The Project 677 or Lada class is a diesel-electric patrol submarine, developed by the Rubin design bureau (The Amur designation is applied for boats of the same class intended for the export market). It is an improved version of the Kilo class, fitted with an air-independent propulsion and new combat systems. It is claimed that the Lada class is much quieter than its predecessor. It is worth mentioning that the Kilo class achieved respectable export sales. Its major operators are China, India and Iran.
The lead boat was laid down at the Admiralty Shipyard in St. Petersburg in 1997 and launched in 2004. It was commissioned in 2010 and serves in a Baltic Fleet. The Admiralty Shipyard is building another three submarines of this class, however their construction was suspended. In 2013 construction of the second boat resumed.
It is designed for anti-submarine and anti-ship defense of naval bases, coastal installations and sea lanes, as well as patrol and surveillance tasks.
The Lada class features a new anti-sonar coating for the hull resulting in low acoustic signature. Submarines are fitted with sophisticated sonar equipment with bow and flank arrays, as well as towed array.
Molniya (Lightning) antisonar coating
The submarine has a solid hull made of unique highstrength steel alloys. According to Rubin, the ship features a new efficient antisonar coating of the hull new generation Molniya (Lightning). The submarine hull also has a new multi-layered rubber cover providing almost complete absorption of own noises generated by submarine mechanisms, and sonar echo signals. The submarine, its propulsion plant, machinery and weapons systems can be controlled either from the main control room or from separate battle stations.
The entire ship has been automated to facilitate operations managing them from submarine’s main control room. An Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system based on oxygen-hydrogen fuel cells is being offered for Amur-class submarines as option to achieve extended immersion endurance.
Main control room Lada
The new diesel-electric propulsion system is arranged in a modular compartment which can be plugged into the basic submarine. A radio electronic equipment of a new generation, variable-speed permanent-magnet propulsion motor and storage battery with increased service life are provided to the 4th generation Russian non-nuclear submarine.
Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system based on oxygen-hydrogen fuel cells module
According to estimates, Kristall-27E AIP system will increase the Amur Class submarines’ submerged endurance by 15 to 45 days (the longer endurance is ensured by a short-term operation of the diesel engine in the snorkeling mode). The Kristall-27E AIP plant, featuring the intermetallid storage of hydrogen, cryogenic storage of oxygen and low-temperature electrochemical generator with alkali matrix electrolyte, fully meets all requirements including those of fire/detonation safety, and can beat the AIP system of Project 212 submarines, surpassing it in terms of fuel efficiency and shore-based support facilities due to the availability of dedicated autonomous shore-based refueling complex.
Concept of a fuel cell
The anode (negative electrode) receives the hydrogen and the cathode (positive electrode) collects the oxygen.
Source: US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
The Amur 1650/Lada submarine has been designed to operate in the littoral environment, in deep water and shallow water areas, and in any climate worldwide.
The Lada class has six 533-mm torpedo tubes for a mix of 18 torpedoes or tube-launched missiles. These include Alfa (NATO designation SS-N-27 Sizzler) multi-role cruise missiles, or Oniks (SS-N-26) anti-ship cruise missiles.
Six 533-mm torpedo tubes
3M54K – US DoD designation SS-N-27A (NATO codename “Sizzler”). An anti-shipping variant deployed by the Russian Navy, as a submarine launched missile, Its basic length is 8.22 m (27.0 ft), with a 200 kg (440 lb) warhead. Its range is 440–660 km (270–410 mi). It is a Sea-skimmer with supersonic terminal speed and a flight altitude of 4.6 metres (15 ft) at its final stage; its speed is then Mach 2.9. Source @revolvy.com
3M14K – US DoD designation SS-N-30A. An inertial guidance land attack variant deployed by the Russian Navy. The submarine-launched weapon has a basic length of 6.2 m (20 ft), with a 450 kg (990 lb) warhead. Its range is 1,500–2,500 km (930–1,550 mi). Its subsonic terminal speed is Mach 0.8. Source @revolvy.com
Oniks (SS-N-26) anti-ship cruise missile
Oniks (SS-N-26) anti-ship cruise missiles. The P-800 Oniks (Russian: П-800 Оникс; English: Onyx), also known in export markets as Yakhont (Russian: Яхонт; English: ruby), is a Soviet/Russian supersonic anti-ship cruise missile developed by NPO Mashinostroyeniya as a ramjet version of P-80 Zubr. Its GRAU designation is 3M55 , air launched Kh-61 variant. Development officially started in 1983, and by 2001 allowed the launch of the missile from land, sea, air and submarine. The missile has the NATO reporting codenameSS-N-26 “Strobile”. It is reportedly a replacement for the P-270 Moskit, but possibly also for the P-700 Granit. The P-800 was reportedly used as the basis for the joint Russian-Indian supersonic missile BrahMos. Ramjet using kerosene liquid fuel Oniks (version for Russia): 600km (max range) Yakhont (export version): 120 to 300 km (74.6 to 186.4 mi) depending on altitude. Mach 2.5
The lead boat is currently used only as a test vessel for testing various equipment, rather than for active duty. In 2013 construction of the second boat resumed. In 2015 construction of the third boat resumes. These boats were heavily redesigned and are now built to an improved project.
Amur class, or Project 1650, a less capable version, intended for export. It is named after the Amur river. Design work has been completed for a whole family of submarines with a displacement ranging from 550 to 1 850 tons and various weapon systems.
In Febraury 2014, the Russian Navy announced that the Lada class attack submarines would be equipped with an air-independent ultra-quiet propulsion system beginning in 2016. It can be outfitted with custom equipment depending on customer requirements. These ships may be fitted with vertical launch missile silos.
The submarine “Amur 950” has less displacement than a class submarines “Kilo” and “Amur-1650” Example of vertical launch missile silos which could also be fitted on Amur-1650/Lada Class Main control room of Amur
|Diving depth (operational)||~ 250 m|
|Diving depth (maximum)||300 m|
|Sea endurance||45 days|
|Dimensions and displacement|
|Surfaced displacement||1 675 tons|
|Submerged displacement||2 700 tons|
|Propulsion and speed|
|Surfaced speed||10 knots|
|Submerged speed||20 knots|
|Diesel generators||2 x 3 499 hp|
|Electric motors||1 x 5 576 hp|
|Missiles||Alfa (SS-N-27 Sizzler) cruise missile, Oniks (SS-N-26) anti-ship cruise missile|
|Torpedoes||6 x 533-mm torpedo tubes, for 18 torpedoes, anti-submarine or anti-ship missiles|
|Other||mines in place of missiles and torpedoes|
Updated Aug, 12 2016