Daily Archives: October 18, 2015

NSA 407MRH Multi-Role Helicopter

Helicopter. The new helicopter was unveiled during the International Defence Exhibition & Conference (IDEX) 2015 held in Abu Dhabi, UAE.

The MRH variant is intended for use by government and military authorities in missions such as light attack, close-air support, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) / airborne ISR (AISR), utility, cargo, and passenger transport.

NSA 407MRH details


In 2011, NorthStar ordered a total of 56 Bell 407GX helicopters from Bell Helicopter, a subsidiary of Textron, for conversion into MRH version. NorthStar took delivery of the 48th Bell 407GX at Dubai Air Show in November 2015. The unit cost of the NSA 407MRH is estimated to be $9m. The UAE Armed Forces ordered 30 retrofitted MRH helicopters, to be delivered through 2016.

NorthStar signed an agreement with Control and Applications Emirates (CAE) to develop a training solution for the multi-role helicopter variant in February 2015.

NSA 407MRH design and features

The NSA 407MRH features lightweight, high-performance design and is equipped with all-composite, four-blade main rotor, two-blade teetering tail rotor, low skid-type landing gear, carbon fibre driveshaft cover, jettisonable outboard weapon pylon, and carbon fibre doors.

Custom Lightweight Carbon Fiber Drive Shaft Cover

The Southeast Aerospace custom lightweight carbon fiber drive shaft cover design has taken the Bell 407 airframe to meet the needs of the most demanding missions – usanstar.com

Carbon Fiber Removable Doors

Carbon fiber is known for its high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, fatigue resistance, fire resistance, low thermal expansion, rigidity and durability – usanstar.com

The fuselage has a length of 10.17m, width of 1.5m and a height of 2.68m. The main and tail rotor diameters are 10.67m and 1.65m respectively. The maximum gross weight with external load is 2,722kg and 2,268kg with internal load.

The rotorcraft is operated by a single pilot and its spacious cabin can be configured to meet different mission needs.

Cockpit and avionics


The Garmin G1000H integrated flight deck provides the operator with navigation and positioning data, flight characteristics, as well as identification and communications information.

Garmin G1000H integrated flight deck


Advanced Technology for Enhanced Safety

  • The latest in glass cockpit capability for light helicopters
  • Helicopter Synthetic Vision Technology (HSVT™)
  • Helicopter Terrain Awareness Warning System (HTAWS)
  • Video input for FLIR or other camera display
  • Global connectivity options

Look to the Future with HSVT

HSVT adds increased situational awareness in your rotorcraft cockpit. Using sophisticated graphics modeling, the system recreates a “virtual reality” landscape on your large 10″, 12″ or 15″ primary flight display. This enables you to clearly visualize terrain features, waterways, airport locations, runway depiction and obstacles — even in nighttime conditions.

Avoid Obstacles with HTAWS

An optional HTAWS has been engineered specifically to keep rotorcraft safely separated from hazardous terrain and minimize the chance of CFIT (Controlled Flight into Terrain). The system predicts in advance where potential hazards may lie and alerts you as you near them. A 5-color Terrain Proximity display lets your visualize how close you are to a potential threat while voice callouts audibly announce the helicopter’s height above terrain when descending below 500 feet. For low-level operations, the system even has a Reduced Protection (RP) mode that minimizes alerting while continuing to provide protection.

Satellite Weather and Communication

Keep a watchful eye on weather in the U.S. and Canada with built-in support for our GDL™ 69 satellite datalink, which gives you NEXRAD radar imagery, METARS, TAFS, TFRs, lightning, winds and more through a XM WX Satellite Weather subscription. The GDL 69 can also provide SiriusXM Satellite Radio in the cockpit with a subscription.

When you add a GSR™ 56, you gain global weather capabilities through the Iridium satellite network. It can also support voice, text messaging and flight tracking/position reporting virtually anywhere in the world when coupled with the right subscriptions.

Fly Advanced Avionics

At the core of G1000H, potentially high-maintenance gyro instruments have been replaced with our proven Attitude and Heading Reference System. AHRS takes inputs from GPS, magnetometer and air data computers to achieve unprecedented levels of accuracy. G1000H provides support for Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) technology, which offers high-precision GPS guidance. Source garmin.com


On the communications side, the 407MRH has military-quality dual integrated tactical ARC-210 multi-band radios, a Terrestrial Trunked radio (TETRA), and a BMS Helicoder 4 microwave video downlink system. Each pilot has a complete control system for the radios, mounted underneath their Garmin 1000H monitor. The helicopter also has an APX-121 Mode IV IFF transponder, plus an L-3 Avionics Systems 3900.2 electronic standby instrumentation system that provides backup airspeed, altitude, and attitude data in a single small display window. (The 407MRH’s tail rotor drive fairing designed by SEA has a built-in shelf for mounting three antennas.)

The 407MRH’s cockpit is night vision goggle-compatible – including the cockpit and console lighting – and is equipped with infrared navigation lights and a dual-mode IR/white light searchlight. To provide protection against hostile fire, the 407MRH has lightweight modular cockpit and cabin armor, plus carbon fiber doors and mission equipment shrouds. “The doors and shrouds were custom-built for Southeast Aerospace for this aircraft,” Rodriguez said. “The carbon fiber doors are 50 percent lighter than the original OEM versions.” Source justhelicopters.com

Standard features of the night-vision, goggle-compatible cockpit include GDU 1040H primary flight display (PFD) and multi-function display (MFD), Garmin synthetic vision system, GIA 63H integrated avionics unit, GDC 74H air data computer (ADC), radar altimeter, GTX 33H Mode S transponder, GMU 44 magnetometer, dual GPS system and VHF ATC radios.


6×8 Mission Management Display Unit (left) and 4×5 Weapons Management Display Unit (right)

The mission management system consists of enhanced instrument panel, moving map, multiple split-screen views and integrated HD video recording unit.


Navigation and communications systems aboard the NSA 407MRH include three integrated antenna mounts, white / infrared (IR) strobe light, white/IR dual mode searchlight, IR position/formation lights, GPS antennas, UHF SATCOM provision, ARC-210 VHF/UHF antennae, UHF SATCOM provision, Tetra radio, tactical multi-band radios, and Tacan.

ARC-210 VHF/UHF radio

These are the components which comprise the AN/ARC-210 family. (Photo courtesy Rockwell Collins)  – Source jproc.ca

The AN/ARC-210 Multimode Integrated Communications System provides a jam-resistant, two-way, voice and data communication radio for the tactical aircraft environment over the frequency range of 30 to 512 MHz.  It can operate in either normal, secure or jam-resistant modes via LOS or satellite communications (SATCOM) links. The ARC-210 family of equipment is made up of several variants of the receiver-transmitter, each providing a specific combination of functionality to meet user platform requirements. Source jproc.ca

A FLIR Star SAFIRE 260-HLD EO/IR (electro-optical / infrared) gyrostabilised sensor beneath the nose provides high-resolution imagery, target tracking and identification both day and night during ISR / AISR missions.

SAFIRE 260-HLD’s HD-quality visible/IR camera system


Single LRU EO/IR Imaging System

The Star SAFIRE 260-HLD is a lightweight, gyrostabilized nine inch turret that provides up to six payloads simultaneously, including diode pumped laser designation. The Star SAFIRE 260-HLD offers a solid military program heritage in airborne, naval, and land vehicle installations. Star SAFIRE 260-HLD systems are suitable for all classes of applications and are fully MIL-SPEC qualified.

Star SAFIRE 260-HLD Features

  • Compact, multi-sensor system
  • State-of-the-art imaging
  • RSTA + laser designator
  • Electron multiplication CCD
  • Inertial navigation solution and LRF
  • Laser illuminator/pointer
  • Multi-target tracker
  • Digital video interface
  • Military hardened and qualified


  • Up to seven SIMULTANEOUS payloads in a 10-inch package: IR, color CCD, EMCCD, laser designator, laser illuminator/pointer, LRF, optional IMU
  • Continuous zoom 640 x 480 infrared camera and dual EO sensors (color and EMCCD) deliver high-resolution imagery day or night
  • High power, long range capability based on proven, fielded technology; supports both US and NATO munitions coding; supports precision targeting in conjunction with advanced stabilization, beam quality and boresighting techniques
  • Extreme low light capability in sub-quarter moon conditions; works in ZERO ambient light conditions in conjunction with laser illuminator
  • Supports high accuracy range to target, target geo-location and Geo-Lock™ capability with optional Rate-AID
  • Used as an illuminator, augments EMCCD performance in low light conditions; laser also identifies targets for observers using NV devices while remaining invisible to others
  • Advanced capability that tracks targets or scenes with all imagers (IR, color, EMCCD)
  • Star SAFIRE outputs SMPTE 292M digital video for all channels, maximizing resolution and range performance
  • Star SAFIRE configurations delivered to multiple military programs; proven quality, reliability and performance in the most demanding military environments

Source flir.com

NorthStar Aviation 407MRH at AUSA 2016 fitted with  Star SAFIRE 380-HLDc


Star SAFIRE 380-HLDc


Long Range Targeting Performance in a Compact System

Introducing the Star SAFIRE 380-HLDc compact, high-definition, multisensor targeting system designed specifically for use on light rotorwing aircraft. The 380-HLDc provides an unmatched “SWaP-T” advantage – Size, Weight and Power plus true Targeting capabilities – in a sensor package tailored to give light attack helicopters the uncompromising Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance and Targeting (ISR&T) performance required to locate, identify, and engage targets at maximum range.

Size, Weight, Power & True Targeting (SWAP-T) Advantage

  • Compact & Lightweight Single LRU Design makes the 380-HLDc the only compact targeting system designed to maximize ground clearance on light airframes while still delivering the range performance to support today’s popular Precision Guided Munitions (PGMs)
  • High-precision laser designator for accurate targeting at the limits of the system’s imaging performance
  • High Definition multispectral imaging for broad area surveillance and long range Positive ID
  • Lightweight (<70 lb) single LRU system with reduced weight brings HD Targeting to a new class of helicopters


Cutting Edge Performance for Mission Success

  • Full High Definition infrared sensor captures 4x more detail than conventional systems
  • Full High Definition 1080p color EO sensors enable Positive ID at increased range
  • SWIR imager provides LD spot imaging and extended range performance in degraded visual conditions penetrating through smoke, haze, and pollutants
  • High-magnification optics deliver maximum DRI range rivaling the performance of larger, heavier, and costlier targeting systems
  • Precision Laser Designation leverages FLIR’s combat-proven and high reliability solid-state laser design expertise for precision target designation of semi-active laser (SAL) guided munitions
  • Automated in-flight boresight quickly aligns laser designator to payload imaging sensors in-flight to save valuable mission time and ensure first round on target
  • Advanced image processing enhances PID range and operator effectiveness by extracting critical features and scene detail in real time
  • Laser Spot Tracking and Decoding lets operators detect, discriminate, and track coded lasers and illuminated targets
  • Sensor and geospatial data is fully embedded in digital video eliminating need for syncing with separate data ports
  • View, track, and mark ground locations using the fully-embedded navigation functionality and follow moving targets with the robust, multi-mode Autotracker
  • Multiple laser payload options let aircrews point out distant targets to other forces, and determine target distance and locations
  • Simplified Common Interfaces make 380-HLDc fully compatible with existing SAFIRE installations for upgrades and/or mixed fleet operations
  • All-weather design is qualified to the most rigorous MIL standards and fully hardened for military operations

 Source flir.com

Weaponry onboard NSA 407MRH


As for armament: The Bell 407MRH comes with an integrated weapons management system to provide the two pilots (each of whom have redundant military cyclic control sticks) with easy targeting and firing of the onboard guns, rocket and missile systems. Targeting is handled using the SAFIRE 260-HLD’s HD-quality visible/IR camera system with its laser designator/rangefinder, and a near-IR laser illuminator that can be seen by pilots wearing night vision goggles.

The 407MRH’s four weapons systems are all tracked on a single monitor, located below the three displays on the main glass cockpit console. The helicopter’s Weapons Management System keeps the pilots updated on the remaining ammunition and rockets onboard, so that they can manage their resources accordingly. Source justhelicopters.com

CAI Integrated Weapons Management System

The CAI Integrated Weapons Management System provides power and control to GAU-19 Gatling and M-134 Mini Guns, Hydra 70 and laser Guided Rockets, Griffin B and Hellfire II missiles for the Northstar 407 MRH Lightning. – usanstar.com

The advanced lightweight weapons integration platform (ALWiP) allows for mounting of a variety of weapons on removable outboard weapon stores in up to four locations, two on each side.

Advanced Lightweight Weapons Platform (ALWip®)

Advanced Lightweight Weapons Platform (ALWip®) Modular up to four stations, Multi mission configurable, Battle Proven – usanstar.com

The weaponry include AGM 114 Hellfire air-to-surface missiles, M134 7.62mm mini gun, GAU-19 0.50 calibre machine gun and Hydra 70 rockets, which are carried in a seven-shot rocket pod. The M134 gun and Hellfire missiles are used for light attack missions, while the close-air support operations are supported by Hydra 70 rocket, GAU-19 and M134 guns.

AGM 114 Hellfire air-to-surface missiles


Primary Function: Air-to-surface and surface-to-surface point target/anti-armor missile
Prime Contractor: Hellfire Systems, LLC – A Boeing – Lockheed Martin Joint Venture
Propulsion: ATK (now Orbital ATK) solid propellant rocket motor (IM HELLFIRE Propulsion System);
AGM-114A: ATK M120E3; AGM-114B: ATK M120E4; AGM-114L: ATK M120E4
Length: 5.33 ft (1.62 m); AGM-114L: 5.77 ft (1.76 m)
Diameter: 7 in (17.8 cm)
Wingspan: 28 in (0.71 m)
Weight: 98 to 109 lbs (44.5 to 49.4 kg); AGM-114R: 109 lbs (49.4 kg)
Speed: Subsonic
Range: AGM-114 K/L/M/N: 4.97 miles (8,000 m)
AGM-114R fired at 3,000 ft (914 m):
4.97 miles (8,000 m) – LOAL, high trajectory
4.41 miles (7,100 m) – LOAL, low/direct trajectory
Guidance: Semi-Active Laser (SAL) seeker; AGM-114L: Millimeter wave (MMW) radar seeker
Warhead: AGM-114 A/C/F/K/K-2/L/P/P+: Shaped charge warhead
AGM-114F-A/K-2A/P-2A: Shaped charge warhead with frag sleeve
AGM-114M/N: Blast fragmentation warhead (AGM-114N is a thermobaric version with metal augmentation charge)
AGM-114R: Multi-purpose Integrated Blast Frag Sleeve (IBFS) warhead

Source fi-aeroweb.com

M134 7.62mm mini gun

The M134D-H Hybrid Gatling Gun is the standard lightweight Minigun design from Dillon Aero. The Hybrid Gatling Gun combines the titanium and skeletonized parts that were originally engineered for use in the M134D-T titanium Gatling Gun with the steel housing of the M134D steel Gatling Gun. The Hybrid gun was designed to offer the weight savings of the titanium gun and the longer service life of the steel gun. The Hybrid system is only two pounds heavier than the original titanium gun, is between 10-20 pounds lighter than the steel system, and has a service life of 1,500,000. The M134D-H is in widespread use in both Crew Served and Fixed Forward applications.

GAU-19 0.50 calibre machine gun


GECAL-50 / GAU-19/A heavy machine gun is an externally powered weapon of Gatling type. It uses built-in electrical motor to rotate barrel cluster (which has three barrels) and operate feeder-delinker unit. Bolts are cycled through cam-shaped path inside the gun housing, continuously feeding, firing and ejecting spent cases from barrels as they rotate. Gun is fed using standard M9 disintegrating belts, same as used in Browning M2HB heavy machine gun. Since the belt links have closed loops, each cartridge is pulled out of the links by the feeder-delinker unit before presenting it to the gun for loading. Rate of fire is controlled by electronic circuit, and can be adjusted up to 2000 rounds per minute, although GAU-19/B is limited to 1300 rounds per minute due to lighter barrels. GAU-19/A machine guns can be mounted in aircraft gun pods and flexible or fixed aircraft mounts. Surface use includes ring-type mounts installed on the roof of the HMMWV vehicles and pedestal mounts used on naval ships and fast boats. Some types of mounts include integral ammunition containers (with typical capacity between 500 and 1500 rounds) and dedicated battery to operate the gun. Firing controls normally include dual spade grips, attached to the gun cradle, with electric triggers and safety switches.

GAU-19/A GAU-19/B
Caliber 12.7х99 12.7х99
Weight, kg 63 (gun body with motor and feeder-delinker) 48 (gun body with motor and feeder-delinker)
Length, mm 1181 1181
Barrel length, mm 914 914
Rate of fire, rounds/minute 1000 – 2000 1300
Feed belt belt

Source modernfirearms.net

Dillon Aero Gun Pod



The Dillon Aero Gun Pod is a self-contained M134D-H weapon system that mounts to either fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft. It utilizes 7.62x51mm NATO ammunition with M13 links, with a 3,000-round magazine capacity and a rate of fire of 3,000 rounds per minute.



  • Self-contained system
    –   Dillon M134D-H Minigun
    –   3,000-round magazine capacity
    –   Rapidly removable nose and tail cone for easy gun or magazine access
    –   Conformal Remote Gun Control Unit (RGCU)
    –   Conformal dedicated 24 VDC Li-ion battery
    –   Trickle charge capable from aircraft power
    –   Quick Change Ammunition Magazine
    –   Last Round Switch (approx. 100 rounds remaining) with pilot override interrupt
    –   Integral bore sight adjustment +/- 2.5°
    –   Mounts to 14” Standard NATO bomb rack
    –   Optional Dillon hardback mount available to integrate the Gun Pod onto the standard Russian bomb rack used on
    –   Russian aircraft, Mi-24, Mi-17 etc.
    –   Capable of 400 kt airspeed at sea level
  • Weight
    –   162 lb (73.5 kg) empty
    –   350 lb (158.8 kg) estimated when loaded
  • Dimensions
    –   Height: 15.4” (39.1 cm)
    –   Width: 13.1” (33.3 cm)
    –   Length: 92.9” (236 cm) with long barrels
  • Aircraft interface cabling
    –   Master arm
    –   Trigger
    –   Last round switch override
    –   Battery trickle charge
    –   Optional indicator light signals

Source dillonaero.com

Hydra 70 rockets

Akela Freedom

In the following, the nine main variants of the Hydra-70 rocket are presented:

M151 High-Explosive:

The M151 HEPD is a unitary fragmenting 10-pound anti-personnel, anti-material warhead with the M423 Point Detonating Fuze. Upon detonation, the warhead fragments into thousands of small high velocity fragments. The fuzed warhead is 16.2″ long and weighs 9.3 pounds.


The M156 white phosphorus (smoke) is primarily used for target marking. The M156 has the same ballistic characteristics as the M151 warhead and is of similar construction. Filler for the M156 is 2.2 pounds of white phosphorus with a 0.12 pound bursting charge of composition B. The fuzed warhead is 16.2″ long and weighs 9.65 pounds.

M229 High Explosive:

The M229 High Explosive warhead is a heavier version of the M151. The U.S. Army is currently not buying this variant. The fuzed warhead is 26″ long and weighs 17 pounds.

M255A1 Flechette:

The M255A1 Flechette warhead consists of a nose cone assembly, a warhead case, an integral fuze, 1,179 60-grain flechettes and an expulsion charge assembly. The primary fuze (M439) is remotely set with the Aerial Rocket Control System (ARCS) Multifunctional Display (MFD) or Rocket Management System (RMS) to provide a range from 500 meters to 7,200 meters. At expulsion, the 1,179 60-grain, hardened-steel flechettes separate and form a disk-like mass which breaks up with each flechette assuming an independent trajectory. The flechette uses kinetic energy derived from the velocity of the rocket to produce the desired impact and penetration of the target. The fuzed warhead is 26.9″ long and weighs 14 pounds.

M257 Illuminating Flare:

The M257 Illuminating warhead is designed to provide battlefield illumination and does not require the use of Infrared (IR) goggles. The M257 flare rocket can be launched by from either fixed wing or rotary-wing aircraft. The M442 motor burnout fuze functions after a 9-second delay. The fuzed warhead is 29.1″ long and weighs 11 pounds.

M261 Multi-Purpose Submunition (MPSM):

The MPSM warhead (weight is 13.9 pounds) provides improved lethal effectiveness against area targets such as light armor, wheeled vehicles, materiel, and personnel. The M73 Submunitions are deployed over the target and descend almost vertically. The M261 Warhead is a cargo warhead consisting of a nose cone assembly, a case, integral fuze, nine submunitions, and an expulsion charge assembly. The primary M439 warhead fuze is remotely set with the Aerial Rocket Control System (ARCS), Multifunctional Display (MFD) or Rocket Management System (RMS) to provide a range from 500 meters to 7,200 meters.

M264 RP Smoke:

The M264 RP (red phosphorous) Smoke is used as a red phosphorous filled smoke rocket propelled by the Mk 66 motor and the smoke is deployed at a range set remotely from within the aircraft cockpit. The M264 warhead is used for smoke obscuration in the visible light spectrum. The fuzed warhead is 26.9″ long and weighs 8.6 pounds.

M274 Smoke Signature (practice):

The M274 warhead is a smoke/flash signature practice warhead used for pilot/gunner training missions and consists of a cast iron warhead modified with vent holes, an aluminum nose cap with firing pin, a M423 fuze safe and arming device, and a smoke/flash cartridge. The fuzed warhead is 16.2″ long and weighs 9.3 pounds.

M278 Infrared Flare:

The M278 Infrared Flare warhead is designed for battlefield illumination for use with Infrared (IR) goggles. The flare rockets can be launched from either fixed wing or rotary-wing aircraft. The 442 motor burnout fuze functions after a 9-second delay. The fuzed warhead is 29.1″ long and weighs 11 pounds.

WTU-1/B (practice):

The fuzed warhead is 16.2″ long and weighs 9.3 pounds.

Source fi-aeroweb.com

Seven-shot rocket pod



The helicopter features two ammunition supply units, each with 500-round can of 0.50 calibre or 3,000-round can of 7.62mm. A weapons management unit, consisting of fire control unit, stores management unit and gun interface unit, facilitates management and control of weapons.


Power plant and performance


The Rolls-Royce M250 turboshaft engine offers fuel efficiency and high-performance in hot and high conditions. The standard and auxiliary fuel capacities are approximately 483l and 72l, respectively.

Rolls-Royce M250 turboshaft engine

The latest FADEC-equipped M250 Series IV family of M250-C30/C40/C47 engines delivers 650 to 715 shp and powers the Bell 407/430/206L and MDH MD530/600N.  Source fi-powerweb.com


  • Two-shaft modular design featuring a two-stage LP turbine, two-stage HP turbine, and a gearbox with 6,000rpm output.
  • Compressed air is routed to the aft end of the engine for combustion, with exhaust gases exiting from the middle of the engine.
  • The Series II features four to six-stage axial and single-stage centrifugal compressors with a hydro mechanical fuel control system.
  • The larger Series IV family is identical in layout except for having a single-stage centrifugal rather than an axial/centrifugal compressor.
  • The latest Series IV turboshafts also feature a FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) system.

The base version has a maximum cruise speed of 246km/h and a never-exceed speed of 260km/h, and can operate over a range of up to 620km. Its maximum flight time is four hours and the service ceiling is 5,733m.


VNE 140 kts 259 km/h
Max Cruise 133 kts 246 km/h
Range at VLRC* 337 nm 624 km
Max Endurance* 4.0 hrs
Service Ceiling (Pressure Altitude) 18,940 ft 5,733 m
Hover Ceiling IGE (Optional Max GW, ISA) 13,550 ft 4,130 m
Hover Ceiling OGE (Optional Max GW, ISA) 11,940 ft 3,639 m
Standard Seating 1+6
Maximum Seating 1+6
Standard Fuel 127.8 US gal 483.8 liters
Aux Fuel 19 US gal 71.9 liters
Cabin Floor Space 19.5 ft² 18.1 m²
Cabin Volume** 85 ft³ 2.4 m³
Aft (Baggage) Compartment Volume 16 ft³ 0.5 m³
Empty Weight (Base 407GXP Aircraft) 2,692 lbs 1,221 kg
Max Gross Weight (Internal, Standard) 5,000 lbs 2,268 kg
Max Gross Weight (Internal, Optional) 5,250 lbs 2,381 kg
Max Gross Weight (External Load) 6,000 lbs 2,722 kg
Useful Load (Internal, Standard, Base 407GXP) 2,308 lbs 1,047 kg
Useful Load (Internal, Optional, Base 407GXP) 2,558 lbs 1,160 kg
Cargo Hook Capacity 3,100 lbs 1,406 kg

Specification Bell 407GXP bellhelicopter.com

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are fro public domain unless otherwise stated

Revised Dec 23, 2017

Saab Gripen Royal Thai Air Force

The Gripen is a multi-role fighter aircraft, intended to be a lightweight and agile aerial platform incorporating advanced, highly-adaptable avionics. It has canard control surfaces which contributes a positive lift force at all speeds, while the generous lift from the delta wing compensates for the rear stabilizer producing negative lift at high speeds, increasing induced drag. Being intentionally unstable and employing digital fly-by-wire flight controls to maintain stability removes many flight restrictions, improves maneuverability, and reduces drag. The Gripen also has good short takeoff performance, being able to maintain a high sink rate and strengthened to withstand the stresses of short landings. A pair of air brakes are located on the sides of the rear fuselage; the canards also angle downward to act as air brakes and decrease landing distance. It is capable of flying at a 70-80 degrees angle of attack.

Canard control surfaces – Gripen C RTAF

In order to enable the Gripen to have a long service life, projected to be roughly 50 years, the aircraft was designed to have low maintenance requirements; major systems such as the RM12 engine and PS-05/A radar are of a modular type to reduce operating cost and increase reliability. The Gripen was designed to be flexible as it had been anticipated that newly developed sensors, computers, and armaments would need to be integrated as technology advances.

Air to Air formation with a JAS-39D Gripen from the Royal Thai Air Force, Mirage 2000 from the United Arab Emirates and an F/A-18A Hornet from the Royal Australian Air Force.

Saab to upgrade Thailand’s national Air Command and Control System

Gripen – F16 soaring in the Gulf of Thailand during combined training RTAF, RTN and RTA: Matichon TV

Saab looking at Thailand to set up MRO hub: Here


Saab Automobile AB, a Swedish manufacturer of fighter jets, among other products, has expressed interest in investing in a production and maintenance hub in the Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC), says Industry Minister Uttama Savanayana

Pilot disorientation blamed for Gripen fighter crash: Here

Outcome of China and Thailand First Strike Falcon Joint Military Exercise – With Chinese News Video (no Eng sub): Here

Pics from Falcon Strike 2015

Thailand Gripens and Chinese PLAAF J-11 joint exercises 3Thailand Gripens and Chinese PLAAF J-11 joint exercises 1

Shenyang J-11: Details

RTAF : Falcon Strike 2017: Video

PLAAF J-10A and RTAF Gripen

J-10 (Jian 10) Vigorous Dragon: Details

Avionics and sensors

Gripen D – RTAF

All of the Gripen’s avionics are fully integrated using total of five MIL-STD-1553B digital data buses, described as “sensor fusion”. The total integration of the avionics makes the Gripen a “programmable” aircraft, allowing software updates to be introduced over time to increase performance and allow for additional operational roles and equipment.

Much of the data generated from the onboard sensors and by cockpit activity is digitally recorded throughout the length of an entire mission. This information can be replayed in the cockpit or easily extracted for detailed post-mission analysis using a data transfer unit that can also be used to insert mission data to the aircraft. The Gripen, like the Viggen, was designed to operate as one component of a networked national defence system, which allows for automatic exchange of information in real-time between Gripen aircraft and ground facilities. According to Saab, the Gripen features “the world’s most highly developed data link”. The Gripen’s Ternav tactical navigation system combines information from multiple onboard systems such as the air data computer, radar altimeter, and GPS to continuously calculate the Gripen’s location.

Royal Thai Air Force Net Work Centric

A01157625130914110001Royal Thai Air Force Net Work Centric developed by Avia Satcom/Rohde & Schwar

RTAF Saab 340 AEW&C: Details


Royal Thai Navy HTMS Chakri Naruebet with Saab CMS: Here

Naresuan Class Guided-Missile Frigates (F 25T): Details

RTAF ordered 2 more Saab 340 ELINT & COMINT version: Here


The Gripen entered service using the PS-05/A pulse-Doppler X band multi-mode radar, developed by Ericsson and GEC-Marconi, which is based on the latter’s advanced Blue Vixen radar for the Sea Harrier that also served as the basis for the Eurofighter’s CAPTOR radar. The all-weather radar is capable of locating and identifying targets 120 km (74 mi) away, and automatically tracking multiple targets in the upper and lower spheres, on the ground and sea or in the air.   The Mark 4 version has a 150% increase in high-altitude air-to-air detection ranges, detection and tracking of smaller targets at current ranges, 140% improvement in air-to-air mode at low altitude, and full integration of modern weapons such as the AIM-120C-7 AMRAAM, AIM-9X Sidewinder, and MBDA Meteor missiles.

PS-05/A Mark 4

PS05Mk4The upgraded radar, designated PS-05/A Mk4, features a new hardware and software, with the primary changes being in the system’s ‘back end’.
Gripen-C-back-end-radar-PS-05A-mk4-imagem-Saab: aereo.jor.br


Radar functions

Air-to-Air modes
  • Long and medium range look-up and look-down detection
  • Low probability of intercept
  • Multiple target Track-While Search
  • Short range auto acquisition and tracking
  • BVRAMRAAM and Meteor missile data link
  • Non cooperative target recognition (NCTR)
  • ECM immunity
  • Passive operation
Air-to-Surface modes
  • Mapping. Real beam and high resolution SAR
  • Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI)
  • Ground Moving Target Tracking (GMTT)
  • Sea surface search and tracking
  • Air-to-ground ranging
  • ECM immunity
  • Weather Mapping mode

Technical data

  • General: Pulse Doppler, X band radar, monopulse
  • Sub-units: 4 Rack mounted units + antenna unit and waveguide parts
  • Weight: 150 kg
  • Antenna (ANT): 60 cm, Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) dipoles
  • Power Amplifier Unit (PAU). Transmitter: Travelling-Wave Tube (TWT), liquid cooled, peak power >10 kW
  • Transmitter AuxilliaryAuxiliary Unit (TAU)
  • High-FrequencyExciter Receiver Unit (EXRHFU): Narrowband and wideband receivers, digital pulse compression, state-of-the-art spectral purity and noise figures
  • Signal and data processorRadar Processing Unit (RPUSDP): Saab airborne Modular Avionic Computer System (MACS) computer system and parallel COTS based multiprocessor cluster, solid state discs for recording
  • Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF): 250 400 hours in airborne operation

Technical data Saab


Gripen C RTAF

The primary flight controls are compatible with the HOTAS control principle – the centrally mounted stick, in addition to flying the aircraft, also controls the cockpit displays and weapon systems. A triplex, digital fly-by-wire system is employed on the Gripen’s flight controls, with a mechanical backup for the throttle.


Datalinks and communications – Flygvapnet pioneered the use of datalinks in the combat aircraft, fielding first versions on SAAB 35 Draken in mid 1960s. Gripen is equipped with four high-bandwidth, two-way data links, with range of around 500 kilometers. This allows for exchange of targeting information and other data, even when one of aircraft is on the ground. One Gripen can provide data for four other aircraft, as well as get access to ground C&C systems and SAAB-Ericsson 340B Erieye “mini-AWACs” aircraft. It can also allow fighters to quickly and accurately lock on to target by triangulation of data from several radars. Annother possibility includes one fighter jamming the target while another tracks it, or several fighters using different frequencies at the same time to penetrate jamming easier. Source defenseissues.wordpress.com

UTuihnkNote lower right switch show “PEACE” and “WAR” setting it is said that the WAR setting boast the Gripen performance by 30% and it could attain +12 G 

The Gripen includes the EP-17 cockpit display system, developed by Saab to provide pilots with a high level of situational awareness and reduces pilot workload through intelligent information management.


The Gripen features a sensor fusion capability, information from onboard sensors and databases is combined, automatically analysed, and useful data is presented to the pilot via a wide field-of-view head-up display, three large multi-function colour displays, and optionally a helmet mounted display system (HMDS).  

Helmet mounted display system (HMDS) – COBRA

Saab Cobra

Pilots equipped with a helmet-mounted display (HMD) such as the Saab Cobra for Gripen C/D are much better able to combat targets on the ground and in the air.

By aiming the head rather than the entire aircraft at the target, the pilot can rapidly lock the homing device using HOTAS (hands on throttle and stick) and take advantage of the missile’s performance capabilities. A missile can operate with much higher g-forces than an aircraft; the ratio is roughly 60 g for a missile to 9 g for Gripen.

Jakob Högberg is a Saab pilot who uses an HMD. “You can use a different technique with an HMD,” he says. “HMD provides better situational awareness, the pinpointing options are simpler and we are faster at shooting.”

A helmet-mounted visor displays flight information such as altitude and airspeed, along with pinpointing and details of targets detected in the surrounding area. “Reality is combined with the system since the pinpointing is superimposed over what the pilot sees,” says Högberg.

The helmet is integrated with other systems on Gripen, and it is customised to the pilot’s head to ensure that the visor is positioned at the right height and distance from the pilot’s eyes. Otherwise there is a risk of the pilot experiencing double vision or image loss. The helmet sensors must also be calibrated with sensors in the aircraft so that the information is displayed in the right place in relation to reality. Source: saab.com

obogsImage: cobham.com

Of the three multi-function displays (MFD), the central display is for navigational and mission data, the display to the left of the center shows aircraft status and electronic warfare information, and the display to the right of the center has sensory and fire control information. In two-seat variants, the rear seat’s displays can be operated independently of the pilot’s own display arrangement in the forward seat, Saab has promoted this capability as being useful during electronic warfare and reconnaissance missions, and while carrying out command and control activities.


Mk10 seat


Operating Ceiling 50000+ ft (15,250m)
Minimum height/Speed Zero/zero in near level attitude
Crew boarding mass range 69.2 – 112.2 kg
Crew size range 3rd to 99th percentile
Maximum Speed for ejection 630 KIAS
Parachute type GQ Type 1000 Mk 2
Parachute deployment Drogue assisted
Drogue parachute type 5ft and 22 in.
Drogue deployment Drogue gun. Initiated by trip rod
Harness type Integrated
Ejection seat operation type Ejection gun and multi-tube rocket pack
Ejection gun Single, two stage
Gun stroke length 72 in.
Ejection initiation Handle on seat pan initiates gas operated seat firing system
Electronic Sequencer No
Barostatic time-release unit Yes, with 2 sec delay to give time for speed to decrease. Trip rod initiated.
Automatic back-up unit No
Manual override handle Yes
Guillotine Yes, early variant
Timers 0.50 second Drogue Gun Delay Timer, and a BTRU (barostatic time release unit)
Seat adjustment Up/down Actuator operated 28 Vdc
Arm restraints Yes
Leg restraints Yes, two garters
Oxygen supply Bottled emergency oxygen, Main oxygen system connection
Personal survival pack Yes, landscale, Liferaft option available
Aircrew services Personal Equipment Connector (PEC) provides connections for
– main oxygen
– back-up oxygen
– emergency oxygen
– anti-g suit
– mic/tel
Command ejection Yes
Canopy jettison No
Miniature detonating cord Yes
Miniature detonating cord Yes
Interseat sequencing system Yes, through command delay breech unit

Source martin-baker.com

Royal Thai Air Force 701 Fighter Squadron



AS-39 Gripen fighter Wallpapers 06 2560x1600


Gripen Multirole Fighter Aircraft: Details

Gripen operational cost lowest of all western fighters: Jane’s

The operational cost of the Swedish Saab Gripen aircraft is the lowest among a flightline of modern fighters, confirmed a White Paper submitted by the respected international defense publishing group IHS Jane’s, in response to a study commissioned by Saab.

Image: stratpost.com

For the purpose of modeling to create a standard or benchmark, the study arrived at the ‘aircrafts’ fuel usage, hence cost, based on a theoretical one hour sortie at max dry thrust’, not ‘necessarily reflective of actual fuel consumption and hence fuel cost of a one hour sortie’.

As is evident, the modeled cost pattern is closest to the derived cost pattern in the case of the Gripen, F-16, Rafale, and Eurofighter. The research and the model digress in the case of the F-35 and the F/A-18.

In the case of the F-35, the study says the different ‘costs arise from the differing power and specific fuel consumptions of the A / C and B models. The B model is the top figure in both cases’. The study says, “The single P&W F-135 engine is relatively fuel efficient for its power, resulting in a lower fuel burn at maximum dry thrust than might be expected.” It adds that, although obviously, ‘accurate CPFH for in-service aircraft does not exist’, ‘the US and Australian forecast costs both suggest it will not offer lower CPFH than current aircraft’, considering ‘the aircraft itself is an extremely sophisticated design carrying a large number of new and unproven onboard systems’.

Source stratpost.com

Specifications (JAS 39C/D Gripen)

JAS39 Gripen.svg
Data from Spick 2000, p. 431; Williams 2003, p. 90; Saab.

Gripen Specifications

Wingspan  8.4 m / 27 ft 7 in
Length  14.10 m / 46 ft 3 in
Height  4.7 m / 14 ft 9 in
Wing Area 30 m² / 323 ft²
Engine 1 Volvo Flygmotor turbofan RM12
Maximum Take-Off Weight 14000 Kg / 30,900 lb
Empty Weight 6800 kg / 15,000 lb
Loaded Weight 8500 kg / 18,700 lb
Maximum Speed 2450 km/h / 1522 mph
Range 3250 KM / 1,983 miles (with external drop fuel tanks)
Maximum Service Ceiling 16000 m /52,500 ft
Climb Rate 100 s from brake release to 10 km altitude / 180 s approx to 14 km
Crew 1 or 2
Armament • 1 Mauser BK 27 27mm cannon
• 6 hardpoints that could allow 6 air-to-air missiles, 4 air-to-radar missiles, 4 air-to-surface missiles, 5 smart bombs, 2 anti-ship missiles, 5 bombs, 2 stand-off weapons, 2 ECM Pods, 2 recce Pods, 1 FLIR/LDP Pod, 2 AACMI Pods, and 3 fuel tanks

Technical data plane-encyclopedia.com


Length (excl. pitot tube):

14.1 meters

Wing span (including launchers):

8.4 meters

Maximum take-off weight:

14000 kg

Empty weight:

6800 kg

Total load capacity:

5300 kg

Internal fuel:

 >2000 kg

Combat turnaround air-to-air:

10 minutes


Length (excl. pitot tube): 14.8 meters
Wing span (including launchers): 8.4 meters
Maximum take-off weight: 14000 kg
Empty weight: 7100 kg
Total load capacity: 5300 kg
Internal fuel:  >2000 kg
Combat turnaround air-to-air: 10 minutes

Source saab.com


  • Guns: 1× 27 mm Mauser BK-27 Revolver cannon with 120 rounds (single-seat models only)
  • Hardpoints: 8 (three on each wing and two under fuselage)  and provisions to carry combinations of:
    • Rockets: 4× rocket pods, 13.5 cm rockets
    • Missiles:
      • 6× AIM-9 Sidewinder (Rb.74) or IRIS-T (Rb 98)
      • 4× AIM-120 AMRAAM (Rb.99) or MICA
      • 4× Meteor (under development)
      • 4× AGM-65 Maverick (Rb.75)
      • 2× KEPD.350
      • 2× Rbs.15F anti-ship missile
    • Bombs:
      • 4× GBU-12 Paveway II laser-guided bomb
      • 2× Bk.90 cluster bomb
      • 8× Mark 82 bombs
maxresdefault (1)Saab Gripen Flight Suit Saab Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Aircrew Protection for Gripen

Source: Wiki/Saab/TAF

Sundstrand T-62T-46LC-1 APU

APU intake and exhaust flaps open

The Gripen features an auxiliary power unit (APU) to reduce its dependence on ground systems, and the fighter’s onboard digital systems include “built-in self-test” capabilities that can download diagnostic data to a tech’s laptop computer. Service doors to critical systems are at head level or lower, allowing easy access by technicians. Flygvapnet experience shows that the Gripen requires 40% less maintenance work-hours and only half the fuel of the Viggen.


After obtaining initial production machines, the Flygvapnet moved on to deliveries of Batch 2 Gripens, which featured a Sundstrand APU, replacing the older Microturbo APU, which was too noisy and not reliable enough. Source airvectors.net

RM12 engine


The RM12 engine was developed by GE Aircraft Engines and Volvo Aero Corporation to power Swedish JAS-39 Gripen fighter. RM12, specially designed for single-engine use has a few different characteristic compared to it’ father F404-GE-400. First of all the fan has been strengthen to sustain a hit of 0.5 kg bird, the airflow was highten by 10% and the turbine was made of modern materials to stand higher temperatures. All of this increased the overall performance by 10-20%. Engine has FADEC with hydromachanical backup and backup ignition system. The RM12 has fast power setting response, unlimited number of power cycles, smooth to-afterburner transition and is very reliable. .


Type RM12
Weight kg 1055
Length cm 391
Maximal diameter cm 89
Inlet diameter cm 79
Bypass ratio 0,31
Fan pressure ratio x
Overall pressure ratio  27
Airflow kg/s 69
Temperature – max turbine inlet  °C
– max turbine outlet   °C
Thrust – maximal (SLS) kp 5507
– with afterburner (SLS) kp 8210
SFC – maximal thrust (SLS) kg/kN/h 84,0
  – afterburner (SLS) kg/kN/h 181,5

RM12 data leteckemotory.cz

Emergency engine shut down on Gripen C RTAF Gripen C RTAF 

Royal Thai Air Force Saab Gripen simulator 

Royal Thai Air Force Saab Gripen simulator 

Rafael’s Litening III Laser Designation Pod (LDP)


Litening Airborne Day/Night Navigation & Targeting Pod provides precision strike capability to every fighter aircraft.

  • reduces pilot workload during the process of targeting maintenance target
  • Sighting system of high accuracy and reliability
  • reduces operational limitations
  • simple maintenance and support
  • low maintenance cost
  • potential upgrade
  • upgrades available for aircraft with multi-mission capability
  • Adaptable on most aircraft
  • detection, recognition, identification, laser designation of targets on land or sea
  • Release accurate ammunition laser-guided enema and general purpose weapons.
  • identification of air targets beyond visual range (BRV)
  • option for data link and long-range video


The evolution of the Litening pod continued with the Litening III version, which utilized a more capable Gen III (3-5micron) FLIR, with a 640×480 digital detectors array. This system is also equipped with a target marker, which improves the coordination of ground and air forces, by designation of targets by day or night. Litening III system is also equipped with a dual-wavelength diode-pumped laser, which is compatible with training (eyesafe) and wartime operational modes. The system also employs electronic image stabilization, to provide cleaner images of targets, acquired at long standoff range.

Logistically, the integration of the pod is easy and straightforward; it can fit the centerline or E/O pod mounts available with most modern aircraft and require no structural changes in the aircraft. Pods can also be installed on different aircraft, in support of specific missions. For example, the US Reserves currently field eight pods per wing. The pod requires minimal maintenance and technical support on the flight line. It is self boresighting in flight, therefore requires no alignment prior to the mission and improved accuracy during operations.


The Israeli targeting pod was procured by 14 air forces, including the US Air Force Reserve’s and Air National Guards for their F-16 Block 25/30/32 Fighting Falcon. Other air forces operating the system include the US Marine Corps (AV-8B), Israeli air Force (F-16), Spanish and Italian Navy (AV-8B) and Spanish air force (F/A-18), German Air Force (Tornado IDS), and the Venezuela (F-16A/B). The pods were also selected for South Africa’s Grippens, India’s Mirage 2000, MiG-27 and Jaguar. The most recent inquiry for the pods came in March, for a planned procurement of F-16s by Austria. The pod is also fully integrated in the Eurofighter, F-5E, MiG-21 and other types. Testing are underway to integrate the pod with Boeing F-15I operated by the Israel Air Force.

Litening III specifications:
length: 220 cm
diameter: 406 mm
total weight: 440 lb
Operating altitude: +40,000
IR sensor: 640×480 FPA Mid-IR wavelength
Day sensor: CCDTV
Wide FOV: 18.4 x 24.1
medium FOV: 3.5×3.5
Narrow field of view: 1×1
Field of regard: +45 / -150
Roll: +/- 400
Laser: Diode pumped laser designator, dual wavelength

Source military.rootsweb.ancestry.com

RTAF Gripen with Rafael’s Litening III Laser Designation Pod (LDP) – Image: The Nation


IRIS-T IRIS-T (Rb 98), AIM-9 Sidewinder (Rb.74), Rbs.15F anti-ship missile (above)JAS_39_Gripen_Saab_Multirole_fighter_aircraft_Sweden_Swedish_details_armament_001

27mm Mauser high-energy gun

27mm all-purpose Mauser BK27 high velocity gun

This 27mm cannon is a single barrel, gas-operated lightweight single barrel revolver cannon that fires electrically primed 27×145 mm ammunition at 1 700 rounds per minute.

Developed by Mauser-Werke Oberndorf of Germany, it’s features include low volume, low system weight, high fire power in target (air/air, air/ground), low time of flight projectile and a long stand-off range.

The cannon is relatively lightweight at only around 100 kg including barrel, but with a natural rate of fire of approximately 1700 rounds per minute (instantaneous time to rate), the relatively large shell (260g) and the high muzzle velocity of just over 1 km/s (v0) it packs a punch. The cartridge is ignited electrically and fed to the cylinder through linked belts or, in the case of the Eurofighter, through a linkless conveyor belt ammunition feed system, the first such system for revolver guns. Linkless systems (which are a staple in modern Gatling-type cannons) are less prone to stoppage and the ammunition uses considerably less space.

The different types of ammunition all have the same internal and external ballistic properties allowing for the use of belts with mixed ammunition for greater flexibility.

Ammunition types:
High explosive

Armour piercing
Armour piercing high explosive

All purpose
Semi Armour Piercing High Explosive

Target Practice Target Practice Frangible Projectile
Target Practice Tracer

Used by:
Gripen (fuselage x 1)

Source saairforce.co.za

IRIS-T air-to-air missile


The IRIS-T, InfraRed Imaging System – Tail/Thrust Vector Controlled, is an International initiative to replace current AIM-9L/M Sidewinder short-range, air-to-air missiles. The missile combines advanced aerodynamics and thrust vector control in a tail controlled airframe to achieve outstanding performance.

It utilizes a solid-propellant rocket motor. IRIS-T features a roll-pitch (128×128) IR seeker with �90� look angle for high off-boresight angle missile engagements. Engagements against targets in the rear hemisphere can be done successfully with the missile locked-on target after launch. IRIS-T outstanding agility is the key to successfully engage highly maneuverable advanced aircraft

Overall, IRIS-T delivers increased agility, target acquisition range, hit accuracy, a more effective warhead and considerably improved protection against countermeasures compared with the Sidewinder missile. The mass, length, diameter and interface of the IRIS-T missile are very close to its predecessor achieving a high degree of compatibility which is a must for the IRIS-T program. During the flight tests, the IRIS-T achieved direct impact on the target even with IRCM (IR countermeasures) presence. The highly maneuverable IRIS-T missile will be integrated onto Typhoon, Gripen, F-16, Tornado, and F/A-18 aircraft. Dhiel BGT is the prime contractor for the program and Germany is the lead nation. Source deagel.com


WEIGHT 87.4 kg
LENGTH 2936 mm / 2.9m
WARHEAD HE/Fragmentation
Impact and active radar proximity fuse
ENGINE Solid-fuel rocket
~25 km
FLIGHT ALTITUDE Sea level to 20,000 m
SPEED Mach 3
Infrared homing
Typhoon, Tornado, F-4, F-16,NASAMS, Gripen, F-18.

Specification source wikipedia.org

AIM-9 Sidewinder

AIM-9 Sidewinder Anti-Aircraft Missile

The Lima was followed in production in 1982 by the AIM-9M, which is essentially an improved AIM-9L. The Mike has improved background rejection, counter-countermeasures capability and a low smoke motor to reduce the visual signature of the inbound weapon. The AIM-9M has the all-aspect capability of the AIM-9L model, but provides all-around higher performance. The M model has infra-red countermeasures, enhanced background discrimination capability, and a reduced-smoke rocket motor. Deliveries of the initial AIM-9M-1 began in 1982. The only changes from the AIM-9L to the AIM-9M were related to the Raytheon Guidance Control Section (GCS). Several models were introduced in pairs with even numbers designating US Navy versions and odd for US Air Force. All AIM-9M GCS are comprised of three major assemblies; a seeker assembly for detecting and tracking the target; an electronics assembly for processing detected target information; and a servo assembly that transforms electrical tracking signals to mechanical movement of the fins. An umbilical cable assembly provides electrical interface between the missile GCS and the aircraft launcher. The umbilical I-3 cable also allows the flow of coolant from the LAU-7 to the missile GCS. AIM-9M GCS versions include the WGU-4A/B used in the AIM-9M-1 and AIM-9M-3, the WGU-4C/B used in the AIM-9M-4, the WGU-4D/B used in the AIM-9M-6, and the WGU-4E/B GCS used in the AIM-9M-8. The WGU-4E/B GCS uses advanced technology that has evolved through the WGU-4D/B development, while expanding the potential of the IRCM detection circuitry and improving the missile’s capability with respect to tactical IRCM deployment. Source scramble.nl

Meteor (Future upgrade)




Meteor Beyond-Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile, Meteor is air ramjet-powered missile with advanced seeker technology that can fly at sustained high speeds, over long ranges and with great agility to defeat air-to-air threats range 100-300 km at over Mach 4



The AIM-120 AMRAAM (Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile) is one of the most modern, powerful, and widely used air-to-air missiles in the entire world. After it entered limited service in 1991, this missile has been exported to about 35 countries around the world, where it has certainly been proven with over 3 900 test shots and 10 combat victories.

By the 1980s, the US deemed its current stock of air-to-air missiles, particularly the medium-range AIM-7 Sparrow, were obsolete, or at least not as capable as the latest Soviet missiles of the time. While the Sparrow was effective, with about 60 kills, it was not effective enough. In particular, it had one crushing fault—it was not fire-and-forget, meaning that the pilot was forced to remain on the scene and in danger until the missile reached its target. So, development of the AIM-120 AMRAAM began, along with European development of a short-range missile, resulting in the ASRAAM. In 1991, the AMRAAM entered limited service in the US Air Force. Two years later, it was fully operational there as well as the US Navy, while other countries started to show considerable interest.

ord_aim-120a_amraam_vs_aim-7_engagement_envelopes_lgImage: defenceindustrydaily.com
Country of origin United States
Entered service 1991
Missile length 3.66 m
Missile diameter 0.18 m
Fin span 0.53 m
Missile launch weight 150.75 kg
Warhead weight 22.7 kg
Warhead type HE blast-fragmentation
Range of fire up to 75 km
Guidance active radar homing

Source military-today.com

Maverick air-to-surface missile


The AGM-65 Maverick is a tactical, air-to-surface guided missile designed for close air support, interdiction and defense suppression mission. It provides stand-off capability and high probability of strike against a wide range of tactical targets, including armor, air defenses, ships, transportation equipment and fuel storage facilities. Maverick was used during Operation Desert Storm and, according to the Air Force, hit 85 percent of its targets.

The Maverick has a cylindrical body, and either a rounded glass nose for electro-optical imaging, or a zinc sulfide nose for imaging infrared. It has long-chord delta wings and tail control surfaces mounted close to the trailing edge of the wing of the aircraft using it. The warhead is in the missile’s center section. A cone-shaped warhead, one of two types carried by the Maverick missile, is fired by a contact fuse in the nose. The other is a delayed-fuse penetrator, a heavyweight warhead that penetrates the target with its kinetic energy before firing. The latter is very effective against large, hard targets. The propulsion system for both types is a solid-rocket motor behind the warhead.

The Maverick variants include electro-optical/television (A and B), imaging infrared (D, F, and G), or laser guidance (E). The Air Force developed the Maverick, and the Navy procured the imaging infrared and the laser guided versions. The AGM-65 has two types of warheads, one with a contact fuse in the nose, the other a heavyweight warhead with a delayed fuse, which penetrates the target with its kinetic energy before firing. The latter is very effective against large, hard targets. The propulsion system for both types is a solid-rocket motor behind the warhead.


Primary Function: Air-to-surface guided missile
Contractors: Hughes Aircraft Co., Raytheon Co.
Power Plant: Thiokol TX-481 solid-propellant rocket motor
Autopilot Proportional Navigation
Stabilizer Wings/Flippers
Propulsion Boost Sustain
Variant AGM-65A/B AGM-65D AGM-65G AGM-65E AGM-65F
Service Air Force Marine Corps Navy
Launch Weight: 462 lbs(207.90 kg) 485 lbs(218.25 kg) 670 lbs(301.50 kg) 630 lbs(286 kg) 670 lbs(301.50 kg)
Diameter: 1 foot (30.48 centimeters)
Wingspan: 2 feet, 4 inches (71.12 centimeters)
Range: 17+ miles (12 nautical miles/27 km)
Speed: 1150 km/h
Guidance System: electro-optical television imaging infrared Laser infrared homing
Warhead: 125 pounds(56.25 kilograms)cone shaped 300 pounds(135 kilograms)delayed-fuse penetrator, heavyweight 125 pounds(56.25 kilograms)cone shaped 300 pounds(135 kilograms)delayed-fuse penetrator, heavyweight
Explosive 86 lbs. Comp B 80 lbs. PBX(AF)-108
Fuse Contact FMU-135/B
COSTS Air ForceAGM-65D/G NavyAGM-65E/F
Date Deployed: August 1972 February 1986 1989
Aircraft: A-10, F-15E and F-16 F/A-18 F/A-18 and AV-8B

AGM-65 Maverick data fas.org

Saab RBS15F anti-ship missile


The RBS-15 was adapted for air launch as the “RBS-15F”, entering service in 1989. Such RB-04s as remained in service after that time were passed on to the training role.

The RBS-15F is Flygvapnet JAS-39 Gripen and was carried on the AJS-37 Viggen fighter. The missile’s advanced navigation system can store a large number of map “waypoints” to allow it to maneuver through complicated flight profiles, and it can even perform “feints”, closing in on one target and then veering off abruptly to hit another at the very last moment.

SAAB is now working on a land-attack derivative of the RBS-15F with a “stealthy” radar system, infrared terminal seeker, and new warhead, for introduction no earlier than 2004.



Spec Metric English
Wingspan 1.4 meters 4 feet 7 inches
Length 4.45 meters 14 feet 7 inches
Total weight 600 kilograms 1,320 pounds
Warhead weight 300 kilograms 660 pounds
Speed high subsonic
Range at altitude 200 kilometers 125 MI / 110 NMI

Source craymond.no-ip.info

GBU-12D/B Paveway II LGB


GBU-49/B Paveway II GPS/LGB


Mark 82/83 bombs


Source: wiki, Saab, Avia TAF

Updated Feb 06, 2018

Royal Thai Air Force Presentation on Current and Future Development (Eng Sub)

Russian Bumerang 8×8 Infantry Fighting Vehicle (K-17)

In the early 90s a BTR-90 was developed in Russia. It had a more powerful armament, improved protection greater mobility and increased internal volume, comparing with the previous BTR-80. However it was not accepted to service, possibly due to funding problems. Since 2010 Russia stopped purchasing the older BTR-80 APCs. Currently an improved BTR-82 is being obtained as a stop-gap measure until a new vehicle is available.

BTR-82A APC: Details


In 2011 Russian MoD issued a requirement for a modular family of armored vehicles instead of the BTR-90. The project is known as the Bumerang (boomerang). A baseline vehicle is an armored personnel carrier. It was developed alongside a new-generation Kurganets tracked armored vehicle family. The whole project was kept in high secrecy. The new APC was revealed to Russian military officials in 2013. During the same year first Bumerang APCs were delivered to the Russian Army for trials and evaluation. It was first publicly revealed in 2015. In 2015 a handful of pre-production vehicles were delivered to the Russian armed forces. As of early 2017 this APC is till being tested by its manufacturer. Full-scale production could begin within the next couple of years.

Once operational the new-generation Bumerang APC should replace a whole host of ageing Russian armored vehicles. The estimated requirement is for at least 2 000 wheeled armored vehicles.

The Bumerang is a clean sheet design. It is not based on any previous Russian armored vehicle. Actually it resembles Western designs. A number of components and subsystems of the Bumerang are interchangeable with the Kurganets family of tracked armored vehicles.

Unstoppable: Russia’s New APC Can Swim 60 Kilometers, Fire in Amphibious Mode: Here


The Bumerang is capable of swimming independently for dozens of kilometers and hitting land-based targets from the water using its complement of onboard weapons. Furthermore, in accordance with the tactical and technical requirements for the vehicle demanded by the Russian Navy, the Bumerang must be fully compatible with Russia’s latest high-speed hovercraft and landing ships.

Military experts expect the Bumerang to become a universal combat platform, capable of solving a wide range of military tasks. This is line with Russian armored vehicle makers’ broader doctrine of modular vehicle design, designed with cross-compatibility, interchangeability, and wide configurability in mind. In the Navy, the Bumerang’s missions will include amphibious troop landing, fire support and ground engagement.

Bumerang APC and Bumerang IFV

Engine of the Bumerang is located at the front of the hull. Troops enter and leave the new vehicle via rear power-operated ramp with integral doors. It is worth mentioning that a rear-mounted engine of the BTR series APCs was a significant drawback, as troops had to leave the vehicle via side doors. Cramped side entry and exit hatches are even worse on BTR-70 APCs, which is still in service with the Russian Army. If such vehicles are ambushed, troops usually have to leave it under direct enemy fire.

Bumerang 8×8 Armoured Personnel Carrier (K-16 APC): Details


This new armored personnel carrier has a crew of 3, including commander, gunner and driver. It can carry 9 soldiers. Firing ports for the troops were deleted in order not to compromise armor protection.




Vehicle has a welded hull and turret. Its armor is modular, so protection level can be tailored to suit mission requirements. So far its protection level is classified. However it seems that all-round protection with maximum armor is against 14.5-mm armor-piercing round.

Vehicle has a V-shaped hull that deflects mine blasts away. As usually this vehicle is fitted with NBC protection and automatic fire suppression systems. It has been reported that the Bumerang can be fitted with active protection system.

The Bumerang uses the same unmanned turrets as Kurganets APC and IFV. This 8×8 armored personnel carrier comes in two basic version. One version fitted with the same turret as used on Kurganets APC. It is armed with a 12.7-mm machine gun.  Another version is fitted with a turret of Kurganets IFV and packs a formidable punch. It is armed with a 30-mm cannon, coaxial 7.62-mm machine gun and 4 external launchers with Kornet-M anti-tank guided missiles.

Epoch Turret

Epoch Turret is developed by the KBP Design Bureau in Tula, Russia.

The turret is remotely operated from inside the vehicle and armed with a 2A42 gas operated, dual-feed 30mm autocannon and a coaxial 7.62mm PKT Machine Gun.

Epoch CAD2Image: Warfare Technology



Source army-guide.com

2A42 gas operated, dual-feed 30mm autocannon


The 2A42 is a double feed autocannon that fires the powerful 30x165mm round. There are no variants of the 2A42 although the design of the newer lightweight 2A72 has been based on it.

Type Autocannon
Caliber 30x165mm Soviet
Mechanism Gas operated, electrically powered
Barrel rifled, 16 grooves, 716 mm right hand twist
Dimensions 3.027 m long
Weight 115 kg overall, 38.5 kg barrel
Feeding Double belt feed
Rate of fire 200 – 300 rpm, 550 – 800 rpm
Muzzle velocity 960 – 970 m/s
Recoil 30 to 40 kN
Remarks Muzzle brake, 6.000 round service life

Source weaponsystems.net

Epoch LayoutImage: Warfare Technology

PKT 7.62mm Coaxial Machine Gun


All Russian MBTs are traditionally equipped with a 7.62mm machine-gun mounted coaxially with the main armament.

The PKT machine-gun (Pulemyot Kalashnikova Tankovyi, Kalashnikov Machine-gun Tank version) is used in this role since 1962 when it was introduced instead of the older Goryunov SGMT MG. The differences from the PK unified MG include removal of stock and sights, longer and heavier barrel to facilitate higher rate of fire, solenoid electric trigger, gas regulator and several others.

PKT permits only automatic fire, is belt-fed, and the ammo box holds 250 rounds.


Machine-gun:             7.62mm PKT (6P7)
Length:                          1,098 mm
Weight (empty):         10.5 kg
Barrel length:              722 mm
Barrel weight:              3.23 kg

Direct fire range:         650 m (at running target)
Effective range:            1,500 m
Maximum range:          4,000 m

Rate of fire:                    700 .. 800 (250 practical) rds/min

Ammo box:                     250 rounds
Ammo box weight:       9.4 kg
Total ammo allowance:   2000 rounds (T-72B(M), T-72BK, T-90)
1250 rounds (T-80U, T-80U(M))
750 rounds (T-80UK)

Source fofanov.armor.kiev.ua


The turret also has two Kornet-EM ATGM missiles on each side.

The turret has got two identical looking stabilized sights for the gunner and commander. A computerized fire control system is fitted with thermal imagers, day cameras and laser range finders for increased first round hit probability. All around the turret, laser warning receivers and smoke grenade launchers are located.  Source Warfare Technology

Epoch Turret 3

Kornet (Russian: “Корнет”; English: Cornet) ATM missiles


Its fearsome reputation is derived from its extreme range that’s far beyond current anti-tank missiles. The FGM-148 Javelin, for example, can only deliver its lethal top attack warhead 2.5 kilometers away while the original Kornet-E developed by the Instrument Design Bureau (KBP) had a maximum range of 5.5 km.

To outdo rival systems, KBP upgraded the Kornet. Improved Kornet-EM has twice the maximum range of its predecessor.

The Kornet’s tandem HEAT warhead is just as intimidating for its size. With a 152 mm diameter it is one of the largest ATGM’s ever built. This feature is meant to defeat the threat posed by Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) on modern tanks.

The 9M133 Kornet (Western designation AT-14 Spriggan) was first introduced in 1994 and has since inspired subtle, albeit persistent, demand from many countries—including states that weren’t traditionally customers of Russian hardware. This missile was adopted by the Russian Army in 1998.

Entered service 1998
Armor penetration 1 000 mm
Range 5.5 km
Missile length 1 200 mm
Missile diameter 152 mm
Missile weight 8.2 kg
Total weight with launcher 29.2 kg
Warhead weight 7 kg
Warhead type Tandem HEAT
Guidance Laser guided

Source military-today.com

Bumerang with Berezhok weapon system

Source andrei-bt.livejournal.com

Berezhok weapon system

Berezhok weapon system on BMD3: Details

The new APC is powered by a turbocharged diesel engine. Two engine alternatives are available. These are 17-liter ChTZ-Uraltrac 2V06 opposite engine, developing 450-510 hp or YaMZ-780 inline engine with two turbochargers, developing 750 hp.  As of early 2017 it is unclear which engine will be fitted on production model. It is planned that the same engine will be used by Kurganets family of tracked armored vehicles.

YaMZ-780 inline engine



Source army-guide.com

  • Note could not find any details on the 17-liter ChTZ-Uraltrac 2V06 opposite engine

It looks like the engine is mated to a 6-speed automatic gearbox. Vehicle has an 8×8 configuration with all-wheel drive. Vehicle is fitted with a central tyre inflation system and run-flat tyres. The Bumerang is fully-amphibious. On water is is propelled by two waterjets.

boomerang_propeller425_zpsozymjjmkTwo waterjets used for amphibious operations

Other armored vehicles of the Bumerang family will include armored ambulance, command post vehicle, reconnaissance vehicle, anti-tank missile carrier, air defense missile launcher, fire support vehicle, mortar carrier, and other. It seems that with these vehicle Russia plans to equip rapid deployment brigades, similar in concept to US Stryker brigades.

Image: vitalykuzmin.net



The Military Industrial Company (VPK) has started to test an amphibious armored fighting vehicle, developed on the basis of a unified wheeled armored platform Bumerang.

The Military Industrial Company (VPK) which is a leading manufacturer of armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles and armored vehicles for the Russian army, started preliminary testing of an amphibious armored fighting vehicle, developed on the basis of the unified wheeled armored platform Bumerang, the Izvestia Daily newspaper reported.

Image: vitalykuzmin.net


Entered service ?
Crew 3 men
Personnel 9 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight 15 ~ 20 t
Length ~ 8 m
Width ~ 3 m
Height ~ 3 m
Main gun 30-mm
ATGW Kornet-M
Machine guns 1 x 7.62-mm (?)
Ammunition load
Main gun 500 rounds
ATGW 4 missiles
Machine guns 2 000 x 7.62-mm
Engine diesel
Engine power 450 ~ 750 hp
Maximum road speed ~ 100 km/h
Amphibious speed on water ~ 10 km/h
Range ~ 800 km
Gradient 60%
Side slope 40%
Vertical step ~ 0.6 m
Trench ~ 2 m
Fording Amphibious

Source military-today.com

Revised May 26, 2017

Updated Mar 01, 2018