Daily Archives: October 29, 2015

OH-58D Kiowa Warrior (OH-58F Fox) Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter

The Armed OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, in service with the US Army, is supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron of Fort Worth, Texas. Around 375 Kiowas are in service and the single engine, double-bladed armed reconnaissance helicopter has been deployed in support of United States armed forces around the world including Haiti, Somalia and the Gulf of Arabia (Desert Storm and Desert Shield).

In 2002, Kiowas were deployed as part of Nato’s SFOR forces in Bosnia and, in 2003, 120 Kiowas were deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. 29 helicopters were lost during that operation. The US Army Kiowa fleet achieved a total of 750,000 combat hours until the end of 2011.


latest model, the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, is primarily operated in an armed reconnaissance role in support of ground troops. The OH-58 has been exported to Austria, Canada, Croatia, the Dominican Republic, Taiwan, and Saudi Arabia. It has also been produced under license in Australia. Source wikiwand.com

OH-58D Kiowa Warrior armed Thereconnaissance helicopter role

The primary mission of the helicopter is in the scout attack role. The helicopter can be optionally equipped to carry out transport and utility roles using equipment kits installed externally on existing hard points.



A cargo carrying hook is rated to carry loads up to 2,000lb. Emergency casualty evacuation can be carried out transporting two casualties on litters (stretchers), plus over 320kg of supplies to an operating radius of more than 185km. The Kiowa can be used for insertion of up to six troops for critical point security missions.

Two Kiowas can be transported in a C-130 aircraft. For air transportation the vertical tail fin pivots, the main rotor blades and the horizontal stabiliser are folded, and the mast mounted sight, the IFF antenna and the lower wire cutter are removed. The landing gear can kneel to decrease the height.

Next-generation armed reconnaissance helicopter

The OH-58D Kiowa Warrior was to be replaced by the next-generation armed reconnaissance helicopter (ARH) within the US Army. A contract worth $211m for the ARH, a military version of the Bell 407, was awarded to Bell Helicopter in July 2005. Under the contract, Bell was required to supply 368 helicopters between 2008 and 2013.

In order to replace four Army National Guard attack helicopter battalions, the number of helicopters to be delivered was increased from 368 to 512. In July 2008, the US Army discovered that the ARH programme had exceeded cost-growth limits of the Nunn-McCurdy Act. The ARH programme was therefore terminated in October 2008.

Kiowa safety enhancement programme (SEP)

To maintain the safety and effectiveness of the Kiowa fleet until retirement, a safety enhancement programme (SEP) was launched as a part of the Army Scout refreshment programme in 1998. The SEP provided engine upgrades and improved computer control systems for 292 Kiowa helicopters. The programme was concluded in 2011.

In March 2009, the US Army awarded a contract to Bell Helicopter to upgrade an additional 27 OH-58D aircraft under the Kiowa Warrior SEP.

Upgrade work on the 27 aircraft began in April 2009 and deliveries began in the last quarter of 2009 at a rate of three aircraft a month. In March 2010 the US Army awarded a contract to modify the final 30 OH-58D aircraft under the SEP. Work on the final lot of aircraft in the SEP was started in March 2010 and completed in 2011. The upgrade was carried out at Bell Helicopter’s plant 1 facility in Fort Worth, Texas.

OH-58F Fox helicopter

In October 2010, the US Army provided the “Fox” designation to the upgraded version of OH-58D Kiowa Warriors. The new version is known is OH-58F or Fox and will have an upgraded cockpit and sensor. The upgraded fleet is expected to be deployed in the fourth quarter of 2015.

OH-58F Fox


OH-58F – Image: Star-Telegram

The OH-58F is the next generation Kiowa Warrior designed specifically for the Army’s next generation Scout mission. Building on the proven strengths of its predecessor while adding the latest in advanced technology, the OH-58F answers the call for tenacity, stealth and lethality. The OH-58F features enhanced sensors, new cockpit control hardware and software, three color multi-function displays, a dual-redundant digital engine controller and the latest aircraft survivable equipment. Level II Manned-Unmanned Operations (MUM-O) technology is also incorporated to provide increased situational awareness and improved battlefield command and control.

Key Features and Benefits


OH-58F – Image: scoutsout.com

  • Nose Mounted Sensor
  • New Control and Display Subsystem 5 (CDS5)
  • Improved MCPU
  • Integrated Common Missile Warning System (CMWS)
  • Dual Channel FADEC
  • Integrated Level II MUM-O (Manned-UnManned Operations)


  • M3P .50 Cal. Machine Gun
  • 2.75” Rocket Pods (7 Shot)
  • Laser-guided Hellfire Missiles (optional)

Digital Cockpit


OH-58F – Image: scoutsout.com

  • Single pilot operable
  • 2 5×7 Color displays
  • 1 6×8 Color display
  • Dual, independent map channels
  • Control and Display Subsystem version 5 (CDS5)
  • SWB 4 and Beyond
  • Improved MCPU
  • Emergency Standby Attitude Indicator (ESIS)


  • 250 C30R/3 Engine (FADEC) dual channel FADEC
  • Bell 406 Transmission
  • CBM – Condition Based Maintenance

Navigation Guidance

  • World-Wide Navigation


  • AN/ARC-201 VHF FM (2)
  • Digital Communications (IDM 304)
  • Digital ICS
  • Improved Frequency Modulation (IFM)
  • APX-123 (mode 5)
  • Blue Force Tracker (BFT)
  • VMF Certified


  • Advanced FLIR, I2, Color TV
  • Std & Eyesafe LRF/D
  • Laser Pointer
  • Laser Spot Tracker
  • High Skids & Side Beam solution
  • Federated Level II UAS Teaming – on any display


  • Meet or exceed R&M requirements
  • Current and Predicted readiness rate (>80%)
  • Supportable in current Army system
  • Integrated Condition Based Maintenance (CBM)

Armament and Lethality


OH-58F – Image: scoutsout.com

  • M260-7 tube 2.75 FFAR Launcher (up to 2)
  • 0.50 cal (M3P)
  • MIL-STD-1760 Weapons Bus
  • Digital HELLFIRE Launcher
  • JAGM Integration
  • Modernized Rocket Launcher

Aircraft Survivability Equipment

  • Integrated Common Missile Warning System (CMWS)
  • Integrated APR-39A(v)4 Pulse/Doppler Radar Warning Receiver
  • Integrated AN/AVR 2B Laser Warning Receiver



AN/APR-39A (V)2 – Image: globalsecurity.org

Goodrich AN/AVR-2B(V) Laser Warning System (LWS)



  • LW/Repairable Armored crew station (Seat back, side, bottom, combustor, fuel control)
  • 30 minute run dry gearboxes
  • Redundant cockpit flight controls
  • Ballistically tolerant blades and fuel cell
  • Hidden exhaust, small presented area, and low IR signature

OH-58F – Image: scoutsout.com

Essential Specifications

Cruise Speed with Weapons 95 kts 176 kph
Range 140 nm 260 km
Seating 2 crew seats in cockpit
Maximum Gross Weight 5,500 lbs 2,495 kg
Powerplant One (1) Rolls-Royce 250-C30R3
650 shp 485 kW

Source scoutsout.com

OH-58F Block II

OH-58 Block II demonstrator

Bell says the OH-58 Block II demonstrator “takes an OH-58 Kiowa Warrior and makes it a fast-fielding, low-risk and lowest-cost solution” to the Army’s expected “high-hot” operational requirement of 6,000-foot, 95-degree performance. That performance can be attained with propulsion and drive-train upgrades to the existing platform, the company says.

The Block II aircraft builds on the OH-58F-model cockpit and sensor upgrade program (CASUP) by adding a new Honeywell HTS900 engine, transmission and rotor system. The CASUP program replaces the OH-58D’s mast-mounted sensor with a nose-mounted sensor, updates the cockpit with color, multifunction displays, and incorporates full authority digital engine control and common missile warning system. As with the EADS candidate helicopter, the OH-58 Block II aircraft can be fitted with M3P machine gun, 2.75-inch rockets and Hellfire missiles. Source ainonline.com

Honeywell HTS900 engine

“The Honeywell HTS900 engine is a new type design engine to provide superior performance at high, hot conditions, fuel efficiency, and operating costs” said Mike Cuff, Honeywell Vice President, Helicopters and Surface Systems. “This certification demonstrates Honeywell’s continued success in developing the world’s highest performance turboshaft engines for both the commercial and military segments.

“The Honeywell HTS900 engine produces more than 1,000 Shaft Horsepower (SHP) uninstalled at sea level on a standard day – and has accumulated more than 1,000 flight hours,” Source aero-news.net

OH-58D cockpit


The Kiowa was the first US Army helicopter to have an all-glass cockpit. The cockpit is supplied by Sperry Flight Systems and is equipped with a multiple target tracking / moving target indicator, an ANVIS (aviation night-vision system) display symbology system and helmet-mounted display.

The primary multifunction displays provide situation information, communications control and the mast-mounted sight video. A video recorder stores television and thermal imagery from the mission and allows playback in the cockpit.


Kiowa weapons

The OH-58D is equipped with two universal quick-change weapons pylons. Each pylon can be armed with two Hellfire missiles, seven Hydra 70 rockets, two air-to-air Stinger missiles or one .50-calibre fixed forward machine gun.

Hellfire missiles


Primary Function: Air-to-surface and surface-to-surface point target/anti-armor missile
Prime Contractor: Hellfire Systems, LLC – A Boeing – Lockheed Martin Joint Venture
Propulsion: ATK (now Orbital ATK) solid propellant rocket motor (IM HELLFIRE Propulsion System);
AGM-114A: ATK M120E3; AGM-114B: ATK M120E4; AGM-114L: ATK M120E4
Length: 5.33 ft (1.62 m); AGM-114L: 5.77 ft (1.76 m)
Diameter: 7 in (17.8 cm)
Wingspan: 28 in (0.71 m)
Weight: 98 to 109 lbs (44.5 to 49.4 kg); AGM-114R: 109 lbs (49.4 kg)
Speed: Subsonic
Range: AGM-114 K/L/M/N: 4.97 miles (8,000 m)
AGM-114R fired at 3,000 ft (914 m):
4.97 miles (8,000 m) – LOAL, high trajectory
4.41 miles (7,100 m) – LOAL, low/direct trajectory
Guidance: Semi-Active Laser (SAL) seeker; AGM-114L: Millimeter wave (MMW) radar seeker
Warhead: AGM-114 A/C/F/K/K-2/L/P/P+: Shaped charge warhead
AGM-114F-A/K-2A/P-2A: Shaped charge warhead with frag sleeve
AGM-114M/N: Blast fragmentation warhead (AGM-114N is a thermobaric version with metal augmentation charge)
AGM-114R: Multi-purpose Integrated Blast Frag Sleeve (IBFS) warhead

Source fi-aeroweb.com

Iraqi Freedom

LAU-68 rocket launcher w/ seven 2.75″ Hydra 70 rockets


Hydra-70 Family

Image: defenceindustrydaily.com

In the following, the nine main variants of the Hydra-70 rocket are presented:

M151 High-Explosive:

The M151 HEPD is a unitary fragmenting 10-pound anti-personnel, anti-material warhead with the M423 Point Detonating Fuze. Upon detonation, the warhead fragments into thousands of small high velocity fragments. The fuzed warhead is 16.2″ long and weighs 9.3 pounds.


The M156 white phosphorus (smoke) is primarily used for target marking. The M156 has the same ballistic characteristics as the M151 warhead and is of similar construction. Filler for the M156 is 2.2 pounds of white phosphorus with a 0.12 pound bursting charge of composition B. The fuzed warhead is 16.2″ long and weighs 9.65 pounds.

M229 High Explosive:

The M229 High Explosive warhead is a heavier version of the M151. The U.S. Army is currently not buying this variant. The fuzed warhead is 26″ long and weighs 17 pounds.

M255A1 Flechette:

The M255A1 Flechette warhead consists of a nose cone assembly, a warhead case, an integral fuze, 1,179 60-grain flechettes and an expulsion charge assembly. The primary fuze (M439) is remotely set with the Aerial Rocket Control System (ARCS) Multifunctional Display (MFD) or Rocket Management System (RMS) to provide a range from 500 meters to 7,200 meters. At expulsion, the 1,179 60-grain, hardened-steel flechettes separate and form a disk-like mass which breaks up with each flechette assuming an independent trajectory. The flechette uses kinetic energy derived from the velocity of the rocket to produce the desired impact and penetration of the target. The fuzed warhead is 26.9″ long and weighs 14 pounds.

M257 Illuminating Flare:

The M257 Illuminating warhead is designed to provide battlefield illumination and does not require the use of Infrared (IR) goggles. The M257 flare rocket can be launched by from either fixed wing or rotary-wing aircraft. The M442 motor burnout fuze functions after a 9-second delay. The fuzed warhead is 29.1″ long and weighs 11 pounds.

M261 Multi-Purpose Submunition (MPSM):

The MPSM warhead (weight is 13.9 pounds) provides improved lethal effectiveness against area targets such as light armor, wheeled vehicles, materiel, and personnel. The M73 Submunitions are deployed over the target and descend almost vertically. The M261 Warhead is a cargo warhead consisting of a nose cone assembly, a case, integral fuze, nine submunitions, and an expulsion charge assembly. The primary M439 warhead fuze is remotely set with the Aerial Rocket Control System (ARCS), Multifunctional Display (MFD) or Rocket Management System (RMS) to provide a range from 500 meters to 7,200 meters.

M264 RP Smoke:

The M264 RP (red phosphorous) Smoke is used as a red phosphorous filled smoke rocket propelled by the Mk 66 motor and the smoke is deployed at a range set remotely from within the aircraft cockpit. The M264 warhead is used for smoke obscuration in the visible light spectrum. The fuzed warhead is 26.9″ long and weighs 8.6 pounds.

M274 Smoke Signature (practice):

The M274 warhead is a smoke/flash signature practice warhead used for pilot/gunner training missions and consists of a cast iron warhead modified with vent holes, an aluminum nose cap with firing pin, a M423 fuze safe and arming device, and a smoke/flash cartridge. The fuzed warhead is 16.2″ long and weighs 9.3 pounds.

M278 Infrared Flare:

The M278 Infrared Flare warhead is designed for battlefield illumination for use with Infrared (IR) goggles. The flare rockets can be launched from either fixed wing or rotary-wing aircraft. The 442 motor burnout fuze functions after a 9-second delay. The fuzed warhead is 29.1″ long and weighs 11 pounds.

WTU-1/B (practice):

The fuzed warhead is 16.2″ long and weighs 9.3 pounds.

Source fi-aeroweb.com

M3P (or M296) .50 cal (12.7 mm) machine gun


Calibre 12.7x99mm NATO (.50 cal)
Overall length From 1,680mm (66.1″) to 1,800mm (70.9″)
Weapon weight 37 kg (81.5 lb)
Barrel weight 5 kg (11 lb)
Barrel length 914mm (36″)
Maximum range 6,500m
Ammunition type Ball, Tracer, API, APEI
Buttstock type N/A
Cyclic rate of fire 1,025 (+/- 75 RPM)
Effective range 2,500m (2,734 Yards)
Feed Left or right side (M9 links)
Firing mode Full automatic
Handguard type N/A
Role Airborne Applications
Ejection link Right or left side
 Source fnherstal.com

Lockheed Martin successfully test fired its DAGR guided rockets from OH-58D Kiowa Warrior helicopter in March 2010.

LM’s DAGR fires from Kiowa Warrior: Here

A single DAGR installed on a Kiowa Warrior prior to test firing. (photo – Lockheed Martin)

2.75-inch/70mm DAGR missile


The 2.75-inch/70mm DAGR missile is a precision-strike, multi-role, multi-platform munition that effectively neutralizes lightly-armored and high-value targets close to civilian assets or friendly forces. DAGR offers strike capability with the reliability of a HELLFIRE II missile while further limiting collateral damage.

The DAGR system puts HELLFIRE II missile and Joint Air-to-Ground Missile technology in a 2.75-inch guidance section that integrates seamlessly with legacy Hydra-70 rockets. Like HELLFIRE, DAGR offers lock-on-after-launch (LOAL) and lock-on-before-launch (LOBL) capability, target handoff, enhanced built-in testing on the rail, and laser coding from the cockpit. The result is a laser-guided missile that offers capabilities beyond those of a simple guided rocket.

The DAGR rail-mounted canister (RMC) mounts to HELLFIRE-compatible digital and analog launchers (e.g., M299/M310 and M272). The RMC readily integrates with all HELLFIRE platforms, including unmanned aerial vehicles and Apache, Kiowa, Little Bird, Cobra, and Tiger helicopters.

Plug-and-play HELLFIRE II compatibility allows aircrews to mix loadouts between HELLFIRE and DAGR missiles on the same launcher, providing the flexibility to meet any challenge on an ever-changing battlefield. When increased loadout or reduced weight is a must, DAGR delivers. Source lockheedmartin.com

Mission processors control the suite of mission subsystems via a military standard 1553B bus. An onboard computer provides laser ranging and target location within 10m.



The countermeasures suite includes an AN/ALQ-144 infrared jammer, radar warning receivers against pulsed and continuous wave radars and a laser warning detector.

Self-defence: AN/APR-39(V)1 or -39A(V)1 RWR. Phase 1 adds AN/ALQ-144 IR jammer, second RWR (AN/APR-44(V)3) and AN/AVR-2 laser detection system.  Source aviastar.org

AN/APR-39(V)1 or -39A(V)1 RWR


The APR-39 provides continuous 360-degree coverage to automatically detect and identify threat types, bearing and lethality before alerting a cockpit crew to each threat with a graphical symbol on the cockpit multifunction display or video display. This cost-effective system features state-of-the-art technology in a small, lightweight configuration that protects a wide variety of fixed-, rotary- and tilt-wing aircraft from today’s most modern threats.

“For the past two decades Northrop Grumman’s AN/APR-39 has been the primary radar warning receiver and electronic warfare management system for the United States Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force rotary wing aircraft,” said Mark Kula, vice president of Radio Frequency Combat and Information Systems at Northrop Grumman’s Land and Self Protection Systems Division. “The AN/APR-39 is specially designed to maximize survivability by improving aircrew situational awareness.”

To date over 6,000 APR-39 systems have been installed on both domestic and international AH-1W/Z, UH-1N/Y, MV-22B, KC-130T, UH-60, OH-58D, CH-53, CH-46, AH-64A/D and CH-47 aircraft. Source dailyairforce.com

AN/APR-39A(V)1 – (Army) ESM
Role: RWR, Radar Warning Receiver
Max Range: 222.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

AN/ALQ-144 infrared jammer


AN/ALQ 144C(V)1 countermeasure set new version 03/06

The AN/ALQ-144 IR Countermeasures Set is an always-on infrared jammer, providing protection against infrared missiles over a wide environmental range. The system is extremely flexible, as it offers multiple configurations to complement small-to medium- signature helicopters. It may operate independently or cohesively with a missile warning system and flares.


  • Mission versatility
  • Instantaneous and complete protection
  • Active-multi-threat jamming capability

Source baesystems.com


AN/AVR-2 laser detection system


Image: taiwanairpower.org

The AN/AVR-2A Laser Detecting Set was developed by Raytheon to warn military helicopter crews of threats from laser-aided weapons. It has 4 sensor units and a central processing unit that detect, identify, characterize and displays laser-aided weapons. AVR-2A has a coverage of 360-degree circumference and +45/-45 degree elevation about the aircraft. Once threats detected, the system displays each threat in priority order of lethality. The AN/AVR-2A is in production for US military helicopters.

Azimuth Coverage: 360 deg

Coverage in Elevation: 90 deg

Source deagel.com

Role: LWR, Laser Warning Receiver
Max Range: 18.5 km

Source cmano-db.com

Fire control and observation

The distinctive mast-mounted sight (MMS) from Boeing, situated above the rotor blades, enables the Kiowa Warrior to operate by day and night and to engage the enemy at the maximum range of the weapon systems and with the minimum exposure of the helicopter.


Image: pimg.tw

The MMS contains a suite of sensors which includes: a high-resolution television camera for long-range target detection; a thermal imaging sensor for navigation, target acquisition and designation; a laser rangefinder / designator for target location and guidance of the Hellfire missiles and designation for Copperhead artillery rounds; and a boresight assembly which provides in-flight sensor alignment. The laser rangefinder / designator is also employed for handoff to an AH-1 Cobra helicopter for TOW missile engagements.

The MMS is principally used for collecting imagery and target acquisition data of the battlefield during the day or night, under extreme adverse conditions.



Television Sensor Low Light Silicon Vidicon

Spectral Range 0.65 – 0.9 µm

Line Format 875

Field of View Narrow 2.0°; Wide 8.0°

Thermal Imaging Sensor 640 x 480 element InSb detector

Spectral Range 3.8 – 4.8 µm

Line Format 875

Field of View Narrow 1.6° x 2.0°; Wide 4.9° x 3.7°

Stabilization Better than 20 µ Rad

Field of Regard ±190° Azimuth, ±30° Elevation

Interface Architecture MIL STD 1553

Track Capability Auto – Tracker (Centroid, Scene, Offset)

Laser Rangefinder Designator 1.06 µm NdYAG

Turret Dimensions 25.5 inch diameter, 47 inch height

Source drs.com

TV Camera

Type: Visual Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 148.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Visual, 2nd Generation TV Camera (1980s/1990s, AXX-1 TCS)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Generic TV Camera – (2nd Gen, Target Tracking And Identification) Visual
Role: Visual, Target Tracking and Identification TV Camera
Max Range: 148.2 km

Laser Designator (Surface Only)

Generic Laser Designator – (Surface Only) Laser Designator
Role: Laser Target Designator & Ranger (LTD/R)
Max Range: 18.5 km


Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 148.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Infrared, 2nd Generation Imaging (1980s/1990s, LANTIRN, Litening) )
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Generic FLIR – (2nd Gen, Target Tracking And Identification) Infrared
Role: Infrared, Target Tracking and Identification Camera
Max Range: 148.2 km

Source cmano-db.com


Image: geographicalimaginations.files.wordpress.com


DRS Technologies is currently responsible for the sensor suite and, in March 2004, was awarded an $8.2m contract to upgrade the thermal imaging system on the MMS. The thermal imaging system upgrade (TISU) provides enhanced target detection and range. Deliveries began in August 2005 and were completed in early 2006.

The contract is part of a five-year $514m master indefinite delivery / indefinite quantity (IDIQ) contract awarded to DRS in December 2003.

In February 2006, the US Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) awarded another TISU contract worth $33m. Product deliveries began in February 2006 and were completed in December 2008.


A new five-year contract (January 2009-December 2013) worth $913m was awarded to DRS in February 2009 to support the maintenance, repair and service of the MMS on the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior. This is a follow on of the previous $514m contract.

Under the contract, DRS was awarded a $110m contract to supply spare components, repairs and programme services for the MMS in April 2009. The contract includes delivery of new spare parts from June 2009 to March 2013 with repair and maintenance services scheduled from June 2009 to January 2012.

Navigation and communications

The US Army OH-58D is equipped with an attitude heading reference system (AHRS) from Litton and an integrated Global Positioning System and Inertial Navigation System, GPS/INS.

A data-loading module allows the pre-mission storing of navigation waypoint data and radio frequencies. The mission equipment includes an improved data modem for digital battlefield communications, (IDMDBC). The communications system is based on the Have-Quick UHF and SINCGARS FM anti-jam radio.

Kiowa Warrior engine

The OH-58D helicopter is equipped with a Model 250 485kW turbine engine from Rolls-Royce. The transmission has a transient power level of 475kW. The engine and transmission system have been upgraded to provide high performance levels in high temperature and extreme climates.

Rolls-Royce M250-C30R/3

One Allison 250-C30R (T703-Ad-700) turboshaft, (C30R/3 with improved diffuser in Kiowa Warrior) with an intermediate power rating of 485kW at S/L, ISA, FADEC. Transmission rating: Kiowa 339kW continuous; Kiowa Warrior 410kW continuous. One self-sealing crash-resistant fuel cell, capacity 424 litres located aft of the cabin area. Refuelling point on starboard side of fuselage. Oil capacity 5.7 litres. Source aviastar.org

Image: Rolls-Royce

Model Weight (kg) Air flow rate (kg/s) Pressure
Take-off power (WPS) Continuous power (WPS) Height (mm) Width (mm) Length (mm)
C30M 113 2.54 8.6:1 650 540 638 555 1041
C30S 114 2.54 8.6:1 650 501 638 555 1041
C30P 114 2.54 8.6:1 650 501 638 555 1041

Source wikiwand.com

Operators: Here


Entered service 1985
Crew 2 men
Dimensions and weight
Length 12.9 m
Main rotor diameter 10.67 m
Height 3.95 m
Weight (empty) 1.74 t
Weight (maximum take off) 2.5 t (?)
Engines and performance
Engines 1 x Allison turbine
Engine power 650 shp
Maximum speed 240 km/h
Cruising speed 205 km/h
Service ceiling 4.58 km
Range 555 km
Cannon pod with 12.7-mm machine gun or 40-mm automatic grenade launcher
Missiles up to 4 x AGM-114 Hellfire anti-tank missiles or up to 4 x FIM-92 Stinger anti-aircraft missiles
Rockets 2 x Hydra 70 rocket pods with unguided rockets in place of the missiles

Technical data military-today.com

Main material source army-technology.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Revised May 04, 2017

Type 16 Maneuver Combat Vehicle

The Type 16 Maneuver Combat Vehicle (16式機動戦闘車Hitoroku-shiki kidou-sentou-sha) is a wheeled tank destroyer of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force. Source wikiwand.com

The Maneuver Combat Vehicle, or MCV, was designed by Japanese MoD Technical Research and Development Institute. This armored vehicle is also referred as the Type 16. Its development commenced in 2008. It was first publicly revealed in 2013. It was planned that this fire support vehicle will be deployed in 2016. It will be produced by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Some 200-300 of these vehicles will be produced and replace ageing main battle tanks.


MilitaryPorn @reddit

In concept the Japanese Maneuver Combat Vehicle is similar to Italian Centauro. The main role of this vehicle is to provide direct fire support for infantry units. It can engage hostile armored vehicles, buildings and field fortifications. In some cases it supplements main battle tanks. Wheeled fire support vehicles are cheaper to produce and maintain than main battle tanks. Also these have high speed and mobility on hard surface roads and can respond rapidly to various threats.



It is worth noting that main battle tanks require heavy equipment transporters to relocate them if long distances are involved. By acquiring wheeled fire support vehicle Japanese MoD plans to reduce the number of main battle tanks from 740 to only 300 units within the next few years.

Centauro 2 8×8 wheeled anti-tank vehicle: Details

The Japanese MCV is armed with a 105 mm rifled gun. It is compatible with standard NATO 105 mm ammunition. For some reason this gun lacks automatic loader and is loaded manually. Around 40 rounds are carried for the main gun. Around 15 rounds are stored in the turret bustle and are ready to use.

Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF Tank Destroyer Maneuver Combat Vehicle (MCV) 120 125 mm (7)

The MCV is fitted with a modern fire control system with the latest generation optics. This vehicle has a hunter-killer engagement capability. The commander uses a panoramic sight to search for targets. Once the target is selected the gun is laid on the target automatically and the gunner completes al the aiming and firing process. During that time commander looks for the next target. Such hunter-killer engagement method is present on all modern main battle tanks. It allows to acquire and engage targets faster.

The MCV is capable of engaging most armored fighting vehicles, buildings and field fortifications. It can even successfully engage enemy main battle tanks. However its primary role is infantry fire support rather than anti-tank combat.

There is a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun and a roof-mounted 12.7 mm machine gun.

Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF Tank Destroyer Maneuver Combat Vehicle (MCV) 120 125 mm (8)

This fire support vehicle is relatively light. It is likely to have a steel armor hull. Also there is modular add-on composite armor. It seems that the front arc withstands hits form 35 mm or even 40 mm guns. Maximum level of all-round protection is likely to be against 14.5 mm armor-piercing rounds and artillery shell splinters. Damaged add-on armor modules can be easily replaced in field conditions. Also modules can be upgraded as soon as more advanced armor becomes available.

The Maneuver Combat Vehicle has a crew of four, including commander, gunner, loader and driver.


This fire support vehicle uses an entirely new 8×8 chassis. It is not based on any existing armored personnel carrier. It seems that it was specially designed to withstand the violent recoil of the main gun. A number of other fire support vehicle are simply created by merging an existing armored personnel carrier chassis with a gun turret. However such designs usually have various problems with excessive recoil, that the armored personnel carrier chassis was never designed for.

The MCV is powered by unspecified turbocharged diesel engine, developing 570 hp. Powerpack is located at the front of the hull. It is claimed that operational range on roads without refueling is only 400 km. Vehicle is fitted with a central tyre inflation system. Tyre pressure can be adjusted to increase mobility over various off-road terrain.


This fire support vehicle can be airlifted. Unlike main battle tanks the MCVs can be easily transported by Kawasaki C-2 tactical cargo aircraft. In case of emergency Japan plans to quickly airlift numerous Maneuver Combat Vehicles to remote islands where these are needed.

Kawasaki C-2 tactical cargo aircraft: Details




Main material source military-today.com

Images are from public domain unless otherwise stated

Updated Jan 15, 2020

DRACO 76mm multipurpose weapon station

The DRACO  is a multipurpose weapon station operating against Air, R.A.M. and Surface targets, with high performance in both direct and indirect fire.

The main armament  consists of a high rate of fire 76/62mm gun with an automatic ammunition loading system; the 76/62mm gun is electrically controlled for elevation and traversing, and is stabilized in elevation.


DRACO can be  installed on 8×8 wheeled platforms, for combat support operations or convoy defence, as well as on tracked vehicles or on shelters for point defence.

The main 76/62mm gun and the automatic loading system are fully compatible with all in service 76mm rounds and also with  76mm DART guided ammunition.

The  ammunition loading system is based on a drum with 12 ready-to-fire rounds.
These 12 rounds can be of different types and their selection can be performed during firing. The drum can be reloaded automatically from a magazine in the back of the turret.
DRACO turret is fitted for receiving a secondary armament composed of a 7.62mm or 12.7mm machine gun coaxially mounted.


The Day/Night Electro-Optical Sight System, equipped with laser range finder (LRF), is installed on DRACO in 2 different versions:

  • For mobile applications, a compact stabilized sight allows on the move engagements.
  • For point defence applications, a long distance sight, for detection and identification, with   high rate laser to follow small and fast targets.


The Radar System has the double function of tracking targets and guiding DART guided ammunitions.

DART is maneuvered by means of an RF guiding beam able to ensure higher level hit probability even against high maneuvering targets.

DRACO can be completely controlled by two Operators (the Commander and the Gunner) from a remote position, located inside the hull for mobile installation or inside a protected command shelter for fixed installation. The Commander operates for detection, identification and designation of the target. The Gunner has the role of engaging the target and controlling firing action.

The basic Ballistic Protection of the system is level II according to STANAG 4569 and can be upgraded to meet the customer’s requirements.

Modern SPAAGs are usually fitted with 20-40 mm guns. Such a powerful gun was selected because of its long range. Maximum range of fire is 6-8 km. Such range is similar of the current hybrid gun-missile air defense systems. The Draco can engage helicopters before they release their anti-tank guided weapons.

The previous Otomatic turret was much heavier and needed a tank chassis. Weight of the Draco turret was significantly reduced due to improvements in electronics over the last two decades. It also uses more compact onboard radar.


The Draco SPAAG is intended to engage air targets, such as helicopters, aircraft, UAV and air-launched weapons. Also it can be used against ground targets. This air defense weapon can be used for combat support operations, convoy’s defense or point defense. Also it can be used for coastal defense. Maximum firing range against naval targets is 20 km.

Unmanned turret withstands hits from 7.62×39 mm armor-piercing rounds and artillery shell splinters. Add-on armor kit can be fitted for increased protection.

This air defense system has a crew of three, including commander, driver and gunner.

The Draco turret can be installed on 8×8 wheeled vehicles as well as tracked vehicles, heavy trucks or shelters. It was first revealed mounted on the 8×8 Centauro tank destroyer chassis. Vehicle is powered by Iveco MTCA turbocharged diesel engine, developing 520 hp. Steering is provided on the first and second axles and at slow speed with also the fourth axle. Vehicle is equipped with run-flat tyres and fitted with central tyre inflation system. Source military-today.com

Centauro 2 8×8 armoured wheeled anti-tank vehicle: Details

fbce7-centauro2bii_day2b18×8 Centauro
Entered service ?
Crew 3 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight ~ 30 t
Length (gun forward) ~  8 m
Hull length ~ 7.4 m
Width ~ 3.1 m
Height ~ 3 m
Main gun 1 x 76-mm
Machine guns 1 x 7.62-mm or 12.7-mm
Projectile weight ~ 12.5 kg
Maximum slant range ?
Maximum firing range 6 – 8 km
Rate of fire > 80 rpm
Elevation range ?
Traverse range 360 degrees
Ammunition load
Main gun ?
Machine guns ?
Engine Iveco MTCA diesel
Engine power 520 hp
Maximum road speed 100 km/h
Range 800 km
Gradient 60%
Side slope 40%
Vertical step 0.55 m
Trench 1.5 m
Fording up to 1.5 m

Specification military-today.com

Main material source leonardocompany.com

Revised Dec 21, 2017