Japan Kawasaki P-1 Patrol Aircraft

Kawasaki XP-1 (previously known as P-X) is a maritime patrol aircraft being developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for the Japan Maritime Self Defence Force (JMSDF). It is intended to replace the P-3C maritime patrol aircraft operated by the JMSDF.

P-3C maritime patrol aircraft

msdf-p-3c-5076

The US Navy has operated the land-based P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft for anti-submarine warfare and anti-shipping, as well as for overland surveillance, reconnaissance, mine-laying, drug interdiction logistic, threat simulation crew training and search and rescue missions.

   Although developed to counter the Soviet submarine threat, the maritime patrol force, greatly reduced in size since the end of the Cold War, finds itself in great demand in the littoral warfare environment of the early 21st century. The current front-line version is the P-3C which equips 12 active and seven reserve patrol squadrons the P-3C entered service in Baseline form in 1969 and has been upgraded since through various update configurations. Modifications to their equipment has sharpened their capabilities. The Lockheed P-3 Orion is currently in service with 15 countries.

Entered service 1969
Crew ?
Dimensions and weight
Length 35.61 m
Wing span 30.37 m
Height 10.27 m
Weight (empty) 27.9 t
Weight (maximum take off) 64.4 t
Engines and performance
Engines 4 x Allison T56-A-14 turboprops
Engine power 4 x 4 910 hp
Maximum speed 761 km/h
Service ceiling 8.6 km
Combat radius 2 494 km
Armament
Missiles AGM-84D Harpoon anti-ship missiles, AGM-84E cruise missiles
Bombs Mk 54/101 depth bombs, Mk 82/83 series free-fall bombs, Mk 36/38/40 destructors
Torpedoes Mk 46/50 Barracuda torpedoes
Mines Mk 52/55/56 mines
Other 70-mm air-to-surface rockets

Source military-today.com

The first prototype aircraft of XP-1 was rolled out from Kawasaki Gifu Work’s South Plant in July 2007. The aircraft completed its maiden flight in September 2007.

1331396626489999250The XP-1 Prototype in Technical Research and Development Institute (TRDI) colours – Image: foxtrotalpha.jalopnik.com

The Ministry of Defence received the first test aircraft in August 2008. Kawasaki delivered four XP-1 maritime patrol test aircraft to the Ministry of Defence by March 2010. The Japanese defence ministry found tears in several parts of the test aircraft during ground testing in August 2011. The fuel tank and central part of the fuselage were reinforced after repairs.

Details of the Maritime Patrol Aircraft (P-X) and Cargo Aircraft (C-X) programme

dsc_4956

The Japanese Ministry of Defence began the development of XP-1 along with the C-X transport aircraft in 2001 to replace the ageing P-3C fleet. It is the first indigenous development programme covering the development of two large aircraft under a single project. In November 2001, Kawasaki was selected as a prime contractor to develop these aircraft along with other equipment manufacturers and suppliers.

The XP-1 and XC-2 use many common structural components and equipment. The airframe, engines and the patrol systems are developed indigenously. The project also employed combined-off-the-shelf (COTS) products to achieve cost reduction in development and production. The XC-2 and XP-1 are being built concurrently to reduce production costs.

XP-1 design and avionics

e64cb2f1b86492fe

The forward fuselages and horizontal tails are of a robust, lightweight and cost-effective composite material made from carbon fibres. The wing-body fairings for the P-X are supplied by NIPPI Corporation. The fairings reduce drag by overlaying the joint between the main wing and fuselage. The aircraft carries up to 13 crew members.

XP-1 has a length of 38m, wingspan of 35.4m and a tail height of 12.1m. The maximum take-off weight of the aircraft is 79.7t. The latest technologies provide the XP-1 with higher speed, greater range and useful load than the P-3C aircraft.

P-1Image: heinkel.jp

The aircraft incorporates the fly-by-light (FBL) system which offers increased resistance to high electromagnetic interference (EMI). The FBL system uses fibre optics to transfer flight control commands at higher speeds.

Cockpit

p-1-cockpit-hudThe cockpit windows are huge. Seen also are two HUDs and the multi-function LCD displays. Image : Mainichi Shimbun

Unlike the mostly analogue instruments of the P-3C, the P-1 has, in common with the Kawasaki C-2 transport, a modern digital ” glass cockpit ” with 6 large LCD multifunction displays and 2 sets of Head-Up Displays ( HUD ). The cockpit also features huge glass windows reflecting the Japanese emphasis on low altitude visual searches. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com

Workstation

Kawasaki-P-1-is-a-Japanese-maritime-patrol-aircraft-11Kawasaki-P-1-is-a-Japanese-maritime-patrol-aircraft-8Acoustic workstation. Image : Mainichi Shimbun

Command and Control

The P-1 has a Combat Command System designated the HYQ-3 by Toshiba which is basically an onboard combat information processor, some sort of artificial intelligence that can assist the mission commander in planning for the best respond to an encountered threat, like delivering the optimal firing solution on an enemy submarine based on the combined information collected by all the plane’s sensors and sensors from other friendly platforms nearby.

Communications

The P-1 is fitted with the HRC-124 UHF/VHF Radio and the HRC-123 satellite communications equipment made by Mitsubishi Electric.

Tactical Data Link

Equipped with Link 16 compatible MIDS-LVT terminal, the P-1 can share targeting and any other information with similarly equipped aircrafts like the F-15J, P-3C, E-767 AWACS, E-2C AEW, MH-60 naval helicopters, F-35 JSF, and surface vessels like the JMSDF’s Aegis destroyers.

Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com

Weapon systems

7ben-montgomery_img_5949Fujitsu HAQ-2 forward-looking infrared radar (FLIR) & Internal weapons bay – Image: aeroresource.co.uk

The external pylons of the XP-1 can carry wide range of weapon systems such as anti-ship missiles, air-to-surface missiles, torpedoes, mines, depth charges and bombs. The aircraft can also deploy sonobuoys while conducting anti-submarine warfare missions.

Weapon pylons 

p-15506_main_landing_gear-iwakuni-ab_20140914-wikiWeapon pylons ( BRU-47/A bomb release unit ) under the port wing and the internal bomb bay whose outline you can see just aft of the front landing gear ( with 3 red-tipped N-AS-331 and 1 yellow-tipped N-AS-330 antennae for the HRQ-1 sonobuoy receiver ). Wikipaedia photo.

Armament

  • Hardpoint: 8 wing stations in total (2x on each wing and 2x on each wing root) and eight internal bomb bay stations
  • Bombs: 9,000+ kg (20,000+ lb)
  • Missiles: AGM-84 Harpoon, ASM-1C, AGM-65 Maverick
  • Sonobuoys: 30+ Pre-loaded, 70+ Deployable from inside
  • Other: MK-46 and Type 97 and new (G-RX5) torpedoes, mines, depth charges

ASM-1C Type 80 anti-shipping missile

The Japanese Type 80 ASM-1 Missile is designed primarily as an air-launched coastal defense weapon. In practice it could be used against a variety of surface targets, including ships, truck convoys, light armored vehicles, buildings and bridges. With the addition of a solid-fuel booster stage, this missile is also used as part of the ground-launched SSM-1 system.

Based on the Type-80 Air-to-Ship Missile, various anti-ship systems including Type-88 SSM (Surface-to-Ship Missile), Type-90 SSM (Ship-to-Ship Missile), Type-91 and 93 ASMs (Air-to-Ship Missile) have been developed. These systems comprise the Japanese anti-ship missile family and are deployed in the Ground, Maritime, and Air Self Defense Forces.

blog_import_510e3d5fb09d1

Contractor Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Entered Service 1980
Total length 4.0 m
Diameter 0.35 m
Wingspan 1.2 m
Weight 600 kg
Warhead 150kgHE semi-armor piercing
Propulsion solid
Maximum Speed  
Maximum effective range 50 km
Guidance mode Inertial + active radar

Data fas.org

AGM-65 Maverick

a0161664_192516100

AGM-84 Harpoon

f07fece7

Sonobuoys

p-1-sonobuoy-rackRotary sonobuoy launcher. Image : Mainichi ShimbunKawasaki-P-1-is-a-Japanese-maritime-patrol-aircraft-6Sonobuoy rack with capacity for 96 sonobuoys. Image : Mainichi Shimbun
img_6953crs
The P-1’s ventral sonobuoy launcher system has 37 slots, marked  S1-S30, P1-P4, FF, ARL, and  FRL.
The triangular-shaped grooves closer to the camera are two NACA-type flush intakes to provide
cooling air, presumably for the onboard electronics suite. Source: j-hangarspace.jp

The P-1 can carry 30 pre-loaded sonobuoys and another 60 in racks in the cabin for reloading. The Acoustic Processor HQA-7 is manufactured by NEC. Other components of the acoustic system includes the  HRQ-1 Sonobuoy Receiver, HQH-106 Acoustic Data Recorder and the HAS-107 Sonobuoy Controller.  Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com

Mk-46 Torpedo

mk-46-torpedo-018Image: seaforces.org

General characteristics, Mark 46 Mod 5:
Primary Function: Air and ship-launched lightweight torpedo
Contractor: Alliant Techsystems
Power Plant: Two-speed, reciprocating external combustion; Mono-propellant (Otto fuel II)
Length: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) tube launch configuration (from ship), 14 ft 9 in (4.5 m) with ASROC rocket booster
Weight: 508 lb (231 kg) (warshot configuration)
Diameter: 12.75 in (324 mm)
Range: 12,000 yd (11 km)
Depth: > 1,200 ft (365 m)
Speed: > 40 knots (46 mph, 74 km/h)
Guidance System: Homing mode: Active or passive/active acoustic homing
Launch/search mode: Snake or circle search
Warhead: 96.8 lb (44 kg) of PBXN-103 high explosive (bulk charge)
Date Deployed: 1967 (Mod 0); 1979 (Mod 5)

Source seaforces.org

Type 97 Torpedo

hf1_20ix12

Type 97 Torpedo is a new generation of short torpedo that was developed domestically under the name of G – RX 4 as a successor to the short torpedo Mk 46.

The adoption of closed cycle engine and pump · jet is a big technical feature. In addition to being installed on the patrol aircraft P – 3C and SH – 60K, the water ship is launched from the short torpedo launcher tube HOS – 303 or mounted as a warhead of the 07 – type vertical launching torpedo projection rocket. In addition, the 12th torpedo that became the successor was formulated. Translated by google – Source zuikaku55555.web.fc2.com

P-1 maritime patrol aircraft 2

Sensors / radars

The aircraft is equipped with new acoustics and phased array radar systems with enhanced capabilities for detecting and tracking submarines and small vessels. The sensor suite integrates HPS-106 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA), magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) system and Infrared/Light detection systems. The MAD system ensures the detection of submarines by finding magnetic variances made by a submarine in the Earth’s magnetic field.

Avionics

  • Radar: Toshiba, Active Electronically Scanned Array radar system
  • Sonar: NEC, multi-static sound navigation system sound
  • Anti-submarine systems: SHINKO ELECTRIC CO.LTD., Advanced combat direction system
  • Other: Mitsubishi, Electronic countermeasures (CMD, RWR, MWS, ESM)

HPS-106 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA)

img_6860crsThe nose houses the main Toshiba/TRDI HPS-106 active electronically scanned array (AESA) search radar. The two small excrescences on either side form part of the aircraft’s electronic support measures/radar warning receiver (ESM/RWR) system. This head-on view also shows the four advanced identification friend or foe (AIFF) antennae in front of the windscreen wipers. Source: j-hangarspace.jp

p-15503_hps-106_in_jasdf_hamamatsu_air_base_20140928-wiki

The HPS-106 side-looking array is housed beneath this panel just below the cockpit. Wikipaedia Photo – Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com

The P-1 is equipped with the HPS-106 X-Band Active Electronically Scanned Array ( AESA ) radar system jointly developed by Toshiba and the Technical Research and Development Institute ( TRDI ) of the Japanese Defence Ministry. Consisting of 4 arrays, one mounted in the nose, two side-looking panels below the cockpit area and another in the tail, the HPS-106 has a constant 360 degree coverage. It can be used in multiple modes including surface search, air search, navigational and meteorological, synthetic aperture and inverse synthetic aperture. An inverse synthetic aperture radar ( ISAR ) utilizes the motion of the target to create a high resolution 2D image that can allow for threat identification. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com

IFF

p-1-iff-big4 IFF antennae clearly seen above nose cone. Image : Mainichi Shimbun

The HPX-105 Identification Friend or Foe system is installed with the two sets of four N-AT-347 IFF antennae mounted in front of the cockpit wind screen and at the under-fuselage area. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com

img_68562rsThe two red “remove before flight” flags cover angle of attack (AOA) sensors. The P-1 shares the same cockpit glazing as the C-2, its JASDF transport stablemate. Hidden in a housing under the nose, the Fujitsu HAQ-2 forward-looking infrared radar (FLIR) – Source: j-hangarspace.jp

Fujitsu HAQ-2 forward-looking infrared radar (FLIR)

p101Fujitsu HAQ-2 forward-looking infrared radar (FLIR) under the nose

The P-1 features the Fujitsu HAQ-2 EO/IR suite mounted on a ball-like turret aft of the nose cone for tracking and examining surface targets. It consists of a Forward Looking Infrared ( FLIR ) device for thermal imaging, night vision and navigation, as well as cameras for capturing images in the visible light and near-infrared spectrum. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com

img_6879rsAbove the forward port-side ESM/RWR device housing (left) is an ice detection sensor, below it the No. 1 pitot tube and total air temperature (TAT) sensor, all of which provide data to the left-hand (captain’s) glass cockpit display. Like the JMSDF’s P-3C Orions, the P-1’s forward dorsal radome is for ESM; one further aft is for satellite communications equipment. Source: j-hangarspace.jp

Electronic Support Measures ( ESM )

p-15503_hlr-109b-hamamatsu-ab-20140928-wikiClose-up of the ESM flaring just above and behind the cockpit windows. Photo : Wikipaedia

An Electronic Support Measures ( ESM ) suite, the Mitsubishi Electric HLR-109B is installed. You can see the ESM flaring which is the prominent bulge on top of the fuselage slightly behind the cockpit. The ESM suite detects and classifies enemy radar emissions and gives the P-1 a secondary role as an  Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) platform. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com

P-1’s tail boom

img_6876crsThe P-1’s tail boom houses the Mitsubishi Electric HSQ-102 magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) system. Two missile approach warning (MAW) system devices are positioned on either side of the tail, aft of the horizontal stabilizer that is identical to that fitted to the C-2. The underside of the rear fuselage also sports four more IFF antennae. Source: j-hangarspace.jp

The HSQ-102 magnetic anomaly detector housed in the sting-like MAD boom at the rear of the P-1 is a licence produced version of the Canadian CAE AN/ASQ-508(v) by Mitsubishi Electric. CAE is the world leader in the design, manufacture and integration of MAD systems. They have been designing MAD systems for more than 40 years and had delivered more than 2000 MAD systems to the military worldwide. The AN/ASQ-508(v) is also known as the Advanced Integrated MAD System ( AIMS ) and consists of a highly sensitive magnetometer with associated electronics mounted in the tail area of an aircraft to minimize magnetic interference. It detects the variations in the earth’s magnetic field caused by the presence of metallic objects in the vicinity like a submerged submarine. The detection range is in the region of 1200m, meaning the MAD will work best with the aircraft flying at low altitudes and at low speeds, both of which the P-1 excels in. One of the key differences between the P-1 and the P-8 is that the P-8 does not have a MAD system. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com 

*Note P-8 does have MAD system

P-8 Poseidon: Details

P-8A Poseidon_10.jpg8c4b5ebd-317e-4043-b641-7d19dca2a90cOriginal

The P-1 will also be fitted with an artificial intelligence system to support TACCO mission. The advanced onboard combat direction system provides the TACCO operator with the best flight path to attack a submarine. The aircraft can be integrated with radar warning receiver, missile warning system, electronic support measures and countermeasures dispensing systems.

Self-Protection System 

japan-p1-patrol-aircraft

The P-1 is equipped with the Mitsubishi Electric HLQ-9 self-protection suite which includes the missile approach warning system ( MAWS ) and the radar warning receiver ( RWR ), accompanied by the usual dispensers for flare and chaff. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com

Engines

p-15506_f7-10_engine_front_in_iwakuni_air_base_20140914-wiki

The XP-1 is powered by four F7-10 turbofan engines of Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries. Mounted below the low-set wings, each engine generates a thrust of 60kN.

The high bypass ratio turbofan engine achieves low fuel consumption and low noise levels. The engine has an inlet diameter of about 1.4m and length of about 2.7m. The power plant provides greater flight range and maximum cruise speed to the aircraft.

img_6882crs

4 x F7-10 turbofan engines

ce47fbad-s

Specifications (F7-10)

General characteristics
  • Type: Turbofan
  • Length: 2.7 m
  • Diameter: 1.4 m (Fan)
  • Dry weight: 1,240 kg
Components
  • Compressor:
Performance
  • Maximum thrust: 60 kN (13,000 lb)
  • Bypass ratio: 8.2:1
  • Power-to-weight ratio:

Source revolvy.com

img_6866crs

Honeywell’s 131-9 APU 

131-9A APUJapan's new naval patrol aircraft Kawasaki P-1 2The starboard side of the rear fuselage duplicates the port side’s hot-air exhaust and static port (below and to the left of the hinomaru, respectively). Added on this side is a large auxiliary power unit (APU) exhaust (left) and rectangular APU fire access panel. A small, circular lavatory vent has
somehow ended up positioned within the hinomaru. Source: j-hangarspace.jp
140503m

Potential operators

New Zealand

New Zealand has requested information on the P-1 and Kawasaki C-2 to meet the country’s patrol and transport aircraft needs. This request was met with unclassified information in September 2016 and a more detailed proposal including purchase price, manufacturing arrangements, and maintenance could be complete by mid-2017. This puts the P-1 in direct competition with the P-8 Poseidon.

Thailand

Thailand is considering purchasing the aircraft.

Vietnam

There have been reports that Vietnam is considering buying used P-3 Orions from either the JMSDF or the US Navy or the Kawasaki P-1.

Specifications (XP-1)

General characteristics

  • Crew: Flight: 2 Mission: 11
  • Length: 38.0 m (124 ft 8 in)
  • Wingspan: 35.4 m (114 ft 8 in)
  • Height: 12.1 m (39 ft 4 in)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 79,700 kg (176,000 lb)
  • Powerplant: 4 × IHI Corporation F7 turbofan, 13,500 lbs (60 kN) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 996 km/h (538 knots, 619 mph)
  • Cruise speed: 833 km/h (450 knots, 516 mph)
  • Range: 8,000 km in unarmed configuration (4,320 nm, 4,970 mi)
  • Combat radius: 2,500 km in armed configuration (1,350 nm, 1555 mi)
  • Service ceiling: 44,200 ft (13,520 m)

Armament

  • Hardpoint: 8 wing stations in total (2x on each wing and 2x on each wing root) and eight internal bomb bay stations
  • Bombs: 9,000+ kg (20,000+ lb)
  • Missiles: AGM-84 Harpoon, ASM-1C, AGM-65 Maverick
  • Sonobuoys: 30+ Pre-loaded, 70+ Deployable from inside
  • Other: MK-46 and Type 97 and new (G-RX5) torpedoes, mines, depth charges

Avionics

  • Radar: Toshiba, Active Electronically Scanned Array radar system
  • Sonar: NEC, multi-static sound navigation system sound
  • Anti-submarine systems:SHINKO ELECTRIC CO.LTD., Advanced combat direction system
  • Other: Mitsubishi, Electronic countermeasures (CMD, RWR, MWS, ESM)

Specification data wikiwand.com

Main material source naval-technology.com

Revised Feb 15, 2017

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