Kawasaki XP-1 (previously known as P-X) is a maritime patrol aircraft being developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for the Japan Maritime Self Defence Force (JMSDF). It is intended to replace the P-3C maritime patrol aircraft operated by the JMSDF.
The first prototype aircraft of XP-1 was rolled out from Kawasaki Gifu Work’s South Plant in July 2007. The aircraft completed its maiden flight in September 2007.
The Ministry of Defence received the first test aircraft in August 2008. Kawasaki delivered four XP-1 maritime patrol test aircraft to the Ministry of Defence by March 2010. The Japanese defence ministry found tears in several parts of the test aircraft during ground testing in August 2011. The fuel tank and central part of the fuselage were reinforced after repairs.
Details of the Maritime Patrol Aircraft (P-X) and Cargo Aircraft (C-X) programme
The Japanese Ministry of Defence began the development of XP-1 along with the C-X transport aircraft in 2001 to replace the ageing P-3C fleet. It is the first indigenous development programme covering the development of two large aircraft under a single project. In November 2001, Kawasaki was selected as a prime contractor to develop these aircraft along with other equipment manufacturers and suppliers.
The XP-1 and XC-2 use many common structural components and equipment. The airframe, engines and the patrol systems are developed indigenously. The project also employed combined-off-the-shelf (COTS) products to achieve cost reduction in development and production. The XC-2 and XP-1 are being built concurrently to reduce production costs.
Kawasaki C-2: Details
Japan’s Maritime Self-Defense Force receives first two Kawasaki P-1 Maritime Patrol Aircraft
Japan’s Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) received the first two of a fleet of next generation P-1 Maritime Patrol Aircraft on Tuesday, with the planes scheduled to be deployed at Atsugi Air Base in Kanagawa Prefecture later this month, local media reported.
The official delivery ceremony held earlier in the day in Gifu Prefecture, central Japan, heralds the beginning of the JMSDF’s plans to acquire seven of the high-tech planes to be deployed by March 2014 and a total of 70 P-1s in the long-run, officials said.
The P-1s, designed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. in cooperation with the Defense Ministry, will replace the current over 80 aging P-3 Orion patrol planes used by the JMSDF. Source navyrecognition.com
XP-1 design and avionics
The forward fuselages and horizontal tails are of a robust, lightweight and cost-effective composite material made from carbon fibres. The wing-body fairings for the P-X are supplied by NIPPI Corporation. The fairings reduce drag by overlaying the joint between the main wing and fuselage. The aircraft carries up to 13 crew members.
XP-1 has a length of 38m, wingspan of 35.4m and a tail height of 12.1m. The maximum take-off weight of the aircraft is 79.7t. The latest technologies provide the XP-1 with higher speed, greater range and useful load than the P-3C aircraft.
The latest technologies provide the XP-1 with higher speed, greater range and useful load than the P-3C aircraft.
The aircraft incorporates the fly-by-light (FBL) system which offers increased resistance to high electromagnetic interference (EMI). The FBL system uses fibre optics to transfer flight control commands at higher speeds.
Unlike the mostly analogue instruments of the P-3C, the P-1 has, in common with the Kawasaki C-2 transport, a modern digital ” glass cockpit ” with 6 large LCD multifunction displays and 2 sets of Head-Up Displays ( HUD ). The cockpit also features huge glass windows reflecting the Japanese emphasis on low altitude visual searches. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com
Command and Control
The P-1 has a Combat Command System designated the HYQ-3 by Toshiba which is basically an onboard combat information processor, some sort of artificial intelligence that can assist the mission commander in planning for the best respond to an encountered threat, like delivering the optimal firing solution on an enemy submarine based on the combined information collected by all the plane’s sensors and sensors from other friendly platforms nearby.
The P-1 is fitted with the HRC-124 UHF/VHF Radio and the HRC-123 satellite communications equipment made by Mitsubishi Electric.
Tactical Data Link
Equipped with Link 16 compatible MIDS-LVT terminal, the P-1 can share targeting and any other information with similarly equipped aircrafts like the F-15J, P-3C, E-767 AWACS, E-2C AEW, MH-60 naval helicopters, F-35 JSF, and surface vessels like the JMSDF’s Aegis destroyers. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com
Still, the thing that puts Kawasaki P-1 ahead of the competition is its avionics. The cutting-edge technology was used to equip this aircraft, from Toshiba radar system to Shinko Electric combat system, specialized for anti-submarine warfare.
This aircraft is equipped with an advanced artificial intelligence system. This system makes job of the tactical coordinator officer easier, which has a direct impact on the overall performance of the aircraft.
Unlike a majority of similar aircraft, Kawasaki P-1 is not using the regular fly-by-wire technology, but the fly-by-light system. Actually, the P-1 is the first ever production aircraft to be using this kind of flight control system.
The cost of a single Kawasaki P-1 aircraft is between $140.8 million and $167 million. It is worth noting that the Lockheed P-3 Orion costs approximately $36 million. Source military-today.com
The external pylons of the XP-1 can carry wide range of weapon systems such as anti-ship missiles, air-to-surface missiles, torpedoes, mines, depth charges and bombs. The aircraft can also deploy sonobuoys while conducting anti-submarine warfare missions.
- Hardpoint: 8 wing stations in total (2x on each wing and 2x on each wing root) and eight internal bomb bay stations
- Bombs: 9,000+ kg (20,000+ lb)
- Missiles: AGM-84 Harpoon, ASM-1C, AGM-65 Maverick
- Sonobuoys: 30+ Pre-loaded, 70+ Deployable from inside
- Other: MK-46 and Type 97 and new (G-RX5) torpedoes, mines, depth charges
ASM-1C Type 80 anti-shipping missile
The ASM-1’s configuration is typical of the earlier generation of antiship missiles. It is a sea-skimming weapon with an INS for mid-course guidance, a radar altimeter for altitude control, and a radar seeker for terminal guidance.
The ASM-1 has triangular cruciform wings mounted in the midbody and small triangular cruciform tailfins. The missile is propelled by a solid rocket motor, and is fitted with a SAP warhead weighing 150 kilograms (330 pounds).
The ASM-1 has been deployed with Japanese Mitsubishi F-1 strike aircraft and Lockheed P-3C maritime patrol aircraft. An improved variant of the ASM-1 was developed, the “Type 91 ASM-1C”, with a longer range of 65 kilometers (40 miles), as well as an improved digital guidance system with enhanced ECCM capabilities. Source craymond.no-ip.info
ASM-2 anti-ship missiles
Development of the Type 91 ASM-2 was begun in 1988, with deliveries beginning in 1993. The ASM-2 is very similar in size and appearance to the ASM-1, except that it is turbojet powered and has an underslung air intake. Although many details are classified, the turbojet engine gives it extended range of about 100 kilometers (60 miles), and it has an imaging infrared terminal guidance seeker rather than an active radar seeker. It is believed to incorporate stealth features. The Japanese are now working on an “ASM-3” that will incorporate a ramjet engine for improved performance and range. Source craymond.no-ip.info
Contractor: Boeing, Lockheed Martin
Propulsion: Solid propellant rocket
Length: 5.33 ft
Diameter: 7 in
Wingspan: 28 in
Weight: 98 to 107 lbs
Warhead: Shaped charge and blast fragmentation
Guidance System: Electro-optical (TV) in A and B models; imaging infrared (IIR) in D, F and G models; laser guided in the E model.
The AGM-65 Maverick is an air-to-surface tactical missile designed for close air support, interdiction, and defense suppression. It is effective against a wide range of tactical targets, including armor, air defenses, ships, ground transportation, and fuel storage facilities.
The AGM-65F (infrared targeting optimized for ship tracking.) used on Navy P-3 aircraft, and the AGM-65E (laser guided) used on Marine Corps AV-8 aircraft have the larger (300 pound; 136 kg) penetrating warhead. The AGM-65A/B/D 125 pound (57 kg) shaped charge (electro-optical guided) is used by the Air Force F-16 and A-10 aircraft. The AGM-65 has two types of warheads, the anti-armor shaped charge with a point detonating base fuse and the other, a heavyweight warhead with a time-delayed fuse, which penetrates the target with its kinetic energy before firing. The latter is very effective against large, hard targets. The propulsion system for both types is a solid-rocket motor behind the warhead. Source military.com
Type 97 Torpedo
Type 97 Torpedo is a new generation of short torpedo that was developed domestically under the name of G – RX 4 as a successor to the short torpedo Mk 46.
The adoption of closed cycle engine and pump · jet is a big technical feature. In addition to being installed on the patrol aircraft P – 3C and SH – 60K, the water ship is launched from the short torpedo launcher tube HOS – 303 or mounted as a warhead of the 07 – type vertical launching torpedo projection rocket. In addition, the 12th torpedo that became the successor was formulated. Source zuikaku55555.web.fc2.com
The P-1 can carry 30 pre-loaded sonobuoys and another 60 in racks in the cabin for reloading. The Acoustic Processor HQA-7 is manufactured by NEC. Other components of the acoustic system includes the HRQ-1 Sonobuoy Receiver, HQH-106 Acoustic Data Recorder and the HAS-107 Sonobuoy Controller. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com
Sensors / radars
The aircraft is equipped with new acoustics and phased array radar systems with enhanced capabilities for detecting and tracking submarines and small vessels. The sensor suite integrates HPS-106 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA), magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) system and Infrared/Light detection systems. The MAD system ensures the detection of submarines by finding magnetic variances made by a submarine in the Earth’s magnetic field.
The P-1 will also be fitted with an artificial intelligence system to support TACCO mission. The advanced onboard combat direction system provides the TACCO operator with the best flight path to attack a submarine. The aircraft can be integrated with radar warning receiver, missile warning system, electronic support measures and countermeasures dispensing systems.
- Radar: Toshiba, Active Electronically Scanned Array radar system
- Sonar: NEC, multi-static sound navigation system sound
- Anti-submarine systems: SHINKO ELECTRIC CO.LTD., Advanced combat direction system
- Other: Mitsubishi, Electronic countermeasures (CMD, RWR, MWS, ESM)
HPS-106 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA)
The nose houses the main Toshiba/TRDI HPS-106 active electronically scanned array (AESA) search radar. The two small excrescences on either side form part of the aircraft’s electronic support measures/radar warning receiver (ESM/RWR) system. This head-on view also shows the four advanced identification friend or foe (AIFF) antennae in front of the windscreen wipers. Source: j-hangarspace.jp
The HPS-106 side-looking array is housed beneath this panel just below the cockpit. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 370.4 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.2 km||Generation: Early 2010s|
|Properties: Periscope/Surface Search – Advanced Processing [2000+], Track While Scan (TWS), Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse-only Radar|
|SENSORS / EW:|
|J/HPS-106 – Radar
Role: Radar, Surface Search, Long-Range
Max Range: 370.4 km
The HPX-105 Identification Friend or Foe system is installed with the two sets of four N-AT-347 IFF antennae mounted in front of the cockpit wind screen and at the under-fuselage area. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com
Fujitsu HAQ-2 forward-looking infrared radar (FLIR)
The P-1 features the Fujitsu HAQ-2 EO/IR suite mounted on a ball-like turret aft of the nose cone for tracking and examining surface targets. It consists of a Forward Looking Infrared ( FLIR ) device for thermal imaging, night vision and navigation, as well as cameras for capturing images in the visible light and near-infrared spectrum. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com
|Type: Infrared||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 83.3 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)|
|Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]|
|SENSORS / EW:|
|J/HAQ-2 – 3rd Gen, Surveillance & Periscope Search Infrared
Role: Infrared, Surveillance Camera
Max Range: 83.3 km
Electronic Support Measures ( ESM )
An Electronic Support Measures ( ESM ) suite, the Mitsubishi Electric HLR-109B is installed. You can see the ESM flaring which is the prominent bulge on top of the fuselage slightly behind the cockpit. The ESM suite detects and classifies enemy radar emissions and gives the P-1 a secondary role as an Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) platform. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com
Mitsubishi Electric HSQ-102 magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) system
The HSQ-102 magnetic anomaly detector housed in the sting-like MAD boom at the rear of the P-1 is a licence produced version of the Canadian CAE AN/ASQ-508(v) by Mitsubishi Electric. CAE is the world leader in the design, manufacture and integration of MAD systems. They have been designing MAD systems for more than 40 years and had delivered more than 2000 MAD systems to the military worldwide. The AN/ASQ-508(v) is also known as the Advanced Integrated MAD System ( AIMS ) and consists of a highly sensitive magnetometer with associated electronics mounted in the tail area of an aircraft to minimize magnetic interference. It detects the variations in the earth’s magnetic field caused by the presence of metallic objects in the vicinity like a submerged submarine. The detection range is in the region of 1200m, meaning the MAD will work best with the aircraft flying at low altitudes and at low speeds, both of which the P-1 excels in. One of the key differences between the P-1 and the P-8 is that the P-8 does not have a MAD system. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com
|Type: MAD||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 1.9 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Early 2010s|
|SENSORS / EW:|
|J/HSQ-102 – MAD
Max Range: 1.9 km
*Note IAF P-8 does have MAD system
P-8 Poseidon: Details
Mitsubishi Electric HLQ-9 self-protection suite
The P-1 is equipped with the Mitsubishi Electric HLQ-9 self-protection suite which includes the missile approach warning system ( MAWS ) and the radar warning receiver ( RWR ), accompanied by the usual dispensers for flare and chaff. Source daisetsuzan.blogspot.com
The XP-1 is powered by four F7-10 turbofan engines of Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries. Mounted below the low-set wings, each engine generates a thrust of 60kN.
The high bypass ratio turbofan engine achieves low fuel consumption and low noise levels. The engine has an inlet diameter of about 1.4m and length of about 2.7m. The power plant provides greater flight range and maximum cruise speed to the aircraft.
4 x F7-10 turbofan engines
F7-10 is a high-bypass ratio engine, powers the P-1 patrol aircraft.
It is a totally new engine that was developed by Japanese Defense Ministry.
And IHI has conducted mass production as the prime contractor. Source ihi.co.jp
- Type: Turbofan
- Length: 2.7 m
- Diameter: 1.4 m (Fan)
- Dry weight: 1,240 kg
- Maximum thrust: 60 kN (13,000 lb)
- Bypass ratio: 8.2:1
- Power-to-weight ratio:
Honeywell’s 131-9 APU
The starboard side of the rear fuselage duplicates the port side’s hot-air exhaust and static port (below and to the left of the hinomaru, respectively). Added on this side is a large auxiliary power unit (APU) exhaust (left) and rectangular APU fire access panel. A small, circular lavatory vent has somehow ended up positioned within the hinomaru. Source: j-hangarspace.jp
Main material source naval-technology.com
Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated
Main image by SPY_ZEAL
Revised May 22, 2021