Type 45 Daring Class Destroyer

The UK Royal Navy’s Type 45 destroyers have replaced the Type 42 destroyers, which were in service since 1978. Six Type 45 destroyers were contracted. The requirement was for 12 vessels of the class, but the UK Ministry of Defence announced in July 2004 this would be cut to eight.

This was further reduced in June 2008 to the six previously contracted. All the destroyers entered into service by 2013.

Ships in the class

Daring D32 BAE Systems Surface Ships 28 March 2003 1 February 2006 23 July 2009 In active service
Dauntless D33 BAE Systems Surface Ships 26 August 2004 23 January 2007 3 June 2010 In active service
Diamond D34 BAE Systems Surface Ships 25 February 2005 27 November 2007 6 May 2011 In active service
Dragon D35 BAE Systems Surface Ships 19 December 2005 17 November 2008 20 April 2012 In active service
Defender D36 BAE Systems Surface Ships 31 July 2006 21 October 2009 21 March 2013 In active service
Duncan D37 BAE Systems Surface Ships 26 January 2007 11 October 2010 26 September 2013 In active service

Source wikiwand.com

A full-scale engineering development and initial production (FSED/IP) contract was placed on BAE Systems Marine as project prime contractor.

All ships were assembled and launched at BAE’s Scotstoun shipyard. VT Shipbuilding in Portsmouth built the bow sections, masts and funnels for all six ships.

Type 45 destroyer

Type 45 Daring Class destroyer development

BAE Systems and VT Shipbuilding formed a joint venture, BVT Surface Fleet, for the design, manufacture and support of UK surface warships in July 2008. In January 2009, VT Group announced its intention to sell its holding in the BVT surface fleet joint venture to BAE Systems, following UK MoD approval.

In October 2009, BAE Systems acquired the VT Group’s 45% stake and renamed the entity BAE Systems Surface Ships.

Image: defencyclopedia

Production of the first-of-class ship, HMS Daring (D32), began in March 2003 and it was launched on 1 February 2006 at Scotstoun. It began first stage sea trials in July 2007 which concluded in August 2007. The five-week second stage sea trials commenced in April 2008, focusing on weapon systems, radar and endurance trials.

The vessel completed contractor’s trials in September 2008. Daring was formally handed over to the UK Ministry of Defence in December 2008 and the vessel arrived at her home port of Portsmouth in January 2009 for further trials prior to commissioning in July 2009.

Type 45 Destroyer HMS Daring in the English ChannelHMS Daring (D32)

Construction of the second, HMS Dauntless (D33), began in August 2004 and it was launched on 23 January 2007. The vessel began sea trials in November 2008 and was commissioned in June 2010. The vessel entered service with the Royal Navy in November 2010.

First steel was cut for the third, HMS Diamond (D34), in February 2005. It was launched in November 2007 and commissioned in May 2011. HMS Dragon (D35) was laid in December 2005 and launched in November 2008.

After undergoing extensive sea trials in the Clyde River, HMS Dragon arrived in Portsmouth Naval Base and was formally handed over to the MOD in August 2011 and commissioned into the Royal Navy April 2012. HMS Defender (D36) was laid in July 2006, launched in October 2009 and commissioned in March 2013 while HMS Duncan (D37) was laid in January 2007 and launched in October 2010. The vessel was commissioned into service in September 2013.

11157430224_612034a800_bHMS Defender (D36)

The UK withdrew from participation in the tri-national Project Horizon / common new-generation frigate (CNGF) programme for the UK, France and Italy and the project was terminated in October 1999.

The Type 45 programme gained benefit from work done on Project Horizon, for example the PAAMS weapon system and some of the internal architecture of the ship.

The destroyer’s displacement is about 8,000t, the designed top speed greater than 27kt and the range of over 7,000nm.

BAE tests big data tool on Type 45s

BAE tests big data tool on Type 45s

BAE Systems has developed and successfully trialled a new analytical tool known as System Information Exploitation (SIE) on several Type 45 destroyers of the British Royal Navy, the company announced on 18 July.

As part of the roll-out programme, the SIE is now to be installed on HMS Daring, the lead ship of the Type 45 or Daring-class air-defence destroyers.

The system sends information from the ship to shore in real time for immediate assessment and diagnosis.

According to the company, intelligent monitoring of ‘big data’ in real time may help save time and money as it allows the company and the vessel’s crew to monitor the health and status of a ship’s equipment and prepare for the ship’s return to port.

BAE Systems plans to install SIE across all six Type 45 Destroyers in 2016 and 2017. It is also working with the UK’s Ministry of Defence to integrate the technology on future platforms including the upcoming Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers.

Matt Albans, SIE Innovator at BAE Systems, said: ‘SIE is like having an automated watch-keeper able to record and analyse vast amounts of data on a constant basis. As the system does this in real time, we can identify potential faults and resolve them before they become an operational issue.’ Source shephardmedia.com

Mission details

The main mission of the Type 45 anti-air warfare destroyer is to provide local area fleet defence, with long-range radar and wide area defence capability. The ship’s combat systems also have the capability to control aircraft and coordinate the anti-air warfare operations of the task force.

Image: seaforces.org

The Type 45 destroyer is equipped with long-range weapon systems to intercept air threats including super-agile manoeuvring missiles with re-attack modes. The UK PAAMS defends the ships from missiles approaching individually or in salvos and is capable of controlling a large number of airborne missiles simultaneously. The Type 45 could also accommodate cruise missiles such as the Tomahawk and anti-ballistic missiles if a requirement is identified in future.

The Type 45 destroyer can operate a helicopter up to the size of a Royal Navy Merlin helicopter, but initially operates with Lynx HMA 8 helicopters armed with Stingray torpedoes.

Command and control

BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies (Insyte) supplied the combat management system (CMS) and fast ethernet data transfer system for the destroyers. The Type 45 CMS integrates the PAAMS missile system and control all sensors and weapons.


Image: navyrecognition.comImage: navyrecognition.com

Thales Communications led the team, which included Selex Communications, which provided the fully integrated communications system (FICS). Astrium (a joint venture of EADS and BAE Systems) was awarded a contract to provide SCOT 3 satellite communications systems.

Raytheon Systems supplied the integrated navigation system, which includes electronic chart display and information systems (ECDIS), inertial navigation subsystems and sensors including Raytheon Pathfinder navigation radars. Raytheon Marine of Kiel was the major subcontractor. RSL also supplied the identification friend or foe (IFF) systems.

Image: navyrecognition.com

Northrop Grumman (formerly Litton) Marine Systems with Rockwell Automation provided the platform management system. BAE Systems Insyte provided the METOC (meteorological and oceanographic) system.

Image: navyrecognition.com

Type 45 CMS

Type 45 Destroyer HMS Diamond's Operations Room During a Thursday WarThe Comanding Officer of HMS Diamond is pictured sitting at a console in the Operations Room onboard HMS Diamond during Action Stations.HMS Diamond during a Thursday War.

Principal anti-aircraft missile system (PAAMS)

The primary weapon system of the Type 45 destroyer is the principal anti-aircraft missile system (PAAMS). PAAMS is a tri-national programme involving France, Italy and the UK. The contract for series production was placed in November 2003.

Type 45 Destroyer HMS Daring Passing Through The Suez Canal48-cell A50 Sylver Vertical Launching System

The prime contractor is Europaams SAS, a joint venture company two-thirds owned by Eurosam (MBDA and Thales) and one-third by the UKAMS subsidiary of MBDA.

The missiles used for PAAMS are the Aster 15 and the Aster 30. The Type 45 carries up to 48 Aster 15 and Aster 30 missiles. The Aster missile carries an inertial computer with datalink, an active J-band Doppler radar seeker and 15kg warhead.

The speed of Aster 30 is Mach 4 and the range is more than 80km. The missile has manoeuvrability of up to 62g, achieved through the use of the EADS Aerospatiale PIF/PAF guidance system. Aster 15 has a speed of Mach 3, range of more than 30km and manoeuvrability of up to 50g.

Aster air defence missile system

The Sylver (SYstème de Lancement VERtical) is a vertical launching system (VLS) designed by DCNS. The launcher comes in several variants, each distinguished by their height. A-35 and A-43 were developed for launching short range surface-to-air missiles, the A-50 for the long-range PAAMS air defense system, and the A-70 launcher for larger missiles such as the SCALP Naval land attack cruise missile. The numbers refer to the approximate length of the missile which can be accommodated, in decimetres, i.e. the A-43 can hold missiles which are up to 4.3 metres long whilst the A-70 can accommodate missiles up to 7 metres long.

The launchers come in eight-cell modules, except A-35 available in four-cell modules, with each eight-cell module occupying six square metres of deck space. Inner size cell is 60 cm long and 56 cm wide, and each cell has its own exhaust vent. Crotale NG (VT1) missiles can be quad-packed in one cell.
The primary application of the launcher has been the MBDA Aster missile. The Sylver, together with the Aster, is the primary component of the PAAMS naval anti-air warfare system. Using PAAMS, up to eight missiles can be launched in 10 seconds.

The French Navy has initiated studies to convert the SCALP EG missile to be capable of launch from the Sylver. This missile, the SCALP Naval, would give France a land attack capability in the mould of the U.S. Tomahawk missile. It would also be attractive to the British Royal Navy, whose Type 45 destroyers will be equipped with the Sylver launcher, although the A50 type cannot take this missile at present.

The basic unit of Sylver VLS is an eight-cell module fitted with two rows of 22-inch missile cells surrounding the uptake for exhaust gas.

Models / Measures:
Sylver A-35 (lenght = 2,6 meters / width = 2,3 meters / height = 3,5 meters)
Sylver A-43 (lenght = 2,6 meters / width = 2,3 meters / height = 4,3 meters)
Sylver A-50 (lenght = 2,6 meters / width = 2,3 meters / height = 5 meters)
Sylver A-70 (lenght = 2,6 meters / width = 2,3 meters / height = 7 meters)

Source seaforces.org


ASTER 15 and ASTER 30

ASTER 15/30 – Image: mbda-systems.com

The two-stage ASTER missiles are provided with two different solid propellant boosters resulting in the ASTER 15 and the ASTER 30 models. The ‘Pif-Paf’ control system enables the ASTER missile to counter high maneuverable missiles achieving a direct impact (hit-to-kill). The ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion combines conventional aerodynamic control with control by gas jets acting through the centre of gravity of the missile. Until mid-course the guidance of an ASTER missile is based on the Inertial Navigation System (INS) updated through an uplink, in the terminal phase the guidance is provided by an active Radiofrequency seeker. The final stage of the ASTER missile is a ‘dart’ equipped with the seeker, a sustainer motor, a proximity fuze and a blast fragmentation warhead.

The ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion – Image: wikiwand.com

The ASTER 15 is a short range missile intended for self-defense (point defense) purposes against highly maneuverable threats. The ASTER 15 is integrated on the SAAM and beginning in 2006 in the PAAMS system. The SAAM is installed on French-built frigates and the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier. The PAAMS will be provided to the Horizon frigates (France and Italy) and the Type 45 destroyers (United Kingdom).

The basic structure of -ASTER 15/30 – Image: et97.com

Diameter: 180 millimeter (7.09 inch)
Length: 4.20 meter (165 inch)
Max Range: 30,000 meter (16.2 nautical mile)
Min Range: 1,700 meter (0.92 nautical mile)
Target’s Max Altitude: 13,000 meter (8.08 mile)
Top Speed: 1,000 mps (3,601 kph)
Weight: 310 kilogram (683 pound)

ASTER 15 data deagel.com

ord_sam_aster-30_launching_eads_lgAster 30

Number of Stages: 2
Diameter: 180 millimeter (7.09 inch)
Length: 4.90 meter (193 inch)
Max Range: 120 kilometer (65 nautical mile)
Min Range: 3,000 meter (1.62 nautical mile)
Target’s Max Altitude: 20,000 meter (12.4 mile)
Top Speed: 1,494 mps (5,380 kph)
Weight: 450 kilogram (992 pound)

ASTER 30 data deagel.com


While the French / Italian PAAMS uses the Empar G-band radar, while the UK PAAMS has the BAE Systems Insyte Sampson multifunction, dual-face active array radar operating at E/F bands.

Each face of the array carries 2,500 gallium arsenide transmit and receive modules, with an output of 25kW. BAE Systems reconfigured Sampson to produce a near spherical design which retains the two arrays internally.

Modes of operation include long and medium-range search, surface search, high-speed horizon search and high-angle search and track. Sampson uses digital adaptive beamforming which makes it highly resistant to electronic countermeasures. The Sampson radar completed installation on the HMS Daring foremast in April 2007 in preparation for PAAMS integration in 2008.

BAE Systems Insyte Sampson multifunction, dual-face active array radar


The SAMPSON is a multi-function dual-face active electronically scanned array radar produced by BAE Systems Maritime. It is the fire control radar component of the Sea Viper naval air defence system. It was previously designated PAAMS(S) to distinguish it from the PAAMS system on the Franco-Italian Horizon Class.

The SAMPSON multi function radar can detect all types of targets out to a distance of 400 km, and is capable of tracking hundreds of targets at any one time. Sea Viper uses this information to assess and command target priorities, and calculate the optimum launch time for its Aster missiles.

The SAMPSON uses two planar arrays to provide coverage over only part of the sky; complete coverage is provided by rotating the arrays, essentially similar to the way conventional radar systems operate.

Placing any radar emitter at higher altitude extends the horizon distance, improving performance against low level targets (see Sea skimming); SAMPSON is at approximately double the height above the waterline than the arrays of its US equivalents. Although precise details of the SAMPSON’s performance in this regard are unlikely to enter the public domain, such factors may mitigate the disadvantages of fewer arrays.

sampsonThe SAMPSON AESA multi-function air tracking radar makes a full 360° rotation every 2 seconds.

BAE Systems have also claimed that Sampson eliminates the need for several separate systems. They suggest that on the Type 45 destroyer, the Alenia Marconi Systems/Signaal [now Thales Nederland] S 1850M long-range 3D radar that is designed to work in partnership with Sampson “really is superfluous and is not needed to perform the mission of the ship”. BAE Systems believes that the reason the large volume search radar has been incorporated into PAAMS is “more of a historic nature, associated with [the] work sharing issues” that were a huge problem during the trilateral Project Horizon.

Some tasks are difficult to combine, for example (long range) volume search takes a lot of radar resources, leaving little room for other tasks such as targeting. Combining volume search with other tasks also results either in slow search rates or in low overall quality per task. Driving parameters in radar performance is time-on-target or observation time per beam. This is perhaps a the [sic] key reason why the Royal Navy selected the S1850M Long Range Radar to complement Sampson on the Type 45 destroyers. It is also a reason why NATO in its NATO Anti-Air Warfare System study (NAAWS) defined the preferred AAW system as consisting of a complementary Volume Search Radar and MFR. This – as NATO points out – gives the added advantage that the two systems can use two different radar frequencies; one being a good choice for long range search, the other a good choice for an MFR (which is especially nice as physics makes both tasks difficult to combine).

The performance of both the SAMPSON radar and the PAAMS’ Aster missiles will give the Royal Navy an anti-air warfare capability to replace its long serving Type 42 destroyers. The first Type 45, HMS Daring was launched on February 1 2006. The ship was fitted with SAMPSON and S1850M radars in 2007. She underwent trials before being commissioned 23 July 2009.


  • Long and medium-range search
  • Surface picture search
  • High-speed horizon search
  • High-angle search and track
  • Multiple target tracking and multiple channel fire control.

Source wikiwand.com

Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 398.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 4.1 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Type 1045 Sampson MFR – Radar
Role: Radar, Air Search, 3D Long-Range
Max Range: 398.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

In June 2011, BAE Systems was awarded a £46m contract to provide technical support and maintenance for the Sampson multifunction radars (MFR) aboard the six Type 45 destroyers.

PAAMS uses a DCN Sylver A50 vertical launcher with eight cells. The Type 45 has six Sylver VLS. The command and control system was supplied by UKAMS, although Thales Airsys built some of the core elements.

Harpoon missiles

16116297023_133a1c2562_bHarpoon launchers on Duncan (D37)

It was revealed through a FOIA request in August 2013 that four of the six Type 45 destroyers would receive Harpoon launchers recycled from the last four decommissioned Type 22 frigates. On 2 March 2015, Duncan set sail on her maiden deployment equipped with Harpoon anti-ship missiles. On 23 March 2015, the crew of Diamond were reunited with their ship following a refit, which included the installation of Harpoon. HMS Daring is currently undergoing maintenance to receive Harpoon missiles.


The Harpoon missile provides the Navy and the Air Force with a common missile for air, ship, and submarine launches. The weapon system uses mid-course guidance with a radar seeker to attack surface ships. Its low-level, sea-skimming cruise trajectory, active radar guidance and warhead design assure high survivability and effectiveness. The Harpoon missile and its launch control equipment provide the warfighter capability to interdict ships at ranges well beyond those of other aircraft.

U.S. Navy photo

The Harpoon missile was designed to sink warships in an open-ocean environment. Other weapons (such as the Standard and Tomahawk missiles) can be used against ships, but Harpoon and Penguin are the only missiles used by the United States military with anti-ship warfare as the primary mission. Once targeting information is obtained and sent to the Harpoon missile, it is fired. Once fired, the missile flys to the target location, turns on its seeker, locates the target and strikes it without further action from the firing platform. This allows the firing platform to engage other threats instead of concentrating on one at a time.


The Guidance Section consists of an active radar seeker and radome, Missile Guidance Unit (MGU), radar altimeter and antennas, and power converter. The MGU consists of a three-axis attitude reference assembly (ARA) and a digital computer/power supply (DC/PS). Prior to launch, the DC/PS is initialized with data by the Command Launch System. After launch, the DC/PS uses the missile acceleration data from the ARA and altitude data from the radar altimeter to maintain the missile on the programmed flight profile. After seeker target acquisition, the DC/PS uses seeker data to guide the missile to the target.

The Warhead Section consists of a target-penetrating, load-carrying steel structure containing 215 pounds of high explosive (DESTEX) and a safe-and-arm/contact fuze assembly. The safe-and-arm/contact fuze assembly ensures the warhead will not explode until after the missile is launched. It is designed to explode the warhead after impacting the target. The warhead section can be replaced by an exercise section which transmits missile performance data for collection and analysis.

The Sustainer Section consists of a fuel tank with JP-10 fuel, air inlet duct, and a jet engine. This provides the thrust to power the missile during sustained flight. The Sustainer Section has four fixed fins which provide lift.The Control Section consists of four electromechanical actuators which use signals from the Guidance Section to turn four fins which control missile motion.

The Booster Section consists of a solid fuel rocket and arming and firing device. Surface and submarine platforms use a booster to launch Harpoon and propel it to a speed at which sustained flight can be achieved. The Booster Section separates from the missile before sustained flight begins.



The Harpoon Block II is an upgrade program to improve the baseline capabilities to attack targets in congested littoral environments. The upgrade is based on the current Harpoon. Harpoon Block II will provide accurate long-range guidance for coastal, littoral and blue water ship targets by incorporating the low cost integrated Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) from the Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) program currently under development by Boeing. GPS antennae and software from Boeing’s Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM) and SLAM Expanded Response (SLAM ER) will be integrated into the guidance section. The improved littoral capabilities will enable Harpoon Block II to impact a designated GPS target point. The existing 500 pound blast warhead will deliver lethal firepower against targets which include coastal anti-surface missile sites and ships in port. For the anti-ship mission, the GPS/INS provides improved missile guidance to the target area. The accurate navigation solution allows target ship discrimination from a nearby land mass using shoreline data provided by the launch platform. These Block II improvements will maintain Harpoon’s high hit probability while offering a 90% improvement in the separation distance between the hostile threat and local shorelines. Harpoon Block II will be capable of deployment from all platforms which currently have the Harpoon Missile system by using existing command and launch equipment. A growth path is envisioned for integration with the Vertical Launch System and modern integrated weapon control systems. With initiation of engineering and manufacturing development in 1998, initial operational capability for Block II will be available by 2001. Source fas.org

Provision for but not fitted with:

There is provision for another 12 strike-length VLS tubes forward of the existing VLS. These could be Mk-41 VLS for LRASM, or Sylver A70 for the MdCN derivative of Storm Shadow. Source seaforces.org


D32-HMS-Daring-028Image: seaforces.org

The ships are fitted with the 114mm mk8 mod 1 medium-calibre gun system for shore bombardment and two 30mm guns. There is provision for the installation of two close-in weapons systems such as the Raytheon Phalanx.

114 mm/55 (4.5″) Mark 8 Mod 1

HMS Defender1BAE 4.5 inch Mark 8 naval gun on Defender

Gun Characteristics

DESIGNATION 4.5″/55 (11.4 cm) Mark 8 Mod 0
114 mm/55 (4.5″) Mark 8 Mod 1

  • Destroyers: Bristol (Type 82) and Sheffield (Type 42) classes
  • Frigates: Amazon (Type 21), Broadsword (Type 22) and Iron Duke (Type 23) classes
  • Iran: Zaal (re-named Alborz)
  • Also exported to Argentina, Brazil, Libya and Thailand

Mod 1:

  • Destroyers: York and Edinburgh (Type 42 Batch 3) and Daring (Type 45) classes
  • Frigates: Cornwall (Type 22 Batch 3) and Duke (Type 23) classes
DATE OF DESIGN Mod 0: about 1965
Mod 1: about 1995 (announced in 1991 as N114-2000)
Mod 1: 2001
GUN WEIGHT 2.38 tons (2.42 mt)
GUN LENGTH OA 245 in (6.220 m)
BORE LENGTH about 244.7 in (6.215 m)
RATE OF FIRE 20 – 26 rounds per minute


Range @ 45 degrees 24,000 yards (22,000 m)
AA Ceiling about 20,000 feet (6,000 m)
Image: navyrecognition.com

Mount/Turret Data

DESIGNATION Single Mounting
All ships (1): Mark 8 Mod 0 or Mark 8 Mod 1
WEIGHT 26.8 tons (27.2 mt) excluding ammunition
ELEVATION -10 / +55 degrees
ELEVATION RATE Mod 0: 38 degrees per second
Mod 1: N/A
TRAIN about +150 / -150 degrees
TRAIN RATE Mod 0: 42 degrees per second
Mod 1: N/A
GUN RECOIL 1 15 in (38 cm)

114mm mk8 mod 1 Data navweaps.com

2 × Oerlikon 30 mm guns

2 × Oerlikon 30 mm guns on single DS-30B mounts – Image: navyrecognition.com

APDS Burst

Targets: Aircraft, Helicopter, Surface Vessel, Land Structure – Hardened, Mobile Target – Hardened
30mm/75 DS30B Mk1 APDS Burst [20 rnds] – Gun
Air Max: 1.9 km. Surface Max: 2.8 km. Land Max: 2.8 km.

HE Burst

Targets: Aircraft, Helicopter, Surface Vessel, Land Structure – Soft, Mobile Target – Soft
30mm/75 DS30B Mk1 HE Burst [20 rnds] – Gun
Air Max: 1.9 km. Surface Max: 2.8 km. Land Max: 2.8 km.

Raytheon Phalanx

17088117030_0350bc1c69_z2× Phalanx 20 mm caliber close-in weapons systems (CIWS)

Gun Characteristics

DESIGNATION Block 0 and Block 1 Gun Type: 20 mm/76 M61A1
Block 1B Gun Type: 20 mm/99 M61A1 Gatling OGB
Mounting: Vulcan Phalanx Mark 72
SHIP CLASS USED ON Most major warships from 1980 onwards
DATE IN SERVICE Block 0: 1980 aboard USS Coral Sea CVA-43
Block 1: 1988 aboard USS Wisconsin BB-64
Block 1B: 1999 aboard USS Underwood FFG-36 (operational in 2000 aboard USS Taylor FFG-50)
BORE LENGTH Block 0 and Block 1: about 59.8 in (1.520 m)
Block 1B: about 78 in (1.981 m)
Block 0: 3,000 rounds per minute cyclic
Block 1 and Block 1B: Selectable 3,000 or 4,500 rounds per minute cyclic
type 45 daring class destroyer oerlikon 30mm machine gun mk-15 phalanx ciwsOerlikon 30mm machine gun and Mk-15 Phalanx CIWS on both sides – Image: seaforces.org

BAE Systems have teamed with Radamec Defence Systems (now part of Ultra Electronics) to provide the electro-optical gunfire control system (EOGCS).

2 × 7.62 mm miniguns


Up to 6 × General Purpose Machine Guns



HMS Defender 3S1850M long-range radar passive electronically scanned array radar for wide area search. A 20mm Phalanx CIWS gun mount can be seen in the foreground.

Wide-area, long-range search is provided by the BAE Systems Insyte / Thales S1850M radar operating at D band, an enhanced version of the Thales Nederland (formerly Signaal) SMART-L. Raytheon Systems supplied the IFF (identification friend or foe) system.

BAE Systems Insyte/Thales S1850M radar

b85ae-s1850The S1850M long-range air surveillance radar on HMS Daring. 

The S1850M is a long range passive electronically scanned array radarfor wide area search. The S1850M is produced by BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies (formerly AMS UK) and Thales. It is a modified version of the Thales Nederland SMART-L radar. The S1850M is advertised as being capable of fully automatic detection, track initiation and tracking of up to 1,000 targets at a range of 400 kilometres (250 mi). It is also claimed to be highly capable of detecting stealth targets, and is able to detect and track outer atmosphere objects at short range, making it capable of forming part of a Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence system.

Even a stronger version of the S1850M is under testing, which is actually an updated version of the current SMART-L radar, which the Dutch Navy will call the SMART-L-EWC (Early Warning Capability) Radar, with even a greater search radius and capable of detecting ballistic missiles. It would have a tracking range of 2000 km for ballistic missile defence and 480 km for air defence . SMART-L EWC is an AESA programmable radar which is characterized by full flexibility. Additional capabilities can be introduced during lifetime according to customer needs. This makes the radar future proof in case of evolving requirements. Applications

In all its current applications the S1850M is the long range radar (LRR) component of the Principal Anti Air Missile System. On the Type 45 destroyers it is paired with the SAMPSON multifunction radar, on the Horizon ships it is paired with the EMPAR multifunction radar.On 11 February 2009, Thales indicated that the S1850M radar will be fitted on the Royal Navy’s Queen Elizabethclass aircraft carrierSource wikiwand.com

SMART-L-EWC (Early Warning Capability) Radar: Here

Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 2000.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Type 1046 VSR/LRR [S.1850M, BMD Mod] – (RAN-40S, RAT-31DL, SMART-L Derivative) Radar
Role: Radar, Air Search, 3D Long-Range
Max Range: 2000.2 km
SMART-L EWCImage: marineschepen.nl

In 2017, the first new SMART-L radar must be on one of the air defense and command Fregatten be placed. The first one was last Saturday at the test tower Thales Netherlands placed in Hengelo. An important difference from the trial is that the final copy can rotate. The main differences between the old and new radar is the range (from 450 km to 2000 km) and the new sensor is a fully digital radar. Once the new radar is installed, the Navy goes first time to run tests. Thereafter the Dutch frigates with new Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) radar offered to NATO from 2019. Ballistic Missile Defense state for some time a high priority, as more and more countries have ballistic missiles. North Korea in recent months, for example, often been in the news with test launches. Translated by google – Source marineschepen.nl

De Zeven Provinciën-class frigate: Details


Horizon Class anti-air warfare (AAW) frigate: Details

image032Caio Duilio (D554)  – Image: seaforces.org

Raytheon Type 1048 (E/F Band) Surface search radar

Raytheon Type 1048 (E/F Band) Surface search radar on HMS Daring (D32) at Harumi-pier, Tokyo (2013 Dec 1) – Image: yasu_osugi
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 185.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 2000s
Properties: Periscope/Surface Search – Advanced Processing [2000+], Low Probability of Intercept (LPI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Type 1048 – (LPI) Radar
Role: Radar, Surface Search w/ OTH
Max Range: 185.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

Raytheon Type 1047 (I Band) Navigation radar

Raytheon Type 1047 (I Band) Navigation radar on HMS Daring(D32) at Harumi-pier,Tokyo (2013 Dec 1)  – Image: yasu_osugi
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 88.9 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 2000s
Properties: Low Probability of Intercept (LPI), Pulse-only Radar
Type 1047 – (LPI) Radar
Role: Radar, Surface Search & Navigation
Max Range: 88.9 km

Source cmano-db.com

120725-Defender-Defender signs for the Navy (5)

SERIES 2500 Naval EO System

2500 detail(1)

Series 2500 EO Sensor is configured for all system functions to be controlled by one operator, either from a Combat Management Systems multi-function consoles or from a dedicated EOFCS Console.  The system is automatic in operation, although the  operator can override automatic modes and revert to manual control at any time.

Series 2500

  • Integrated sensor suite, comprising IR & TV cameras, laser rangefinders and designators
  • Advanced digital auto-tracker with multiple target detection, acquisition and tracking
  • Intelligent auto-cueing for threat evaluation and weapon allocation for asymmetric defence
  • Multiple weapon control with digital gun lead prediction for all surface, air and shore bombardment engagements
  • Intuitive single operator control of multiple sensor platforms and weapon configurations
  • Open architecture for integration with any Combat Management System or weapon system
  • Modular designs for flexible system solution configuration and ease of maintenance

2500 detail

2500 Capabilities

  • Primary sensor for single or multiple guns
  • Long range IR, TV and laser sensors
  • Positive identification of surface and air targets
  • Automatic multiple target detection and queuing
  • Automatic target acquisition
  • Automatic multi-mode tracking
  • Accurate stabilisation and position reporting
  • Computer controlled engagement of air, surface and shore targets
  • Gun lead-angle prediction including correction for ballistic and meteorological effects
  • On screen splash marker for line and range spotting
  • Electronic alignment of sensors and weapons
  • Flexible interface to CMS and other systems
Image: Think Defence
– Radamec 2500 [EO] – (RAN-40S, RAT-31DL, SMART-L Derivative) Visual, Visual, Weapon Director & TargetSearch, Tracking and Identification TV Camera, Max range: 55.6 km – Radamec 2500 [IR] – (RAN-40S, RAT-31DL, SMART-L Derivative) Infrared, Infrared, Weapon Director & TargetSearch, Tracking and Identification Camera, Max range: 55.6 km – Radamec 2500 [Laser Rangefinder] – (RAN-40S, RAT-31DL, SMART-L Derivative) Laser Rangefinder, LaserRangefinder for Weapon Director, Max range: 7.4 km. Source cmano-db.com
Ultra Electronics (with EDO Corporation of the USA) was selected to provide the Type 45’s surface ship torpedo defence (SSTD) system which included the MFS-7000 bow-mounted medium-frequency sonar, a development of the sonar supplied by EDO to the Brazilian Navy.The system provides automatic warning of a torpedo attack and tactical advice on ship manoeuvres and the deployment of decoys to defeat the threat.

Type 2170 Sea Sentor SSTD


Type: Decoy (Expendable) Weight: 0 kg
Length: 0.0 m Span: 0.0 m
Diameter: 0.0 Generation: Late 2000s
Targets: Surface Vessel
Type 2170 Sea Sentor SSTD – (2006) Decoy (Expendable)
Surface Max: 1.9 km.

Source cmano-db.com

MFS-7000 bow-mounted medium-frequency sonar


Image for illustration only
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 29.6 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
Type 2091 [MFS 7000] – Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 29.6 km

Source cmano-db.com

Aircraft landing capabilities

Image: navyrecognition.com

The Type 45 destroyer has a flight deck and hangar to support the operations of a single helicopter. The flight deck can accommodate either a Lynx HMA8 or Merlin EH101 HAS 1 helicopter armed with anti-ship missiles and anti-submarine torpedoes.

Royal Navy Lynx HMA8 fleet says farewell: Here

Image: wingsjournal.com


A final flypast of four Royal Navy Westland Lynx HMA8 helicopters from 815 Naval Air Squadron, based at RNAS Yeovilton in Somerset,  toke place on 17 March, before the type is officially decommissioned on 23 March.

Four Mark 8 Lynxes toured military sites associated with the helicopter after departing from their Yeovilton base. They flew over locations including Weston-super-Mare, Lyme Regis and Navy Command Headquarters in Portsmouth.

Merlin EH101 HAS 1 helicopter armed


The EH101 is a long range, medium lift helicopter designed to perform a wide range of missions. The EH101 has been designed to perform naval warfare missions (ASW and ASuW), search and rescue (SAR), and military utility missions. The EH101 helicopter is powered by three engines (RTM322 or T700), has a five-blade main rotor, integrated sub-systems, single pilot full glass cockpit, and can be armed with four torpedoes or two long range anti-ship missiles. It features reduced life cycle costs, maintainability, and high reliability due to its three turboshaft engines. Merlin helicopters provide day/night, all-weather conditions operation with an maximum flight endurance of five hours.

The first EH101 helicopter entered service in 2000. It has been selected by the United Kingdom, Italy, Janan, Denmark and Canada with more than 180 aircraft ordered to date. The Royal Navy EH101 helicopters will operate from Horizon-class, type 22 and type 23 frigates, type 45 destroyers, Invincible, CVF aircraft carriers as well as various types of amphibious assault ships. Besides, a EH101 derivative for the civilian markets has also been offered.

The EH101 Merlin is an Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Anti-Surface Warfare (ASuW) helicopter. It can be armed with four torpedoes (Sting Ray or other type) or two anti-ship missiles. It features a dipping sonar, BAe System’s Blue Kestrel search radar, and Kestrel ESM. In addition to the ASW and ASuW capabilities, it can perform search and rescue, airborne early warning, and marine patrol missions. Merlin HM MK1 is the Royal Navy designation for the EH101 Merlin helicopter. It replaced Sea King helicopters beginning in 1998 and achieving initial operational capability (IOC) in 2000. Italy has ordered eight ASW Merlin helicopters and 4 in the airborne early warning configuration. Royal Navy’s EH101s were equipped with a new EO/IR sensor mounted on a weapon carriage pylon on the side of the helicopter provided by Lockheed-Martin from October 2004. The EO/IR surveillance sensor will give accurate, real-time information and positive identification against small, elusive targets.

Crew: 3
Main Rotor Blades: 5
Number of Engines: 3
Troops: 30
Height: 6.62 meter (21.7 foot)
Length: 19.5 meter (64 foot)
Main Rotor Diameter: 18.6 meter
Width: 4.52 meter
Ceiling: 4,572 meter (15,000 foot)
Max Range: 1,000 kilometer (540 nautical mile)
Max Power at TakeOff: 6,810 shp (5,080 kW)
Cruise Speed: 77 mps (278 kph)
Top Speed at High Altitude: 86 mps (167 KTAS)
Flight Endurance: 5 hour (0.21 day)
Empty Weight: 9,080 kilogram (20,018 pound)
Max Takeoff Weight: 14,600 kilogram (32,187 pound)
Payload: 5,520 kilogram (12,169 pound)

Source deagel.com



Thales Sensors (formerly Racal Defence) supplied the Type 45’s radar-band electronic support measures (RESM) system.

The RESM is developed from Racal’s Outfit UAT but with new signal processing and emitter identification technology.


Thales UK is pleased to announce it has accepted a contract with the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) to upgrade the major surface fleet of Royal Navy (RN) with a new Fully Digital Radar Electronic Support Measures (RESM) system, featuring digital antennae.

In conjunction with the MoD, Thales has undertaken a six-year, multi-million pound research programme, and this has culminated in the development of the direct radio frequency (RF) sampling technology and demonstration of a digital antenna.

HMS Daring, the first of class of the Type 45 destroyers, has now entered operational service fitted with new digital antennae as part of the UAT electronic surveillance system MOD 2.0 programme.

Under the terms of the new contract – the UAT MOD 2.1 & 2.3, advanced technology will be now be introduced to the UAT RESM equipments fitted across the RN surface fleet and associated land-based training equipments.

The technology provides excellent system performance in the modern dense radar environment. This enables the ship to operate in all operational  maritime theatres, including the littoral environment, and provides the RN with world leading electronic warfare support and emitter identification technology.

By digitising the RF signal at the antenna, the majority of the receiver functionality is implemented using software and firmware algorithms. The  system is therefore easily upgraded and new signal analysis tools are easily introduced, keeping the RESM capability current in a rapidly evolving operational environment.

The approach also maximises the use of commercial off-the-shelf hardware, making the RESM significantly more reliable, easier to maintain and  lowers the total cost of ownership.

Phil Naybour, head of Thales UK’s naval business, says: “Thales is proud to be the major supplier of radar electronic surveillance to the UK Royal Navy.”

“Our latest digital antenna provides the RN with unmatched performance in the highly congested littoral environment and a dramatic reduction in the cost of ownership. Thales now fully expects to bring this technology to the export market in 2014.” Source defence-suppliers.com

Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
UAT-2.0 Sceptre XL – (Upgraded, Type 45) ESM * Data is for 2.0
Max Range: 926 km

Source cmano-db.com

Shaman CESM

Pictures of Defender taken post-refit clearly show the new antenna fits associated with the SSEE Increment F equipment. These include an AS-4692 VHF/UHF tapered slotted array direction finding/acquisition array fitted on the communications mast, AS-4293A VHF/UHF omnidirectional acquisition arrays fitted fore and aft, and a series of ‘deck edge’ HF antennas mounted on the superstructure port and starboard.

The vessels have the Royal Navy’s Outfit DLH active naval offboard decoy system, which includes the Siren decoy, an expendable radiating decoy against radar guided missiles, from BAE Systems.

Siren decoy

Mk 251 Siren active Decoy Round

Mk251 Siren Active Decoy Round

Targets: Surface Vessel
Mk251 Siren Active Decoy Round – (2004) Decoy (Expendable)
Surface Max: 1.9 km.

Source cmano-db.com

FDS-3 Floating Decoy


Type: Decoy (Expendable) Weight: 0 kg
Length: 1.8 m Span: 1.8 m
Diameter: 0.0 Generation: Not Applicable (N/A)
Targets: Surface Vessel
FDS-3 Floating Decoy – (2006, Mk59) Decoy (Expendable)
Surface Max: 1.9 km.

Source cmano-db.com

Mk216 Sea Gnat Chaff

Properties: Bearing-Only Launch (BOL)
Targets: Surface Vessel
Mk216 Sea Gnat Chaff [Distraction] – (1988) Decoy (Expendable)
Surface Max: 1.9 km.

Source cmano-db.com

Mk245A2 TALOS Flare

Targets: Surface Vessel
Mk245A2 TALOS Flare – (2000) Decoy (Expendable)
Surface Max: 1.9 km.

Source cmano-db.com

Mk214 Sea Gnat Chaff

Properties: Bearing-Only Launch (BOL)
Targets: Surface Vessel
Mk214 Sea Gnat Chaff [Seduction] – (1987) Decoy (Expendable)
Surface Max: 1.9 km.

Source cmano-db.com

The destroyer is also fitted with a Shaman communications-band electronic support measures (CESM) system.

The COTS (commercial-off-the-shelf) open architecture Shaman systems were developed by BAE Systems C4ISR Networked Systems & Solutions (NS&S) for the Royal Navy surface vessels.

Propulsion and power

The Type 45 is powered by two WR-21 advanced cycle gas turbine engines with intercooler and recuperator (ICR) heat exchangers, which provide significant space and fuel savings.

Image © Chris Jarvis 

The recuperator recovers energy from the exhaust gases to increase fuel efficiency. Each engine provides 25MW.

The engines were built by a team led by Rolls-Royce and Northrop Grumman. Alsthom Power Conversion provided other elements of the power and propulsion system, including the electric propulsion motors.

2 x WR-21 advanced cycle gas turbine engines



  • Rated power: 25.2 MW
  • Specific fuel consumption: ~190 g/kWh
  • Main module wet weight: 45974 kg
  • Twin-spool design + free rotating power Turbine
  • Six-stage LP compressor
  • Intercooler
  • Six-stage HP compressor
  • Exhaust heat recuperator
  • Nine radial combustors
  • Single-stage HP turbine: 8,100 rpm (135 Hz)
  • Single-stage LP turbine 6,200 rpm (103.33 Hz)
  • Five-stage free power turbine 3,600 rpm (60 Hz)

Source wikiwand.com

GE Power Conversion advanced induction motors

propulsion-systems-of-ships-15-638Two GE Power Conversion advanced induction motors with outputs of 20 MW (27,000 hp) each. Ship’s services

2 x Wärtsilä 12V200 diesel generators (2 MW/2700 shp, each)


Putting the Type 45 propulsion problems in perspective: Here


A radical cure

A feasibility study into upgrading the generators was completed by BAES and the MoD in March 2015. The funding for the “Type 45 machinery improvement package” was agreed in the November 2015 SDSR and at least the problem has finally been recognised and funds are in place. Each vessel will have to be dry-docked, large openings cut in the hull and one or possibly two new diesel generator sets slid into place.

Type 45 destroyer propulsion arrangementType 45 destroyer propulsion general arrangement. Removing and replacing the diesel generator sets would appear to present significant work. Image: Rolls Royce.

Replacement of the WR-21 GTs is not a practical option. Instead additional or more powerful diesel generators will provide long-term redundancy and assurance that electrical supplies can be maintained in the event of GT failure. The good news is that the large Type 45 design has the space and reserve buoyancy to cope with larger or additional diesels. The rectification work on the six ships will be done one by one as part of the normal major refit cycle. This will extend the length of the refits but should not have an especially dramatic effect on frontline availability.

Type: Guided missile destroyer
Displacement: 8,000[3] to 8,500 t (8,400 long tons; 9,400 short tons)[4][5][6]
Length: 152.4 m (500 ft 0 in)
Beam: 21.2 m (69 ft 7 in)
Draught: 7.4 m (24 ft 3 in)
Installed power:
Speed: In excess of 30 kn (56 km/h; 35 mph)[8]
Range: In excess of 7,000 nautical miles (13,000 km) at 18 kn (33 km/h)[8]
Complement: 191[9] (accommodation for up to 235)
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Aircraft carried:
  • 1–2 × Wildcat, armed with:
    • 4 × anti ship missiles, or
    • 2 × anti submarine torpedoes
  • or
  • 1 × Westland Merlin,[15] armed with:
    • 4 × anti-submarine torpedoes
Aviation facilities:
  • Large flight deck
  • Enclosed hangar

Specification wikiwand.com

Main material source naval-technology.com

Revised Apr 15, 2017

Updated Nov 24, 2017

1 thought on “Type 45 Daring Class Destroyer

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