The S2R-660 Archangel Border Patrol Aircraft (BPA) is a light attack and surveillance aircraft designed and produced by the US-based aircraft manufacturer IOMAX. In its latest effort to evolve the Border Patrol Aircraft concept, IOMAX has partnered with Thrush Aircraft to jointly produce the Archangel, a sophisticated, production, S2R 660 Thrush purpose-built aircraft. This aircraft is manufactured off the manufacturing line to perform day/night ISR utilizing the 660 Thrush frame as its host. The Archangel is capable of providing real time intelligence data from altitudes as high as 20,000+ ft, delivering precision air strikes with minimum collateral damage. The IOMAX Archangel Block 3 Border Patrol Aircraft was unveiled during Paris Air Show 2013 and performed its maiden flight in July 2014.
The Archangel is the latest version of IOMAX’s Block 1 and Block 2 AT-802 turboprop that is currently fielded by the UAE and Jordan. In October 2014, the UAE has signed a contract to procure “an enhanced squadron” of IOMAX Archangel Border Patrol Aircraft (BPA).
UAE’s fleet will now be replaced by 24 Archangel aircraft. IOMAX has offered its Archangel Block 3 Border Patrol Aircraft (BPA) to Turkey, and to the Philippine Air Force (PAF) as a replacement for its ageing Rockwell OV-10 Bronco counterinsurgency fleet. IOMAX has also received interest from countries such as Angola, Niger, and the Ivory Coast, among others.
The Archangel has fully integrated night vision capable front and rear glass cockpits. The aircraft features easy access for maintenance in the field or fixed base operations. The Pratt & Whitney PT6A-67F engine powers the MTV-27 MT Propeller 5-Blade propeller allowing for shorter take-off distances, reduced audible signature, increased rate of climb and cruise speed, and overall smoother operations. With a large wing area designed for heavy payload capacity, Archangel has a fixed reinforced landing gear for hard-landing survivability on rough field operations. Featuring unmatched operational flexibility, the multi-mission Archangel can operate up to 25,000 feet (with oxygen), and has 4,800 lb (2177 kg) external stores payload capacity. Source iomax.net
- MTV-27 MT Propeller
- Shorter take-off distance
- Reduced audible signature
- Reduced tip erosion
- Increased rate of climb
- Increased cruise speed
- Smoother operation
- Pratt & Whitney PT6A-67F Engine
- Thermodynamic Power Class (ESHP) – 1400 to 1900
- Mechanical Power Class (SHP) – 700 to 1700
- Propeller Speed (Max RPM) – 1700 – 2000
- Fuselage Auxiliary Fuel Tank
- Holds 500 gallons of useable fuel
- Intuitive Fuel Management System
- Avionics Bay
- Easy access for maintainers
- Houses avionics gear
- Space for avionics options
- Dual Cockpit
- Glass Cockpit
- Front Pilot/Rear WSO Tandem Seating
- Human Factors Designed
- Night Vision Capable
- Demand Flow Oxygen System Ready
- Intuitive Instrumentation
- AMSAFE Seat Belt / Airbags
- Tactical LOS VHF/UHF Comms
- Military – Secure/Nonsecure
- Strike Mission Capable Cockpit
- Pilot Armament Control
- WSO Target Selection/Tracking/Designation/Situational Awareness
- Wing Area and Main Fuel Tanks
- Large area designed for heavy payload capacity
- Total wing fuel is 228 gallons
- Fixed Landing Gear
- Designed for rough field operation
- Low Maintenance
- Spring Reinforced for Hard Landing Survivability
- Threat Warning Systems
- UV Missile Warning System
- Radar Warning Receiver
- Countermeasure – Flare and Chaff
- Surveillance Capability
- Gimbaled and Stabilized EO/IR Sensor with Laser Range Finder and Illuminator
- Pod or Fuselage Mounted
- Integrated LOS Full Motion Video Data Link
- Targeting Capability
- Gimbaled and Stabilized EO/IR/LRF/LI with Laser Designation
- Pod or Fuselage Mounted
- Integrated LOS Full Motion Video Data Link
- Weapon Armament System
IOMAX offers Archangel light attack turboprop to the Philippines: Here
Archangel Block 3
Archangel Block 3 Border Patrol Aircraft (BPA)
The IOMAX Archangel Border Patrol Aircraft is fitted with front and rear night vision compatible (NVG) glass cockpits equipped with CMC’s Esterline Cockpit 4000 avionics suite. Three 5in x 7in multi-function displays (MFD) and one up front control panel (UFCP) are provided in the front cockpit whereas the rear cockpit is fitted with one 5in x 7in MFD and one UFCP.
The Archangel border patrol aircraft is based on the Thrush Aircraft’s S2R-660 (710) airframe. It features a large wing area and a fixed, reinforced landing gear, which facilitates safe take-off and landing on unimproved, dirt, grass and gravel surfaces. The airplane has a length of 11m and a wing span of 17.4m. It can carry 2,177kg of payloads externally, and has day and night operational capability. A crew of two are accommodated on the airplane in a dual control, tandem seat configuration to render increased visibility. As well as being blended to the fuselage, the Archangel’s tandem twin-cockpit has been moved forward and slightly stretched to increase the view forward and down for the pilot and the space available for the rear crew-member.
The Pratt & Whitney PT6A-67F engine (1,796 eshp and 1,700 shp) powers the MTV-27 MT Propeller 5-Blade propeller allowing for shorter take-off distances, reduced audible signature, increased rate of climb and cruise speed, and overall smoother operations. In addition to increasing the aircraft’s speed, its range and endurance have been significantly improved by converting the ‘hopper’ space in the nose (used for carrying crop spraying chemicals in the agricultural airframe) into a main fuel tank that can hold 338 US gallons. In addition to the two 184 US gallon tanks in the wings, this extra fuel takes the Archangel’s range out to 1,350 n miles (with stores), compared to approximately 450 n miles for the baseline S2R-660 (clean) platform.
MASE pod for Archangel
Terma has provided IOMAX USA with the self-protection suite – based on its Modular Aircraft Self Protection Equipment (MASE) pod – for the Archangel intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) light attack aircraft being supplied to the UAE.
The self-protection suite selected for the Archangel uses twin MASE pods (fitted on underwing hardpoints port and starboard) configured with missile warning sensors and countermeasures dispensing systems, all tied into Terma’s cockpit-mounted ALQ-213 Electronic Warfare Management System.
Based on Thrush Aircraft’s S2RT660 single-turboprop aircraft, the Archangel has been designed to meet requirements for ISR, border protection, counter-insurgency, armed reconnaissance, close air support, forward air control, and combat search and rescue.
Fitted with a high-performance electro-optical/infrared reconnaissance and targeting capability, and six underwing stores hardpoints, the aircraft is able to deliver a wide range of precision-guided munitions including 70mm laser-guided rockets, AGM-114 Hellfire missiles, and GBU-58 and GBU-12 Paveway II laser-guided bombs. Source janes.com
AN/ALQ-213 EW Management Unit
The Electronic Warfare Management System (EWMS) ALQ-213 product family is the core system of Terma’s integrated Electronic Warfare (EW) systems solutions. As a subsystem and aircraft independent system, the ALQ-213 integrates individual subsystems into one combined system. The pilot has one single interface to all self-protection subsystems which results in increased survivability and reduced stress on the pilot in critical situations.
In collaboration with a large number of end users and aircraft manufacturers, the performance and capabilities of Terma’s EWMS have continuously been expanded over the past two decades. Today, the product represents the most common and mature Electronic Warfare management system in the market.
One Coherent System Solution
The ALQ-213 management system manages all subsystems automatically and displays alerts, status, etc. as one coherent system instead of a number of individual subsystems.
Terma’s management system is unique in the sense that, on one hand, it creates an integrated systems solution, but on the other hand, it does not need to be tightly integrated into the aircraft’s main control software. This means low integration costs as well as increased flexibility for the users.
Commonality across Platforms
The uniqueness of the ALQ-213 family of controllers is that the same product can be used across a mixed fleet of aircraft (fighters, helicopters, and fixed wing transport aircraft) because the products have been developed for generic solutions rather than dedicated platforms.
Freedom of Choice
The ALQ-213 allows for integration of any EW subsystem (Radar-, Missile-, Laser Warning, Direct InfraRed CounterMeasures systems, Jammers, Decoys, and Dispensers) enabling us to deliver the solution that best meet operational requirements and budget.
A Total EW Package
As a mature product, the ALQ-213 product family comes with all necessary tools supporting all phases of the flight from planning, recording, training, and analysis for continuous optimization of the operational performance. Source terma.com
Pratt & Whitney PT6A-67F engine
Pratt & Whitney PT6A-67F engine (1,796 eshp and 1,700 shp)
Multi- stage axial and single-stage centrifugal compressor
- Reverse flow, radial inlet with screen for FOD (Foreign Object Damage) protection
- Large high power PT6A models incorporate 4-stage axial and 1-stage centrifugal
- Small and Medium PT6A models incorporate 3-stage axial and 1-stage centrifugal
Reverse flow combustor
- Low emissions, high stability, easy starting, durable
Single-stage compressor turbine
- Cooled vanes in some models to maintain high durability
Independent ‘free’ power turbine with shrouded blades
- Large and Medium PT6A models incorporate 2-stage axial power turbine
- Small PT6A models incorporate 1-stage axial power turbine
- Forward facing output for fast hot section refurbishment
Epicyclic speed reduction gearbox
- Enables compact installation
- Output speed optimized for highest power and low propeller noise
- 1,700 to 2,200 rpm output speed
Electronic engine controls on multiple PT6A models
- Other models incorporate various control modules and over-ride features to promote ease of operation and safety of flight
(A-11 to A-140)
(A-41 to A-62)
(A-64 to A-68)
* Powers are approximate values at take-off. Available at sea level, standard day, static conditions, uninstalled.
** Dimensions are approximate values.
*** Equivalent Shaft Horsepower: includes estimated equivalent contribution of exhaust thrust.
MTV-27 MT Propeller 5-Blade propeller
MTV-27 MT Propeller 5-Blade propeller
A mission computer is installed to drive the MFD and the UFCP. The avionics suite consists of a range of systems including Cobham CVN-251 VHF Nav navigation system, STEC System-2100 autopilot, Honeywell KRA-405B radar altimeter, Bendix / King KTA-970 traffic collision avoidance system, and L3 GH-3900 Electronic Standby Instrument System, Artex ELT 1000 emergency locator transponder. The Archanel also include Cobham CDM-451 distance measuring equipment, Honeywell IRU Laser Ref VI inertial reference unit, Becker ICS DVCS 6100 radio / intercom control system, Dukane DK-120 underwater beacon, Blue Sky GPS based data / voice, and L3 TACAN+.
Other several systems are also available in option such as Head Up Display (HUD), and Hands On Throttle And Stick (HOTAS).
The Archangel aircraft can be armed with a variety of air-to-ground missiles and bombs including 12 AGM-114 Hellfire missiles, 10 250lb GBU-58 Mk-81s and six GBU-12 Mk-82 laser-guided bombs, 24 Roketsan Cirit laser-guided missiles, and up to 12 UMTAS AGM laser-guided missiles.
IDEX 2017: IOMAX Archangel 3 Armed ISR – Jane’s
Avalon 2017: L3 and Air Tractor marketing AT-802L armed turboprop as OA-8 Longsword: Here
The L3-Air Tractor OA-8 Longsword armed turboprop aircraft shown at the Avalon Airshow 2017. Source: L3 Technologies
L3 Technologies and Air Tractor are marketing their AT-802L (formerly AT-802U) as the OA-8 Longsword at the 2017 Avalon Airshow in Australia, as the partners look to secure regional sales for the armed turboprop aircraft.
Company representatives told Jane’s on 1 March that there are a number of requirements in Australia, New Zealand, and the wider Asia-Pacific region that could suit the newly re-designated OA-8, but declined to be more specific.
Lasa Engineering T-Bird: Details
UMTAS anti-tank missile
UMTAS, developed by Roketsan primarily for use from attack helicopters is an anti-tank missile system. It is, with the advanced technology it has, highly effective against all armored threats in the field
Properties of the Product
- UMTAS, with its Imaging Infrared Seeker and Laser Seeker options, is an anti-tank missile, having a range of 8 km and lock on before/after launch and “fire and forget/fire and update” properties, used against armored targets, from air to ground as well as ground to ground.
- Insensitive Munitions (Level V)
- Tandem Warhead Effective Against Reactive Armors
- Integration to Various Platforms (helicopter, UAV, Land Vehicle, Stationary Platform, Light Attack Aircraft, Naval Platform)
- IIR or Laser Seeker Options
- Lock on Before / After – Launch
- Fire and Forget / Fire and Update Properties
- RF Data Link
- Smokeless Composite Solid Propellant
UMTAS, which was developed by Roketsan primary for use from attack helicopters, is an antitank missile system. With its advanced technology it is highly effective against all armored threats in the field.
UMTAS, with its maximum range of 8 km and minimum range of 500 m is capable of operating all weather conditions and day/night.
UMTAS, which can be used in Fire and Forget and Fire and Update modes, with the flexibility provided by its target update capability, offers to fire behind the mask position, fire against targets hiding behind mask and adjust hit point and damage assesment capability. UMTAS, defined as the official antitank system of the National Attack Helicopter (T – 129) under development, can be integrated to various platforms (Helicopter, UAV, Land Vehicle, Stationary Platform, Light Assault Aircraft, Naval Platform)
|Max. Rangel||8 km|
|Min. Range||0,5 km|
|Propellant Type||HTPB-Based Reduced Smoke Composite Propellant|
|Warhead Type||Insensitive Tandem Warhead Effective Against Armor with Reactive Protection|
|Guidance||Imager Infrared (IIR) or Laser|
|Target Types||Heavy Armored / Armored Vehicles|
|Platforms||Helicopters (AH – 1 W, T – 129 ATAK etc.), UAV’s, Land Vehicles, Light Attack Aircraft, Naval Platforms and Stationary Platforms|
2.75” Laser Guided Missile CİRİT
Properties of the Product
CİRİT, is a missile with the longest range in its class which provides a superior precision against light, armored/unarmored and stationary/mobile targets as well as being a cost effective solution.
- The 2.75″ Missile with the Longest Range
- Insensitive Munitions (Level V)
- Multi Purpose (Armor Piercing, Anti Personnel and Incendiary) Warhead
- Integration to Various Platforms (Helicopter, UAV, Land Vehicle, Stationary Platform, Light Assault Aircraft, Naval Platform)
- Standard Mode and Smart Mode Pod Integration
- Not a Guidance Kit, New Generation All-Up Round Missile System
- Composite Propellent Technology with Reduced Smoke
In the Inventory of Turkish Armed Forces
2.75” Laser Guided Missile CİRİT was designed for the purpose of filling the gap between cheap, unguided rockets with low precision and the high cost, guided anti-tank missiles.
CİRİT can be fired from standard CİRİT POD developed by Roketsan and as well as from Smart Pod. Smart Pod increases the capability envelope of CİRİT missile for inventory information exchange through the platform it possess prior to launch.
CİRİT is stored in the canister which facilities loading and unloading.
CİRİT, by means of its aerodynamic shape and composite solid propellant rocket motor, has the longest range in its class, 8 km, as compared to classic 2.75” unguided rockets.
Moreover, CİRİT missile offers options, such as multipurpose warhead (Armor Piercing Anti-personnel and Incendiary) as well as High Explosive warhead.
CİRİT system defined as the official missile system of National Attack Helicopter (T – 129) under development and can be also integrated to various platforms (Helicopter, UAV, Land Vehicle, Light Assault Aircraft, Naval Platform).
|Diameter||2.75″ (70 mm)|
|Maximum Range||8 km|
|Minimum Range||1,5 km|
|Weight||15 kg (Without tube complete)|
|Propellant Type||HTPB Based, Smokeless, Composite Solid Propellant|
|Warhead Type||Multi Purpose Warhead, Armor Piercing, Personnel, Incendiary|
|Warhead Type||High Explosive Warhead|
|Guidance||Mid – Phase Guidance with MEMS – AÖB|
|Guidance||Terminal Guidance with Semi-Active Laser Seeker|
|Target Types||Light Armored / Unarmored Vehicles, Stationary and Moving Targets, Bunkers|
|Platforms||Helicopters (AH – 1W, T – 129 ATAK etc.), UAV’s, Land Vehicles, Light Assault Aircraft, Naval Platforms and Stationary Platforms|
The six hardpoints, three under each wing, are provided to carry the weapons. The AGM-114 Hellfire missiles can be mounted in the IOMAX Dual Rail Launcher, while the Cirit rockets are stored in a quad pack launcher. The IOMAX Dual Ejector Rack is equipped to carry GBU-58 Mk-81 and GBU-12 Mk-82 laser-guided bombs.
The aircraft also features one centreline hardpoint under the fuselage for mounting additional munitions or reconnaissance / strike / data link pod.
The airplane incorporates advanced surveillance and targeting systems to capture real-time imagery and video, and provide improved situational awareness. The sensor suite consists of L3 Wescam MX-15 or Star SAFIRE 380 HLD electro-optical / infrared (EO / IR) camera, Avalex AVM-4177 N EO / IR display sensor, Aero Computer AK-4 software mission keyboard, Aero Computer UC-5300 moving map system, and AVR-8414 digital video recorder.
The Archangel can be configured during production to ensure a client’s requirements are fully addressed. Variations include EO/IR targeting with the WESCAM MX-15 (with or without LD); armament control and stores management; UHF/VHF/FM and SATCOM communications; full motion video; aerodynamic Pod and pylons.
IOMAX FLEXIBLE POD
1 EO/IR/LRF/LDISR and Targeting
2 Full video Data Link
3 Common Missile Warning System + CM
4 Radar Warning Receiver + CM
5 SAR/MTI/MTT Radar
6 Weapon Data Link
7 A-A UAV Command & Control
Electro-optical / infrared (EO / IR) camera
Star SAFIRE 380 HLD
Star SAFIRE 380 HLD electro-optical / infrared (EO / IR) camera
L3 Wescam MX-15
Avalex AVM-4177 N EO / IR display sensor
The AVM4177 offers full HD (1920 x 1080) resolution in a very compact display. A sharp, crisp display is critical for ISR missions and the AVM4177 gives the operator a pixel-for-pixel sensor-to-display option with modern HD sensors.
In addition, standard picture-by-picture (PBP) processing allows the operator to compare the images from different sensors side-by-side. Aircraft real estate is valuable and the AVM4177 provides a bright, rugged, full HD display in a very compact package for airborne ISR operators.
A full complement of HD, SD, VGA and DVI connections are provided to integrate a variety of moving maps and moving map systems.
NVIS capability, along with a wide dimming range round out the features available with the AVM4177.
|DISPLAY AREA||17.3 in. 439.4 mm.|
|HEIGHT||10.875 in. 276.2 mm.|
|WIDTH||17.3 in. 439.4 mm.|
|DEPTH||3.865 in. 98.2 mm.|
|NATIVE RESOLUTION||1920 x 1080|
|VIDEO INPUTS||1 DVI, 2 HD, 2 VGA, 6 RS-170|
|VIDEO OUTPUTS||1 HD, 2 SD|
|SCREEN MODES||PbP, PiP|
|INPUT VOLTAGE||18-28 VDC|
|WEIGHT||10.4 lbs. 4.7 kg.|
|OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE||32° to 131° F|
|STORAGE TEMPERATURE RANGE||14° to 149° F|
|QUALIFICATION||Designed to MIL-STD-461F, Designed to MIL-STD-810G|
|TOUCH SCREEN||(Option) PCAP|
|HEATER GLASS||(Option) Consult Factory|
|ADDED FEATURES||Option for two AVM4177s mounted on a hinge (see ADM4177)|
Aero Computer UC-5300 moving map system
ViewSync3D™ was designed as an affordable modular upgrade to the UC-5300 mission management system. Building upon the mapping and targeting capabilities of the UC-5300, ViewSync3D™ adds augmented reality overlays of street lines and roads on live video. Source aerocomputers.com
AVR-8414 digital video recorder
The AVR8414 is a 5th generation, multi-channel digital video recorder in a compact Dzus-style housing. From 1080p60 to standard definition NTSC or PAL, the highly capable AVR8414 can record the wide range of signals required by ISR platforms.
Event marking, KLV data, image snapshots, remote operation, jog – playback and playback-while-record are just a few of the advanced features available with the AVR8414. Of course, all of the standard features like record, stop, pause and play are included.
The AVR8414 can be controlled via the front panel of the DVR or via an on screen display. The front panel is high resolution, NVIS compatible, graphical display used to provide a wide range of status information to the operator of the multi-channel recorder. Avalex has created an easy-to-use interface for the AVR8414 that will allow operators to easily manage up to five (5) simultaneous channels of HD and SD video recording.
The AVR8414 offers airborne operators industry leading features in a multi-channel, compact digital video recorder.
|SINGLE/MULTI CHANNEL RECORD||Multi|
|HEIGHT||1.5 in. 38.1 mm.|
|WIDTH||5.75 in. 146.0 mm.|
|DEPTH||8.14 in. 206.8 mm.|
|SD VIDEO INPUTS||4|
|SD VIDEO OUTPUTS||1|
|HD VIDEO INPUTS||2|
|HD VIDEO OUTPUTS||1|
|STORAGE MEDIA||SD, SSD SATA, USB|
|KLV METADATA||MISB, STANAG 4609|
|GENERAL I/O||CANbus, Discrete, Ethernet, RS-232, RS-422|
|OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE||-45° C to +71° C|
|STORAGE TEMPERATURE RANGE||14° to 149° F|
|WEIGHT||1.4 lbs. 0.6 kg.|
|INPUT VOLTAGE||28 VDC|
|DISPLAY AREA||2.6 in. 66.0 mm.|
Archangel also features communication and navigation radios, UHF / VHF /F M and SATCOM communications, transponders, line of sight video downlinks, TERMA AN/ALQ-213 missile warning system, and an optional Selex SEER radar warning system. An IOMAX armament control system is installed to control the weapons.
IOMAX also proposes options in order to enhance aircraft survivability and communication capabilities, such as Missile and Radar warning systems, Flare and Chaff Countermeasures, Aircraft Fuselage Ballistic Protection Armor, Satellite Beyond Line-of-Sight, UHF Line-of-Sight, and Secure and Non-secure communication systems.
TERMA AN/ALQ-213 missile warning system
Missile and Radar warning systems
To meet different levels of capabilities, two groups of controllers have been developed:
- The EW Management Unit (EWMU) combined with the Tactical Data Unit (TDU)
- The Defensive Aids Controller (DAC)
The EWMS is fielded on +2.000 aircraft all over the globe. Leading F-16 countries operate the system across their fleets of aircraft. The European Participating Air Forces (EPAF) have been driving the continuous development of the capabilities in the system which today include Embedded Training and Electronic Combat Adaptive Processing. The EWMS has been optimized with respect to size, functionality, and effectiveness at use.
The new and more powerful version of the EWMS will be introduced in two different configurations:
The ALQ-213 RMP: form-fit with the existing 213 but much more powerful and capable of meeting future requirements to interfaces, sensor fusion, and hosting of third-party subsystem software.
ALQ-213 MUP: same form-fit as the existing 213 but without manual interface panel. This version is designed to interface with glass cockpit and for installation outside the avionics bay.
The DAC represents an integration of subsystems into one box, i.e.:
- the EW management system
- recording capability
- programmable interference blanking unit
- provision for hosting of third-party printed circuit boards and software to allow for cost-effective upgrades over the total life of the aircraft
- supporting interface to glass cockpit but can be operated using a dedicated remote control panel.
|Wing Span ft (m)||57 (17.4)|
|Length ft (m)||36 (11)|
|Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight lb (kg)||14,800 (6713)|
|Cruise Speed||180 KTAS (with external stores)|
|Aircrew Configuration||2 Place Tandem -Dual Control|
ISR Configuration (Base Model)
U/VHF ARC-210 Communications
Commercial VHF with Control Panel
VOR/ILS and DME Navigation Radios
Autopilot Integration with FMS
Air Data Computer
Inertial Navigation System
WAAS Capable GPS
Backup Flight Instrument
Up Front Control Panel (Front and Rear Cockpits)
MFD (x3) Front Cockpit, MFD (x2) Rear Cockpit
4 Channel DTS/DVR
Video Playback in Rear Cockpit
Night Vision (NVIS) compatible cockpit
Centerline Aerodynamic ISR Pod
WESCAM MX-15 EO/IR
Single LRU Full HD System
Full 1080P HD-SDI digital performance
Second generation Full-HD
SWIR band sensor
High definition color in low light
120x zoom ratio
Enhanced standard definition video
Multiple laser payloads
Simplified common interface standard
Fully hardened for military fixed-wing and helicopter operations
Wide Band Data/Video Line-of-Sight Downlink
Updated Feb 11, 2018