The Type 45 destroyer, also known as the D or Daring class, is an advanced class of guided missile destroyers built for the United Kingdom’s Royal Navy. The class is primarily designed for anti-aircraft and anti-missile warfare and is built around the PAAMS (Sea Viper) air-defence system utilizing the SAMPSON AESA and the S1850M long-range radars. The first three destroyers were assembled by BAE Systems Surface Fleet Solutions from partially prefabricated “blocks” built at different shipyards, the remaining three were built by BAE Systems Maritime – Naval Ships. The first ship in the Daring class, HMS Daring, was launched on 1 February 2006 and commissioned on 23 July 2009.
The Type 45 destroyers were built to replace the Type 42 destroyers that had served during the Falklands War, with the last Type 42 being decommissioned in 2013. The National Audit Office reported that, during an “intensive attack”, a single Type 45 could simultaneously track, engage and destroy more targets than five Type 42 destroyers operating together.
The Type 45 destroyers take advantage of some Horizon development work and utilise the Sea Viper air-defence system and the SAMPSON radar. The ships are built by BAE Systems Maritime – Naval Ships, originally created as BVT Surface Fleet by the merger of the surface shipbuilding arms of BAE Systems and VT Group. These two companies previously built the ships in collaboration. BAE’s two Glasgow shipyards and single Portsmouth shipyard are responsible for different “blocks”.
This modular construction arrangement was agreed in February 2002. However, when the original contract for three ships was signed in July 2000, BAE Systems Marine was to build the first and third ships, and Vosper Thornycroft (now VT) was to build the second.
By the end of 2010, all six Type 45 destroyers had been launched; with the first two in commission and the remainder fitting out. In 2012, with all destroyers structurally complete and production lines closed. Duncan, the last of the Type 45 destroyers, was commissioned at Portsmouth Naval Base on 26 September 2013, and entered service in 2014 after trials and training.
The Daring class are the largest escorts ever built for the Royal Navy in terms of displacement.
The Type 45 is fitted with an innovative integrated electric propulsion (IEP) system. Historically, electric-drive ships (like USS Langley) have supplied power to their electric motors using DC, and ship’s electrical load, where necessary at all, was either separately supplied or was supplied as DC with a large range of acceptable voltage. Integrated electric propulsion seeks to supply all propulsion and ship’s electrical load via AC at a high quality of voltage and frequency. This is achieved by computerised control, high quality transformation and electrical filtering. Two Rolls-Royce WR-21 gas turbine alternators and two Wärtsilä 12V200 diesel generators provide electrical power at 4,160 volts to a high voltage system. The high voltage supply is then used to provide power to two GE Power Conversion advanced induction motors with outputs of 20 MW (27,000 hp) each. Ship’s services, including hotel load and weapons system power supplies, are supplied via transformers from the high voltage supply at 440 V and 115 V. The benefits of integrated electric propulsion are cited as:
- The ability to place the electric motors closer to the propeller, thus shortening the shaftline, obviating the need for a gearbox or controllable pitch propellers, and reducing exposure to action damage.
- The opportunity to place prime movers (diesel generators and gas turbine alternators) at convenient locations away from the shaftline, thus reducing the space lost to funnels, while at the same time improving access for maintenance and engine changes.
- The freedom to run all propulsion and ship services from a single prime mover for much of the ship’s life, thus dramatically reducing engine running hours and emissions.
Key to the efficient use of a single prime mover is the choice of a gas turbine that provides efficiency over a large load range; the WR-21 gas turbine incorporates compressor intercooling and exhaust heat recovery, making it significantly more efficient than previous marine gas turbines, especially at low and medium load.
Two Rolls-Royce WR-21 gas turbine alternators cutaway Two GE Power Conversion advanced induction motors with outputs of 20 MW (27,000 hp) each. Ship’s services
The combination of greater efficiency and high fuel capacity give an endurance of 7,000 nautical miles (13,000 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h). High power density and the hydrodynamic efficiency of a longer hull form allow high speeds to be sustained. It has been reported that Daring reached her design speed of 29 knots (54 km/h) in 70 seconds and achieved a speed of 31.5 knots (58 km/h) in 120 seconds during sea-trials in August 2007.
Royal Navy in hot water as engines of Britain’s flagship £1bn destroyers break down in middle of sea read full post: Here
The WR-21 GTs were designed in an international partnership with Rolls Royce and Northrop Grumman Marine Systems. The turbines are of a sound design but have an intercooler-recuperator that recovers heat from the exhaust and recycles it into the engine, making it more fuel-efficient and reducing the ship’s thermal signature. Unfortunately the intercooler unit has a major design flaw and causes the GTs to fail occasionally. When this happens, the electrical load on the diesel generators can become too great and they ‘trip out’, leaving the ship with no source of power or propulsion.
Image © Chris Jarvis
The MoD has not revealed how frequently these blackouts have occurred but the first 2 ships, HMS Daring and HMS Dauntless seem to have suffered the most. The first indication of problems was as far back as 2010 when it was admitted HMS Daring lost all power in mid-Atlantic and had to be repaired in Canada. Although the Type 45s have been active, some significant commitments have been missed. An indication that all is not well could be seen by the number of Type 45s alongside in Portsmouth at any given time during the last few years. Historically the RN has never been a fleet of ‘harbour queens’ and today’s over-worked navy can ill-afford unreliable ships. HMS Daring entered service in 2009, it has taken more than 6 years to agree to deal with the problem and it will probably be well after 2020 before the work is completed. It is obviously dangerous from a seamanship and navigational point of view to suddenly lose propulsion at any time. It is even more serious when operating in a high threat environment as the ship would be a sitting duck.
The Type 45 destroyers are primarily designed for anti-air warfare with the capability to defend against sophisticated targets such asfighter aircraft, drones as well as highly maneuverable sea skimming anti-ship missiles travelling at supersonic speeds. The Royal Navy describes the destroyers’ mission as being “to shield the Fleet from air attack”.
SAMPSON active electronically scanned array multi-function radar t is the fire control radar component of the Sea Viper naval air defence system. The SAMPSON multi function radar can detect all types of targets out to a distance of 400 km, and is capable of tracking hundreds of targets at any one time. Sea Viper uses this information to assess and command target priorities, and calculate the optimum launch time for its Aster missiles. S1850M long-range radar passive electronically scanned array radar for wide area search capable of tracking 1,000 targets at a range of 400 kilometres (250 mi). It is also claimed to be highly capable of detecting stealth targets, and is able to detect and track outer atmosphere objects at short range, making it capable of forming part of a Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence system A 20mm Phalanx CIWS gun mount can be seen in the foreground.
The Type 45 destroyer is equipped with the sophisticated Sea Viper (PAAMS) air-defence system utilizing the SAMPSON active electronically scanned array multi-function radar and the S1850M long-range radar. The PAAMS system is able to track over 2,000 targets and simultaneously control and coordinate multiple missiles in the air at once, allowing a large number of tracks to be intercepted and destroyed at any given time. This makes the PAAMS system particularly difficult to swamp during a saturation attack, even against supersonic targets. The US Naval War College has suggested that the SAMPSON radar is capable of tracking 1,000 objects the size of a cricket ball travelling at three times the speed of sound (Mach 3), emphasising the system’s capabilities against high performance stealth targets.
A sailor is pictured wearing protective anti-flash clothing looking at a radar screen, during an exercise in the Operations Room of the Royal Navy Type 45 destroyer HMS Daring.
Nick Brown the editor-in-chief of Jane’s International Defence Review was quoted by The Huffington Post (a US online news aggregator and blog) saying, “It’s [Type 45 destroyer] certainly one of the most advanced air defence ships in the world… The US Aegis system is similar, but Sea Viper is more advanced.”
BAE tests big data tool on Type 45s: Here
Weapons, countermeasures, capabilities and sensors
- Anti-air warfare
- SAMPSON active electronically scanned array multi-function air tracking radar, capable of tracking hundreds of targets (range 400 km).
- S1850M 3D long-range air surveillance radar, capable of tracking up-to 1,000 targets (range 400 km).
The Sea Viper air-defence system:
The SAMPSON AESA multi-function air tracking radar makes a full 360° rotation every 2 seconds.
The S1850M long-range air surveillance radar on HMS Daring. The Comanding Officer of HMS Diamond is pictured sitting at a console in the Operations Room onboard HMS Diamond during Action Stations.
HMS Daring firing her Aster missiles for the first time.
- A 48-cell A50 Sylver Vertical Launching System for a mix of up-to 48:
- Aster 15 missiles (range 1.7–30 km).
- Aster 30 Block 0 missiles (range 3–120 km).
Aster 15 & 30 missiles48-cell A50 Sylver Vertical Launching System
The Type 45 does not have a formal theatre ballistic missile defence (TBMD) capability but its potential for such a role is being assessed. Land-based Aster 30 Block 1 missiles have intercepted short-range ballistic missiles and trials of a land-based SAMPSON modified for BMD were planned for early 2012. It is said that the first ship, Daring, is engaged in ballistic defence trials with the US Missile Defence Agency (MDA) in as part of a major research and development programme.
- 1× BAE Systems 4.5″ Mark 8 Mod 1 naval gun. As of November 2011 the Mk8 Mod 1 is scheduled to remain in service until the 2030s, with a Mod 2 upgrade along the way to address obsolescence. The limitations of the 4.5″ gun mean it is likely that the Type 45 will receive a new gun before then, the same Medium-Calibre Gun System (MCGS) that is being procured to meet the Maritime Indirect Fire System (MIFS) requirement of the new Global Combat Ship. The MCGS will almost certainly be either the Otobreda 127/64 LW or the BAE Mk45 Mod 4 5″/62; a tender for the Type 26 guns was issued in November 2012.
- 2× Oerlikon 30 mm guns on single DS-30B mounts.
- 2× Phalanx 20 mm caliber close-in weapons systems (CIWS).
- 2× 7.62 mm miniguns.
- up to 6× General Purpose Machine Guns.
The BAE 4.5 inch Mark 8 naval gun on Defender2× Oerlikon 30 mm guns on single DS-30B mounts
2× Phalanx 20 mm caliber close-in weapons systems (CIWS)
2× 7.62 mm minigunsUp to 6 × General Purpose Machine Guns
The flight deck of the Type 45 is large enough to accommodate aircraft up to the size of a Chinook helicopter. It has hangar space for either one Merlin HM1 or two Lynx helicopters. Both types have a dipping sonar, sonobuoys and radar; the Merlin carries four anti-submarine Sting Ray torpedoes whilst the smaller Lynx HMA8 carries either two Sting Ray or four Sea Skua anti-ship missiles. From 2015 the Lynx will be replaced in RN service by the AW159 Wildcat whose weapons will include the Lightweight Multirole Missile and FASGW(H) missile.
Anti-ship, submarine and land-attack
- It was revealed through a FOIA request in August 2013 that four of the six Type 45 destroyers would receive Harpoon launchers recycled from the last four decommissioned Type 22 frigates. On 2 March 2015, Duncan set sail on her maiden deployment equipped with Harpoon anti-ship missiles. On 23 March 2015, the crew of Diamond were reunited with their ship following a refit, which included the installation of Harpoon. HMS Daring is currently undergoing maintenance to receive Harpoon missiles.
Harpoon missilesHarpoon launchers
- The Type 45 has a bow-mounted medium-frequency Ultra/EDO MFS-7000 sonar but its main anti-submarine weapon is its helicopter(s). As of August 2013 there are no plans to fit anti-submarine torpedo tubes.
- The 4.5″ Mark 8 Mod 1 naval gun has an anti-ship and naval gunfire support (NGS) role.
- The Seagnat decoy system allows for the seduction and distraction of radar guided weapons, through active and passive means. An infrared countermeasure device is planned for future retrofits.
- Airborne Systems’s Naval Decoy IDS300 floating naval decoy system (corner reflectors).
- Surface Ship Torpedo Defence System (SSTD) active torpedo decoy system.
- Communications and other systems
- Fully Integrated Communications System (FICS45) – a combined external and internal communications system supplied by Thales and Selex ES Ltd.
- In 2012, the UAT Mod2.0 digital Radar Electronic Surveillance system was fitted to Daring and Diamond as part of a £40m contract with Thales UK that will see UAT Mod2.1 fitted to the other Type 45’s.
- METOC Meteorology and Oceanography: The Metoc system by BAE Systems comprises the Upper Air Sounding System using launchable radiosondes by Eurodefence Systems Ltd and Graw Radiosondes (Germany) joint venture, as well as a comprehensive weather satellite receiving system and a bathymetrics system. These sensors provide each vessel with a full environmental awareness for tasks such as radar propagation, ballistics and general self-supporting meteorological and oceanographic data production.
- Additional capabilities
- Type 45 has sufficient space to embark 60 Royal Marines and their equipment.
- The type 45 destroyers are designed with the configuration and capacity to be tasked in a flagship role.
- Provision for but not fitted with
- There is provision for another 12 strike-length VLS tubes forward of the existing VLS. These could be Mk 41 tubes for Tomahawk land-attack cruise missiles (TLAM) and LRASM, or Sylver A70 for the MdCN derivative of Storm Shadow.
|Class & type:||Type 45 destroyer|
|Displacement:||8,000 t (7,900 long tons; 8,800 short tons)|
|Length:||152.4 m (500 ft 0 in)|
|Beam:||21.2 m (69 ft 7 in)|
|Draught:||7.4 m (24 ft 3 in)|
|Installed power:||·2× Rolls-Royce WR-21 gas turbines, 21.5 MW (28,800 shp) each|
|Propulsion:||·2 shafts Integrated electric propulsion(IEP) with|
|Speed:||In excess of 29 kn (54 km/h; 33 mph)|
|Range:||7,000 nautical miles (13,000 km) at 18 kn (33 km/h)|
|·SAMPSON multi-function air tracking radar (Type 1045)
·S1850M 3-D air surveillance radar (Type 1046)
·2× Raytheon I-band Radar
·Ultra Electronics Series 2500 Electro-Optical Gun Control System (EOGCS)
·Ultra Electronics SML Technologies radar tracking system
·Airbone Sys IDS300 decoy
o Sea Viper air defence system
o 1 × 48-cell Sylver A50 VLS, for a combination of 48:
§Aster 15 missiles (range 1.7–30 km)
§Aster 30 missiles (range 3–120 km)
o 2 × quad Harpoon launchers
o 2 × Oerlikon 30 mm guns
o 2 × Phalanx CIWS
o 2 × miniguns
|Aircraft carried:||·1–2× Lynx HMA8, armed with;
o 4× Sea Skua anti ship missiles, or
o 2× anti submarine torpedoes
·1× Westland Merlin HM1, armed with:
o 4× anti submarine torpedoes
|Aviation facilities:||·Large flight deck