Horizon Class anti-air warfare (AAW) frigate

Italy and France each ordered two Horizon Class anti-air warfare (AAW) frigates in October 2000. The frigates are being built by Horizon SAS, a joint venture between Armaris (Thales and DCN) of France and Orrizonte Sistemi Navali (Fincantieri and Finmeccanica) of Italy.

In April 2007, DCN became DCNS. This followed an agreement in which Thales became a 25% shareholder in the new company and DCN acquired the naval business of Thales France (excluding naval equipment). DCNS is now the sole owner of Armaris.

Les quatre frégates franco-italiennes du type Horizon (© MARINE NATIONALE)  – Source: meretmarine.com

The first French vessel, Forbin, began construction in April 2002 and was launched in March 2005. It was delivered in 2006 and commissioned in June 2008. The second, Chevalier Paul, started construction in December 2003, was launched in July 2006. It was commissioned in June 2009 and entered service in December 2009.

The first Italian vessel, Andrea Doria, began construction in July 2002, was launched in October 2005 and delivered in December 2007 for commissioning in 2009. The second, Caio Duilio, began building in September 2003, was launched in October 2007 and commissioned in April 2009.

iddg-553horizon_andreadoria2

The French frigates replace the Suffren and Duquesnes frigates, while the Italian vessels replace the Audace and Ardito.

The original Horizon project was a three-nation initiative, involving Italy, France and the UK, to build a new design of air defence ship. The UK government withdrew from the programme in 1999. France and Italy signed a new memorandum of understanding in September 2000 confirming the joint development of the Horizon.

The main requirement for the frigates is to escort and protect task forces or merchant shipping. The main missions of the Horizon frigate are to provide local area or extended cover against saturation missile attacks and to escort and protect carrier groups. The ship also has powerful anti-submarine and anti-air self defence.

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 The ship is configured for rapid deployment and extended range and endurance and can carry sufficient fuel, water and stores for an endurance of 45 days at sea between replenishments. The ship can attain a speed of 29kt and, at a cruising speed of 18kt, has a range of over 7,000nm.

Italian Navy

Name Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
Andrea Doria (D553) 2002 2005 2007

active, in service

Caio Duilio (D554) 2003 2007 2009

active, in service

Modified photo (2nd version) of  Orrizonte class destroyer of the Italian Navy. High resolution image here. Source: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

French Navy

Name Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
Forbin 2002 2005

2008

active, in service

Chevalier Paul 2003 2006 2009

active, in service

Modified photo (2nd version) of  Horizon class destroyer of the French Navy. High resolution image here. Source: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

Ship in class Source militarytoday.com

Command and control

Le Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Source: meretmarine.com

The command and control system has been developed by Eurosysnav, a joint venture company set up by Armaris and Finmeccanica, and is based on the Senit 8 combat data system. Alenia Marconi Systems, now Selex Sistemi Integrati, supplies the data transfer system (DTS).

20121013124459_dsc_0177La passerelle du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Source: meretmarine.com38752Sur la passerelle d’une Horizon au large de la Libye (© EMA) – Source: meretmarine.com

NICCO Communications SAS, a joint venture between Thales Communications and Marconi Mobile SpA, developed the fully integrated communications system.

20121013122018_aaLe CO du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Source: meretmarine.com36814Le CO durant l’opération Harmattan (© EMA) – Source: meretmarine.com

The communications suite includes two link 11 and one link 16 high-capacity digital information distribution systems. Selex and Sagem supplied the integrated navigation system.

The Selex NA 25 provides fire control for the 76mm guns. The ships are also equipped with the SAGEM Vampire MB infrared search and track system (IRST), which operates in both 3-5 and 8-12-micron wavebands.

Selex NA-25X fire control system

Selex NA-25X fire control system – Consuite de tir (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

NA-25X which is a modern fire control system based on the ORION RTN-25X tracking naval radar, a J-band fully coherent equipment which is characterised by anti-nodding, extensive ECCM and anti-clutter features together with high tracking accuracy. A set of two EO sensors (TV camera, IR camera) can be mounted on the radar director, to enable firing assessment and to provide an alternative line-of-sight on the same target. A third sensor (Laser Range Finder) can be mounted to provide a complete EO tracker facility. NA-25X can be provided with a dedicated multifunctional console or controlled by any console of the Combat Management System (CMS). The FCS can be easily integrated in every CMS and completely remote accessible. A couple of Targets Designation Sight (TDS) enhance the FCS configuration. Through an internal additional function, NA-25X system can be integrated inside an Artillery System (including at least two FCSs), to optimize the use of all onboard guns against multiple concurrent targets (missiles, air and surface targets). The system perfomrs the following tasks: radar and optronic autonomous search with automatic/manual self-designation, surveillance and self designation on ship’s search radar video, automatic engagement of evaluated priority target up to firing action, automatic air/missile/shore and surface targets tracking, automatic detection of launched missile, control of up to three guns with different calibres in the anti-air/anti-surface warfare and CIWS roles, line-of-sight/line-of-fire stabilization and Track While Scan (TWS) on external naval data. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

SAGEM Vampir NG infrared search and track system (IRST)

Vampir NG is a very long-range infrared search/track system. It provides naval ships with passive panoramic surveillance functions including automatic detection, tracking and reporting of symmetric or asymmetric threats, from sea-skimming anti-ship missiles to Fast Incoming Attack Craft.

Vampir NG offers two operational modes: “ocean” mode allows very large range search at high sea while “littoral” mode allows long-range and large elevation search along the coast. The false alarm rate is very low, even in the littoral environment.
It is the most sensitive system on the market as well as the first one using the ultra-rapid “step-and-stare” principle enabling 360° coverage with a single high-performance IR camera.

With unsurpassed performance and reliability, VAMPIR NG is the best selling naval IRST worldwide. The ship if fitted with Vampir MB version.

Source safran-electronics-defense.com 

EOMS-NG – Infrared

General data:
Type: Infrared Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 185.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Infrared, 3rd Generation Imaging (2000s/2010s, Impr LANTIRN, Litening II/III, ATFLIR)
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Classification [Class Info] / Brilliant Weapon [Automatic Target Aquisition], Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]
Sensors / EW:
EOMS-NG [IR] – Infrared
Role: Infrared, Weapon Director Camera
Max Range: 185.2 km

EOMS-NG – Laser Rangefinder

General data:
Type: Laser Rangefinder Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 7.4 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Not Applicable (N/A)
Sensors / EW:
EOMS-NG [Laser Rangefinder] – Laser Rangefinder
Role: Laser Rangefinder for Weapon Director
Max Range: 7.4 km

Source cmano-db.com

image032Caio Duilio (D554)  – Image: seaforces.org

Frigate missiles

Les silos des missiles Aster (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

Horizon frigates are armed with the PAAMS principal anti-air missile system. PAAMS is a tri-national programme involving France, Italy and the UK. The contract for series production was placed in November 2003. The prime contractor is Europaams SAS, a joint venture company two-thirds owned by Eurosam (MBDA and Thales) and one-third by the UKAMS subsidiary of MBDA. The system is also being fitted on UK Royal Navy Type 45 frigates.

DCNS Sylver A50 vertical launch system

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The DCNS Sylver A50 vertical launch system within PAAMS, installed immediately forward of the two guns towards the bow deck, has 48 cells for both the Aster 15 and Aster 30 missiles. The Sylver launcher ensures that each round is aligned to within 1mrad. The maximum rate of fire is up to six rounds a second.

Aster air defence missile system

ASTER 15 and ASTER 30

ASTER 15/30 – Image: mbda-systems.com

The two-stage ASTER missiles are provided with two different solid propellant boosters resulting in the ASTER 15 and the ASTER 30 models. The ‘Pif-Paf’ control system enables the ASTER missile to counter high maneuverable missiles achieving a direct impact (hit-to-kill). The ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion combines conventional aerodynamic control with control by gas jets acting through the centre of gravity of the missile. Until mid-course the guidance of an ASTER missile is based on the Inertial Navigation System (INS) updated through an uplink, in the terminal phase the guidance is provided by an active Radiofrequency seeker. The final stage of the ASTER missile is a ‘dart’ equipped with the seeker, a sustainer motor, a proximity fuze and a blast fragmentation warhead.

The ‘Pif-Paf’ propulsion – Image: wikiwand.com

The ASTER 15 is a short range missile intended for self-defense (point defense) purposes against highly maneuverable threats. The ASTER 15 is integrated on the SAAM and beginning in 2006 in the PAAMS system. The SAAM is installed on French-built frigates and the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier. The PAAMS will be provided to the Horizon frigates (France and Italy) and the Type 45 destroyers (United Kingdom).

The basic structure of -ASTER 15/30 – Image: et97.com

ASTER 15 version

Dimensions

Diameter: 180 millimeter

Length: 4.20 meter

Performance

Max Range: 30,000 meter

Min Range: 1,700 meter

Target’s Max Altitude: 13,000 meter (42,651 foot)

Speed

Top Speed: 1,000 mps (3,601 kph)

Weight

Weight: 310 kilogram

ASTER 15 data Source deagel.com

Tir d’Aster 30 le 4 avril (© : DGA) – Image: meretmarine.com

ASTER 30 version

La cible Coyotte (© : ORBITAL)  – Image: meretmarine.com

In line with the Aster 15, MBDA has developed the Aster 30 version. With a range of 100 km, this missile, able to reach the speed of Mach 4.5, is the spearhead of the new British air defense buildings , French and Italian.With great agility, the Aster can destroy, on impact, Very fast attacking missiles, maneuvering, flying and very steep. It is still the only one to offer a parry against supersonic anti-ship missiles. In addition, its self-guard allows it to track its target autonomously, providing the carrier with the ability to simultaneously shoot several ammunition and thus counteract the saturating attacks. The Aster family is also positioned against ballistic missiles (DAMB). Translated by google – Source meretmarine.com

Tir d’Aster sur une frégate Horizon (© DGA)  – Image: meretmarine.com

The Aster missile carries an inertial computer with datalink and an active J-band Doppler radar seeker. Aster 30 has a range of 100km, Aster 15 a range of 30km. The missile has manoeuvrability of up to 62g, achieved through the use of the PIF/PAF guidance system.

The Italian frigates are fitted with two quadruple launchers for the MBDA Teseo (Otomat) mk3 surface-to-surface missile, which has a range of up to 55km. The quadruple launchers are installed aiming one to port and one to starboard on the missile deck between the ship’s two masts. The missile uses command updated inertial guidance and reaches high subsonic speed, Mach 0.9. *Note Otomat mk3 was canceled according to revolvy.com it is likely to be same model as on the Carlo Bergamini class ships which is the Otomat Mk2 Block IV

MBDA Teseo Otomat Mk2 Block IV surface-to-surface missile (Italian Ship)

otomat-teseo-ssm-003Image: seaforces.org

The Otomat Mk2 Block IV is an all-weather, subsonic, long range, sea-skimming anti-ship missile with extended capabilities for littoral warfare and coastal attack missions. The Otomat Block IV missiles can be retargeted and carry out coordinated attacks. It can be installed on different fighting ships from small fast patrol boats to large destroyers and cruisers.

The Otomat missiles can be launch irrespective of ship’s bearing, the target data is provided by the sensors of the ship. Once launched, the missile is guided through he INS supported by the GPS and a radar altimeter. Target information can be updated from ship’s sensors or another platform via a protected built-in radio-link. The terminal phase of the attack is performed through the active radar seeker.

Otomat missile launcher

The Otomat Block IV missile can perform maneuvers, simultaneous arrival at the target area and different attack directions in order to escape ship’s defenses and increase the kill probability. The Otomat is also well protected against the effects of countermeasures. It is provided with an impressive 210 kg semi-piercing warhead detonated by proximity, contact and grazing.

MBDA Otomat/Teseo Mk2Ablock IV guided anti-ship missile in four single launchers amidships

Dimensions

Diameter: 400 millimeter

Length: 4.46 meter (14.6 foot)

Performance

Max Range: 150 kilometer (81 nautical mile)

Min Range: 4,000 meter

Weight

Warhead: 210 kilogram (463 pound)

Otomat Block IV source deagel.com

MBDA MM-40 Exocet Block III guided anti-ship missiles (French ships)

Rampes Exocet sur le Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

The ships carry also eight (8) anti-shipping missiles between the ship’s two masts. The French ships carry the MBDA MM-40 Exocet Block III guided anti-ship missiles with a range  of more than 180km carrying a warhead of 164kg. The missile accepts also GPS guidance system waypoint commands which allow it to attack naval targets under different angles and to strike land targets as well. The missile guidance is inertial in mid-flight until turns on active radar late in its flight (active guidance) to the corresponding trigger point for the detection and locking of its target. In order to minimize the recognition from rival radar and infrared seekers and the subsequent attack of the projectile from the air defense around the target, the system maintains a very low altitude during ingress, staying 1–2 m above the sea surface (sea-skimming) striking the target near the waterline. Due to the effect of the radar horizon and to the high speed of the missile (Mach 0.9), the target may not detect an incoming attack until the missile is only 6,000m from impact and thus it leaves little time for reaction of the target’s CIWS. The missile has low signature and it has enhanced target discrimination and ECCM making it very difficult to be intercepted. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

Rampes Exocet sur le Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.comFrench Navy's Horizon-class AAW Destroyer Forbin (classified as "Frigate" in the French Navy) succesfully test-fired an MM40 Blk II anti-ship missile, the French Navy (Marine Nationale) announced. The test took place on May 9th in the Mediterranean Sea.An MBDA-made MM40 Block II Exocet anti-ship missile is launched from the Horizon-class Destroyer Forbin. Picture: French Navy

The MM40 Block 3 is a MM40 Block 2 with a turbofan engine, an engine type which is also found on other anti-ship missiles in the Exocet class such as the US Harpoon and Chinese YJ-82. The new engine results in a range which is twice that of the original MM40. The Block 3 can be identified by the four air intakes behind the wings. Unlike the other Exocet missiles the Block 3 features a large booster engine to provide initial velocity. The Block 3 missile is slightly shorter but with booster attached it is just as long as the Block 2.

Type Anti-ship missile
Diameter 0.35 m body, 1.13 m wingspan
Length 5.8 m incl booster
Weight 740 kg
Guidance Active radar homing out to 24 km, GPS and inertial navigation
Warhead 155 kg HE-frag, radar and proximity fuze
Propulsion Single-stage solid propellant rocket motor
Speed Mach 0.9
Range 4 to 180 km
Altitude
Engagement envelope
Remarks

Source weaponsystems.net

a2c18a6466fbb8b060b1336fdb80c10fForbin (620) MBDA MM-40 Exocet Block III guided anti-ship missiles

Video: French Navy Horizon Class Destroyer Forbin Launches an MM40 Exocet Anti-ship Missile: Here

Horizon Class guns

The 76mm guns of Forbin.  Photo: Emmanuel L. – Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

The three Oto Melara 76mm / 62 Super Rapid guns are installed as a pair on the foredeck immediately forward of the bridge and a single gun installed on the hangar overlooking the helicopter deck at the aft of the ship. Two Oto Melara Mod 503 25mm / 80 guns are installed one to port and one to starboard.

Oto Melara 76/62 Stealth Shield, Multi feeding system

Tir des tourelles de 76mm (© MARINE NATIONALE)  – Image: meretmarine.com

Technical data:

Caliber: 3 inches / 76,2 mm
Barrel lenght: 186 inches / 4,72 meters (= 62 caliber)
Weight: 7900kg, empty (Super Rapid)
Shell: 76 x 900 mm / 12,34 kilograms
Elevation: – 15° to + 85°
Traverse: 360°
Rate of fire: Compact: 85 rpm / Super Rapid: selectable from single shot up to 120 rpm
Muzzle Velocity: 925 m/s (1100 m/s – DART)
Magazine: Compact: 80 rounds / SR: 85 rounds
 
Range:
16 kilometers with standard ammunition
20 km with extended range ammunition
up to 40 km with VULCANO ammunition

20121013122133_dsc_0026Barillet d’une tourelle de 76mm  (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

Ammunition:
HE (high explosive) – 6,296kg / Range 16km / effective range 8km (4km vs. air targets at elev. 85°)
MOM (multi-role OTO munition)
PFF (pre-formed fragmentation) – anti-missile ammunition
SAPOM (semi-armored piercing OTO munition) – 6,35kg / Range 16km
SAPOMER (semi-armored piercing OTO munition, extended range) – Range 20km
DART (driven ammunition reduced time of flight) – sub-calibre guided ammunition against multiple targets
(missiles and maneuvering targets at sea) 4,2kg in barrel / 3,5kg in flight / 660mm lenght / effective range >8km
VULCANO (76mm unguided and guided extended range ammunition) – under development

*Italian ships have 3 guns

Source seaforces.org

image044Caio Duilio (D554) third gun installed on the helicopter hangar – Image: seaforces.org

The ships are equipped with two fully automatic OTO Melara Super Rapido guns of 76mm/62cal guns installed as a pair on the foredeck forward of the bridge. This gun is capable to intercept air and surface targets at a distance of 16 km unleashing 120 rounds per minute weighting greater than 6kg each. The gun has excellent performance in any kind of role, such as air defence, anti surface, anti-missile and shore bombardment role. The Italian vessels have an additional third gun installed on the helicopter hangar at the aft of the ship. Instead, the French vessels were initially to be equipped with one or two Mistral 2 Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAM) automatic launchers (remotely controlled) either Sadral with 6 missiles or Tetral with 4 missiles, on the starboard roof of the helicopter hangar. Until today French vessels have not been equipped with the launcher but they retain the provision for one such launcher in the future. Mistral 2 is a lightweight, fully digital and autonomous (fire-and-forget), heat-seeking missile, with a passive IR homing guidance by a highly sensitive cooled multicell seeker (seeker activation time: two seconds). The speed is Mach 2.5, the warhead is 2.95kg while the accuracy of the missile  is outstanding (96% kill efficiency rate demonstrated during user firings). The system is optimized to counter any air target at short notice. However until today the French ships have bot been installed with the launcher. Instead, the French vessels were initially to be equipped with one or two Mistral 2 Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAM) automatic launchers (remotely controlled) either Sadral with 6 missiles or Tetral with 4 missiles, on the starboard roof of the helicopter hangar. Until today French vessels have not been equipped with the launcher but they retain the provision for one such launcher in the future. Mistral 2 is a lightweight, fully digital and autonomous (fire-and-forget), heat-seeking missile, with a passive IR homing guidance by a highly sensitive cooled multicell seeker (seeker activation time: two seconds). The speed is Mach 2.5, the warhead is 2.95kg while the accuracy of the missile  is outstanding (96% kill efficiency rate demonstrated during user firings). The system is optimized to counter any air target at short notice. However until today the French ships have bot been installed with the launcher. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

Mistral 2 Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAM)

Not yet installed – Image navalanalyses.blogspot.com

2 x Oto Melara Mod 503 25mm / 80 guns (Italian Ship)

Two OTO Melara Oerlikon KBA 25mm/80cal  guns which are installed one to port and one to starboard – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

The Italian ships have two OTO Melara Oerlikon KBA 25mm/80cal  guns which are also installed one to port and one to starboard. The guns are stabilized, electric servo-drive assisted, while a weapon control is featured in order to allow the gunner to remain steady at any barrel elevation, laying the gun with the maximum accuracy even against targets at maximum elevation. A conventional aiming system is fitted to the mount, but also an IR sight with integrated ballistic reticule is available. The rate of fire is about 650 rounds per minute and the effective range for aerial targets is about 2,000m. The gun has two 126-round boxes on each side of it. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

2 x 20F2 gun 20mm gun/90 cal modele F2 gun (French Ship)

The 20 mm F2 is a mounted monotube gun, with two 150-cartridge boxes on each side of the piece. An electrical control system allows for a choice of three modes of fire: single shot, eight-shot burst, or free fire. There is an electrical trigger in the right hand of the gunner. A manual selector allows the gunner to change the box feeding the weapon during the firing, making mixed firing available. After each shot, the empty cartridge is ejected from beneath the weapon.

The gun is manoeuvred by the body of the gunner, who is attached to the weapon. Firing is guided through the same optical visor as used with the Bofors 40 mm gun and the Oerlikon 20 mm cannon.

SPECIFICATIONS
WEIGHT 332 kg (732 lb) (without ammunition)
CALIBER 20×139mm
ACTION Gas unlocked, delayed blowback
ELEVATION −15° to + 65°
RATE OF FIRE 720 round/min
MUZZLE VELOCITY 1,050 m/s (3,400 ft/s)
EFFECTIVE FIRING RANGE 1,500 m (4,900 ft) against aerial targets

Source wikiwand.com

f6b2e0c461de0c230ce26470e3a9c756Forbin (620) 20F2 gun 20mm gun/90 cal modele F2 gun & NGDS decoy launcher

Frigate torpedoes

The ship has two twin torpedo launchers for Eurotorp Mu 90 lightweight torpedoes. Eurotorp is a consortium formed by Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei (WASS), DCN and Thales.

Mu 90 has a directed energy warhead and a range of 12,000m at maximum speed and 25,000m at minimum speed.

Eurotorp MU 90 Impact torpedo

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The MU90/IMPACT Advanced Lightweight Torpedo is the leader of the 3rd generation of LWTs. Designed and built with the most advanced technology, the weapon is of fire-and-forget type conceived to cope with any-task any-environment capability requirements and meet the ASW operational needs of the 21st century.

The weapon has been designed to counter any type of nuclear or conventional submarine, acoustically coated, deep and fast-evasive, deploying active or passive anti-torpedo effectors

Characteristics

Main Dynamic Features
Linearly Variable speed …………………… 29 to >> 50 kts**
Range …………………… >10,000 m at max. speed**
> 23,000m at min. speed**
Minimum depth for launching …………………… < 25 m
Max. operating depth …………………… >> 1000 m**
Agility and manoeuvrability ……………………. Extreme
Diameter (NATO Standard) …………………… 323,7 mm
Length …………………… 2850 mm
Weight …………………… 304 kg
Main Acoustic Features
Operational bandwidth …………………… >>10KHz
Acoustic coverage …………………… 120°H x 70°V
Simultaneous targets …………………… Up to 10
Main Counter-Counter Measures
Stationary target detection capability
Decoy classification
Anti-Jammer tactics
(**) = real value classified

Source eurotorp.com

Local torpilles (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

Countermeasures

The electronic warfare suite is developed by the Sigen Consortium (Thales Systèmes Aéroportés SA of France and Elettronica SpA of Italy) and characterised by the latest generation of radar ESM (electronic support measures) and ECM (electronic countermeasures) architectures and implementation of new digital and microwave technologies.

Mât du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

The radar ESM component features very high sensitivity, very high accuracy direction finding and broadband digital receivers. The radar ECM component is based on phased array solid-state technology and features high specific transmitted power, fast reaction, multi-threats engagement capability and complete programmability of coherent and not coherent jamming techniques, due to the implementation of multiple broadband digital radio frequency memory (DRFM).

Nettuno 4100 by ELT Elettronica

The NETTUNO-4100 ECM System can provide naval platforms with an Active Electronic Defence using selected ECM tactics, exploited through DRFM generated signals. These tactics can be equally effective against both terminal missile attacks and long range designation radar systems, surface search and tracking radars in support of anti-surface engagements.

NETTUNO-4100 ECM System – Brouilleur (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

Nettuno 4100 is a state-of-the-art radar ECM having a scalable architecture which can be configured for different needs by:

  • assessing the needed Effective Radiated Power (ERP) in relation to the ship Radar Cross Section (RCS) and role
  • dimensioning the antenna array and the transmitted power to the ERP required for the defence purposes.

In any case , the Nettuno 4100 systems can cooperate with other onboard EW sensors.

System Highlights

  • Full azimuth coverage, 50° Elevation
  • Electronic beam steering (electronically stabilized against ship movements)
  • Wide frequency coverage (H to J bands)
  • Full solid-state design ensuring high ERP and graceful degradation in case of failure
  • Detection, measurement and jamming of emitter side-lobe
  • Multi-threat jamming capability through time-sharing resource management
  • High level of readiness (no warm-up)
  • High reliability and maintainability
  • BITE down to module/card level
  • Easy on-board integration and installation (no wave guides).

Source elettronica-elt-roma.com

The French frigates are equipped with Sagem Défense Sécurité (formerly EADS Defence & Electronics) new-generation Dagaie system (NGDS). Each system consists of a pair of two-axis launchers with 12 infrared, radar or acoustic decoys. Italian vessels have Oto Melara / Selex SCLAR-H decoy launchers for chaff and infrared flares.

Dagaie system (NGDS) decoy system (French Ship)

NGDS, ici sur le Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

The NGDS (New-Generation Dagaie System) is a NATO-compliant, flexible, self-defense electronic warfare unit based on decoy launchers and intended to counter multiple threats such as anti-ship missiles and torpedoes. With several mobile mountings that can be elevated and traversed, the NGDS is integrated in the ship’s combat system’s detection and warning system. The system has been designed for integration onboard frigates but a lighter version is available for smaller ships (displacement below 1000t).

A single NGDS system consists of two double-axis launchers each equipped with 12 decoys and a computer that selects the best-suited countermeasure against a given threat. Against missiles the NGDS can employ both infrared and radar decoys and acoustic decoys or jammer against incoming torpedoes. The lighter version aimed at ships under 1,000t only features a decoy launcher. So far, the NGDS have been selected for integration onboard the French Navy’s La Fayette, Horizon and FREMM frigates. Source deagel.com

The NGDS self-protection electronic warfare unit based on decoy launchers uses various anti-missile tactics:

  • centroid seduction
  • active seduction
  • dump seduction (with a jammer)
  • dilution, confusion or distraction

The system adapts to all types of short, medium and long-range munitions:

  • IR or electromagnetic decoys
  • Active Offboard Decoys (AOD)
  • Anti-Torpedo Decoys (ATD)
  • laser jammer

Source safran-electronics-defense.com 

SCLAR-H decoy launchers (GP & ASW) (Italian Ship)

sclar_h_chaftOTO Melara SCLAR-H system – Image: mdc.idv.tw

Dimensions: 1.88 mx 1.794 mx 2.06 m

Weight: empty: 1,150 kg, with 20 rockets of 105 mm: 1,750 kg

Arco rotazione: -150 ° / + 150 °

Alzo: -5 ° / + 60 °

Capacity: can hold 20 rockets ready to launch

Rate of fire: 1 rocket per second

OTO Melara SCLAR-H system – Image: navalanalyses.blogspot.com

Impiego:   The SCLAR is a multiple rocket launcher system produced by Breda Meccanica Bresciana, typically used by ships for the launch of false targets such as flares and chaff. It has a caliber of 105 mm, lifting and swiveling, and can also fire rockets explosives in a radius of 10 km. The launcher is designed for accurate deployment of false targets thereby providing the passive defense against missiles for the ship radar and IR search; the typical mode of operation (at various intervals) include: Confusion (dilution); dissimulation; Distraction; dump;

Image: digilander.libero.it

Its main features are:

  • possibility of loading simultaneously different types of rockets (Chaff, IR, flares);
  • Automatic selection of the rockets to be launched;
  • Possibility of repeated engagements, because of the availability of a large number of rockets, loaded into individual sealed containers;
  • Automatic control by the ship’s electronic warfare suite;
  • Full coordination with the active defense systems of the ship; – Ability to function in all weather conditions and in a position NBC (automatic)

Translated by google – Source digilander.libero.it

Horizon is equipped with a SLAT torpedo defence system which is also installed on the French and Italian aircraft carriers, the Charles de Gaulle and the Garibaldi. SLAT has been developed by EUROSLAT, a consortium consisting of WASS (Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subaqua), DCNS and Thales Underwater Systems.

SLAT launchers with Canto-V anti-torpedo countermeasure system (ASW)

Image: meretmarine.com

The CANTO-V is the next-generation anti-torpedo countermeasure system for existing and future surface ships developed by DCNS as part of the CONTRALTO-V product line. The CANTO-V countermeasure system consists of a pneumatic launcher and decoys designed to counter advanced torpedoes. CONTRALTO-V has been designed to operate with multiple launchers with the decoys being deployed following a ballistic trajectory. DCNS successfully conducted a series of test in May and June 2011. Source deagel.com

screenshotAtUploadCC_1516585412324

chevalier-paulChevalier Paul (621)

2 x Zodiac Hurricane H630 semi-rigid boats

20121013124854_dsc_0977Image: meretmarine.com

The Chevalier Paul, like any first-class frigate, is in fact a multi-purpose vessel capable of filling a very wide range of missions, ranging from combat operations to state action at sea. Missions of sovereignty, maritime surveillance, counter-terrorism, the fight against drug trafficking or piracy. For the more “warrior” side, air defense obviously remains its great specialty but, as we have seen, the building also has anti-ship capabilities and can also carry out actions against land, including commando operations, since It can accommodate about forty passengers (25 without the aero detachment) and implement a helicopter and fast boats.

Zodiac dans sa niche (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

In this regard, the drome currently includes two Zodiac Hurricane H630 6.7 meters up to 38 knots thanks to a 250 hp engine. While these semi-rigid boats are placed in the niches located on each side, a third, smaller craft is installed under the helicopter platform.

A third, smaller craft is installed under the helicopter platform Zodiac plage arrière (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

It is launched by the opening of a panel at the stern and the deployment of a rail equipped with winches. The drome can be used for personnel transfer, the use of divers or the transport of a visiting team on a suspicious boat, the two H630s being rigged with a machine gun. Translated by google – Source meretmarine.com

Ships interior

On board the Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.comInfirmerie du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.comInfirmerie du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

Helicopters

Appontage d’un NH90 (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

The helicopter deck at the bow of the ship has a single landing spot for a 10t helicopter, for example the NH90 or EH101 Merlin helicopter. The stabilisation system allows the ship’s helicopter to be deployed and the combat systems operated in high sea states.

Hangar du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.comHangar du Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

NHIndustries NH90: Details

AugustaWestland AW101

d1cf6-aw101

The AugustaWestland AW101 is a modern naval utility helicopter. Originally this chopper was known as Eurocopter Industries EH101. It was jointly developed and produced by Augusta of Italy and Westland Helicopters from United Kingdom.

The EH 101 had its roots in a UK project to replace the Sea King. The design was later revised to meet Italian navy as well as Royal Navy requirements. Westland and Agusta established European Helicopter Industries Ltd, which received formal go-ahead in 1984 for nine prototypes and subsequent development of what became the EH 101. The first prototype made its maiden flight in 1987.

In 2000 Augusta and Westland Helicopters merged and formed AugustaWestland. Since 2007 this helicopter is marketed as AugustaWestland AW101. There are utility and anti-submarine warfare versions of this helicopter.

The EH101/AW101 is in service with Italy and United Kingdom. It has been exported to Algeria, Canada (CH-149 Cormorant), Denmark, Nigeria, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, and Turkmenistan. It is license-produced in Japan (Kawasaki MCH-101) and the United States. It is worth noting that Britain, Denmark and Portugal use the name Merlin for this helicopter.

Entered service 1998
Crew 1-2 men
Dimensions and weight
Length 22.81 m
Main rotor diameter 18.59 m
Height 6.65 m
Weight (empty) 10.5 t
Weight (maximum take off) 14.6 t
Engines and performance
Engines 3 x Rolls-Royce / Turbomeca RTM 322-01 turboshaft engines
Engine power 3 x 2 312 shp
Cruising speed 278 km/h
Service ceiling 4.5 km
Range 1 056 km
Endurance 5 hours
Armament
Missiles 2 x Sea Eagle, Marte 2, AM.39 Exocet or AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles
Torpedoes 4 x Marconi Stingray torpedoes

Source military-today.com

Horizon Class sensors

Le Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

The large round radome of the Selex EMPAR multi-function phased array radar (primary sensor for PAAMS), operating at G-band (4GHz to 6GHz), is mounted at the top of the forward mast. The Thales / Selex S1850M air and surface search radar, operating at D-band (1GHz to 2GHz) is mounted at the top of the aft mast.

Selex EMPAR multi-function phased array radar

Selex EMPAR multi-function phased array radar (primary sensor for PAAMS)

At the top of the forward mast in a large round radome it is mounted the multi-function phased array radar, EMPAR (European Multi-function Phased Array Radar) which provides simultaneous surveillance, tracking and weapons control. EMPAR is the primary sensor in the FSAF/SAAM-IT and PAAMS missile systems. It operates at C-band, performing concurrently 3D detection, multiple target tracking and missile guidance. It counters different threats such as high diving and sea skimming missiles, aircraft and helicopters and any kind of vessels. The maximum range of the radar is about 150km. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 148.2 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Jet Engine Modulation [Class Info], Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
MM/SPY-790 EMPAR MFR – Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 148.2 km

Source cmano-db.com

Thales / Selex S1850M air and surface search radar

Radar S 1850 M (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

The S1850M is a long range passive electronically scanned array radarfor wide area search. The S1850M is produced by BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies (formerly AMS UK) and Thales. It is a modified version of the Thales Nederland SMART-L radar. The S1850M is advertised as being capable of fully automatic detection, track initiation and tracking of up to 1,000 targets at a range of 400 kilometres (250 mi). It is also claimed to be highly capable of detecting stealth targets, and is able to detect and track outer atmosphere objects at short range, making it capable of forming part of a Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence system. Source wikiwand.com

Le Chevalier Paul (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

SMART-L provides a very long-range coverage (400 km radius, 65km for stealth missiles) as well as 70° of elevation.  The detection range is 2 km against RHIB and 7 km against FPB. SMART-L’s high sensitivity allows for the early detection and tracking of very small aircraft and missiles. Full Doppler processing for instantaneous radial velocity measurement and clutter suppression, combined with refined signal processing, guarantees excellent performance, especially against stealth targets in a littoral environment. The Smart-L / S1850M is the de facto standard of the major European navies for their long-range 3D radar requirements and foreseen as one of the pillars in the NATO TBMD. Recent tests with SMART-L equipped with the recently developed Extended Long Range module were highly successful. Thanks to the ELR module, SMART-L’s already impressive range can be substantially increased. Source navalanalyses.blogspot.com

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 481.5 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.2 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
SMART-L ELR – (2006, VSR) Radar
Role: Radar, Air & Surface Search, 3D Long-Range
Max Range: 481.5 km

Source cmano-db.com

The Selex RASS surface search radar, covering E and F bands (2GHz to 3GHz, and 3GHz to 4GHz), is mounted on the forward face of the mast. The Selex SPN 753(V)4 navigation radar operates at I-band from 8GHz to 10GHz. Selex also provides the SIR-R/S interrogation friend or foe (IFF) system. *Selex SPN 753(V)4 navigation radar – cannot find data other sources state Selex RAN-30X (SPS-791).

RAN-30X/I (SPS-791) 

commandante_7

For years, Selex has become one of the leading manufacturers of technologies for defence systems, producing panoply of products developed to fulfil security needs of many armed forces. The stages of designing, developing as well as production of defence equipments were done with information superiority in mind. Two of Selex’s most successful surveillance radar systems are the RAN-30X/I along with the KRONOS 3D radar system.

Designed to compete in the “surveillance radar” category, the RAN-30X/I has climbed the vertical ladder to place itself among the most accomplished radar system available in the market. Selex has designed the radar with new a structural configuration, allowing for higher operational flexibility and adaptability to different platforms thus requiring minimal set-up time as well as operational cost.

The RAN-30X/I operates on four main roles. It was designed to perform multiple roles as a measure taken in fulfilling naval forces demand for multi-purpose radar. The roles are, Surface and Air Surveillance (mode 1) for small air and surface target detection, Anti-sea-skimmer detection (mode 2), Over the Horizon (OTH) detection (mode 3), and lastly the Helicopter control and navigation (mode 4).

Depending on the different operational mode, the radar, according to Selex has different instrumental range. In mode one at 15rpm, the radar has an efficiency range of 100km, followed by mode two at 30rpm with 40km efficient range. The third mode, with a gradual rotation of 3rpm, the radar scans for threats within a dazzling 200km range and lastly in mode 4, with 30rpm the radar has a range of 25km.

Currently operational onboard the Italian Navy’s “Cigala Fulgosi” OPV Class vessel, the radar is also currently operating on board Thailand’s Pattani class OPV which had successfully conducted an anti-piracy operation in the Gulf of Eden. This achievement, at one stage has marked the radar capability in supporting high-risk and high-stake highsea operations. Source asiapacificdefence.blogspot.com

GENERAL DATA:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 30480 m
Range Max: 111.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Late 2000s
Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
SENSORS / EW:
RAN-30X/I – (SPS-791 RASS, OTH) Radar
Role: Radar, Target Indicator, 3D Surface-to-Air & Surface-to-Surface
Max Range: 111.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

GEM Elettronica navigation radar AN/SPN753(V)4

General data:
Type: Radar Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0.4 km Generation: Early 1990s
Properties: Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability)
Sensors / EW:
MM/SPN-749 – Radar
Role: Radar, Surface Search & Navigation
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

Thales Underwater Systems and WASS was awarded the contract to supply the hull-mounted TMS 4110CL sonar which operates at medium frequency in active search and attack mode. TMS 4110CL uses a cylindrical array and advanced processing.

Thales UMS 4110 CL hull sonar

Image for illustration only

A high performance sonar that provides effective anti-submarine capability together with self-protection against torpedo threats and underwater obstacles in brown and blue waters.

  • Large area coverage
    Very long range detection in any environmental condition, complementary asset to CAPTAS Variable Depth Sonar.
    Detects up to Convergence Zone in the Mediterranean and uses Bottom Bounce propagation.
  • Self-protection against multiple threats
    Permanent self-protection against incoming torpedoes.
    Complementary underwater obstacle/mine-like avoidance capability.
  • Cooperative asset
    Excellent target positioning allowing to prosecute and engage distant submarines with organic weapons or airborne assets.
    Capable of multi-static operation with most current low frequency active sonar in operation world-wide.
  • Reduced operator workload
    Manned by a single operator. Same Human Computer Interface look & feel as CAPTAS VDS for high interoperability.
  • State-of-the-art sonar
    Enhanced performance, robustness and reliability thanks to spiral technological update and new transducers.
  • Mammals safe
    Adjustable source level & noise monitoring for mammal protection.
image058Andrea Doria (D553)

System features:

  • Designed for medium to large size surface combatant
  • Very high source level at relatively low frequency
  • Provides ASW all-round surveillance
  • Several transmit configurations, allowing operation with two ships in the same area
  • Integrated On-Board-Training capability
  • Performance prediction function for sonar optimisation
  • Comprehensive built-in test capability

TECHNICAL FEATURES

Array (Weight/Height/Diameter): (10t / 2.2m / 2.0m)
Active frequency range: 4600 to 6100 Hz
Pulse types: Hyperbolic FM, CW and COMBO
Pulse length: 60 ms to 4 s
Range scale: Up to 72 kYds
Active modes:
– ASW: 360°, Omni-directional
– Obstacle Avoidance: ± 90° off the ship’s bow
Wide HFM bandwidth: 2000 Hz, against reverberation effect
Passive frequency range: 4200 to 6100 Hz. (when no active transmission allowed)
Passive functions: All around broadband surveillance, LOFAR, DEMON & audio channels

Source thalesgroup.com

GENERAL DATA:
Type: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 74.1 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
SENSORS / EW:
UMS 4410CL – (FREMM) Hull Sonar, Active/Passive
Role: Hull Sonar, Active/Passive Search & Track
Max Range: 74.1 km

Source cmano-db.com

Propulsion

8f02425381d825f3912683efa7e3cdf7

The ship’s propulsion system is configured in a combined diesel or gas (CODOG) arrangement with two GE LM2500 / Avio gas turbines rated at 53MW and two SEMT Pielstick diesel engines rated at 8MW. The engines drive two shafts with constant-pitch propellers.

Combined diesel or gas (CODOG) arrangement (example)

2 x GE LM2500 / Avio gas turbines

34155-9655357

The General Electric LM2500 is an industrial and marine gas turbine produced by GE Aviation. The LM2500 is a derivative of the General Electric CF6 aircraft engine.

The LM2500 is available in 3 different versions:

  • The LM2500 delivers 33,600 shaft horsepower (shp) (25,060 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 37 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 24 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 36 percent at ISO conditions.
  • The improved, 3rd generation, LM2500+ version of the turbine delivers 40,500 shp (30,200 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 29 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 38 percent at ISO conditions.
  • The latest, 4th generation, LM2500+G4 version was introduced in November 2005 and delivers 47,370 shp (35,320 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39.3 percent at ISO conditions.
Image: defenceindustrydaily.com

LM2500 installations place the engine inside a metal container for sound and heat isolation from the rest of the machinery spaces. This container is very near the size of a standard 40-foot (12 m) intermodal shipping container – but not the same, the engine size very slightly exceeds those dimensions. The air intake ducting may be designed and shaped appropriately for easy removal of the LM2500 from their ships. Source wikiwand.com

Exceptional propulsion and maneuverability capabilities

To propel the 7,000 tons of the Chevalier Paul at a maximum speed of nearly 30 knots, it is obviously a sacred power under the hull: the propulsive device develops some 46 MW, or 62,560 hp. Equipped with two rows of trees, the building has two Pielstick (Man Diesel) propulsion diesel engines of 4.32 MW (5875 hp) each; As well as two GE / Avio gas turbines of type LM2500 with a unit capacity of 20.6 MW (28,000 hp). The electric power required to power the equipment on board is provided by four Isotta-Fraschini diesel generators.

Evacuation d’une turbine à gaz (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU)  – Image: meretmarine.com

2 x SEMT Pielstick diesel engines

Compartiment machine (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.comPC Propulsion (© MER ET MARINE – VINCENT GROIZELEAU) – Image: meretmarine.com

Up to 18 knots, the frigate uses only its diesels and, beyond that, engages its gas turbines, which, according to the sailors, offer much more flexibility than the diesel engines available to the Cassard and Jean Bart. According to the mechanics, the Chevalier Paul can go from 0 to nearly 30 knots in less than 5 minutes. By pushing the machine to the maximum of its possibilities, the delay would be only 2 minutes, which is extremely short for a building of such a tonnage. While the Chevalier Paul can carry 1000 m3 of fuel in his bunkers, the consumption is obviously impressive when the gas turbines, traditionally greedy equipment, are in action. At 29 knots, the “baby” biberon thus 11m3 of fuel per hour, or 264 m3 per day! On the other hand, The frigate uses only 3% of its fuel reserves daily, giving it a one-month autonomy. Equipped like any other combat vessel with a refueling device, the Chevalier Paul can tap up to 600 m3 of fuel per hour in the bunkers of a logistics building, via fuel hoses connecting the two ships. “To give an idea, this flow would make it possible to fill up a car in 0.2 seconds! Reducing refueling time is important because this type of operation is a period of vulnerability, which must be as short as possible, “says Captain Slaars. The Chevalier Paul can tap into the bunkers of a logistics building, via fuel hoses connecting the two ships, up to 600 m3 of fuel per hour. “To give an idea, this flow would make it possible to fill up a car in 0.2 seconds! Reducing refueling time is important because this type of operation is a period of vulnerability, which must be as short as possible, “says Captain Slaars. The Chevalier Paul can tap into the bunkers of a logistics building, via fuel hoses connecting the two ships, up to 600 m3 of fuel per hour. “To give an idea, this flow would make it possible to fill up a car in 0.2 seconds! Reducing refueling time is important because this type of operation is a period of vulnerability, which must be as short as possible, “says Captain Slaars. Translated by google meretmarine.com

Le Chevalier Paul au large de la Libye (© EMA) – Image: meretmarine.com

Specification

Type: Guided Missile Destroyer
Displacement:
  • – 7,050 t (6,940 long tons; 7,770 short tons), full load [2]
  • – 5.290 t (5.206 long tons; 5.831 short tons), light displacement
Length:
  • – 152.87 m (501 ft 7 in) LOA
  • – 141.7 m (465 ft) LPP
Beam: 20.3 m (67 ft)
Draught:
  • – 5.4 m (18 ft)
  • – depth 11.8 m (39 ft)
Propulsion:
Speed: In excess of 29 kn (54 km/h; 33 mph)[3]
Range:
  • 6,100 nautical miles(11,000 km) at 18 kn (33 km/h)
  • 3,500 nmi (6,480 km) at 25 knots (46 km/h)
Complement: Italia: 255 in 1, 2 or 4 beds for cabin
Crew: Italia: 236, of which: 195 based-crew + 13 flight staff + 18 others
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
  • – Elettronica Spa 4100 Nettuno
  • – SIGEN EW
  • – 2 x OTO Melara ODLS-H decoy launching system
  • – 2× SLAT anti torpedo system
Armament:
Aircraft carried: 1 x helicopter type AW-101 or SH90A
Aviation facilities:
  • – Flight deck, 24.8 m (81 ft) X 16.00 m (52.49 ft)
  • – Hangar for one helicopter AW-101 or SH90A

Specification wikiwand.com

Main material source naval-technology.com

Revised Dec 12, 2017

Updated Jan 22, 2018

andrea-doria-class-d553-flt-3d-model-low-poly-animated-flt-1

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