminates the need for drive shaft and reduction gears and brings benefits in acoustic signature reduction, an increase in available power for weapon systems and improvements in the quality of life for crew. The all-electric propulsion of Zumwalt also generates 58MW of additional reserved power allowing the integration of future high-energy weapons and sensors.
DRS Technologies’ power technology unit received development contracts for the PMM motors, electric drive and control system for the IPS.
Most warships today use a traditional mechanical-drive propulsion system with two separate sets of turbines – one for propulsion, the other for generating electricity for shipboard use. The drawback to this type of propulsion system is an inability to shift power to where it’s needed most on the ship. Weapons, for example, can’t borrow power from the propellers during battle. The Zumwalt class destroyer will overcome this problem with an Integrated Power System, or IPS.
Here’s how the IPS works. The ship’s engines will no longer be connected to the propellers. Instead, the engines – four marine gas turbines that Rolls-Royce describes as the most powerful gas turbines available today – will power generators that produce a total of 80 megawatts of electricity. That electrical power will then be distributed to most of the ship’s systems and the electric motors that will drive the propellers. Because the power is centralized, it can be distributed as necessary to high-demand systems. Source science.howstuffworks.com
However in September 2007, Converteam (formerly Alsthom Power Conversion) was awarded the contract for the IPS with a solution based on advanced induction motors (AIM). In August 2009 Converteam received another contract from the US Navy to supply long-lead materials for Zumwalt Class destroyer DDG-1000 under the high-voltage power subsystem (HVPS) project.
The Rolls-Royce MT30 36MW gas turbine generator set has been selected to power the IPS EDM. Rolls-Royce delivered the first set in February 2005. Rolls-Royce was awarded a contract for four MT30 sets for the first two DDG-1000 destroyers in March 2007.
Rolls-Royce MT30 36MW gas turbine generator
The MT30 has 80% commonality with the Rolls-Royce Trent 800 aero engine and Rolls-Royce states that it is the most powerful marine gas turbine in the world. CAE supplies the integrated platform management system.
GE Power Conversion was chosen to supply electric propulsion and power management systems for three Zumwalt Class vessels.
|Displacement:||approx. 14500 tons (full load)|
|Speed:||30+ knots (56 km/h)|
|Propulsion:||Integrated Power System (IPS)
78 megawatts installed power
2 Main Gas Turbines (Rolls-Royce Marine Trent-30) – 78 Megawatt (105000 shp)
|Aircraft:||flight deck and hangar for up to 2 SH-60B or MH-60R helicopter
or 3 MQ-8 Fire Scout VT-UAV’s
|Armament:||20 x Mk.57 VLS modules (80 launch cells)
> RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM) – 4 per cell
> BGM-109 Tactical Tomahawk Block IV Vertical Launch – 1 per cell
> RUM-139 Vertical Launch Anti-Submarine Rocket (VL-ASROC) – 1 per cell
2 x 155mm Advanced Gun System (AGS)
2 x Mk.110 57mm Close-in-Weapon-System (CIWS)
|Radar:||AN/SPY-3 Multi-Function Radar|
Main material source naval-technology.com
Revised Dec 10, 2017
Updated Feb 18, 2018