The Italian Carlo Bergamini class warships were developed as a part of Franco-Italian FREMM multi-mission frigate program. Even though resulting Italian Carlo Bergamini class and French Aquitaine class ships look different, they use many common subsystems. The Carlo Bergamini class bears strong resemblance with the Horizon class, which was another joint Franco-Italian program.
FREMM Aquitaine Frigate: Details
These Italian Carlo Bergamini class warships are clearly destroyers, but being called frigates for political reasons. There are two variants of the Carlo Bergamini class. One of them are general purpose frigate, that are equally good at all aspects of naval warfare, while the other ships are optimized for anti-submarine warfare role. These have enhanced submarine hunting features, but at a cost of reduced land attack and anti-ship capabilities.
The general characteristics of the class is a displacement of 6,900tons, length of 144.6m, beam of about 20m, maximum speed of 30knots and range of 6,700n.m. with a cruising speed of 15knots. The ship has a crew of 145 persons (GP variant) or 147 persons (ASW variant) while 9 more persons are added to the crew for two helicopters on board. The vessels have a complement of about 200 people on board. Each vessel can accommodate one or two NH90 ASW helicopters or one NH90 and one EH101 helicopters. Moreover, each ship carries two RHIBs for commando operations (one of 7m at the right side, starboard, and one of 11m at the left side, port) while the GP variant carries one more RHIB of 11m in the stern door instead of VDS sonar in ASW variant. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
Click to enlarge: modified photo of Bergamini class frigate GP version of Italian Navy. High resolution image here. – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com
Italy has ordered six of these vessels optimized as general-purpose warships, and four optimized for anti-submarine warfare. The lead ship was commissioned with the Italian Navy in 2013. The last one is planed to be commissioned in 2021.
Click to enlarge: modified photo of Bergamini class frigate ASW version of Italian Navy. High resolution image here – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com
|Carlo Bergamini (F590)||2008||2011||2013||active, in service|
|Virginio Fasan (F591)||2009||2012||2013||active, in service|
|Carlo Margottini (F592)||2010||2013||2014||active, in service|
|Carabiniere (F593)||2011||2014||2015||active, in service|
|Alpino (F594)||2012||2014||excepted in 2016||sea trials|
|Luigi Rizzo (F595)||2013||2015||expected in 2017||under construction|
|Federico Martinengo (F596)||2014||expected in 2017||expected in 2018||under construction|
|Antonio Marceglia (F597)||2015||expected in 2018||expected in 2019||under construction|
|Spartaco Schergat (F598)||expected in 2017||expected in 2019||expected in 2020||ordered|
|Emilio Bianchi (F599)||expected in 2018||expected in 2020||expected in 2021||ordered|
These Italian warships have enhanced stealth features, including reduced radar cross section and noise levels. The “general purpose” version is operated by a crew of 199 men, while vessels optimized for anti-submarine operations have a crew of 201 men.
The primary radar is the Selex MFRA multi-functional active phased array radar. It can detect air targets at a range of more than 400 km. It also provides fire control for air defense missiles.
Selex MFRA multi-functional active phased array radar
The forward mast and the EMPAR MFRA radar on top – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com
At the top of the forward mast in a large round radome it is mounted the multi-function phased array radar, Selex EMPAR (European Multi-function Phased Array Radar) Multi-Function Radar Active (MFRA) / SPY-790 MFRA, which provides simultaneous surveillance, tracking and weapons control. The EMPAR MFRA is an active radar (Active Electronically Scanned Array – AESA) and not passive (Passive Electronically Scanned Array – PESA) as it is the EMPAR radar of the Orizzonte class destroyers. EMPAR is the primary sensor in the FSAF/SAAM-IT and PAAMS missile systems. It operates at C-band, performing concurrently 3D detection, multiple target tracking and missile guidance. Specifically, the multi-function capabilities include full volumetric search coverage, low altitude and surface search, multiple target tracking (up to 300 tracks) and up-link transmission when needed for missile guidance. It counters different threats such as high diving and sea skimming missiles, aircraft and helicopters and any kind of vessels. The system provides an almost continuous 360 degree view while the maximum range is about 120-150km for aircrafts and 25km for missiles. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 30480 m|
|Range Max: 148.2 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.2 km||Generation: Late 2000s|
|Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)|
|SENSORS / EW:|
|MM/SPY-790 EMPAR MFR – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 148.2 km
Status of the FREMM Programme
Planning assumptions for the Italian Navy are 10 FREMM-IT (4 ASW variants and 6 GP variants) at a cost of€5.8 billion.
FREMM-IT will replace the Maestrale and Lupo-class frigates in service with the Italian Navy.
As of 2014, the Italian government has approved funding for the first eight FREMM-IT to be delivered to the Italian Navy (4 ASW variants and 4 GP variants). In the 2013 Italian budget, the Italian government laid-out the necessary financing for two more GP variants (FREMM-IT 7 & 8) and the contract was awarded in September 2013. On 18 June 2014, the Defence Parliamentary Commission authorized units 9 and 10, that have to be funded by 16 April 2015.
FREMM-IT 9 & 10 will have AAW & ATBM capabilities and will have A70 VLS for cruise missiles. All Italian FREMM-ITs have extended AAW capabilities, with SAAM-ESD CMS and Aster 30 (& Aster 15) missiles for extended area defence. SAAM-ESD CMS use Selex ES MFRA, a 3D active radar (AESA), an evolved version of the Selex ES EMPAR PESA radar (previously embarked on Horizon-class destroyers and the aircraft carrier Cavour).
The Selex ES MFRA 4FF (EMPAR’s evolved version, destined for the 9th and 10th FREMM) will have four flat radar sensors, with three times the original range and full ATBM capabilities.
Since the 7th FREMM-IT, there will be updates to other systems, such as:
- the COC and bridge will be integrated
- the cruise speed will be enhanced to 19/20 knots (with more powerful diesel engines)
For years, Selex has become one of the leading manufacturers of technologies for defence systems, producing panoply of products developed to fulfil security needs of many armed forces. The stages of designing, developing as well as production of defence equipments were done with information superiority in mind. Two of Selex’s most successful surveillance radar systems are the RAN-30X/I along with the KRONOS 3D radar system.
Designed to compete in the “surveillance radar” category, the RAN-30X/I has climbed the vertical ladder to place itself among the most accomplished radar system available in the market. Selex has designed the radar with new a structural configuration, allowing for higher operational flexibility and adaptability to different platforms thus requiring minimal set-up time as well as operational cost.
The RAN-30X/I operates on four main roles. It was designed to perform multiple roles as a measure taken in fulfilling naval forces demand for multi-purpose radar. The roles are, Surface and Air Surveillance (mode 1) for small air and surface target detection, Anti-sea-skimmer detection (mode 2), Over the Horizon (OTH) detection (mode 3), and lastly the Helicopter control and navigation (mode 4).
Depending on the different operational mode, the radar, according to Selex has different instrumental range. In mode one at 15rpm, the radar has an efficiency range of 100km, followed by mode two at 30rpm with 40km efficient range. The third mode, with a gradual rotation of 3rpm, the radar scans for threats within a dazzling 200km range and lastly in mode 4, with 30rpm the radar has a range of 25km.
Currently operational onboard the Italian Navy’s “Cigala Fulgosi” OPV Class vessel, the radar is also currently operating on board Thailand’s Pattani class OPV which had successfully conducted an anti-piracy operation in the Gulf of Eden. This achievement, at one stage has marked the radar capability in supporting high-risk and high-stake high sea operations. Source asiapacificdefence.blogspot.com
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 30480 m|
|Range Max: 111.1 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.4 km||Generation: Late 2000s|
|Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)|
|Sensors / EW:|
|RAN-30X/I – (SPS-791 RASS, OTH) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 3D Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface
Max Range: 111.1 km
Selex NA-25X fire control system
NA-25X which is a modern fire control system based on the ORION RTN-25X tracking naval radar, a J-band fully coherent equipment which is characterised by anti-nodding, extensive ECCM and anti-clutter features together with high tracking accuracy. A set of two EO sensors (TV camera, IR camera) can be mounted on the radar director, to enable firing assessment and to provide an alternative line-of-sight on the same target. A third sensor (Laser Range Finder) can be mounted to provide a complete EO tracker facility. NA-25X can be provided with a dedicated multifunctional console or controlled by any console of the Combat Management System (CMS). The FCS can be easily integrated in every CMS and completely remote accessible. A couple of Targets Designation Sight (TDS) enhance the FCS configuration. Through an internal additional function, NA-25X system can be integrated inside an Artillery System (including at least two FCSs), to optimize the use of all onboard guns against multiple concurrent targets (missiles, air and surface targets). The system perfomrs the following tasks: radar and optronic autonomous search with automatic/manual self-designation, surveillance and self designation on ship’s search radar video, automatic engagement of evaluated priority target up to firing action, automatic air/missile/shore and surface targets tracking, automatic detection of launched missile, control of up to three guns with different calibres in the anti-air/anti-surface warfare and CIWS roles, line-of-sight/line-of-fire stabilization and Track While Scan (TWS) on external naval data. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
SASS – SILENT ACQUISITION & SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM
GENERAL DESCRIPTION SASS is a long range, passive IRST for naval applications, operating simultaneously in MWIR (3-5 μm) and LWIR (8-12 μm) spectral bands. It is able to detect and track air and surface targets with full 360° horizontal coverage and to provide InfraRed (IR) maps of the scene around the ship. It supports threat evaluation providing a statistical classification of tracks. SASS has a modular architecture based on a stabilised panoramic head equipped with IR sensors and an electronic cabinet hosting the processing and control units. Special design care has been devoted to facilitate on-board maintenance.
- High sensitivity/ high resolution/ dual band IR head
- Accurate stabilisation against sea motion
- Long range passive surveillance
- Automatic target detection and track initialisation
- Multi-target tracking of air and surface targets
- Panoramic and blown up images, in two different bands
- Flexible interface with other on-board systems and with
combat management systems
- High reliability and easy maintenance on-board.
|Type: Infrared||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 111.1 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)|
|Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]|
|Sensors / EW:|
|SASS IRST [IR Far] – Infrared
Role: Infrared, Target Search, Tracking and Identification Camera
Max Range: 111.1 km
SASS is a long range, passive IRST for naval applications, operating simultaneously in MWIR (3-5 μm) and LWIR (8-12 μm) spectral bands. It is able to detect and track air and surface targets (about a 100) with full 360° horizontal coverage and to provide InfraRed (IR) maps of the scene around the ship. It supports threat evaluation providing a statistical classification of tracks. SASS has a modular architecture based on a stabilised panoramic head equipped with IR sensors and an electronic cabinet hosting the processing and control units. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
Nettuno 4100 by ELT Elettronica
The NETTUNO-4100 ECM System can provide naval platforms with an Active Electronic Defence using selected ECM tactics, exploited through DRFM generated signals. These tactics can be equally effective against both terminal missile attacks and long range designation radar systems, surface search and tracking radars in support of anti-surface engagements.
Nettuno 4100 electronic jammers aft of two hangars, the right side. Top of Helicopter hanger is the OTO 76mm gun. NA-25X radar / photoelectric fire control system under the guidance, is pointing to the starboard – Image: mdc.idv.tw
Nettuno 4100 is a state-of-the-art radar ECM having a scalable architecture which can be configured for different needs by:
- assessing the needed Effective Radiated Power (ERP) in relation to the ship Radar Cross Section (RCS) and role
- dimensioning the antenna array and the transmitted power to the ERP required for the defence purposes.
In any case , the Nettuno 4100 systems can cooperate with other onboard EW sensors.
- Full azimuth coverage, 50° Elevation
- Electronic beam steering (electronically stabilized against ship movements)
- Wide frequency coverage (H to J bands)
- Full solid-state design ensuring high ERP and graceful degradation in case of failure
- Detection, measurement and jamming of emitter side-lobe
- Multi-threat jamming capability through time-sharing resource management
- High level of readiness (no warm-up)
- High reliability and maintainability
- BITE down to module/card level
- Easy on-board integration and installation (no wave guides).
SLAT launchers with Canto-V anti-torpedo countermeasure system (ASW)
The CANTO-V is the next-generation anti-torpedo countermeasure system for existing and future surface ships developed by DCNS as part of the CONTRALTO-V product line. The CANTO-V countermeasure system consists of a pneumatic launcher and decoys designed to counter advanced torpedoes. CONTRALTO-V has been designed to operate with multiple launchers with the decoys being deployed following a ballistic trajectory. DCNS successfully conducted a series of test in May and June 2011. Source deagel.com
The ASW variant includes the DCNS CONTRALTO-V Torpedo Countermeasures system (or else known as SLAT system) for surface vessels. CONTRALTO®-V is composed of several subsystems for an optimized defense against torpedoes: the reaction system, which calculates and suggests optimized evasive manoeuvres and sets off the countermeasures, the deployment system (launcher) fitted to several types of launchers (mortar, pneumatic, rocket) and the CANTO®-V countermeasure. CANTO®-V is a broadband active acoustic countermeasure. It is designed to saturate the torpedo data processing system by emitting specific and smart acoustic signals covering the whole torpedo frequency band in both active and passive mode. Its mission consists in exhausting the threat by creating and constantly renewing hundreds of false targets on a 360-degree coverage area (5 sec deployment). This concept, called dilution/confusion, is the only one capable of defeating advanced torpedoes while consuming less munitions and it is efficient whatever the number of torpedoes or their types and doesn’t need to be deployed far from the threatened ship. The system offers a 95% escape probability against torpedoes detected at 3,000 meters. Watch the video to realize how the system works. Both ASW and GP variants are equipped with two OTO Melara/Selex SCLAR-H decoy launchers for 105mm or 118mm multipurpose rockets. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
SCLAR-H decoy launchers (GP & ASW)
Dimensions: 1.88 mx 1.794 mx 2.06 m
Weight: empty: 1,150 kg, with 20 rockets of 105 mm: 1,750 kg
Arco rotazione: -150 ° / + 150 °
Alzo: -5 ° / + 60 °
Capacity: can hold 20 rockets ready to launch
Rate of fire: 1 rocket per second
OTO Melara SCLAR-H system – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com
Impiego: The SCLAR is a multiple rocket launcher system produced by Breda Meccanica Bresciana, typically used by ships for the launch of false targets such as flares and chaff. It has a caliber of 105 mm, lifting and swiveling, and can also fire rockets explosives in a radius of 10 km. The launcher is designed for accurate deployment of false targets thereby providing the passive defense against missiles for the ship radar and IR search; the typical mode of operation (at various intervals) include: Confusion (dilution); dissimulation; Distraction; dump;
Its main features are:
- possibility of loading simultaneously different types of rockets (Chaff, IR, flares);
- Automatic selection of the rockets to be launched;
- Possibility of repeated engagements, because of the availability of a large number of rockets, loaded into individual sealed containers;
- Automatic control by the ship’s electronic warfare suite;
- Full coordination with the active defense systems of the ship; – Ability to function in all weather conditions and in a position NBC (automatic)
Translated by google – Source digilander.libero.it
Sonar CAPTAS 4 (ASW Version)
An unrivalled performance against quiet submarines to achieve any anti-submarine warfare missions including escort, area sanitization and own force protection.
- Ultra long range
Capable of very large detection in every environmental condition.
- Reduced operator workload
The only large VDS to provide automated deployment and recovery procedures without operator on aft deck.
The lowest operating and training manpower for this class of system.
- Cooperative asset
Very accurate target positioning to prosecute and engage distant submarines with airborne assets.
Multi-static capability with virtually all low frequency sonar in operation world-wide.
Minimising interference with other VDS and BMS
- Embedded torpedo defence
Permanent self defence capability.
- Mammals safe
Adjustable source level & noise monitoring for sea mammal protection.
- Low Life Cycle Cost
Large installed base and continuous evolutions for Inherent customer’s long term support.
A rugged design for sea operations which allows the ASW units to transmit and receive at the right depth with two separate arrays and maximize the detection of extremely quiet submarines.
The system is designed to independently deploy the arrays at optimum depth to continuously survey 360 degrees with a well covered water column, thus overcoming harsh propagation conditions and surface-layer problems inherent to Hull Mounted Sonar.
FFG Carlo Margottini (F592) and its CAPTAS 4 towed sonar array in action. Photo: Marina Militare Italiana
- For platforms > 3000T
- In operation since 2004
- Operated from CMS Multi-Function Consoles
- Two winches to independently deploy/tow the transmit towed body and the receive array
- Bottom safety warning function
- Integrated On-Board-Training capability
- Performance prediction function for sonar optimisation
- Passive and active sonar track association
- State of the art adaptive signal processing
- Comprehensive Built-in Test capability
- Cutting edge technology employees due to continuous product upgrade
Transmit array features:
- Highest Source Level for this type of sonar due to its 4 Free Flooded Rings antenna
- 360° bearing omni-directional transmission
- Low reverberation effect, due to its vertical directivity
- Optional underwater telephone capability
Receive Triplet Array Features:
- Instantly resolves right/left ambiguity issue
Bandwidth: Wide FM
Pulse lengths: up to 16s
Pulse Modes: FM, CW and COMBO
Operational limits: Up to sea state 6
Operating depth: Up to 230m depth, e.g. 180 m at 12knts
Detection performance: Up to second oceanic Convergence Zone
The ships are equipped with a Thales UMS 4110 CL low frequency active and passive Bow Mounted Sonar. The hull mounted sonar covers a very large area providing ASW all-round surveillance as it can detect any kind of threat or object from a long range in any environmental condition. It has an excellent target positioning allowing to prosecute and engage distant submarines with organic weapons or airborne assets. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
Thales UMS 4110 CL hull sonar
A high performance sonar that provides effective anti-submarine capability together with self-protection against torpedo threats and underwater obstacles in brown and blue waters.
- Large area coverage
Very long range detection in any environmental condition, complementary asset to CAPTAS Variable Depth Sonar.
Detects up to Convergence Zone in the Mediterranean and uses Bottom Bounce propagation.
- Self-protection against multiple threats
Permanent self-protection against incoming torpedoes.
Complementary underwater obstacle/mine-like avoidance capability.
- Cooperative asset
Excellent target positioning allowing to prosecute and engage distant submarines with organic weapons or airborne assets.
Capable of multi-static operation with most current low frequency active sonar in operation world-wide.
- Reduced operator workload
Manned by a single operator. Same Human Computer Interface look & feel as CAPTAS VDS for high interoperability.
- State-of-the-art sonar
Enhanced performance, robustness and reliability thanks to spiral technological update and new transducers.
- Mammals safe
Adjustable source level & noise monitoring for mammal protection.
- Designed for medium to large size surface combatant
- Very high source level at relatively low frequency
- Provides ASW all-round surveillance
- Several transmit configurations, allowing operation with two ships in the same area
- Integrated On-Board-Training capability
- Performance prediction function for sonar optimisation
- Comprehensive built-in test capability
Array (Weight/Height/Diameter): (10t / 2.2m / 2.0m)
Active frequency range: 4600 to 6100 Hz
Pulse types: Hyperbolic FM, CW and COMBO
Pulse length: 60 ms to 4 s
Range scale: Up to 72 kYds
– ASW: 360°, Omni-directional
– Obstacle Avoidance: ± 90° off the ship’s bow
Wide HFM bandwidth: 2000 Hz, against reverberation effect
Passive frequency range: 4200 to 6100 Hz. (when no active transmission allowed)
Passive functions: All around broadband surveillance, LOFAR, DEMON & audio channels
|Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 74.1 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Late 2000s|
|Sensors / EW:|
|UMS 4410CL – (FREMM) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km
The electronic equipment completes two GEM SPN-753G (V) 10 ARPA navigation radars (auto-tracking up to 50 targets), one GEM SPN-753G (V) 10 for helicopter approach control, a Selex SPN-730 Low Probabily Intercept (LPI) Navigation Radar and Precision Approach Radar (PAR), one Selex ES IFF SIR M5-PA and a Selex Full Integrated Communication System (Satcom UHF/SHF/Ku, Immarsat, GMDSS, LOS LF/MF/HF and V/UHF, Link11, Link16, Link22). Moreover, a Thales TUUM-6 Digital Under Water Communication System that offers Long range Low Probably Intercept (LPI) data transmission, high data rate transmission and communication with divers and two SOF ESUD Quick Pointing Devices (QPD). The combat system is the Selex ES Athena with 21, three displays, MFC (Multi Functional Consolle): 17 into COC, 2 in backup COC, 1 on bridge and 1 into Command Planning Room.
Selex SPN-730 Low Probabily Intercept (LPI) Navigation Radar
The SPN-730 comprises two units that, if required, can be supplied already integrated with a conventional navigation radar to provide a LPI operational mode. When low interceptability against ESM or Anti Radiation Missiles (ARM) is required, the SPN-730 provides high LPI performances, while ensuring continued excellent detection capabilities. The SPN-730 is highly modular and comprises the TransmitterFront-End Receiver Unit, the Digital TX RX/ Processor Unit and a RF switch to interface existing antenna
SPN-730 can be installed with:
- standard Navigation Antenna Group (slotted array)
- standard ARPA console.
- LPI Pulsed Radar with Power Management
- compact, modular, lightweight
- solid state transmitter, intrinsic coherent architecture
- digital compressed pulses
- interfaced with on-board Electronic Warfare devices without degradation of their performance
- frequency agility, PRF jittered
- high resistance to ECM
- standard video output and control signals for easy integration with ARPA and/or multifunctional consoles
- sector blanking transmission
- plot Extraction/Track-While-Scan option
- pulse Doppler growth capability
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 92.6 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.4 km||Generation: Early 2000s|
|Properties: Pulse-only Radar|
|Sensors / EW:|
|MM/SPN-730 – (LPI) Radar
Role: Radar, Surface Search & Navigation
Max Range: 92.6 km
There is a 16-cell Vertical Launch System (VLS) for Aster-15 and Aster-30 surface-to-air missiles. The Aster-15 has a range of around 30 km, while the Aster-30 have a range of around 120 km. However this loadout of 16 missiles is comparatively small for such a large warship.
STRALES in front of VLS
Behind the front gun, it is installed a DCNS Sylver A50 VLS with 16 cells (two VLS modules) for MBDA Aster 15 anti-aircraft/missile missiles for local and area defence (medium range) and Aster 30 missiles that provide long range interception capability for area defence (see the video for Sylver VLS).
Similarly with the French FREMM frigates, the space located backwards of the current silos allows for 16 more missiles, and specifically two A70 silos for land-attack/cruise missiles in the future. But as of today the Italian Navy is using that space for the crew accommodation. Both Aster 15 and 30 missiles featuring the same terminal dart. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
Aster air defence missile system
The ASTER modular family of vertically launched missiles have been designed to meet the high demanding requirements of the emerging air threats such as aircraft, UAVs, helicopters and specially missiles. The ASTER missiles can be installed on ground- and sea-based platforms. They feature hit-to-kill capability, a very valuable skill against ballistic missiles. The missile family entered service in 2002 with the French Armed Forces. The ASTER 15 and ASTER 30 are integrated on the SAAM (ASTER 15), PAAMS (ASTER 15 and ASTER 30) and SAMP/T (ASTER 30) air defense systems. These systems will be employed by the armed forces of France, Italy and the United Kingdom.
ASTER 15 and ASTER 30
ASTER 15/30 – Image: mbda-systems.com
The two-stage ASTER missiles are provided with two different solid propellant boosters resulting in the ASTER 15 and the ASTER 30 models. The ‘Pif-Paf’ control system enables the ASTER missile to counter high maneuverable missiles achieving a direct impact (hit-to-kill). The ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion combines conventional aerodynamic control with control by gas jets acting through the centre of gravity of the missile. Until mid-course the guidance of an ASTER missile is based on the Inertial Navigation System (INS) updated through an uplink, in the terminal phase the guidance is provided by an active Radiofrequency seeker. The final stage of the ASTER missile is a ‘dart’ equipped with the seeker, a sustainer motor, a proximity fuze and a blast fragmentation warhead.
The ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion – Image: wikiwand.com
The ASTER 15 is a short range missile intended for self-defense (point defense) purposes against highly maneuverable threats. The ASTER 15 is integrated on the SAAM and beginning in 2006 in the PAAMS system. The SAAM is installed on French-built frigates and the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier. The PAAMS will be provided to the Horizon frigates (France and Italy) and the Type 45 destroyers (United Kingdom).
The basic structure of -ASTER 15/30 – Image: et97.com
ASTER 15 version
Diameter: 180 millimeter (7.09 inch)
Length: 4.20 meter (165 inch)
Max Range: 30,000 meter (16.2 nautical mile)
Min Range: 1,700 meter (0.92 nautical mile)
Target’s Max Altitude: 13,000 meter (8.08 mile)
Top Speed: 1,000 mps (3,601 kph)
Weight: 310 kilogram (683 pound)
ASTER 15 data Source deagel.com
ASTER 30 version
Number of Stages: 2
Diameter: 180 millimeter (7.09 inch)
Length: 4.90 meter (193 inch)
Max Range: 120 kilometer (65 nautical mile)
Min Range: 3,000 meter (1.62 nautical mile)
Target’s Max Altitude: 20,000 meter (12.4 mile)
Top Speed: 1,494 mps (5,380 kph)
Weight: 450 kilogram (992 pound)
ASTER 30 data Source deagel.com
“General purpose” variants of the Carlo Bergamini class are fitted with a single Otobreda 127 mm gun and a single OTO Melara 76 mm gun. “Anti-submarine” variants have two OTO Melara 76 mm guns. The 76 mm guns are dual-purpose weapons. These rapid-firing guns use guided shells and can engage surface, air and land targets. These also act as close-in weapon systems for last ditch defense against incoming missiles. Also there are two 25-mm remotelly-controlled cannons that are used to engage small surface threats.
General purpose frigate armament
ASW purpose frigate armament
Each vessel has a secondary OTO Melara Super Rapido 76mm/62cal gun installed on the starboard roof of the helicopter hangar. The 76mm guns are part of the STRALES system which consists of the naval gun, a Radio Frequency Guidance System with the electronic control unit and the DART ammunition. STRALES is an all-weather system that was designed to engage and to destroy multiple manoeuvring targets with the use of guidance ammunition for increased accuracy and therefore lethality. STRALES includes a Radio Frequency Guidance System provided with a mechanical frame to be connected to the gun-mount structure. A gun shield is provided with a watertight cover which can be automatically removed to deploy the guidance antenna; once actual target position and stabilisation data are available, STRALES operates as a stand alone system. The DART projectile is equipped with the new DART microwave programmable multifunction fuse. The effective operating range is greater than 8km while the maneuverability is higher than.. 40g! A new Multiple-Feeding (MF) ammunition loading system for the 76/62 mm is also available as a separate kit which is able to select any ammunition contained in the branches regardless of its position (typically, DART and standard ammo). The gun can intercept air and surface targets at a distance of 16 km (6km the effective range against anti-ship missiles) unleashing 120 rounds per minute weighting greater than 6kg each. The gun has excellent performance in any kind of role, such as air defence, anti surface, anti-missile and shore bombardment role. It is claimed by OTO Melara that these guns can engage 4 missiles before they reach the ship. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
VULCANO system – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com
Otobreda 127/64 mm gun (GP version)
The upcoming Oto-Melara (now OtoBreda) 127/64 Lightweight (LW) naval gun is a rapid fire gun mount suitable for installation on large and medium size ships, intended for surface fire and naval gunfire support as main role and anti-aircraft fire as secondary role. The compactness of the gun feeding system makes possible the installation on narrow section crafts.
The gun can fire all standard 5 inch (127mm) ammunition including the new Vulcano long range guided ammunition.
Modular automatic feeding magazines allow the firing of up to four different and immediately selectable types of ammunition; the magazines (four drums, each with one shell ready to fire) can be reloaded while the mount is in operation.
An ammunition manipulator system is available to transport projectiles and propelling charges from the main ammunition store to the feeding magazines, which are automatically reloaded. Ammunition flow is reversible. Rounds can be automatically unloaded from the gun. Digital and Analog interfaces are available for any Combat Management System, also according to Corba protocol. The 127/64 LW Naval Gun Mounts includes a Vulcano module, which acts twofold:
– Programmer for ammunition’s fuse and guidance system.
– Mission Planning and Execution for Naval Fire Support Action (firing solutions, selection of ammunition, definition of trajectories and firing sequences, ballistic computations accounting for ammunition type, etc.), as a standalone or in interaction with ship’s Network Centric System.
127 mm/64 on Italian Frigate Carlo Bergamini. Photograph copyrighted by Occar Vulcano unguided projectile. Note how the projectile is carried down in the propelling cartridge. This will allow it to be used in the 54-caliber barrel. Picture courtesy of Ministero della Difesa. Future Vulcano Projectile with Inertial and GPS guidance. Picture courtesy of Ministero della Difesa.
Caliber: 5 inches / 127 mm
Barrel lenght: 320 inches / 8,128 meters (= 64 caliber)
Weight: 33000 kg (without ammunition)
Elevation: -12° / +70°
Traverse: +/- 155°
Rate of fire: 32 rounds per minute
Range: 23000 meters, max. / 15000 meters effective / 8600 meters AA / up to 100 km with Vulcano ER/LR ammunition
Ammunition stowage: 56 rounds ready to fire in 4 loader drums / 500-600 in magazine
Ammunition: all standard 5-inch ammunition including the new Vulcano extended range / long range guided ammunition
OTO-Melara 127/64 LW source seaforces.org
OTO Melara Super Rapido 76mm/62cal gun
OtoBreda 76/62SR Super Rapid with DAVIDE/STRALES guidance system
The Oto-Melara / Oto-Breda 76/62SR 76mm (3-inches) 62-caliber Super Rapid gun is a lightweight, automatic loading, rapid fire naval gun system used against shore, sea and air targets.
Manufacturer: 1963-2001 Oto-Melara / 2001- OtoBreda
Produced: Compact: 1963- / Super Rapid: 1988-
Caliber: 3 inches / 76,2 mm
Barrel lenght: 186 inches / 4,72 meters (= 62 caliber)
Weight: 7900kg, empty (Super Rapid)
Shell: 76 x 900 mm / 12,34 kilograms
Elevation: – 15° to + 85°
Rate of fire: Compact: 85 rpm / Super Rapid: selectable from single shot up to 120 rpm
Muzzle Velocity: 925 m/s (1100 m/s – DART)
Magazine: Compact: 80 rounds / SR: 85 rounds
16 kilometers with standard ammunition
20 km with extended range ammunition
up to 40 km with VULCANO ammunition
– Super Rapid
– Stealth casing
– DAVIDE/STRALES radio frequency guidance system for DART guided ammunition
– HE (high explosive) – 6,296kg / Range 16km / effective range 8km (4km vs. air targets at elev. 85°)
– MOM (multi-role OTO munition)
– PFF (pre-formed fragmentation) – anti-missile ammunition
– SAPOM (semi-armored piercing OTO munition) – 6,35kg / Range 16km
– SAPOMER (semi-armored piercing OTO munition, extended range) – Range 20km
– DART (driven ammunition reduced time of flight) – sub-calibre guided ammunition against multiple targets
(missiles and maneuvering targets at sea) 4,2kg in barrel / 3,5kg in flight / 660mm lenght / effective range >8km
– VULCANO (76mm unguided and guided extended range ammunition) – under development
Oto-Breda 76/62SR 76mm (3-inches) Source seaforces.org
25-mm remotelly-controlled cannons
The frigates have also two OTO Melara Oerlikon KBA 25mm/80cal guns which are installed one to port and one to starboard. The guns are stabilized, electric servo-drive assisted, while a weapon control is featured in order to allow the gunner to remain steady at any barrel elevation, laying the gun with the maximum accuracy even against targets at maximum elevation. A conventional aiming system is fitted to the mount, but also an IR sight with integrated ballistic reticule is available. The rate of fire is about 650 rounds per minute and the effective range for aerial targets is about 2,000m. The gun has two 126-round boxes on each side of it. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com
4 x OTOMAT anti-ship missiles (GP)
The Otomat Mk2 Block IV is an all-weather, subsonic, long range, sea-skimming anti-ship missile with extended capabilities for littoral warfare and coastal attack missions. The Otomat Block IV missiles can be retargeted and carry out coordinated attacks. It can be installed on different fighting ships from small fast patrol boats to large destroyers and cruisers.
The Otomat missiles can be launch irrespective of ship’s bearing, the target data is provided by the sensors of the ship. Once launched, the missile is guided through he INS supported by the GPS and a radar altimeter. Target information can be updated from ship’s sensors or another platform via a protected built-in radio-link. The terminal phase of the attack is performed through the active radar seeker.
The Otomat Block IV missile can perform maneuvers, simultaneous arrival at the target area and different attack directions in order to escape ship’s defenses and increase the kill probability. The Otomat is also well protected against the effects of countermeasures. It is provided with an impressive 210 kg semi-piercing warhead detonated by proximity, contact and grazing.
MBDA Otomat/Teseo Mk2Ablock IV guided anti-ship missile in four single launchers amidships
Diameter: 400 millimeter
Length: 4.46 meter (14.6 foot)
Max Range: 150 kilometer (81 nautical mile)
Min Range: 4,000 meter
Warhead: 210 kilogram (463 pound)
Otomat Block IV source deagel.com
The “general purpose” variant is armed with four OTOMAT anti-ship missiles. These have a range of around 200 km. The ASW variant is armed with four MILAS anti-submarine missiles, that drop torpedo remotely from the ship.
4 x MILAS anti-submarine missiles (ASW)
MILAS missile. Photo: MBDA
Derived from the OTOMAT MK2 missile system, MILAS is designed to carry and release an MU-90, or similar, lightweight torpedo, close to the designated submarine position, as indicated by the ship sonar or by a co-operating ASW helicopter or MPA.
MILAS is capable of ranges from 5 to in excess of 35 km in all directions.
The system effectiveness relies on the capability to update the trajectory and the torpedo release point continuously during the missile flight, with the added advantage of modifying the torpedo settings in respect of target manoeuvres.
Image: from the net
With its fast reaction time, operational range and availability, the system provides the launching ship and the escorted naval formation permanent and effective defence against the submarine, be it conventional or nuclear.
MILAS missiles can also be used together with OTOMAT MK 2 missiles in a common system for combined ASW and ASuW operations as in the Italian FREMMs.
Developed in co-operation by France and Italy, MILAS is in operational service with the Italian Navy. Source mbda-systems.com
Also there are two tripple launchers for EUROTORP MU90 lightweight torpedoes. These are present on both “general purpose” and “anti-submarine” variants.
EUROTORP MU90 lightweight torpedoe
The MU90/IMPACT Advanced Lightweight Torpedo is the leader of the 3rd generation of LWTs. Designed and built with the most advanced technology, the weapon is of fire-and-forget type conceived to cope with any-task any-environment capability requirements and meet the ASW operational needs of the 21st century.
The weapon has been designed to counter any type of nuclear or conventional submarine, acoustically coated, deep and fast-evasive, deploying active or passive anti-torpedo effectors
|Main Dynamic Features|
|Linearly Variable speed||……………………||29 to >> 50 kts**|
|Range||……………………||>10,000 m at max. speed**
> 23,000m at min. speed**
|Minimum depth for launching||……………………||< 25 m|
|Max. operating depth||……………………||>> 1000 m**|
|Agility and manoeuvrability||…………………….||Extreme|
|Diameter (NATO Standard)||……………………||323,7 mm|
|Main Acoustic Features|
|Acoustic coverage||……………………||120°H x 70°V|
|Simultaneous targets||……………………||Up to 10|
|Main Counter-Counter Measures|
|Stationary target detection capability|
(**) = real value classified
Launcher of MU90 torpedo – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com
These Italian warships have a double hangar for helicopters and can accommodate either two NH90, or one NH90 and one AW101. These are used for search and rescue, utility operations, long-range anti-submarine and anti-ship warfare.
NH90 multi-role helicopter: Details
The AugustaWestland AW101 is a modern naval utility helicopter. Originally this chopper was known as Eurocopter Industries EH101. It was jointly developed and produced by Augusta of Italy and Westland Helicopters from United Kingdom.
The EH 101 had its roots in a UK project to replace the Sea King. The design was later revised to meet Italian navy as well as Royal Navy requirements. Westland and Agusta established European Helicopter Industries Ltd, which received formal go-ahead in 1984 for nine prototypes and subsequent development of what became the EH 101. The first prototype made its maiden flight in 1987.
In 2000 Augusta and Westland Helicopters merged and formed AugustaWestland. Since 2007 this helicopter is marketed as AugustaWestland AW101. There are utility and anti-submarine warfare versions of this helicopter.
The EH101/AW101 is in service with Italy and United Kingdom. It has been exported to Algeria, Canada (CH-149 Cormorant), Denmark, Nigeria, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, and Turkmenistan. It is license-produced in Japan (Kawasaki MCH-101) and the United States. It is worth noting that Britain, Denmark and Portugal use the name Merlin for this helicopter.
|Dimensions and weight|
|Main rotor diameter||18.59 m|
|Weight (empty)||10.5 t|
|Weight (maximum take off)||14.6 t|
|Engines and performance|
|Engines||3 x Rolls-Royce / Turbomeca RTM 322-01 turboshaft engines|
|Engine power||3 x 2 312 shp|
|Cruising speed||278 km/h|
|Service ceiling||4.5 km|
|Range||1 056 km|
|Missiles||2 x Sea Eagle, Marte 2, AM.39 Exocet or AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles|
|Torpedoes||4 x Marconi Stingray torpedoes|
Indal Twin Claw (TC-ASIST)
An intelligent claw capture system for non-probe installed aircraft
While Indal ASIST (Aircraft Ship Integrated Secure and Traverse) is a popular system for those navies that have probe-equipped helicopters, for some navies the option to install a telescoping probe on their existing helicopters is difficult. In order to support non-probe installed aircraft, Curtiss-Wright has developed the Indal Twin Claw (TC-ASIST) system, a derivative of its already proven and successful ASIST system.
The TC-ASIST system provides full security after landing and through all on-deck operations, up to and including Sea State 6 conditions. The pilot, assisted by visual cues, flies the aircraft to a position over the designated landing area on the flight deck. The Indal Rapid Securing Device (RSD), fitted with a pair of claw arms designed to capture and secure the wheel spurs of the aircraft, tracks the helicopter position with the capture arms at a ready position at either end of the RSD. The claw arms are spring loaded and held in the down position until tire sensors contact each tire as the arms are brought in. Upon contact, spring force rotates the claw arm upwards until it contacts the wheel spur. Each claw arm acts independently, but they are mechanically interlocked to ensure simultaneous operation.
Once the aircraft is secured, it is ready to be aligned/straightened for traversing from the designated landing area to the hangar or any intermediate location. All deck handling operations can be accomplished without the need for personnel on the flight deck.
|General||Provides positive, uninterrupted securing provided at all times|
|Recovery Assist||Optional ASIST style helicopter tracking system available to supplement standard deck cues and line up lines
100% free-deck landing
|Capture Area||3~4 m2 [typical]
Compatible with harpoon deck-lock grid
|Maneuvering and Traversing||Achieved through single operator controlled movement of Rapid Securing Device along deck track
Constant helicopter lateral positioning maintained during traversing
TC-ASIST system source curtisswrightds.com
The Carlo Bergamini class have an advanced Combined Diesel-Electric and Gas (CODLAG) propulsion system. For normal operation the ships use a single General Electric LM2500+G4 gas turbine, developing 42 900 shp. For slow-speed and quiet anti-submarine operations the ships use hybrid electric propulsion with two 2.5 MW electric motors which are connected to the propeller shafts. These are powered by 4 diesel generators. Maximum speed is 29 knots (55 km/h). Maximum range is 6 700 nautical miles (12 300 km) at 15 knots (28 km/h). So Italian vessels are slightly faster and have longer range than their French counterparts.
1 x General Electric LM2500
The General Electric LM2500 is an industrial and marine gas turbine produced by GE Aviation. The LM2500 is a derivative of the General Electric CF6 aircraft engine.
The LM2500 is available in 3 different versions:
- The LM2500 delivers 33,600 shaft horsepower (shp) (25,060 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 37 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 24 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 36 percent at ISO conditions.
- The improved, 3rd generation, LM2500+ version of the turbine delivers 40,500 shp (30,200 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 29 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 38 percent at ISO conditions.
- The latest, 4th generation, LM2500+G4 version was introduced in November 2005 and delivers 47,370 shp (35,320 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39.3 percent at ISO conditions.
LM2500 installations place the engine inside a metal container for sound and heat isolation from the rest of the machinery spaces. This container is very near the size of a standard 40-foot (12 m) intermodal shipping container – but not the same, the engine size very slightly exceeds those dimensions. The air intake ducting may be designed and shaped appropriately for easy removal of the LM2500 from their ships. Source wikiwand.com
RENK main gear arrange-ment for Italian FREMM
4 x Isotta Fraschini VL 1716 C2ME (Italy FREMM)
Overall the Italian Carlo Bergamini class warships are larger and are superior in many respects to the French Aquitaine class. However the Italian vessels do not carry any land attack cruise missiles, that are present on the French frigates.
FREMM “RIZZO” DELIVERED TO THE ITALIAN NAVY
Luigi Rizzo (F595)
Trieste, April 20, 2017 – The frigate “Rizzo” was delivered today to the Italian Navy at Fincantieri’s shipyard in Muggiano (La Spezia). It is the sixth vessel of the FREMM program – Multi Mission European Frigates – commissioned to Fincantieri within the international Italian-French program, coordinated by OCCAR (the Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation). Orizzonte Sistemi Navali (51% Fincantieri and 49% Leonardo) is the prime contractor for Italy in the FREMM program, which envisions the building of 10 units, all already ordered.
“Rizzo” is the sixth unit built by Fincantieri including the combat system, the second in multipurpose configuration after the “Carlo Bergamini”, delivered to the Italian Navy in 2012. 144 meters long and with a displacement at full load of approximately 6,700 tons, the FREMM frigates represent technological excellence: designed to reach a maximum speed of 27 knots and to provide accommodation for 200 people (crew and staff), these vessels are able to always guarantee a high degree of flexibility and to operate in a wide range of scenarios and tactical situations.
The FREMM program, representing the Italian and European defence state of the art, stems from the renewal need of the Italian Navy line “Lupo” (already removed) and “Maestrale” (some already removed, other close to the attainment of operational limit) class frigates, both built by Fincantieri in the 1970s.
These units – which will become the backbone of the naval fleet over the next decades –significantly contribute to the development of the tasks assigned to the Italian Navy, being able to operate in various sectors, from specific military purposes to those in favour of the community. Source fincantieri.com
Sixth Italian Navy FREMM frigate starts sea trials: Here
Main material source military-today.com
Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated
Main image – Luigi Rizzo F595 – besthqwallpapers.com
Revised Jan 28, 2017
Updated Dec 19, 2018
Improved Bergamini class FREMM
The Improved Bergamini class FREMM as she was showcased during DIMDEX 2016. High resolution image here. – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com
- OTO Melara 76/62 mm Super Rapid gun (on Italian Navy versions with Davide/Strales guided-ammunition)
- 2 x torpedo launchers Eurotorp/WASS B515/3 for MU 90 torpedoes with Calzoni AHS (Automatic Handling System)
- 1 x Selex ES NA-25 DARDO-F fire control system for the 76mm cannon
- 2 x SLAT (Systeme de Lutte Anti-Torpille) anti-torpedo system (into Italian Navy only for ASW version) ASW DLS (Anti Submarine Weapon Decoy Launcher System) based on Thales ALERT sonar system, DCNS RATO command system and WASS CMAT weapon system (with 12 tube launcher for 127 mm’s WASS C-310 decoy and jammers)
- NH90 helicopter, with capability for AW101, Cougar and Caracal
- Thales UMS 4110 CL hull sonar
- Thales UMS 4249 CAPTAS4 towed sonar (anti-submarine versions only)
- Thales TUUM-6 Underwater Telephone
- 2 x Sigen MM/SMQ-765 EW system: with JASS (Jamming Antenna Sub System) ECM, Nettuno 4100, by ELT Elettronica and Thales ESM (Communications and Radar ESM)
- 2 x SOFRESUD Quick Pointing Devices “QPD”
- 16 cells of SYLVER A50 VLS for Aster 15 and Aster 30 missiles
- Space reserved for SYLVER A70 launchers for 16 SCALP Naval or similar cruise missile, but not fitted
- Selex ES IRST SASS
- another one Selex ES NA-25 DARDO-F fire control system for the second cannon (76/62 mm or 127/54 mm)
- Selex ES EMPAR active 3D radar (MFRA).
- Selex ES RASS (RAN-30X-I) surface radar (OTH)
- LPI navigation radar Selex ES SPN-730 and two navigation radar GEM-Elettronica MM/SPN-753
- Selex ES IFF SIR M5-PA; since the 7th FREMM-IT replaced with Leonardo-Finmeccanica IFF SIR M5-PA Conformal
- Selex ES Athena combat system (CMS), with 21, three displays, MFC (Multi Functional Consolle): 17 into COC, 2 in backup COC, 1 on bridge and 1 into Command Planning Room
- Selex ES SAAM-ESD extended area AAW combat system (for Aster 15 & Aster 30 missiles)
- 2 x OTO Melara SCLAR-H DLS Multipurpose Rocket Launcher
- 8 x Teseo\Otomat Mk-2/A block 4, for naval and land attack
- 2 x Oto Melara/Oerlikon 25/80 mm, remote weapon system, controlled by close CMS
- Curtiss-Wright TC-ASIST helicopter handling system (for both helicopters)
- WASS SNA-2000-I, Mine Avoidance Sonar
- L-3 ELAC Nautik SeaBeam 3050, Multi-beam echo sounder (only on ASW version)
- 1 x 7 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat release and recovery lateral systems (Stemar 6,8 m, FNM HPEP 225 HP engine, 38 knots, 6 crew)
- 1 x 11 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat release and recovery lateral systems
- 11 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat fast release and recovery system (only on GP version)
- ASW version: 2 x OTO Melara 76/62 mm Davide/Strales CIWS guns, one on the hangar (both with Strales guided-ammunitions) and 4 MILAS ASW missile
- GP version: 1 x OTO Melara 127/64 mm gun with Vulcano guided ammunition, with a range up to 120 km, and AAHS (Automated Ammunition Handling System) with 350 rounds + 56 in turret and a second OTO Melara 76/62 mm Davide/Strales CIWS gun on the hangar (with Strales guided-ammunitions)