Daily Archives: November 1, 2015

Type 87 self-propelled anti-aircraft gun

The Type 87 SPAAG (self-propelled anti-aircraft gun) (87式自走高射機関砲 hati-nana-shiki-jisou-kousya-kikan-hou?) is aJapanese air defense weapon built around the Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon system used on the Gepard tank. The system uses a modified Type 74 tank chassis. It is also nicknamed by field officers as Guntank after the similar looking mobile suit in the Mobile Suit Gundam series.

JGSDF_Type74_Tank(20080113)Japanese Type-74 Tank

It had been developed in 1987, given the Type 87 designation status, with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries providing the chassis and Japan Steel Works providing the cannon system. Initially, the chassis of the Type 61 tank would be used. Later, it had been rejected and had the chassis of the Type 74 tank used instead as a basis for producing the Type 87 SPAAG.

Oerlikon KD series 35mm cannon

WNIT_35mm-90_KDC_GDM-A_dimensions_picOerlikon KD series 35mm cannon

The Oerlikon 35mm Twin Cannon was developed and manufactured by Oerlikon-Bührle Switzerland (now Oerlikon Contraves) in the 1950s.

It is this as an anti-aircraft antiaircraft gun named 2 ZLA / 353 ML which later changed into and changed from GDF-001 Manufactured in 1980 under the name GDF-002 as a further developed weapon system.

The typical fire unit (35 mm antiaircraft train) consists of an all-weather fire-control radar system “SKYGUARD” (fire control unit 79), an optical target allocator and two 35mm twin antiaircraft guns 85 (35 mm ZFlAK 85). The system is widespread and conflict-prone, with more than 2,000 guns launched in about 30 countries.


Caliber: 35mm
Tubes: 2
Pipe length: 3,15m turning radius
: max. 4.63 m
Swivel range: 360 °
Maximum swivel speed: 56 ° / sec vertical, 112 ° / sec. horizontal
pipe elevation: + 92 ° / -5 °
cadence per pipe: 550 rounds / minute = 1,100 rounds / minute
gun ammunition: 280 shells
maximum effective range: 4,000 m vertical
crew: 1 at gun + 2
establishing fire readiness: 90 seconds
weight ready to fire including ammunition: 7,700 kg

Prior to its development, tests had begun underway in 1982 with a prototype SPAAG unit manufactured in 1983.

Source rcpanzer.ch


In 2010, it was reported that the Japan Self-Defense Forces had 52 of these vehicles in service.


Weight 44 t
Length Hull: 6.7 m (20 ft)
Width 3.2 m (10 ft 6 in)
Height 4.10 m (13 ft 5 in)
(radar up-erected)
Crew 3

Armor steel, classified
2 × 35 mm KDA autocannon
2 × 3 smoke grenade dischargers
Engine Mitsubishi 10ZF Type 22 10-cylinderair-cooled diesel engine
750 hp (560 kW)
Power/weight 17 hp/ton
Suspension hydropneumatic
300 km (190 mi)
Speed 53 km/h (33 mph)


Source: Wiki, www.wikiwand.com/ja/エリコンKD_35_mm_機関砲,  military-informer.narod.ru

JL-9 (JianLian-9 ) / FTC-2000 Trainer / Light Attack Aircraft, China

JianLian-9 (JL-9) is an advance trainer or light attack aircraft designed and manufactured by the Guizhou Aircraft Industry Corporation (GAIC) of China. The aircraft was designed for the People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) and the People’s Liberation Army Naval Air Force (PLANAF).

Its export version is designated as FTC-2000 (Fighter Trainer-2000) Mountain Eagle (Shanying). The JL-9 was derived from its forerunner, the JJ-7 jet trainer.


  • FTC-2000: Original model and export designation.
  • FTC-2000G: Variant with improved multi-role capabilities.
  • JL-9: Initial PLA variant.
  • JL-9G: PLANAF carrier-trainer variant

Source wikipedia.org

Operators: Here

JL-9 development

The JL-9 was built to suit the desperate requirements of the PLAAF for a new trainer aircraft to match its new generation fighters in aerodynamic performance and avionics suite. The aircraft is being used to train pilots flying fourth-generation aircraft such as Chengdu J-10, Sukhoi Su-27SK, Sukhoi Su-30MKK and Shenyang J-11.



Shenyang J-11: Details

The intention to develop the JL-9 was unveiled by GAIC during the China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition held in 2001. To reduce development costs and time, GAIC built the JL-9 by modifying the JJ-7 aircraft, which was derived from the Soviet MiG-21U Mongol fighter trainer.

The first JL-9 prototype took its maiden flight in December 2003. The aircraft was listed in the PLAAF’s 11th five-year procurement plan in June 2005, according to Chinese newspapers. A total of five production JL-9s entered service with PLAAF in 2006.

An advanced version of the JL-9 equipped with a stability control augmentation system and a microwave landing system was examined in 2006. On completion of technology certification testing in September 2006, it entered into series production for PLAAF and PLANAF. Another version of the aircraft, incorporated with a tail hook, underwent flight testing in January 2011.

JL-9 design and features


The JL-9 was designed by modifying the JJ-7 aircraft. The modifications included redesigning the forward fuselage and incorporating an FIAR Grifo S7 pulse-doppler fire-control radar in the solid nose radome. It was designed to carry either three drop tanks of 480l capacity or two 480l and one 720l capacity drop tanks under the wings and fuselage. It can hover with a flight envelope of +8g and -3g.

show_mop-2JL-9 (top) and JL-9G (bottom)

FIAR Grifo S7 pulse-doppler fire-control radar

• Multimode pulse doppler
• Antenna tailored to the installation with guard horns and IFF dipoles
• Open architecture
• Worldwide most powerful, air cooled, TWT transmitter
• Advanced processor
• Broad suite of air-to-air, air-to-surface and navigation modes
• Full set of ECCM provisions
• Compatible with BVR missiles
• High reliability
• Ready for electronic scanning antenna
• Growth capability of the existing, field proven, set of radar modes including sensor fusion with IRST and additional Customer request.

Source leonardocompany.com

The aircraft features an in-flight refuelling probe on the starboard side of the front fuselage section to accomplish air refuelling missions even in the worst climatic conditions. It is fitted with double-delta wings to render additional space for fuel capacity and raise the aircraft’s angle of attack.


JL-9/FTC-2000  – avic

The FTC-2000 is an aircraft capable of advanced training tasks for fighter pilots. It can be used by three generations of pilots for primer fighting training and tactical training missions. It also features a capacity for air/ground combat.


JL-9G/FTC-2000G – chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com

In order to adapt to the carrier operation environment, JL-9G features some extensive modifications. They include strengthened landing gears and enlarged wings. Leading edge slaps and leading edge root extensions were installed in order to reduce the take-off and landing speed at higher AOA. Consequently the twin ventral stabilizing fins were removed. It also features a taller tailfin offering more stability during the high AOA take-off and landing. New DSIs were installed as well which reduce the weight. JL-9G made its maiden flight in 2009 at GAAC.

The first one (#423) had a tail arresting hook installed. However the hook turned out to be causing too much stress to the fuselage and therefore was unsuitable for arrested landing. Therefore JL-9G can only simulate taking-off from the ski-jump and landing without arresting under the guidance of LSO and OLS. It is expected to support the carrier based J-15 fighter as a stop-gap measure until the dedicated J-15S trainer enters the service. However it was reported in November 2016 that GAAC is currently working on a carrier-based version whichwould feature a redesigned rear fuselage with a WS-13E turbofan engine and an arresting hook installed. It was first reported in November 2013 that JL-9G was entering the service with PLAN (S/N 83x0x) without the tail arresting hook. Source chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com

JL-9G  –JL-9G/FTC-2000G – chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com


FTC-2000G has remarkable maneuverability in high transonic regions at medium and low altitudes, with a low speed and take-off/landing capacity. The flight envelope is wide with broad field of view for pilots to control the front and rear cabin.



The air equipment and weapon system is fully equipped with remarkable safety and reliability to replace both the Alpha Jet and the FT-7 in accomplishing basic and senior training tasks with other primer fighting and tactic tasks.





After completing advanced training, it can be modified into F-7 planes to cultivate and retain excellent fighter pilots. The FTC-2000G has adopted a cutting edge wing design and a unique BUMP inlet on the front and back flap of large areas for a four generational aircraft. That, and other advanced technology, gives the aircraft a wide flight envelope with an excellent flight performance and quality. Source avic

FTC-2000G_3viewJL-9G/FTC-2000G  – chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com




The JL-9 features an all digital cockpit enclosed with an oval-shaped glass canopy, which opens to the right side. The aircraft can conciliate a two-man crew in tandem-seat configuration to render better visibility.

The cockpit is equipped with three XPS-2 multifunctional displays, a head-up display, a radar warning receiver, electronic countermeasures and an electronic flight instrumentation system. Other features include a 1553B MILSTD databus, an inertial navigation system, a global positioning system and an air data computer.


JL-9G/FTC-2000G  – avic

The JL-9 is armed with one Type 23-1 23mm single barrel cannon, which can fire munitions at a rate of 800 rounds per minute. The muzzle velocity is 690m per second and the weight of the gun is 39kg.

The aircraft boasts five hardpoints, four under the wings and one under the centreline fuselage section. It can carry up to 2,000kg of payload including short range and medium range air to air missiles, air to ground missiles, unguided bombs and rocket pods.






The JL-9 is powered by a single WP-13F (C) afterburning turbojet engine rated at 44.1kN of dry thrust. The thrust afterburner of the engine is 66.7kN. The WP-13F (C) is designed and built by Liming Aircraft Engine Company of China. GAIC is planning to incorporate more efficient Liming WP-14C Kunlun-3 turbojet engine in the JL-9 in future.

WP-13F (C) afterburning turbojet engine

WP-14C Kunlun-3 turbojet engine

Performance of the JL-9

The JL-9 can climb at a rate of 260m per second. The maximum and cruise speed of the aircraft are 2,450km per hour and 1,960km per hour, respectively. The range is 2,500km and the service ceiling is 16,000m.



FTC-2000 performance

MAXIMUM IAS 1100km/h
MIN. IAS 230km/h

FTC-2000G Performance

MAXIMUM IAS 1000km/h
MIN. IAS 195km/h

Source avic

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are form public domain unless otherwise stated

Revised Sep 29, 2018

Updated Apr 30, 2020

Centauro II Wheeled Armoured Vehicle

Centauro II wheeled anti-tank vehicle is the latest member of the Centauro family of armoured vehicles developed by the Iveco-Oto Melara Consortium (CIO). It is designed to offer a fire power similar to that of the most advanced main battle tanks (MBTs).

The vehicle was displayed at Eurosatory 2016 international land and air-land defence and security exhibition held in June 2016.

Design and features of Centauro II


The Centauro II vehicle integrates high-hardness monocoque steel hull. The forward section of the hull houses the power-pack, while the turret extends from the middle to the rear of the vehicle. The driver is seated in the front section of the vehicle, whereas the crew members, including a commander, gunner and a loader are seated on anti-mine blast seats within the turret section.

Centauro_II_2_MGS_Main_Gun_System_8x8_anti-tank_wheeled_armoured_vehicle_Oto-Melara_Iveco_Italy_Italian_line_drawing_blueprint_001Iveco-Oto Melara

The vehicle measures 8.26m-long with 120mm barrel, 3.12m-wide without mirrors, and 3.65m-high, whereas the height of the hull without turret is 2.10m. The vehicle has a gross weight of 30t.

Centauro II armament


The Centauro II is armed with a third generation 120mm / 45mm gun with integrated muzzle brake and semi-automatic loading system. It can fire all latest generation 120mm, NATO armour-piercing, fin-stabilised, discarding-sabot (APFSDS) and multi-purpose (MP) rounds.


The turret, equipped with new anti-mine seats, has a crew of three men – commander, gunner and loader – with the latter able to use the new automatic loading system, while being able also to undertake manual loading operations, as back-up, or other emergency operations.  Optronic equipment includes a panoramic commander’s sight and a gunner’s sight, both latest-generation, and a back-up sight for use in degraded mode. The vehicle is fully network-integrated (for NCW). Source iveco-otomelara.com

It can carry 12 rounds of ready-to-fire ammunition for main gun and 1,000 rounds for 7.62mm gun, 400 rounds for 12.7mm gun and 96 rounds for grenade launchers.

120mm/ 45 calibre low-recoil force gun


120mm/ 45 calibre low-recoil force gun, intended for installation on light or medium weight tanks and wheeled or tracked tank destroyers. Due to its light weight and the low recoil force of the gun, the turret can provide the fire power of a main battle tank with great accuracy, without impairing the tactical and strategic characteristics of mobility of the vehicles.

dettaglio-b2-centauro-foto5-560x420muzzle brake – militarypedia.it

hydraulic, recoil-counter-recoil system and a multi-baffle, high efficiency  muzzle brake minimize the recoil force and prevent any excessive stress on the turret structure.

dettaglio-b2-centauro-foto2-560x42040mm automatic grenade launchers (AGLs) – militarypedia.it


  • Previous version data

Source leonardocompany.com

The turret can be fitted with a Hitrole Light remote-controlled weapon station (RCWS) mounting 7.62mm or 12.7mm calibre machine guns and 40mm automatic grenade launchers (AGLs) for use in other-than-war scenarios.

HITROLE® Light Common Remote Operated Weapon Station (CROWS)


HITROLE® Light is a state of the art lightweight  Common Remote Operated Weapon Station (CROWS) that can be fitted with 7,62mm or 12,7mm Machine Guns (MG) or a 40mm Automatic Grenade Launcher(AGL)  to perform multi-role tasks like surveillance, patrolling in urban environment, border security, counter-sniper and asymmetric missions.

Due to its light weight and innovative design, HITROLE® Light  can be easily installed on the roof of all types of vehicles including Utility Vehicles,  both tracked and wheeled, up to  Main Battle Tanks as secondary armament.  No penetration of the hull is required.

The weapons are primarily stabilized on two axis, and a universal ammunition box for the different calibers is fitted on the mount.

HITROLE® Light  Fire Control System (FCS) consists of a modular sighting system including a Day TV camera, an Infra Red (IR) camera for night vision and an eye safe Laser Range Finder (LRF).


HITROLE® Light FCS architecture is open and provides growth potential for system upgrade.
Both sighting system and firing are computer assisted and operated from a protected position inside the vehicle through a multi function display and joystick.

The Gunner is assisted by a Fire Control Computer (FCC) with ballistic and cinematic computation as well as an auto-tracker. The digital servo system is based on Digital Signal Processing technology.

HITROLE® Light is designed to minimize power consumption in order to grant a very long mission period and it is EMC compliant to MIL-STD-461D. In an  emergency HITROLE® Light can be manually operated.


Source leonardocompany.com

Vehicle self-protection

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.07.28-13-21-58Brussels Defense News YouTube

The fully reconfigured hull chassis and turret design integrate add-on armour and technical solutions offering AEP 55 level of protection. The vehicle can protect the crew from direct fire, anti-tank mines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and the latest-generation kinetic munitions.

WheeledTankDestroyerB1CentauroRigged3dmodel032.jpg02b31afb-6fc0-4618-b21a-7166dfbfea9bOriginal3d_molier International

The vehicle offers an anti-blast compartment for stand-by ammunition and stores for enhanced crew safety. The onboard state-of-the-art nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) system, fire-fighting equipment and anti-explosion systems further enhance the safety of the occupants. The vehicle is also equipped with a laser warning system.

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.07.28-13-22-23Brussels Defense News YouTube

Observation and communication systems

The Centauro II turret is fitted with latest generation optronics including a panoramic commander’s sight, a gunner’s sight and a back-up sight for use in degraded mode.

ATTILA II panoramic periscope


ATTILA is a high performance panoramic periscope and commander sight for land platforms, integrating daylight, thermal IR and laser range finder channels. It is designed to provide tanks and combat vehicles with day and night observation and target acquisition capabilities. The system features a two-axis primary stabilisation which allows for operation from moving platforms with no reduction in performance. The latest version of the system incorporates a 3rd generation MWIR Thermal Imager and an HD zoom camera. Source leonardocompany.com

Lothar SD gunner system


LOTHAR is a modular, high performance, compact day and night sight designed for use with large calibre guns (from 23-30mm to 120-125mm). The aiming sight can be mechanically linked to the line of fire (typically lighter and lower cost turrets), or stabilised for installations within higher performance turrets. In these instances, stabilisation is provided by a high performance gyroscopic gimbal and allows the gunner to operate with the same high performance regardless of whether the vehicle is moving or stationary.

The sight provides the gunner and the FCS with all the information necessary for effective fire control, including target position, speed and range.

LOTHAR incorporates a LWIR cooled camera (MWIR optional), a double-FOV TV camera, and a 10km Laser Range Finder (LRF). Source leonardocompany.com

The vehicle also features radio communications system, intercom, and anti-radio-controlled IED (anti-RCIED) system.

SICCONA Command , Control and Navigation System


SICCONA is a Command , Control and Navigation System for the digitization of manoeuvres in Net Centric Warfare.

It is a Battle Management System installable on all vehicles of the Defence. SICCONA includes all modern systems of communication and provides the crew with precise and updated information on the area of operation.

This objective is achieved through the collection, integration and distribution of important data, like the position of friendly and enemy forces, passive and active obstacles, the condition of vehicles, to all units involved in the operation.


Source leonardocompany.com

Engine and mobility

The Centauro II is equipped with an Iveco Vector 8V Euro III-compliant engine developing a power of 720hp (533kW) and torque of 2,500Nm. The engine is coupled to an automatic gearbox (seven forward and one reverse gear). It burns either diesel fuel or JP8 fuel supplied from anti-explosion tanks.

Iveco Vector 8V Euro III-compliant engine

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.07.28-13-20-46Brussels Defense News YouTube

As regards mobility in particular, the power-to-weight ratio, increased to 24 HP/tonne, provides unequalled performance in terms of speed and acceleration thanks to the new-generation IVECO engine, offering more than 720 HP, and to the associated modernisation of the transmission, braking system and control electronics. Source iveco-otomelara.com

ZF Ecomat 7HP902  transmission


For the transmission the choice went for the ZF Ecomat 7HP902, with seven forward
and one rear gears, a system well known to Iveco DV as it is installed on the Astra 8×8 truck fleet. The engine, a new generation compared to the original one, has a much higher power density, which gives a 250 kg weight saving considering the whole powerpack compared to the old Centauro, the new engine providing 720 hp, that is 180 hp more. Three battery bays are available in the chassis, two on the left and one on the right, each containing two batteries, two dedicated to the engine start, the other four providing power to onboard equipment. The CIO has chosen Li-Ion batteries, that provide 24 V AC current, have a 30% more capacity compared to lead batteries, and last for a much higher number of reload cycles.


Source iveco-otomelara.com

The vehicle features a single-differential, twin-shaft driveline, as well as a hydro-pneumatic and independent suspension system. The wheels are fitted with disk brakes, while the tyres are equipped with a central tyre inflation system and variable function insert (VFI) run-flat system.

screenshot-www.youtube.com-2018.07.27-18-05-42RID Rivista Italiana Difesa

The anti-tank vehicle has a maximum speed of 105km/h and can attain a maximum road range of 800km. It has the capability to negotiate a gradient of 60% and side slope of 30%. The vehicle offers a ground clearance of 0.40m.

The vehicle can climb vertical obstacles of 0.6m, cross a 2m-deep trench and ford a depth of 1.5m without preparation. The approach / departure angle of the vehicle is 40°.


Source iveco-otomelara.com

Main material source army-technology.com

Revised Jul 28, 2018