The Su-33 is a single-seat multirole carrier-based conventional take-off and landing (CTOL) fighter aircraft. It is manufactured by Sukhoi in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia. The aircraft has been principally designed and developed to meet the requirements of the Russian Navy.
The aircraft is derived from its predecessor, the Su-27, and its Nato reporting name is Flanker-D. It performed its maiden flight in May 1985 and entered into service in 1994. The aircraft can be operated any time under the aid of the command centre ship.
History & Background
The Design Bureau Work started to develop a Su-27-based naval fighter in 1971; the next decade saw 3 versions of plane developed one by one, designed for landing on project 1160 and 1153 aircraft carriers. The projects provided for development of a CTOL aeroplane with steam-catapult takeoff and conventional (non-V/STOL) landing using an arrestor wire. In terms of design/configuration, they faithfully reproduced all the major solutions then adopted for the baseline, “ground-based” version of the Su-27, but adapted for deck landing, which involved the need to strengthen the landing gear, install an arresting hook and provide for wing folding during the storage of machines on the hangar deck.
Su-27K T10K-1 prototype
Two Su-27K prototypes were built by the Design Bureau in cooperation with a production plant in 1986-87. The first flight of the prototype T10K-1 was performed by the design bureau’s test pilot V.G. Pugachov on 17th August 1987, and on 22nd December 1987, N.F. Sadovnikov took off for the first time in the second prototype, T10K-2. In the course of the plane’s flight development tests, on 1st November 1989, V.G. Pugachov used T10K-2 to perform the USSR’s first conventional (non-V/STOL) landing on the deck of the USSR Admiral of the Fleet Kuznetsov ACHC (then Tbilisi). In 1989, the Komsomolsk-on-Amur plant started production of a Su-27K development batch, the first production plane being flight-tested at the plant by the design bureau’s test pilot I.V. Votintsev on 17th February 1990.
Official testing of the Su-27K took place in 1991-1994. In April 1993, the Komsomolsk-on-Amur plant released the first ship-based fighters for delivery to the pilots of the aviation wing of the Northern Fleet to be put into service at the 279th ship-based fighter aircraft regiment (SFAR). By August 1994, the regiment had received as many as 24 production aircraft. In 1993-95, combat pilots of the 279th SFAR gained experience on the aircraft; following that, between December 1995 and March 1996, the USSR Admiral of the Fleet Kuznetsov ACHC put to sea for its maiden long-distance training voyage. The 31st August 1998 decree of the president of the RF put the Su-27K into service under the name of the Su-33.
To provide a two-seater for training ship-based aircraft pilots, the Design Bureau started to develop a T-10K-based two-seat combat trainer version of the jet in the mid ’80s. Later, in the early ’90s, the development efforts focused on a version of two-seat trainer which became known under the designation Su-27KUB (10KUB). A prototype was built in Komsomolsk-on-Amur in 1995-98 and assembled in Moscow, with the prototype, T10K-4, used for engineering follow-up. The first flight of the 10KUB prototype was performed 29th April 1999 by the plant’s test pilots V.G. Pugachov (commander) and S.N. Melnikov (second-in-command). The plane successfully passed the manufacturer’s tests; in addition, 10KUB was evaluated by cockpit personnel of fleet aviation. The prototype having been fitted with new equipment and AL-31FP engines with thrust vector control. Produced only two prototypes. Source su-27flanker.com
Su-27KUB – Image: the-blueprints.com
The Su-33 can destroy hostile aerial targets, provide fire support and demolish ground and sea targets using missiles and rocket bombs. It also renders escort, reconnaissance and laying of minefields missions.
Su-33 aircraft design
The aircraft was designed by Russia’s Sukhoi Design Bureau. The design phase began in 1984 and was finalised in 1985.
The aircraft is equipped with sports canards to reduce the take-off distance and enhance manoeuvrability, and has power-aided folding wings.
Image: flankers-site.co.ukStarboard canard and shoulder mounting – Image: flankers-site.co.ukImage: flankers-site.co.ukFlap section on fixed part of port wing – Image: flankers-site.co.uk
The aircraft is also fitted with an air-refuelling probe to increase its range. The wings are fitted with a two-piece, single-slotted flap, an aileron and a larger leading-edge flap to decrease speed when landing.
The Su-33’s airborne warning and control system is used to automatically detect, track, recognise and spot up to ten aerial and ground-based targets. The aircraft is equipped with a long-range navigation system which determines the fighter’s location based on the signals supplied by the ground station.
The aircraft is armed with 30mm Gsh-30-1 cannons. It features 12 external hardpoints on which are mounted R-27R1(ER1), R-27T1(ET1) and R-73E air-to-air missiles, S-8KOM, S-8OM, S-8BM S-13T, S-13OF and S-25-OFM-PU unguided missiles, Kh-25MP, Kh-31 and Kh-41 guided missiles, RBK-500 cluster bombs and electronic counter measure pods.
GSh-301 30mm cannon
The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30 (ГШ-30) is a family of autocannons used on certain Russian military aircraft.
The GSh-30-1 (also known as “GSh-301”) is the standard cannon armament of most modern Russian fighters including the Yak-141 Freestyle, MiG-29 Fulcrum, Su-27 Flanker and its’ various derivatives. The GSh-30-2 is carried by the Sukhoi Su-25 Frogfoot ground attack plane and in external gun pods. The GSh-30-2K is a modified version with 2400mm long water-cooled barrels and variable rate of fire. It is used on a fixed mounting on Mi-24P Hind-F helicopters.
- Caliber: 30x165mm
- Operaton: Gast principle
- Length: 1978mm
- Weight (complete): 46 kg
- Rate of fire: 1500–1800 rpm
- Muzzle velocity: 860 m/s
- Projectile weight: 386-404 g (13.6-14.25 oz)
- Mounting platforms: Yakovlev Yak-141 “Freestyle”, Mikoyan MiG-29 “Fulcrum”, Sukhoi Su-27 “Flanker” (and derivatives), Sukhoi Su-34 “Fullback”
GSh-30 Data imfdb.org
R-27 (NATO reporting name: AA-10 Alamo)
Medium-range missiles R-27 (e), designed to intercept and destroy aircraft and helicopters of all types of unmanned aerial vehicles and cruise missiles in a dogfight at medium and long distances, with individual and group actions carrier aircraft, day and night, in simple and adverse weather conditions, from any direction, against the background of the earth and the sea, with active information, firing and maneuvering countering enemy.
Available in several versions, differing use of two types of homing – semi-active radar (PARGS) and heat – and two types of propulsion systems – with standard and increased installed power. Modifications PARGS are designated R-27R and R-27ER, with TGS – R-27T, R-27ET, with propulsion of increased energy available – R-27ER and R-27ET.
Main material rocket design titanium alloy, a steel motor housing .
For the suspension to the carrier aircraft and launch weight of both modifications missiles used the same launchers rail and catapult type.
R-27 & R-73 air-to-air missiles
The rail trigger APU-470 is used for the deployment of missiles under the wings of the aircraft, and the ejection device AKU-470 for the deployment of missiles under the fuselage and under the wings.
Vympel R-73 (NATO reporting name: AA-11 Archer)
The R-73 short-range, close-combat standardized missile was developed in the Vympel Machine Building Design Bureau, and became operational in 1984. The R-73 is included in the weapon complex of MiG-23MLD, MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters and their modifications and also of Mi-24, Mi-28 and Ka-50 helicopters. It also can be employed in flying craft which do not have sophisticated aiming systems.
The missile is used for engaging modern and future fighters, attack aircraft, bombers, helicopters, drones and cruise missiles, including those executing a maneuver with a g-force up to 12. It permits the platform to intercept a target from any direction, under any weather conditions, day or night, in the presence of natural interference and deliberate jamming. It realizes the “fire and forget” principle.
The missile design features a canard aerodynamic configuration: control surfaces are positioned ahead of the wing at a distance from the center of mass. The airframe consists of modular compartments accommodating the homing head, aerodynamic control surface drive system, autopilot, proximity fuze, warhead, engine, gas-dynamic control system and aileron drive system. The lifting surfaces have a small aspect ratio. Strakes are mounted ahead of the aerodynamic control surfaces.
The combined aero-gas-dynamic control gives the R-73 highly maneuverable flight characteristics. During flight, yaw and pitch are controlled by four aerodynamic control surfaces connected in pairs and by just as many gas-dynamic spoilers (fins) installed at the nozzle end of the engine. Control with engine not operating is provided by aerodynamic control surfaces. Roll stabilization of the missile is maintained with the help of four mechanically interconnected ailerons mounted on the wings. Drives of all missile controls are gas, powered from a solid-propellant gas generator.
The passive infrared homing head supports target lock-on before launch. Guidance to the predicted position is by the proportional navigation method. The missile’s combat equipment consists of an active proximity (radar or laser) fuze and impact fuze and a continuous-rod warhead.
The engine operates on high-impulse solid propellant and has a high-tensile steel case. Russia’s Vympel weapons designers have developed a one-of-a-kind air-to-air missile, which NATO has dubbed as AA-11, for use on foreign fighter planes. Techically and militarily the new missile, meant for quick-action dogfights, leave its foreign analogues far behind. Vympel experts have also made it possible for the new missile to be easily installed on all available types of aircraft. The AA-11 can also be used on older planes which will now be able to effectively handle the US’ highly maneuverable F-15 and F-16 jets. The AA-11 missile is based on all-new components, use new high-energy solid fuel and an advanced guidance and control system which has made it possible to minimize their size. Their exceptionally high accuracy is ensured by the missile’s main secret, the so-called transverse control engine, which rules out misses during the final approach trajectory. The transverse control engine is still without parallel in the world.
Russia has offered the export-version R-7EE air-to-air missile system for sale so that it can be fitted to foreign-made fighter aircraft. Developed by the Vympel state-sector engineering and design bureau, the R-7EE is designed for close-quarters aerial combat. Vympel specialists have developed a way of ensuring that the missile system can be fitted to virtually any type of aircraft. It can be fitted to older aircraft, which feature heavily in third-world countries’ air forces.
|Range||20 km (R-73M1) 30 km (R-73M2) 40 km|
|Propulsion||One solid-propellant rocket motor|
|Guidance||All aspect Infrared|
|Warhead||7.4 kg HE expanding rod warhead|
|Launch Weight||105 kg (R-73M1) 115 kg (R-73M2)|
|Fin Span||0.51 m|
|Platforms||Su-27, Su-33, Su-34, Su-35, Su-37, MiG-29, MiG-31, MiG-33, Yak-141, Ka-50, Ka-52|
Data fas.org Images sourced from the net
Kh-31AD & Kh-31PD (AS-17 Krypton)
The Kh-31, AS-17 Krypton NATO-codename, is an advanced, long range, highly supersonic missile designed to withstand countermeasures effects. The Kh-31 propulsion system consists of a solid-fuel rocket engine which accelerates the missile to Mach 1.8 airspeed. Then this engine is dropped and a jet engine ignites using the missile’s within space as a combustion chamber. The missile accelerates to Mach 3+ thanks to the jet engine.
Kh-31AD airborne anti-ship guided missile
Kh-31AD airborne anti-ship guided missile is designed for hitting combat (assault landing) surface ships and cargo ships from the striking force (convoys) and single ships. This particular missile has a warhead power increased to 15% in compare with its prototype Kh-31A. Launch range is increased up to 120-160 km almost in two times.
|Maximum launch range|
|(carrier flight parameters: H=15 km, M=1.5 km), km||120 to 160|
|Launch altitrudes, km||0,1 to 15|
|Launch speeds (M number)||0,65 to 1,5|
|Aiming system||inertial + active radio homing head|
|Active radio homing head angle of sight in vertical plane, degree||+10 to -20|
|Active radio homing head angle of sight in horizontal plane, degree||up to +/-27|
|Missile start weight (maximum), kg||715|
|Weather conditions for use||any conditions at sea roughness|
|up to 4-5|
|Carriers||aircrafts Su-30MK (MKI, MKM, MK2),|
|Su-35, Mig-29K, Mig-29KUB, Mig-35|
|Average number of missile hits required to make enemy’s destroyer|
Kh-31PD airborne high speed anti-radar missile
Kh-31PD airborne high speed anti-radar missile is designed to hit radars of anti-aircraft missile stations (ZRK).
Missile ground maintenance is provided by the OKA-E-1 aircraft guided weapons (AUSP) preparation system.
|Maximum launch range, km|
|(carrier flight parameters H=15km, M=1,5), km||180 to 250|
|Maximum launch range (H=0,1km), km||15|
|Launch altitudes, km||0,1 to 15|
|Launch speeds (M number)||0,65 to 1,5|
|Aiming system||inertial + wide waveband range|
|passive radio homing head|
|Target location angle when launching, degree|
|target lock being under carrier||+/-15|
|target lock at the trajectory||+/-30|
|Missile start weight (maximum), kg||715|
|Missile overall dimensions:|
|lengthxdiameterxwing span, m||5,340×0,360×0,954 (1,102)|
|Weather conditions||any weather conditions|
|Carriers||aircraft Su-30MK (MKI, MKM, MK2),|
|Su-35, Mig-29, Mig-35, Mig-29KUB and etc.|
Kh-25MP anti-radiation missile
The Kh-25MP airborne anti-radiation missile equipped with a passive radar homing head is designed to engage continuous-wave and pulsed radars making part of medium-range air defence missile systems as well as small-calibre anti-aircraft artillery systems. There are two versions of the homing head: 1VP and 2VP. The missile can be launched in flight within carrier’s pitch angles from – 20 to + 20.
The Kh-25MP missile makes part of weapon systems of Russian combat aircraft. It also can be adapted for employment from foreign-made aircraft.
|Launch range, km:|
|at carrier’s altitude|
|Launch altitude envelope, m||50-12,000|
|Max missile speed (in max range launch), m/s||300-450|
|Warhead weight, kg||86|
|Missile launch weight, kg||315(+;-)8|
|Missile dimensions, m:|
|length (with 1VP/2VP homing head)||4,255/4,355|
Kh-41 NATO reporting name is SS-N-22 Sunburn
The Kh-41, also known as Moskit, is a supersonic, long range, air-launched, anti-ship missile designed to penetrate sophisticated ship air defenses. It relies on an inertial navigation system with target updates from launching aircraft to reach the target area. Once there, the Kh-41 employs its active radar seeker to search, detect and lock on the target. It is so fast that the ship’s air defenses have only a few seconds to act against the incoming missile. A fewer reaction time maximizes Moskit missile kill probability.
The Moskit missile was intended to provide an impressive anti-ship capability to carrier-based Su-33 Sea Flanker multi-role fighters. It can be released from other Soviet/Russian-made attack aircraft. Its range is extended compared to the ship-launched version (3M80 or SS-N-22 Sunburn).
Length: 9.70 meter (31.8 foot)
Wingspan: 2.10 meter
Max Range: 250 kilometer (135 nautical mile)
Min Range: 10,000 meter
Cruise Speed: 731 mps (2,632 kph)
Top Speed: 996 mps (3,587 kph)
Warhead: 300 kilogram (661 pound)
Weight: 4,000 kilogram
‘S-8’ 80mm unguided rocket
The S-8 system is the main caliber weapon in the class of unguided aircraft rockets and can solve a variety of aircraft missions.
The rocket is provided with a solid propellant motor with a summary thrust pulse of 5,800 N.s and operating time of 0.7 s. Progressive methods for body shaping from ready-made rolled aluminum and unique engineering solutions in terms of separate elements aimed at reducing motor manufacturing labor consumption and costs are used in its construction.
The following types of S-8 rockets are operational today:
- S-8KOM with HEAT fragmentation warhead;
- S-8BM with concrete-piercing (penetrating) warhead;
- S-8-OM with illuminating warhead.
‘S-13’ type 122mm unguided rocket
The S-13 is a 122 mm calibre unguided rocket weapon developed by the Soviet Air Force for use by military aircraft. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force and some other countries.
S-13T: Tandem HEAT, range 1.1 – 4 km Combined penetration of 6 m of earth and 1 m of reinforced concrete. Velocity 500 m/s.
S-13OF: The only 122mm rocket available, this large rocket packs a blast-fragmentation warhead with some serious wallop, dealing significant damage to soft targets and lightly armored vehicles, and can even destroy a main battle tank with a direct hit. With only 5 rockets per pod, accurate delivery is key.
S-25 OFM-PU air-to-ground rocket
The S-25 is a Russian air-to-ground rocket launched from aircraft. It is launched from the O-25 pod which can hold one rocket.
S-25-OFM for use against hardened targets
Image: et97.comRockets S-8, S-13, S-25 – Image: flankers-site.co.uk
Su-33 aircraft avionics
The Su-33’s avionics include a fire control system, flight navigation system, doppler navigation radar, global positioning system, attitude and heading reference system, marker radio receiver, remote control system and IFF (identification friend or foe) transponder, radar warning receiver and radio jamming transmitter.
ECM, communication systems, on-board monitoring system, emergency warning system, aircraft responder and on-board voice information playback equipment are also installed in Su-33.
The same radar adopts the improved Su -27 N001 radar, compared with the Su -27S use radar to improve the detection ability of radar on surface targets. It can be used in air combat in the distance Air-to-air missile Intercept combat or use short-range missiles for air combat, in the battle of maritime targets to destroyers above the surface target attacking missile control Kh-41. The photoelectric detection device and Su -33 Su -27 with the same structure, because the left head mounted telescopic aerial refueling tube, photoelectric detection device Su -33 to the right. The infrared receiving system consists of a photodiode to detect the distance within 60 kilometers of the rear target, the target distance is less than 20 kilometers head-on. Laser range finder The maximum effective distance of 7 kilometers.
The system acquires and tracks aerial targets by their thermal signatures. The range of the electro-optical system is 40—100 km, depending on the aspect angle presented by the target. For better close air combat performance, the pilot is assisted by a RLPK-27 helmet-mounted sight (HMS). The HMS and the laser range finder of the IRST can also be used to visually acquire and determine coordinates of air and surface targets.
OLS-27 / Izdeliye 36Sh Specification
A combined IRST/LR device for the Su-27, similar to the MiG-29’s KOLS but more sophisticated, using a cooled, broader waveband, sensor. Tracking rate is over 25deg/sec. 50km range in pursuit engagement, 15km head-on. The laser rangefinder operates between 300-3000m for air targets, 300-5000m for ground targets.
Search limits are ±60deg azimuth, +60/-15° in elevation. Three different FOVs are used, 60° by 10°, 20° by 5°, and 3° by 3°. Detection range is up to 50km, whilst the laser ranger is effective from 300-3000m. Azimuth tracking is accurate to 5 secs, whilst range data is accurate to 3-10m. Targets are displayed on the same CRT display as the radar. Weighs 174kg.
OLS-27K for Su-33 featured new algorithms and better processor. It allegedly tracked targets in pursuit mode by their IR signature at 90 km during tests. Source aerospace.boopidoo.com
Su -33 used on the HMS is through the head
On the surface of the helmet and infrared light emitting diode cockpit Locate the photosensitive element in. The sight is monocular simple halo type can only display simple and, aiming at the lock signal. Infrared fighting machine Missile seeker You can move in with HMS, the HMS expanded Su -33 in close combat. Missile off boresightlaunch Range。 The machine also increase the installed automatic landing and supporting carrier guiding device, this device can be guaranteed by Su -33 in bad weather conditions, in the automatic guide device guided by automatic or semi-automatic way the plane corresponding to the position of the aircraft carrier of a 9 meter diameter of the landing area in the automatic guide device improves the Su -33 landing safety and in the harsh conditions of all-weather capability. Source et97.com
Weapon control system WCS-VEP for fighters of Su-27, Su-30 series
“Air-to-Air”, “Air-to-Grond” weapon control system WCS-VEP is intended for air target search, identification and aiming at collision courses and in Tail hemisphere in Look-up and Look-down modes in overwater and overland environment. The given WCS is mounted on the aircraft of Su-30MK2, Su-27SM types intended to achieve the air superiority, to hit ground and surface targets by means of guided and unguided weapons while group or single actions day-and-night under good or bad weather as well as to fulfill long-range patrolling and tracking.
|1.1||“Air-to-Air”, “Air-to-Ground” weapon control system. It provides for application of the following weapons: RVV-AE, R-27ER1, R-27R1, R-27ET1, R-27Т1, R-27PE1, R-27P1, R-73E, Х-31А, Х-59МК,
Х-35E, air bombs, unguided missiles, GSh-301.
(item Ш101ВЭП (Sh101VEP))
|1.1.1||Radar aiming complex includes as follows:||RLPK-27VEP *
(item Н001ВЭП (N001VEP))
|* Upgraded for the following weapon application: R-27P1, R-27EP1, Х-59МК, Х-35E|
|–||– on-board digital computer||BTsVM-900|
|–||– dual-channel digital receiver||Н001-03ВП2
|–||– digital processor||«Baget 55-04.02»|
|–||– intermediate frequency signal switchboard||Н001-39
|–||– master oscillator||Н001-22П
|–||– bus adapter-switch||Н001-04М
|–||Radar type||Pulse Doppler radar|
|–||Pulse repetition frequency||high, medium, low|
|–||In “Air-to-Air” mode the radar provides as follows:
– velocity search;
– search with ranging;
– air target illumination and transmission of radiocorrection commands to control missiles with radar homing heads;
– to control missiles with infra-red homing heads;
– search, lock-on and tracking of a visually visible target in close combat;
– target IFF;
– operation in an adversary EW environment;
– jammer coordinate measurement;
– interaction with ECM equipment.
|–||Number of targets with their coordinate measurement in TWS mode, pcs.
Number of simultaneously attacked targets
|* can be increased upto 2|
|–||Detection and tracking zone, deg:
– in azimuth
– in elevation
|–||Search and lock-on zone in close combat:
– in azimuth, deg
– in elevation, deg
|–||Detection range for an air target of a fighter type (RCS=3m2, with 0.5 probability), km:
|no less than 100*
no less than 40
no less than 80
no less than 35
|* in long-range detection mode the range can be increased upto 150 km|
|–||– operation range of RVV-AE radiocorrection channel, km||upto 40|
|–||In “Air-to-Ground” mode the radar provides as follows:
– detection of ground and surface targets in real beam mapping mode while scanning in low resolution mode (LRM),
– detection of ground and surface targets in SAR mapping mode in medium and high resolution modes (MRM, HRM),
– detection of ground and surface moving targets in ground moving target selection mode (GMTS),
– tracking and coordinate measurement for a ground target;
– output of target designations to X-31A, X-59MK, X-35E missile RHH.
|–||In GMTS mode the radar provides for detection of moving targets with RCS of about 10m2 (a tank) and more, and radial velocity, km/h||15 … 90|
|Characteristics in “Air-to-Ground” mode :
Limits of search zone size:
– mapping in Real Beam mode (RB)
– in Sea Search mode (SS)
– in Doppler beam sharpening (DBS)
– in HRM mode
|±450 (within ±600angles)
±450 (within ±600angles)
300 within ±(100…600) angles
50 within ±(300…600) angles
|–||Detection range, km
aircraft carrier (RCS=50000m2 )
torpedo-boat destroyer (RCS=10000m2 )
missile boat (RCS=500m2)
boat (RCS=50m2 )
no less than 100
|1.1.2||Optical-electronic sight system (provides for a ground target illumination)||OEPS-27MK
|188.8.131.52||Optical location system
Tracking zone, deg.:
– in azimuth
– in elevation
Large field of view and search, deg.:
– in azimuth
– in elevation
Small field of view and search, deg:
– in azimuth
– in elevation
Close combat area (“Vertical” mode), deg.
Lock-on area, deg.
(item 52Ш (52Sh))
3 х (-15…+60)
3 х 3
|–||Detection range of an air target that is infra-red contrast, km:
– in TAIL for a target of Su-15 type without reheat (PMFU)
– in FWD for a reheated target of MiG-25 type flying at high altitudes with M number of no less than 2.0
Operation range of a laser rangefinder, km:
– for an air target of MiG-21 type
– for a ground target
|no less than 30
no less than 90
|184.108.40.206||Helmet-mounted target designation system
Airspace scan zone, deg.:
– in azimuth
– in elevation
|1.1.3||Head-up display system (HUD)||SILS-27М|
TKS-2/R-098 (Tipovyi Kompleks Svyazi) Intra Flight Data Link (IFDL)
The encrypted TKS-2/R-098 (Tipovyi Kompleks Svyazi) Intra Flight Data Link (IFDL) which permits the networking of up to 16 Sukhoi fighters. It is not known whether the 5U15K-11 datalink designed for networking the A-50 AWACS and MiG-31 has been adapted to the Su-27/30, or whether a unique equivalent design is used. The TKS-2 was used effectively during the 2004 Cope India exercise against US F-15Cs. Source ausairpower.net
Comparing the Su-33 & Su-33 with SVP-24 “Gefest” system
Su-33 with SVP-24 “Gefest” system
Russian carrier-based Su-33 fighters receiving new bombing computer
Russia is outfitting its carrier-based Sukhoi Su-33 fighter aircraft with the SVP-24 air-to-ground targeting system, according to Russian Ministry of Defence (MoD) sources cited by the newspaper Izvestia.
The SVP-24 is a specialised navigation and targeting system produced by Russian avionics developer Gefest and T. It enables combat aircraft to deliver conventional ordnance with accuracy approaching guided munitions, Russian sources claim. Historically the Su-33 had only a basic air-to-ground capability.
Gefest and T has now delivered the first Su-33 with SVP-24 under its contract signed with the MoD, and is installing the system on two more naval fighters. The company expects to put SVP-24 on all aircraft in the squadron before Russian Navy carrier Admiral Kuznetsov deploys to the eastern Mediterranean in November, according to Izvestia . The carrier’s air group will likely consist of 10 Su-33 and four MiG-29KR fighters.
Image: Gefest & T developed SVP-24 ultra-precision targeting system
The SVP-24 calculates the optimal point for bomb release based on the position of the aircraft and target, wind speed and direction, and other variables. The MoD has announced that the targeting computer produced a three-fold increase in the accuracy of aerial bombing when installed on the Su-24M. Russian sources add that as a permanent aircraft component the SVP-24 is cheaper to use than expendable kits attached to gravity bombs like the US Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM).
Initially developed in the mid-1990s and accepted for service by the MoD in 2008, the SVP-24 is installed on some Russian Su-24M, Su-25SM3, and Tu-22M3 bombers. The Su-24M is the primary bomber used in Syria. It has delivered mainly high-explosive FAB-250, FAB-500, and concrete-piercing BetAB-500 unguided gravity bombs. Source janes.com
Details of Su-24M
Su -33 fighter electronic countermeasure
‘Sorbtsya’ ECM pods on wingtips in place of missile rail – Image: flankers-site.co.uk
Defensive systems in legacy and production Flankers include a Radar Warning Receiver, mostly variants of the SPO-32 / L150 Pastel digital receiver carried. The latest subtypes like the Su-35BM/Su-35-1 carry the KNIRTI L175M Khibiny M Radio Frequency Surveillance (RFS = ESM/RHAW) system, initially developed for the Su-34 Fullback. The Khibiny M is believed to use a channelised receiver and most likely employs a wideband dual baseline interferometer in the forward sector, to permit passive targeting of Kh-31P and R-27P/R-77P variants in defence suppression and air combat roles.
Newer Flankers carry the podded wingtip mounted KNIRTI SPS-171 / L005S Sorbtsiya-S mid/high band defensive jammer (ECM), this system being an evolution of a jammer developed for the Backfire C. The Sorbtsiya-S, unlike most Western jamming pods, is designed to operate in pairs and uses forward and aft looking steerable wideband phased arrays to maximise jamming effect, a similar arrangement to the Eurofighter Typhoon EWSP package. It is worth observing that the Sorbtsiya is clearly built to provide cross-eye jamming modes against monopulse threats, and the wideband mainlobe steering capability provided by the phased array permits best possible utilisation of available jamming power. A graded dielectric lens is employed. Russian contractors have been recently using Digital RF Memory (DRFM) technology, which is of the same generation as the US IDECM EWSP, and competing Israeli systems.
The most recent defensive jamming equipment to be offered on Flanker variants is the new KNIRTI SAP-518 wingtip jamming pod, displayed at MAKS 2009. Concurrently KNIRTI displayed a high power support jamming pod, the SAP-14, intended for centreline carriage on a large pylon. To date little has been disclosed on these pod designs, which are likely to retain the wideband phased array / lens antenna system first used on the Sorbstiya. Source ausairpower.net
SPO-32 / L150 Pastel digital receiver
Pastel entered development in 1982, possibly as a reaction to poor performance of Soviet fighters in the Middle East. By 1983 the initial design was produced. It was intended for the Mi-28, MiG-29K/M, Su-27M and others.
Pastel is a family of new generation digital RWRs.
Scans from 1.2-18GHz threat frequencies.
Accuracy is 3-5° with pinpoint location antenna, 10° in rough location antenna. 128 reprogrammable radar types. Detection range minimum of 120% of the radar’s range. 3 modes- operational target, programmed target, most dangerous target.
Detects and finds direction for pulse, pulse-doppler and CW mode radars in search, track and illumination modes. Classifies multiple threats by danger, with full display of all information about most threatening radar presented to crew. Controls EW systems, has the ability to control and assign targets to 6 anti-radiation missiles such as the Kh-31. Aural warnings for high threat situations.
Pastel may be made available for upgrade packages or built into new export models of the Mig-29 and Su-27 families. Source aerospace.boopidoo.com
Tail and hook ups- Image: flankers-site.co.uk
Beryoza / SPO-15 / L006
SPO-15 is comprised of the following components:
forward azimuth antennae
cockpit indicator station
elevation angle antennae
Long range antennae
The system has full 360° coverage while all other aircraft have a simpler system with full coverage in the front 180° and simple “left or right” detection in the rear sector.
The outer yellow lights represent the azimuth angle of the most threatening target. The light will remain lit for 8-12 seconds, so a scan rate less than this will result in a permanently lit light. The inner green dots show all other targets. The lights will indicate the approximate direction. If the emitter lies in a direction between two lights both adjacent lights will light up. The six lights across the bottom represents 6 target types which will show the radar type of the most threatening target. The inner ring of yellow indicators light up successively to show the strength of the received signal. As well as the visual indicator, a low pitched sound with similar characteristics to the detected radar signal will be given.
If the hostile radar switches to tracking (STT) the red circle will flash and a continuous high pitched audio tone will sound.
When a SAM launch is detected a continuous variable pitch sound will be given.
The Beryoza is claimed to be capable of detecting enemy airborne radars at 120% of the distance within which the enemy fighter can launch a missile.
Radars operating in TWS mode cannot be distinguished from search mode.
The priority target is simply detirmined by target type- one type is always considered more dangerous than another, regardless of signal strength or other factors.
Bands covered: 4.45-10.35GHz
Direction finding: ±10° (front)
Bandwidth capability: 20Khz
AL-31F turbofan engines
The aircraft is powered by two AL-31F afterburning turbofan engines. Each engine can produce 15,500 kilogram-force (kgf) of thrust.
The AL-31F is a high-temperature engine and can operate under extreme conditions of air inlet distortion and fluctuation.
The engine, manufactured by NPO Saturn, is 4.95m long with a diameter of 0.91m and weighs around 1,520kg.
AL-31F – Image: leteckemotory.cz
Data from gutenberg.org
Type: Two-shaft afterburning turbofan
Length: 4,990 millimetres (196 in)
Diameter: 905 millimetres (35.6 in) inlet; 1,280 millimetres (50 in) maximum external
Dry weight: 1,570 kilograms (3,460 lb)
Compressor: 4 fan and 9 compressor stages
Turbine: 2 single-staged turbines
74.5 kilonewtons (16,700 lbf) military thrust
122.58 kilonewtons (27,560 lbf) with afterburner
Overall pressure ratio: 23
Bypass ratio: 0.59:1
Turbine inlet temperature: 1685 K (1,412 °C (2,574 °F))
Fuel consumption: 2.0 Kg/daN·h
Specific fuel consumption:
Military thrust: 0.67 lb/(lbf·h)
Full afterburner: 1.92 lb/(lbf·h)
Thrust-to-weight ratio: 4.77:1 (dry), 7.87:1 (afterburning)
The landing gear is reinforced with a double-wheel nose unit, an arrestor hook and naval navigational aids.
FOD guard on nosewheel – Image: flankers-site.co.ukThe mainwheel leg on the Su-33 is beefed up – and is ‘fatter’ than the land-based version – Image: flankers-site.co.uk
Su-33 aircraft performance
The aircraft can climb at the rate of 325m/s. It has a maximum speed of 2,300km/h and a stall speed of 240km/h. Its maximum range is 3,000km, while the service ceiling is 17,000m. The aircraft weighs around 18,400kg and its maximum take-off weight is 33,000kg.
Su -33 basic technical data
[from the Russian United aircraft group Suhuoyi company official website]
|Maximum takeoff weight||33000 kg|
|service ceiling||17000 meters|
|Maximum speed||2300 kilometers per hour|
|The maximum load||8G|
|Maximum range||3000 kilometers|
|Minimum speed||240 kilometers per hour|
|A plane Captain||21.19 meters|
|Machine width||14.7 meters, 7.4 meters after folding|
|High machine||5.9 meters|
|Engine||2 x AL-31F turbofan engine|
|Maximum thrust||2 x 12500 kg|
Image: .the-blueprints.comImage: Su-27 Flanker
Updated Feb 05, 2017
Main material source airforce-technology.com