Daily Archives: October 31, 2015

Stryker A1 Medium Calibre Weapon System/Stryker 8×8 vehicles Kongsberg’s MCT30 Remote Turret

The U.S. Senate has approved a $371 million U.S. Army budget for General Dynamics‘ Stryker armored vehicle. General Dynamics will equip the Stryker 8×8 armoured vehicles with a Medium Caliber Remote Weapons Station. At AUSA 2014, Konsgberg from Norway has presented a project of Stryker vehicle fitted with its Protector turret MCT30. Stryker 8×8 armoured vehicle fitted with Konsberg MCT30 remote weapon station at AUSA 2014, defense exhibition in Washington D.C.

Remote Turret Stryker MCT30 2

The PROTECTOR MCT30 provides highly accurate firepower for wheeled and tracked combat/armored vehicles. The system is remotely controlled and operated from a protected position inside the vehicle compartment. The main armament is a 30mm automatic cannon equipped with a link less ammunition handling system for increased reliability compared to traditional link fed cannon systems.

Remote Turret Stryker MCT30Remote TurThe system is remotely controlled and operated from a protected position inside the vehicle compartment. stryker_interior_by_detroitdemigod-d3ec03x

XM813 rapid-fire 30mm autocannon

screenshotAtUploadCC_1513147961563Linkless Ammunition Feed System with Two 75 Round Ammo Boxes on Each Side of 30mm CannonWNUS_30mm_BushmasterII_EFV_cutaway_picTraditional link fed cannon systems

The Konsberg Protector RWS (Remote Weapon Station) on the LAV Demonstrator was armed with an ATK Mk44 30mm automatic cannon and a co-axial 7.62mm machine gun located to the top and left side of the main gun.

ATK Mk44 30mm automatic cannon






The turret is remotely operated under armor to increase the protection for the gunner. It is equipped with a dual ammunition feed with 75 rounds each and can carry a total of 150 rounds ready to fire.

AmmoBox inside hullThe ammunition boxes for the main gun and the coax gun that were generally in the basket for the two-men turret have to be relocated to the turret hull. The former 2 men turret hull did not include these, so it usually means you have to increase the turret hull size to accommodate the ammo boxes. These ammo boxes takes up considerable volume inside the turret hull for a remote turret.4c4700f1cfab2fd160f0ff419bea16d3

The medium caliber automatic cannon and coaxial machine gun combined with optional non-lethal effects provides the vehicle crew the necessary tools to engage in a wide spectrum of situations and to conduct Escalation of Force. The availability of having two ammunition types simultaneously gives the flexibility to configure the system to engage both soft and hard targets beyond 3,000 meters.

US Army projects developing more accurate and lethal 30mm and 50mm guns

Medium [30mm XM814, 30mm Mk310, 50mm PABM] Caliber Weapon Systems (About $10 million in 2015 and 2016 and $16 million i 2017

This effort matures and demonstrates advanced medium caliber ammunition, weapon, fire control, and ammunition handling systems optimized for remote operation. This effort demonstrates cannon-super high elevation engagement, high performance stabilization, remote ammunition loading, weapon safety and reliability, improved lethality, accuracy, ability to fire a suite of ammunition from non-lethal to lethal, and escalation of force capability in one system.

In 2015, Optimized technologies from Weapon, Fire Control and Turret functional areas together in preparation of demonstrating a system level platform integration with an advanced medium caliber weapon system within a Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) variant. In support of this effort, finalized and optimized a prototype turret and drive system to support the XM813 30mm weapon system; optimized and matured the advanced sensors (down range wind sensor, dynamic metrology sensor and improved laser range finder) and the scenario based fire control system supporting the XM813 30mm weapon system, 30mm armor piercing (AP) munition and the Mk310 30mm programmable air bursting munitions (PABM); performed the integration of these technologies within the BFV and demonstrated improved accuracy and lethality performance at a system level. Additionally, finalized 50mm fuze improvements and performed a fuze shoot off and demonstration to down select and optimize the burst point accuracy of the 50mm PABM munition.

Accurate Medium Caliber Armament system for stationary and fire on the move capability with turret/vehicle integration
• Programmable Air Bursting Munition (PABM): Optimized effects against Personnel targets (behind walls and in the open)
• Armor Piercing munition (APFSDS-T): Optimized effects against Materiel targets
• Integrated Fire Control Enhancements: Scenario Based Fire Control System (SBFCS), Graphical User Interface (GUI), dynamic MET Sensor, down range wind sensor and enhanced laser rangefinder

• Improve burst point accuracy and PD reliability of fuze technology for 50mm PABM
• Validate and refine existing 30mm Error Budget model for use in 50mm system projections
• Develop turret to demonstrate growth from 30mm XM813 to 50mm Enhanced Bushmaster III
• Perform platform integration of turret for 50mm system level test and evaluation



29kongsberg-protectorPROTECTOR MCT-30 – monch.com

The PROTECTOR MCT-30 provides highly accurate firepower for wheeled and tracked combat/armored vehicles. The system is remotely controlled and operated from a protected position inside the vehicle compartment.

The main armament is a 30mm automatic cannon equipped with a link less ammunition handling system for increased reliability compared to traditional link fed cannon systems.



  • Under delivery to the US Stryker Brigade
  • The first remotely operated turret to be qualified and fielded within the U.S. Army
  • Precision fire control system that enables highly-precise engagements across all battlefield conditions and operational scenarios
  • Operated and reloaded from under armor
  • Supporting various protection (armor) levels
  • Flexible design allowing for customer tailoring and growth.

A Commander’s sight solution, based on the PROTECTOR RWS family, gives the commander an independent surveillance and lethal/non-lethal engagement capability and enables a two way hunter/killer capability.

PROTECTOR MCT-30 Specifications


Main Gun MK44 30mm Bushmaster Automatic Cannon First round select Effective range > 3000 meters Upgradeable to fire 40×180 mm ammunition (Optional)
Secondary Weapons 7.62mm Coaxial Machine Gun / Optional RWS / Optional Javelin ATGM
Ammunition Storage 7.62mm x600 rounds


Ammunition Handling Linkless ammunition feeding 2 x 75 ready rounds NATO standard 30x173mm ammunition (AP, HE, TP, PABM) Programmable Air Burst Ammunition Reload from under armor
Smoke Grenade Launchers
2 banks, each x4 tubes (Optional)
Sight System Sight includes Day Camera, Thermal Imager and Laser Range Finder
Identification ID Range > 3000 meters (standard vehicle target 2.3 x 2.3 m)
Turret Movement 360 ° movement in azimuth -10 ° to + 45 ° elevation up to + 60 ° elevation (Optional)
Stabilization Fully stabilized including point stabilization
STANAG 4569 Protection
Baseline protection is STANAG level 1. Add on Armor up to desired level
Optional Equipment Missile system, Threat detection systems, Commanders Independent Weapon Station, Active Protection System
Crew x2 (Gunner & Commander)

AUSA 2017: Stryker dragoon from General Dynamics Land Systems

LAV 6.0 with the PROTECTOR MCT-30 Turret


Source: War Fare Tech,  Wheeled Armoured Vehicles Part Deux. nextbigfuture.com, kongsberg.com, fighting-vehicles.com

Updated Dec 13, 2017

Hongdu L-15/L-15B/JL-10H Supersonic Trainer / Attack Aircraft, China

Hongdu L-15 is a twin engine, modern jet trainer or light attack aircraft designed and manufactured by Hongdu Aviation Industry Group (HAIG) of China. It has been built as a rival to Guizhou JL-9/FTC-2000 Mountain Eagle. The L-15 will be used as a lead-in fighter trainer (LIFT) by the People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) and the People’s Liberation Army Naval Air Force (PLANAF). About five prototypes have been built by HAIG.

rdn_51d227c0c9291July 1, 2013 at 13:04 pm, a yellow factory painting coaches -10 “Falcon” senior trainer, in a central airplane in central China flew to the blue sky, the scene guests have applauded. According to sources, the coach-10 “Falcon” advanced trainer conducted the first test flight, it is learned that the aircraft will soon be delivered to the PLA Air Force, allegedly, our air force and naval aviation forces equipped with L-15 aircraft has been “Coach -10” official number, in the June 29 to complete the delivery of the first overseas users after the ceremony, “Coach -10” delivery ceremony has also been a complete success. (Globe picture) -Image: y3.ifengimg.com

A Hongdu brochure obtained at the 2015 Paris Airshow indicated that a lead-in fighter trainer (LIFT) version was also being developed. The LIFT version was said to have “afterburning engines, high-performance fire control radar, and weapons-carrying capacity for combat missions.”

Images appeared on Chinese websites in October 2015 showing an L-15 carrying a small radar, possibly a passive electronically scanned array (PESA) with a reported range of about 75 km: a development that would greatly improve the aircraft’s air-to-air combat capability.

Adding to the confusion, a model of an armed L-15 described as the attack/fighter/trainer (AFT) version was displayed during the Singapore Airshow in February.

An L-15 was not seen flying with weapons until the Hongdu anniversary video appeared on Chinese websites in early May. The aircraft was seen taking off with PL-5II air-to-air missiles, a centre-fuselage pod carrying a 23 mm cannon and underwing fuel tanks.

It also carried two Luoyang Electro Optical Technology Development Center LS-6 extended-range guided bombs. Introduced in 2006, the LS-6 has fold-out wings that give it a range of up to 60 km.

The L-15 in the video appeared to have non-afterburning turbofans, most likely the Lotarev DV-2s or the non-afterburning Progress AI-222-25 used in the L-15 prototypes. The production version of the L-15 is expected to use the 5 tonne-thrust Minshan afterburning engine that is currently being developed by the Guizhou Aero Engine Research Institute. Source janes.com

Hongdu L-15 trainer aircraft orders


PLAAF ordered four Hongdu L-15 trainer aircraft in April 2006. Pakistan Air Force (PAF) is planning to procure Hongdu L-15 supersonic jet trainers from HAIG to replace its existing K-8 Karakorum jet trainer. The procurement will allow PAF to reduce its trainer aircraft from four to two.

It was rumored in September 2013 that JL-10 might be adopted by PLAN as a carrier-based trainer but this has not been confirmed. Several foreign countries have expressed serious interest in acquiring L-15. It was reported that 6 L-15Z upgraded AFT version (Attack/Fighter/Trainer) were ordered by Zambia in 2012.

These L-15Zs could carry PL-5II AAMs, LS-6 GPS/INS bombs, a belly 23mm gun pod and be used as a light attack aircraft. As a result a small fire-control (PESA? max range 60nm/111km) radarmay have been installed. It was reported in June 2014 that Venezuela expressed the intention to acquire 24 L-15s. Uruguay also showed some interest in August 2016.  Source chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com

K-8 Karakorum: Details

Zambian L-15 debuts

yourfileImage: Abri Kriegler – Source flightglobal.com

The first Chinese-made Hongdu L-15 supersonic light attack/jet trainer for Zambia has broken cover at Africa Aerospace and Defence in the markings of the air force’s 15 Sqn.

According to Flight Fleets Analyzer, Lusaka has ordered six of the Motor Sich AI-222-25-powered aircraft and the first example – AF-001 – arrived in Zambia “earlier this year”, says 15 Sqn’s Maj Paul Besa, who has been flying the type since 2015, initially in China, with “no problems”.

The L-15 was displayed with an array of Chinese weaponry, including a PL-5E II air-to-air missile and LS-6 guided glide bomb. 15 SEPTEMBER, 2016 SOURCE: FLIGHT INTERNATIONAL BY: MURDO MORRISON – Source flightglobal.com

Uruguayan Air Force eyeing China’s Hongdu L-15: Here

Hongdu L-15 design


HAIG unveiled the L-15 aircraft design in September 2001 during the 9th Aviation exhibition in Beijing. The large leading edge extensions (LEX) design allows the aircraft to offer a maximum angle of attack of 30°. The aircraft can also be changed into light air-to-ground attack aircraft with minor modifications.

The aircraft has been designed to train pilots of the third-generation fighters encompassing Su-27, Su-30, J-10, and J-11. The enhanced design provides safety to the pilot while cutting down the training cost compared to its rivals.


Two variants are being developed initially. One is advanced jet trainer (AJT), powered by two Ukraine AI-222-25 turbofan engines. The other is lead-in fighter trainer (LIFT), powered by two AI-222-25F with afterburner which give L-15 a supersonic capability. Source chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com

HAIG L-15 development

The development of Hongdu L-15 began when Hongdu planned a modern trainer aircraft which would meet the requirements of PLAAF’s new generation fighters. Russian based Yakovlev Design Bureau aided in the L-15 manufacturing as its design resembles that of the Yak-130 aircraft.

Yak-130: Details


The initial prototype was rolled out in September 2005 and took its maiden flight in March 2006. The second prototype completed its first flight in May 2008. The first and second prototypes are powered by two ZMKB-Progress (Lotarev) DV-2 engines. An improved version, the DV-2F, which boasts of afterburner capabilities, was fitted in the third model. Ukraine’s Ivchenko-Progress AI-222K-25F turbofan engines with afterburner are incorporated in the later L-15 versions.

The Hongdu L-15 was displayed at the Dubai Air show organised in November 2009 to promote its aircraft in the potential Middle East market. HAIG will receive export orders from Africa, the Middle East and South America.

The first operational variant powered by Ivchenko-Progress AI-222K-25F turbofan engines was introduced in August 2010 upon completion of six months production.

06 LIFT prototype stretched nose housing a small PESA radar 

l-15_0606 LIFT prototype – Image: chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com

The 06 LIFT prototype finally took off on October 26, 2010. It features a stretched nose housing a small PESA radar developed by the 607 Institute (range ~75km), an improved glass cockpit with three MFDs, and two AI-222K-25F turbofans capable of supersonic flight.  Source chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com

29yqo9106 LIFT prototype – Image: chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com

L-15B Attack Variant of Jet Trainer Rolls Out: Here


The L-15B is an enhanced version of the L-15 LIFT (Lead In Fighter Trainer) variant used by both the People’s Liberation Army Air Force and People’s Liberation Army Naval Air Force. Both use the Ukrainian Ivchenko-Progress afterburning AI-222K-25F turbofan, giving the L-15B supersonic speed up to Mach 1.4. According to AVIC’s specifications, the L-15B has a maximum takeoff weight of 11.6 metric tons (25,573 pounds) and operational range of 2,600 km (1,616 miles).

L-15B LIFT fitted with afterburner performed maiden flight 21 Dec 2017

PLANAF’s first regiment of Hongdu JL-10H trainers enters service

Hongdu L-15 cockpit


The Hongdu L-15 features a full glass cockpit which can accommodate two crew members, either a student pilot and instructor, or an official pilot and weapons systems officer. A multi-colour head down display is fitted on both front and rear cockpit, while the head up display is installed at the cockpit front. Digital fly by wire (FBW), and hands-on throttle and stick (HOTAS) flight control systems are also installed in the aircraft.


New Glass Cockpit




The Hongdu L-15 comprises six hard points of which four are located under the two wings and two under the wing-tips. It can accommodate 3,000kg of payload. The aircraft can carry short range air-to-air missiles, air-to-ground missiles, bombs and rocket pods.

PL-5 (霹雳-5) air-to-air missile


The PL-5 (霹雳-5) air-to-air missile (PL stands for Pi Li, “Thunderbolt” in Chinese, the generic designation for all PRC air-to-air missiles) is a short-range, Infrared homing missile use by Chinese fighters. It is based on AA-2 Atoll technology and resembles the AIM-9 Sidewinder.  The PL-5 have been continuously upgraded by Luoyang and the latest variant, the PL-5EII added a dual band, multi-element detector as well as a laser proximity fuse similar to the PL-9. According to Chinese export/import agency CATIC, the PL5E has an all-aspect capability with the seeker having a maximum off boresight angle of ±25° before launch, and ±40° after launch.

PL-12/SD-10 active radar-homing MRAAM

The PL-12 is claimed to have an operational ceiling of at least 21 km, with a maximum effective range of 100 km and a minimum engagement range of 1,000 m. The missile has a 38+ g manoeuvering limit and, according to CATIC, it has been tested for a 100-hour captive ‘live flight’ life. According to Chinese claims, PL-12 is more capable than the American AIM-120 A/B, but slightly inferior than the AIM-120C. Source airforceworld.com

PL-12 (K/AKK-12?) was under development at LETRI/607 Institute since early 90s. The missile was expected to be in the same class as AIM-120A/B and its active seeker may have evolved from the earlier AMR-1 design (R-129? based on Russian 9B-1348 seeker & datalink for R-77). Its tailfins appear to have fin tips as well as the leading edges of the fin root cropped. These specially designed tailfins are believed to possess lower drag for greater speed and higher torque for better maneuverability. Two datalink antennas can be seen next to the nozzle for mid-course correction. Several dielectric strips are seen along the middle warhead section which house the radio proximity fuse. PL-12 completed its development test in December 2004 and was certified in 2005. Its export version is called SD-10 (SD-10A as the improved version) and was first revealed to the public during the 2002 Zhuhai Airshow. Currently it is in the service with J-8F, J-10, J-11B, J-15 and Su-30MK2. In addition SD-10A is being carried by JF-17 currently in service with PAF. Some specifications of SD-10: length 3,850mm, diameter 203mm, wing span 674mm, weight 180kg, max g-load 38g, max speed 4M, range 60-70km. Recently produced PL-12 is expected to feature an improved seeker with new digital processor and SINS. The improved PL-12 (PL-12A?) is thought to be comparable to American AIM-120C4. It was reported in November 2010 that PL-12 may feature an active/passive dual mode seeker in order to achieve greater ECCM capability and kill probability. Source chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com


Dna__2VVYAAQ4xJdafeng cao

This lightweight AShM recently entered the service with PLAN as part of the weapon package of Z-9D. Up to 4 missiles can be carried by Z-9D at a time. YJ-9 may have evolved from the earlier TL-10B developed by Hongdu. YJ-9 is a light, active radar guided anti-ship missile used against smaller FACs and gun boats (<1,000t). Its range is 15km, speed is Mach 0.8, weight is 105kg, and its warhead weighs 30kg. Besides Z-9D, YJ-9 is expected to be carried by the new Z-18F ASW helicopter as well. Its export version is dubbed YJ-9E. The missile has three versions depending on the guidance: YJ-9E (radar), YJ-9EA (TV) and YJ-9EB (semi-active laser). Recent news (September 2016) indicated that Zambian AF has ordered some YJ-9E ASM for its newly acquired L-15AFT aircraft. Source chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com


In 2016, Hongdu disclosed the TL-20 small-diameter guided bomb at the Zhuhai Air Show and officially entered the field of precision guided bombs.
According to the Zhuhai Air Show public data, the TL-20 small diameter guided bomb weighs 100 kilograms, similar to the SDB, and also uses the gliding range extension kit, but the TL-20 uses a large aspect ratio flat wing, which is used by the SDB. It is a diamond-shaped wing. The aerodynamic design and structure are simpler than the latter. The development difficulty and cost are lower than the latter. However, the performance is not inferior to that of the SDB. The TL-20 has a high altitude of 85 kilometers. The TL-20 is also equipped with a composite guide. System to improve the accuracy of bomb placement, TL-20 basic guidance system inertial guidance plus satellite navigation positioning receiver, with day and night all-weather ground strike capability, in order to further improve the accuracy of TL-20 attack, it can also be equipped with terminal guidance system, for example Equipped with semi-active laser guidance system or other guidance system, TL-20 adopts inertial navigation plus satellite positioning and navigation composite guidance system in the middle section, and the semi-active laser guidance system or other guidance system is used for guidance at the end to improve the accuracy of ground attack. Source xuehua.us

LS-6 GPS/INS bombs


The LS-6 designation is applied to a family of guidance kits for a range of low drag bomb bodies. Known variants of the tailkit are for 500 kg, 250 kg, 100 kg and 50 kg bombs. The former variants are glidebombs, the latter variants strake equipped analogues to the US GBU-39/B Small Diameter Bomb (SDB).

The 500 kg / 250 kg LS-6 glidebomb design is modelled in many respects on the concept of the Australian developed planar wing Kerkanya glidebomb kit, more recently adapted to form the JDAM-ER. Unlike the Kerkanya which uses a low wing monoplane configuration with a blended adaptor fairing, the LS-6 glide wing kit is much simpler in design and the weapon flight configuration is  that of a high wing monoplane. Cited range for an 11 km release altitude at 900 km/h is 60 km, considerably less than the Kerkanya/JDAM-ER design4.


Luoyang Description for 500/250 kg Variants (Cite):

LS-6 guided glide bomb is a low-cost but highly effective air to surface weapon for standoff precise attack on fixed ground targets, such as airports, seaports, bridges, commander centers, etc. With a wing kit and GPS/INS guidance unit, the conventional low-drag aerial bombs are modified into precision guided bombs with standoff attack ability.

System features:

Launched outside mid/short range air defense firepower

All-weather, day & night attack capability

Low cost but highly effective

Fire and forget capability

Excellent anti-interference capability

Modular guidance and control unit

Single target or multiple targets attack capability

Weapon delivery:

The LS-6 standoff guided glide bomb (SOGGB) utilizes high-altitude and high-speed launching, high lift-drag ratio aerodynamic configuration and suitable control scheme to ensure a remote gliding control. Before the bomb is dropped, its on-board INS coordinate system must be aligned with that of the aircraft and the fire control system downloads the mission planning into the bomb. Within a specified period of time after the bomb being dropped, the stabilizing system of the bomb starts to work to ensure the bomb and the aircraft being separated safely. And then, the folded-wings expand, putting the bomb into the autonomous flight course, and the on-board control system of the bomb starts to operate to keep the bomb body stable. A combined GPS/INS navigation is adopted during this course. The guidance system translates and calculates the guidance commands and outputs to the autopilot to ensure the bomb flying in a planned trajectory. Based on the relative position of the bomb to the target, the bomb will enter its terminal guidance at a preset distance from the target. On the terminal course of the trajectory, attitude control will be performed via a vertical lead-bias to improve the kill effect.

Technical data:

  1. a) Kill Area:

For normal target:5,000 – 10,000 m2

For armored targe:100 – 500 m2

  1. b) Operational Altitude and Speed:

Launch altitude:4,000 – 11,000 m

Launch speed:600 – 1,000 km/h

  1. c) Maximum Launch Range:No less than 60 kilometers with a launch altitude of 11,000 meters and an initial speed of 900 km/h.
  2. d) Guidance Mode:Combined GPS/INS guidance.
  3. e) Guidance Accuracy: ≤15 meters CEP

Source ausairpower.net

Unguided rocket


Ivchenko Progress AI-222K-25F Engines


The aircraft is powered by two Ivchenko Progress AI-222K-25F afterburning turbofan engines. Each engine can generate 4,200kg of thrust afterburner.

The aircraft is also integrated with full authority digital engine control (FADEC), which decreases the work load of the pilot by executing autopilot operations.

The length and width of the engine are 2.2m and 0.86m respectively.

The height is 1.09m. The service life of the engine is 3000 flight hours, while the dry weight is 440kg.

AI-222K-25F Engines


AI-222-25F modification has an afterburner and thrust 4200 kp (68% gain). Engine is designed for future supersonic light compat planes with speed up to M=1.5.

Full afterburner thrust rating (SLS, ISA, уinl=1,0 ):
thrust, kgf (flat rated to ISA+15°C), not less 4200
SFC, kg/kgf•h, not more 1.9
(H=11000 m; Mfl=1.4; ISA; уinl=0,97 ):
thrust, kgf 2760
Max thrust rating (SLS, ISA, уinl=1,0 ):
thrust, kgf 2500
SFC, kg/kgf•h, not more 0.66
air flow rate, kg/s 49.7
pressure ratio 15.43
by-pass ratio 1.18
maximum TIT, K 1471
Dimensions and weight
Fan diameter, mm 624
Length, mm 3138*
Weight, dry (to State Standard 17106-90), kg, not more 560

* length from front flange to nozzle throat.

AI−222−25 Turbofan data motorsich.com

Minshan turbofan engine

webavic-fadec-minshan-engineThe Minshan was displayed at the recent Airshow China in Zhuhai.

The 614 Institute of the Aviation Industrial Corporation of China (Avic), which is part of the state-owned conglomerate’s jet engine division, is sometimes referred to as the Gas Turbine Establishment (GTE). A Fadec system shown at the recent Airshow China in Zhuhai demonstrated how the GTE has been able to apply this technology to military aircraft engines. It was included in the Minshan engine, which is in the same class as the Ukrainian Ivchenko AI222-25. The Minshan could eventually replace this engine in the Hongdu L-15 jet trainer. source ainonline.com


 JL-10/L-15 could be powered eventually by the domestic Minshan turbofan engine (WS-17? max thrust 4,700kg with A/B) developed by the Guizhou Aero Engine Research Institute. The engine was rumored to have been tested onboard a L-15 prototype. In early 2013 one prototype (01?) was converted into a UCAV technology demonstrator with the aft cockpit loaded with remote control and monitoring equipment.  Source chinese-military-aviation.blogspot.com

The Hongdu L-15 can climb at the rate of 150m/s. Its maximum speed is 1,715km/h. The range and combat radius of the aircraft are 3,100km and 550km respectively. The service ceiling of the aircraft is 16,000m. Its maximum loitering time is two hours. The aircraft weighs around 4,960kg and its maximum take-off weight is 9,500kg.

Technical data

Entered service 2013
Crew 2 men
Dimensions and weight
Length 12.27 m
Wing span 9.48 m
Height 4.81 m
Weight (empty) ?
Weight (maximum take off) 9.5 t
Engines and performance
Engines 2 x AL-222K-25F
Traction (dry / with afterburning) ?
Maximum speed 1.4 Mach
Service ceiling 16 km
Ferry range 3 100 km
Combat radius over 550 km
Cannon ?
Missiles ?
Bombs ?

Technical data military-today.com

Main material source airforce-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Updated Oct 10, 2018

CAMEL Helps Designers Make Vehicles ‘Safe for Combat’


The US Army presented today a new concept vehicle designed to explore how to design current and future combat vehicles to better protect the warfighters riding in those vehicles to combat. The Concept for Advanced Military Explosion-Mitigation Land (CAMEL) vehicle designed by the Tank Automotive Research, Development & Engineering Center (TARDEC), demonstrates the ‘Occupant Centric Platform’ (OCP) concepts developed at the center. A 30-ton 8×8-class troop carrier, CAMEL is designed to safely and securely transport nine troops and two crew-members safely and securely. The goal is to reduce combat vehicle casualties well below 50 percent, compared to current combat vehicles.


This CAMEL demonstrator is ergonomically designed around the Soldiers and their gear, incorporating cutting edge technologies to increase comfort and efficiency while improving soldier safety, by diverting blast energy away from its occupants. TARDEC recently evaluated the vehicle with fully equipped active-duty troops, to gather feedback from soldiers who would use such vehicles in the future. The demonstrator is undergoing tests, including live fire, that are designed to evaluate its safety, comfort and blast resistance.


“This is a new concept in that we are designing the vehicle around the soldier,” said Steve Knott, the Associate Director of Ground Systems Survivability at TARDEC. “There are a lot of vehicles that, when you get in the back, it is tight. There are protrusions that could cause injury and loose gear that can be harmful in certain situations. These OCP demonstrators are designed around the occupant and offer a new level of survivability for our warfighters”.

The OCP Technology Enabled Capability Demonstrator (TECD) program aims to reduce casualties on legacy platforms by as much as 50 percent, using OCP concepts. The ultimate goal is to eliminate crew injuries for any occupant position.


Blast protection is the basic consideration for the design of the hull, seating and ergonomics. Two primary factors contribute to the dissipation of blast effect caused by an underbelly explosion – the distance (height) from the source and the shape of the hull. An OCP-designed vehicle uses a U-shaped hull, with a deflector shield that channels shock waves away from the vehicle’s hull and interiors.

camel_ocp_inside725The CAMEL Demonstrator’s crew compartment significantly increases Soldier protection through technologies such as reconfigured seats, easy-to-reach safety harnesses, 360-degree situational awareness, a decoupled floor and dedicated spaces for gear and ammunition storage. (U.S. Army TARDEC photo.) (Photo Credit: U.S. Army)

An look into the troop compartment shows the padded ceiling, canted corners, blast isolated ‘floating floor’ and individual seating, with head and foot rests, stowage for the personal gear and ‘virtual windows’ – vision blocks displaying a video image taken from 360 degree cameras located all around the vehicle.


OCP-designed vehicles are equipped with individual seating, fitted with harness straps and foot rests – their role is to isolate the passenger from the blast affecting the hull, while maintaining comfortable and ergonomic design. Seat angles are designed and shaped to prevent spinal injuries, and the ceiling contains impact-absorbing materials to reduce the chance of head injury. The hull is designed with protective trim on the top and sides, also reducing the danger of injury. 360-degree views with cameras capturing the surroundings outside the vehicle and beaming the video onto internal screens provide situational awareness inside, without exposing the crew to hostile fire.


The fighting compartment can be reconfigured to provide space for stretchers, carrying injured squad members. The litters are designed specifically for the vehicle and hang from straps attached to hooks on ceiling-mounted anchor tracks to isolate the wounded from the floor (preventing further injury from blast).

size0These illustrations show how the CAMEL concept compares to the MRAP Caiman (minus turret). The CAMEL’s low center of gravity and wide track reduce rollover risk, while it also maintains ground clearance to aid in blast mitigation. The CAMEL’s U-shaped hull also channels blast waves away from the interior. (Photo Credit: U.S. Army)

Source: Thread: Wheeled Armoured Vehicles Part Deux

Mi-24 Hind (Mi-35 Export Version)

The Mi-24 (NATO designation Hind) is one of the most widely-known assault helicopter gunships in the world, and remains in service with at least 50 air arms. 

The Mi-24 was developed from the tried and tested Mi-8 multirole transport helicopter and was first flown in V-24 prototype form in 1969. Production commenced in 1971 and ceased in 1991. Over 2,300 Hinds of all variants were produced.

The definitive initial production variant was the Mi-24D Hind-D (Mi-25 for export). This introduced heavily-armored, stepped cockpits ant an undernose gun turret. Vital components of the helicopter are also armored. This gunship has a crew of three and can carry up to 8 fully-equipped troops.

Russia to start fitting Mi-24 gunships with Vitebsk electronic warfare system: HERE

mi-24-mi-24-hind-931162-1920x1080OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

From 1976 to 1978, the Hind-D was joined in service by the up-engined Mi-24V Hind-E (export Mi-35), which also featured improved armament of tube-launched 9M114 Shturm (AT-6 Spiral) ATGMs.

Mi-35M (Hind E): Here

Mi-24 Super Hind: Details

9K114 Shturm


The 9K114 Shturm is an anti-tank missile system of Soviet origin. It was developed in the early 1970’s and is employed since 1976. The system is called 9K114 Shturm and is missile is known as the 9M114 Kokon. In the West the NATO reporting name AT-6 Spiral is used often. The 9M114 was designed to provide attack helicopters with a more capable anti-tank missile than the Falanga (AT-2). Besides helicopters it is also used on vehicles and ships.


The 9M114 has a better performance than the older Falanga (AT-2) and Malyutka (AT-3) in range, penetration and accuracy. During Western tests accuracy proved poor while Russian sources claim 75 to 85 percent effectiveness in the Afghan war. The original 9M114 missiles penetrates about 560mm RHA and has a maximum range of 5 km. The 9M114M2 extends this range to 7 km and penetrates 600 to 650 mm RHA. A thermobaric version is available.

Type Anti-tank missile
Diameter 0.130 m body, 0.36 m wingspan
Length 1.625 m
Weight 31.4 kg
Guidance Radio command guidance
Warhead 5.3 kg HEAT warhead, penetration 560 – 600 mm RHA
Propulsion Solid propellant rocket motor
Speed 345 m/s
Range 400 m minimum, 5 km maximum

Source weaponsystems.net

1287145867_mi2405_conv.jpg9M114 Shturm (AT-6 Spiral) ATGMs.

Combat experience in Afghanistan led to the development of the Mi-24P Hind-F with a 30-mm GSh-30K twinbarrel cannon mounted on the forward fuselage. Later specialised Hind variants include the Mi-24RKR Hind-G1 NBC reconnaissance helicopter; Mi-24K Hind-G2 for artillery fire correction; Mi-24BMT minesweeper conversion and Mi-24PS for paramilitary use.

30-mm GSh-30K twinbarrel cannon


It is designed for firing with fragmentation-mine, armour-piercing-explosive and armour-piercing-tracer shells from different types of aircrafts and helicopters at air and ground targets. Operation of automated mechanism is based on use of powder gases energy.

The gun can be used on right or left feed.

The gun is produced in two modifications: GSH-30 — with length of barrels of 1500 mm installed on aircrafts “Su-25” type; GSH-30K — with length of barrels of 2400 mm, evaporative cooling system of barrels and variable rate of fire. The gun is installed on helicopters of “Mi-24P” type.

Technical Characteristics
Calibre, mm 30
Fixed resource, shot 4000
Fire control electric 27V
Mass, kg 105 (126)
Overall dimensions, mm, not more than
2944 (2044)

Source zid.ru

dsc_436430-mm GSh-30K twinbarrel cannon

At the beggining of the 21 century Mi-24s remains in widespread service, the Russian army being the most significant operator with around 700 helicopters. Other major users include Algeria, Angola, Belarus, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Kazakhstan, Libya and Poland. The Mi-24 has seen widespread combat action, fighting in Afghanistan, Chad, Angola, Sri Lanka and, most recently, in the wars in Chechnya in 1995 and 1999. The market for upgrades is substantial, with an estimated 1 500 Hinds remaining in service. A number of programmes are available.

IMG_9224-2Pilot SeatLl7IHbRGunner seat

The Mi-24VM (export designation Mi-35M) is available from Mil as a staged upgrade that includes a refurbished airframe for prolonged service, Mi-28 dynamic systems, upgraded 2,194-shp (1 636-kW) TV3-117VMA engines, and MFD-equipped cockpit compatible with night vision googles, pilot’s head-up display, forward-looking infra-red, a nose turret carrying a GSh-231 23-mm two-barrel cannon, 9M120 (AT-12 Swinger) ATGMs, and compatibility with 9M39 Igla (SA-18 Grouse) air-to-air missiles. Mil proposes to upgrade around 200 Russian Federation Hinds to these standards as Mi-24VMs, but the future of this programme is uncertain.

2 x TV3-117VMA engine

Tv3_117Vm2,194-shp (1 636-kW) TV3-117VMA engines

The TV3-117VMA turboshaft engine is used to power in civil helicopters.
The TV3-117VMA turboshaft is one of the world`s best engines as regards its fuel efficiency and weight performances. High-tech development and perfect mass-production process have ensured the engine`s superior reliability and extensive service life.

Main advantages of the engine:

  • low specific fuel consumption;
  • low weight-to-power ratio;
  • high reliability;
  • high reliability;
  • long service life;
  • high maintainability;
  • high repairability;
  • steady operation in harsh dust and smoke conditions;
  • possibility of long-time operation in maritime conditions.
Engine TV3-117VMA
2.5- minute power rating,
with one engine inoperative (OEI) (SLS, ISA):
Power, shp (kW) 2400 (1765)
30- minute power rating,
with one engine inoperative (OEI) (SLS, ISA):
Power, shp (kW) 2200 (1618)
Specific fuel consumption, kg/hp•h (kg/kW•h) 0.210 (0.286)
Cruise power condition (SLS, ISA):
Power, shp (kW) 1500 (1103)
Dry weight, kg 294

Source motorsich.com

GSh-231 23-mm two-barrel cannon

AIMG_0050X612X121_Berezin_GSh-23LCannonGSh-231 23-mm two-barrel cannon
Type Autocannon
Caliber 23x115mm AM-23
Mechanism Gas operated, Gast principle
Barrel Twin barrel, 1.000 m, rifled, 10 grooves, 575 mm right hand twist
Dimensions 1.387 m long, 165 mm wide, 168 mm tall
Weight 50 kg
Feeding Single belt feed
Rate of fire 3.000 – 3.400 rpm
Muzzle velocity 700 – 730 m/s
Recoil 2.900 kg recoil force
Remarks Muzzle brake

Source weaponsystems.net


General characteristics

  • Crew: 2–3: pilot, weapons system officer and technician (optional)
  • Capacity: 8 troops or 4 stretchers or 2400 kg (5,291 lb) cargo on an external sling
  • Length: 17.5 m (57 ft 4 in)
  • Rotor diameter: 17.3 m (56 ft 7 in)
  • Wingspan: 6.5 m (21 ft 3 in)
  • Height: 6.5 m (21 ft 3 in)
  • Disc area: 235 m² (2,530 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 8,500 kg (18,740 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 12,000 kg (26,500 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Isotov TV3-117 turbines, 1,600 kW (2,200 hp) each


  • Maximum speed: 335 km/h (208 mph)
  • Range: 450 km (280 miles)
  • Service ceiling: 4,900 m (16076 ft)



Internal guns

  • flexible 12.7 mm Yakushev-Borzov Yak-B Gatling gun on most variants. Maximum of 1,470 rounds of ammunition.
  • fixed twin-barrel GSh-30K on the Mi-24P. 750 rounds of ammunition.
  • flexible twin-barrel Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23L on the Mi-24VP and Mi-24VM. 450 rounds of ammunition.
  • PKB passenger compartment window mounted machine guns

12.7 mm Yakushev-Borzov Yak-B Gatling gun


The Yak-B is a late Cold War era gatling gun of Soviet origin. It was developed for use on the Mi-24 attack helicopter as a far more capable machine gun than the UB-12.7 as used in the early models of the Mi-24. The Yak-B is a much heavier weapon than a heavy machine gun, but its 12.7mm caliber is much lighter than autocannon ammunition.

The Yak-B fires the 12.7x108mm round that is commonly used in Soviet heavy machine guns. The rate of fire is 4.000 to 5.000 rpm. In the Mi-24 it is fed by a 1.470 round belt. The Yak-B proved effective against infantry in the open and soft skin vehicles. Against dug-in infantry and armored vehicles performance proved poor.


Type Gatling gun
Caliber 12.7x108mm Soviet
Mechanism Gas operated
Barrel Four barrel, rifled
Dimensions ?
Weight 45 kg
Feeding Single belt feed
Rate of fire 4.000 – 5.000 rpm
Muzzle velocity 810 m/s
Recoil 540 kg peak recoil force

Source weaponsystems.net

External stores

  • Total payload is 1,500 kg of external stores.
  • Inner hardpoints can carry at least 500 kg
  • Outer hardpoints can carry up to 250 kg
  • Wing-tip pylons can only carry the 9M17 Phalanga (in the Mi-24A-D) or the 9K114 Shturm complex (in the Mi-24V-F).


  • Bombs within weight range (presumably ZAB, FAB, RBK, ODAB etc.), Up to 500 kg.
  • MBD multiple ejector racks (presumably MBD-4 with 4 × FAB-100)
  • KGMU2V submunition/mine dispenser pods

First-generation armament (standard production Mi-24D)

  • GUV-8700 gunpod (with a 12.7 mm Yak-B + 2 × 7.62 mm GShG-7.62 mm combination or one 30 mm AGS-17)
  • UB-32 S-5 rocket launchers
  • S-24 240 mm rocket
  • 9M17 Fleyta (a pair on each wingtip pylon)

GUV-8700 gunpod


The large size of the gondola (3 meters) allow you to stow up to 1800 7,62x54R caliber rounds and 750 rounds caliber 12.7 × 108.

Alternatively, the Yak-B can ‘be replaced by an automatic 30mm grenade launcher AP-30 (9A800), and that’ the Air Force version of the more ‘known AGS-17infantry. With the AP-30 mounted the ammunition load drops to a maximum of 300 shots.

Aiming is done through a traditional viewfinder collimation.

Technical features

Gondala Universalnaya Vertolotnaya 8700
Name in Cyrillic: Универсальная вертолётная гондола 8700;
English name: Universal Helicopter Pod 8700;
Nationality ‘: USSR / Russia;
Type: gun-pod for helicopters;
Armament: two machine guns quadrinate GShG 7,62x54R caliber machine gun and a quadrinata Yak-B caliber 12,7 × 108 or an automatic grenade launcher AP-30 30mm;
Length: 3000 mm
diameter: 480mm
empty: 140 kg
with weapons and ammunition: 452 kg
Total loaded ammunition: 1,800 rounds cal. 7,62x54R, more ‘750 shots 12,7x108mm gauge (300 30mm for the AP-30)
Compatible aircraft: I-24/35; Mi-8/17; Ka-25; Ka-50/52.

Translated by google – Source sobchak.wordpress.com

12.7 mm Yak-B


2 × 7.62 mm GShG-7.62 mm combination


one 30 mm AGS-17


Second-generation armament (Mi-24V, Mi-24P and most upgraded Mi-24D)

  • UPK-23-250 gunpod carrying the GSh-23L
  • B-8V20 a lightweight long tubed helicopter version of the S-8 rocket launcher
  • 9K114 Shturm in pairs on the outer and wingtip pylons

S-8 rocket


B-8V20 a lightweight long tubed

1.jpgB-8V20 lightweight long tubed pod

UB-32-57 mm PODs

1297131433_UB-32-57%2520S-5%2520rocket%2520launchersUB-32-57 mm PODs

Upgraded cockpit

151399_800Upgraded cockpitmi-35m1287145867_Later_Hind_series_conv.png

Source: Military Today, Wiki, luger.tistory.com

Updated Dec 14, 2016

Video Hind in Syria Operations

Bumerang 8×8 Armoured Personnel Carrier (K-16 APC)

In the early 90s a BTR-90 was developed in Russia. It had a more powerful armament, improved protection greater mobility and increased internal volume, comparing with the previous BTR-80. However it was not accepted to service, possibly due to funding problems. Since 2010 Russia stopped purchasing the older BTR-80 APCs. Currently an improved BTR-82 is being obtained as a stop-gap measure until a new vehicle is available. In 2011 Russian MoD issued a requirement for a modular family of armored vehicles instead of the BTR-90.

BTR-82A APC: Details


The project is known as the Bumerang (boomerang). A baseline vehicle is an armored personnel carrier. It was developed alongside a new-generation Kurganets tracked armored vehicle family. The whole project was kept in high secrecy. The new APC was revealed to Russian military officials in 2013. During the same year first Bumerang APCs were delivered to the Russian Army for trials and evaluation. It was first publicly revealed in 2015. In 2015 a handful of pre-production vehicles were delivered to the Russian armed forces. As of early 2017 this APC is till being tested by its manufacturer. Full-scale production could begin within the next couple of years.

boomerang_bmp_1021_zpsyb95smqhBumerang APC

Once operational the new-generation Bumerang APC should replace a whole host of ageing Russian armored vehicles. The estimated requirement is for at least 2 000 wheeled armored vehicles.

The Bumerang is a clean sheet design. It is not based on any previous Russian armored vehicle. Actually it resembles Western designs. A number of components and subsystems of the Bumerang are interchangeable with the Kurganets family of tracked armored vehicles.

Bumerang APC and Bumerang IFV

Engine of the Bumerang is located at the front of the hull. Troops enter and leave the new vehicle via rear power-operated ramp with integral doors. It is worth mentioning that a rear-mounted engine of the BTR series APCs was a significant drawback, as troops had to leave the vehicle via side doors. Cramped side entry and exit hatches are even worse on BTR-70 APCs, which is still in service with the Russian Army. If such vehicles are ambushed, troops usually have to leave it under direct enemy fire.

boomerang_front_wavebreaker_belly_protection_zpstvyjmpgiThe Boomerang has a wave breaker at the front, deployed when the vehicle enters the water. The belly is also protected by an armor plate seen at the lower front.

This new armored personnel carrier has a crew of 3, including commander, gunner and driver. It can carry 9 soldiers. Firing ports for the troops were deleted in order not to compromise armor protection.


Vehicle has a welded hull and turret. Its armor is modular, so protection level can be tailored to suit mission requirements. So far its protection level is classified. However it seems that all-round protection with maximum armor is against 14.5-mm armor-piercing round.


Vehicle has a V-shaped hull that deflects mine blasts away. As usually this vehicle is fitted with NBC protection and automatic fire suppression systems. It has been reported that the Bumerang can be fitted with active protection system.

V-shaped hull

The Bumerang uses the same unmanned turrets as Kurganets APC and IFV. This 8×8 armored personnel carrier comes in two basic version. One version fitted with the same turret as used on Kurganets APC. It is armed with a 12.7-mm machine gun.

Boomerang Remote Weapon Station

12.7 mm heavy machine gun

Length of gun: 1560 mm
Elevation: -5 ° to +70 °
Traverse: 360 °
Muzzle velocity: 845 m/s
Combat rate of fire: 80 to 100 rounds/min
Maximum range: 6000 m
Effective range of ground targets: 2000 m
Effective range of air targets: 1500 m
Weight of gun: 25 kg
Weight of gun mainly: 9 kg

Technical data excaliburarmy.com

The K-16 Boomerang Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) is equipped with a small unmanned turret featuring a sensor array and a 12.5mm machine gun. The K-16 is expected to enter service with the Russian Armed Forces by the end of 2016. It is intended for use by both Russian Army and Russian Navy amphibious assault units. Source deagel.com


Another version is fitted with a turret of Kurganets IFV and packs a formidable punch. It is armed with a 30-mm cannon, coaxial 7.62-mm machine gun and 4 external launchers with Kornet-M anti-tank guided missiles.

Bumerang 8×8 Infantry Fighting Vehicle: Here

Boomerang_BTR_wheeled_8x8_armoured_vehicle_personnel carrier_Russia_Russian_defence_industry_military_equipment_017.jpgInfantry Fighting Vehicle (K-17)

The new APC is powered by a turbocharged diesel engine. Two engine alternatives are available. These are 17-liter ChTZ-Uraltrac 2V06 opposite engine, developing 450-510 hp or YaMZ-780 inline engine with two turbochargers, developing 750 hp.  As of early 2017 it is unclear which engine will be fitted on production model. It is planned that the same engine will be used by Kurganets family of tracked armored vehicles.

YaMZ-780 inline engine



Source army-guide.com

It looks like the engine is mated to a 6-speed automatic gearbox. Vehicle has an 8×8 configuration with all-wheel drive. Vehicle is fitted with a central tyre inflation system and run-flat tyres. The Bumerang is fully-amphibious. On water is is propelled by two waterjets.

boomerang_propeller425_zpsozymjjmkTwo waterjets used for amphibious operations

Other armored vehicles of the Bumerang family will include armored ambulance, command post vehicle, reconnaissance vehicle, anti-tank missile carrier, air defense missile launcher, fire support vehicle, mortar carrier, and other. It seems that with these vehicle Russia plans to equip rapid deployment brigades, similar in concept to US Stryker brigades.

Image: vitalykuzmin.net



The Military Industrial Company (VPK) has started to test an amphibious armored fighting vehicle, developed on the basis of a unified wheeled armored platform Bumerang.

The Military Industrial Company (VPK) which is a leading manufacturer of armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles and armored vehicles for the Russian army, started preliminary testing of an amphibious armored fighting vehicle, developed on the basis of the unified wheeled armored platform Bumerang, the Izvestia Daily newspaper reported.

Image: vitalykuzmin.net

Like Deadly Legos: New Details on Russia’s Bumerang APC/IFV Combat Platform: Here


In 2017, the Arzamas Machine-Building Plant is slated to begin mass production of the K-16. 

In a new analysis for Russia’s independent online newspaper Svobodnaya Pressa on the Bumerang’s capabilities and prospects, Tuchkov recalled that the vehicle, “completely new” in design terms, “differs fundamentally from the machines Russia presently has in its arsenal in this class of weaponry.” Russia’s aptly named Military-Industrial Company (VPK LLC) was selected to develop the Bumerang platform in 2011, and was given a list of capabilities requirements that was “extremely tough.” 

 “First and foremost,” the military analyst recalled, “it was necessary to protect the APC and other military vehicles created on the Boomerang platform from the detonation of mines. In previous comparable APC and (IFV) designs, this had been the vehicle’s most vulnerable area….VPK solved this task with flying colors.” 



Crew: 2
Number of Engines: 1
Wheel Drive: 8×8
Main Gun Caliber: 12.5 millimeter
Ballistic Protection: 30 millimeter
Max Range: 800 kilometer (497 mile)
Power: 510 hp (380 kW)
Top Speed: 100 kph (62 mph)
Top Swimming Speed: 2 kph (1.08 knot)
Combat Weight: 20,000 kilogram (44,092 pound)

Specification deagel.com

Main material source military-today.com

Revised May 26, 2017

Updated Mar 01, 2018