The Guizhou JL-9, also known as the FTC-2000 Mountain Eagle (Shanying), is a two-seat fighter-trainer developed by the Guizhou Aviation Industry Import/Export Company (GAIEC) for the People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) and the People’s Liberation Army Naval Air Force (PLANAF).
The GAIEC first revealed its intention to develop a new generation of fighter-trainer to replace its own JJ-7 fighter-trainer at the 2001 China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition to meet new PLAAF trainer requirements to prepare pilots for China’s newest generation of fighter aircraft such as the Chengdu J-10 and Sukhoi-derived aircraft, such as the Sukhoi Su-27SK, Sukhoi Su-30MKK and Shenyang J-11.
The JL-9 made its maiden flight on December 13, 2003, only two years after the start of the project, making it the shortest development time for an aircraft in Chinese aviation history, while successfully keeping costs down. In June 2005, Chinese newspapers stated that the JL-9 would be part of the People’s Liberation Army’s eleventh five-year procurement plan. In 2006, Guizhou reported that five production aircraft have been accepted into PLAAF service.
On June 10, 2011, images of the PLANAF version of the JL-9 were revealed for the first time on Chinese state television. The naval version of the JL-9 for advanced carrier training is similar to the PLAAF version, with the exception of four modifications for advanced carrier training: (1) the twin lower nose lateral air intakes were replaced with two smaller mid-air intakes mounted above the front of the main wing to prevent engine stalls when making carrier landing approaches at high angles of attack; (2) for better control at lower landing speeds, the vertical tail surface was redesigned and enlarged; (3) a larger leading-edge extension on the inner section of the main wing was added to enable a low landing speed when landing on a carrier; and (4) the two rear fins (needed only for supersonic stability) were deleted so that a tailhook could be fitted instead. When the PLANAF first revealed their naval version of the JL-9, the first reports in aerospace publications stated that its designation was JL-9H, but later it was revealed that official designation was instead JL-9G.
Naval version of the JL-9G
JL-9 design and features
The JL-9 was designed by modifying the JJ-7 aircraft. The modifications included redesigning the forward fuselage and incorporating an FIAR Grifo S7 pulse-doppler fire-control radar in the solid nose radome. It was designed to carry either three drop tanks of 480l capacity or two 480l and one 720l capacity drop tanks under the wings and fuselage. It can hover with a flight envelope of +8g and -3g.
FIAR Grifo S7 pulse-doppler fire-control radar
The aircraft features an in-flight refuelling probe on the starboard side of the front fuselage section to accomplish air refuelling missions even in the worst climatic conditions. It is fitted with double-delta wings to render additional space for fuel capacity and raise the aircraft’s angle of attack.
The JL-9 is powered by a single WP-13F (C) afterburning turbojet engine rated at 44.1kN of dry thrust. The thrust afterburner of the engine is 66.7kN. The WP-13F (C) is designed and built by Liming Aircraft Engine Company of China. GAIC is planning to incorporate more efficient Liming WP-14C Kunlun-3 turbojet engine in the JL-9 in future.
WP-13F (C) afterburning turbojet engine
WP-14C Kunlun-3 turbojet engine
Integrated avionics (HUD + MFDs, RKL-206A RWR, ECM, 1553B databus, INS/GPS, JD-3A TACAN, WL-11 radio compass, air data computer) – Source chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com
The JL-9 features an all digital cockpit enclosed with an oval-shaped glass canopy, which opens to the right side. The aircraft can conciliate a two-man crew in tandem-seat configuration to render better visibility.
The cockpit is equipped with three XPS-2 multifunctional displays, a head-up display, a radar warning receiver, electronic countermeasures and an electronic flight instrumentation system. Other features include a 1553B MILSTD databus, an inertial navigation system, a global positioning system and an air data computer.
Data from Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft 2010-2011
- Crew: 2
- Length: 14.555 m (47 ft 9 in)
- Wingspan: 8.32 m (27 ft 3.5 in)
- Height: 4.105 m (13 ft 5.5 in)
- Empty weight: 4.96 t (10,935 lb)
- Loaded weight: 7.8 t (17,196 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 9.8 t (21,605 lb)
- Powerplant: 1 × Guizhou Liyang WP-13 afterburning turbojet
- Dry thrust: 43.15 kN (9,914 lb)
- Thrust with afterburner: 63.25 kN (14,650 lb)
- Maximum speed: Mach 1.5
- Cruise speed: 1100km/h (594kt)
- Range: 1600 km (863 nm)
- Service ceiling: 16,000 m (52500 ft)
- Guns: 1×Type 23-1 23 mm cannon
- Hardpoints: 5 (FTC-2000G: 7)
- Air-to-air: various short and possibly medium-ranged air-to-air missiles
- Air-to-ground: various
- Bombs: various guided and unguided bombs and rockets
FIAR Grifo S7 pulse-doppler radar
Comparison JL-9 and JL-9G
Source: Air Force Technology, Wiki, errymath.blogspot.com