The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole fighter. The Typhoon was designed and is manufactured by a consortium of three companies; Alenia Aermacchi, Airbus Group and BAE Systems, who conduct the majority of affairs dealing with the project through a joint holding company, Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH, which was formed in 1986. The project is managed by the NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency, which also acts as the prime customer.
Development of the aircraft effectively began in 1983 with the Future European Fighter Aircraft programme, a multinational collaborative effort between the UK, Germany, France, Italy and Spain. Because of disagreements over design authority and operational requirements, France left the consortium to develop the Dassault Rafale independently instead. A technology demonstration aircraft, the British Aerospace EAP, first took flight on 6 August 1986; the first prototype of the finalised Eurofighter made its first flight on 27 March 1994. The name of the aircraft, Typhoon, was formally adopted in September 1998; the first production contracts were signed that same year.
The Typhoon was introduced into operational service in 2003. Currently, the type has entered service with the Austrian Air Force, the Italian Air Force, the German Air Force, the Royal Air Force, the Spanish Air Force, and the Royal Saudi Air Force. The Royal Air Force of Oman has also been confirmed as an export customer, bringing the procurement total to 571 aircraft as of 2013.
Kuwait joins the Typhoon club: Here
Kuwait Typhoon – Image @theaviationist.com
The Eurofighter Typhoon is a highly agile aircraft, designed to be a supremely effective dogfighter when in combat with other aircraft. Later production aircraft have been increasingly better equipped to undertake air-to-surface strike missions and to be compatible with a likewise increasing number of different armaments and equipment including Storm Shadow and the RAF’s Brimstone. The Typhoon saw its combat debut during the 2011 military intervention in Libya with the Royal Air Force and the Italian Air Force, performing aerial reconnaissance and ground strike missions. The type has also taken primary responsibility for air-defence duties for the majority of customer nations.
The Typhoon is a highly agile aircraft at both supersonic and low speeds, achieved through having an intentionally relaxed stability design. It has a quadruplex digital fly-by-wire control system providing artificial stability, manual operation alone could not compensate for the inherent instability. The fly-by-wire system is described as “carefree”, and prevents the pilot from exceeding the permitted manoeuvre envelope. Roll control is primarily achieved by use of the wing flaperons. Pitch control is by operation of the foreplanes and flaperons, the yaw control is by rudder.
Control surfaces are moved through two independent hydraulic systems, which also supply various other items, such as the canopy, brakes and undercarriage; powered by a 4,000 psi engine-driven gearbox. Engines are fed by a chin double intake ramp situated below a splitter plate.
Navigation is via both GPS and an inertial navigation system. The Typhoon can use Instrument Landing System (ILS) for landing in poor weather. The aircraft also features an enhanced ground proximity warning system (GPWS) based on the TERPROM Terrain Referenced Navigation (TRN) system used by the Panavia Tornado.The Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS) provides a Link 16 data link.
The aircraft employs a sophisticated and highly integrated Defensive Aids Sub-System named Praetorian (formerly called EuroDASS). Praetorian monitors and responds automatically to air and surface threats, provides an all-round prioritised assessment, and can respond to multiple threats simultaneously. Threat detection methods include a Radar warning receiver (RWR), a Missile Warning System (MWS) and a laser warning receiver (LWR, only on UK Typhoons). Protective countermeasures consist of chaff, flares, an electronic countermeasures (ECM) suite and a towed radar decoy (TRD). The ESM-ECM and MWS consists of 16 AESA antenna array assemblies and 10 radomes.
Defensive Aids Sub-System named Praetorian – Image @defenceindustrydaily.com
The Typhoon features lightweight construction (82% composites consisting of 70% carbon fibre composite materials and 12% glass fibre reinforced composites) with an estimated lifespan of 6,000 flying hours. The permitted lifespan, as opposed to the estimated lifespan, was 3,000 hours.
Move cursor over each picture to see composite materials
The Selex ES jammer known as BriteCloud is expected to provide an off-board capability to decoy radar guided missiles and fire-control radars, producing large miss distance and angle break lock. Such capability is provided by self-contained coherent technique generation processing and high-power batteries that allow at least ten seconds of life after firing activation, in addition to rapid response capabilities. Dispensed in the initial format from standard 55 mm flare cartridge, BriteCloud is to equip at least three main platforms – Eurofighter Typhoon, Saab Gripen and Panavia Tornado
Selex ES jammer known as BriteCloud
User needs were given a high priority in the cockpit’s design; both layout and functionality was created through feedback and assessments from military pilots and a specialist testing facility. The aircraft is controlled by means of a centre stick (or control stick) and left hand throttles, designed on a Hand on Throttle and Stick (HOTAS) principle to lower pilot workloads. Emergency escape is provided by a Martin-Baker Mk.16A ejection seat, with the canopy being jettisoned by two rocket motors. The HMSS was delayed by years but should have been operational by late 2011.
Martin-Baker Mk.16A ejection seatHELMET MOUNTED SYMBOLOGY SYSTEM (HMSS)
In the event of pilot disorientation, the Flight Control System allows for rapid and automatic recovery by the simple press of a button. On selection of this cockpit control the FCS takes full control of the engines and flying controls, and automatically stabilises the aircraft in a wings level, gentle climbing attitude at 300 knots, until the pilot is ready to retake control. The aircraft also has an Automatic Low-Speed Recovery system (ALSR) which prevents it from departing from controlled flight at very low speeds and high angle of attack.
The Typhoon Direct Voice Input (DVI) system uses a speech recognition module (SRM), developed by Smiths Aerospace (now GE Aviation Systems) and Computing Devices (now General Dynamics UK). It was the first production DVI system used in a military cockpit. DVI provides the pilot with an additional natural mode of command and control over approximately 26 non-critical cockpit functions, to reduce pilot workload, improve aircraft safety, and expand mission capabilities. All functions are also achievable by means of a conventional button-press or soft-key selections; functions include display management, communications, and management of various systems.
The Eurofighter operates automatic Emission Controls (EMCON) to reduce the Electro-Magnetic emissions of the current CAPTOR mechanically scanned Radar. The Captor-M has three working channels, one intended for classification of jammer and for jamming suppression. A succession of radar software upgrades have enhanced the air-to-air capability of the Captor-M radar. These upgrades have included the R2P programme (initially UK only, and known as T2P when ‘ported’ to the Tranche 2 aircraft) which is being followed by R2Q/T2Q. R2P was applied to eight German Typhoons deployed on Red Flag Alaska in 2012.
Kuwait Confirmed as Launch Customer for Typhoon Captor-E (AESA) radar: Here
The CAPTOR-E is an Active electronically scanned array derivative of the original CAPTOR radar, also known as CAESAR (from CAPTOR Active Electronically Scanned Array Radar) being developed by the EuroRADAR Consortium, led by Selex ES.
Synthetic Aperture Radar is expected to be fielded as part of the AESA radar upgrade which will give the Eurofighter an all-weather ground attack capability. The conversion to AESA will also give the Eurofighter a low probability of intercept radar with much better jam resistance. These include an innovative design with a gimbal to meet RAF requirements for a wider scan field than a fixed AESA. The coverage of a fixed AESA is limited to 120° in azimuth and elevation. A senior EADS radar expert has claimed that Captor-E is capable of detecting an F-35 from roughly 59 km away.
In May 2007, Eurofighter Development Aircraft 5 made the first flight with the CAPTOR-E demonstrator system, Tranche 2 aircraft use the non-AESA mechanically scanned Captor-M which incorporates weight and space provisions for possible upgrade to CAESAR (AESA) standard in the future. In June 2013, Chris Bushell of Selex ES warned that the failure of European nations to invest in an AESA radar was putting export orders at risk. In November BAE responded that work on an AESA radar continued, to protect exports. On 22 June 2011, it was announced that the partner nations had agreed to fund development of the Captor-E radar, with entry into service planned for 2015. The British are pursuing an independent Technology Demonstrator Programme called Bright Adder, which will give the Typhoon an Electronic Attack mode among other things. Bright Adder is based on Qinetiq’s ARTS radar demonstrator for the Tornado GR4 and could evolve into an alternative to the main E-Scan project should E-Scan falter.
On 19 November 2014 the contract to upgrade to the Captor-E was signed at the office’s of EuroRadar lead Selex ES in Edinburgh, in a deal worth €1bn. Availability of the radar, for Tranche 2 and 3A aircraft, was anticipated by 2016-17, however there are no orders for the radar system.
Lockheed Martin’s Sniper® Advanced Targeting Pod Continues Platform Expansion with Eurofighter Typhoon: Here
Sniper XR targeting pod
It is safe to say that the AN/AAQ-33 Sniper XR (manufactured by Lockheed Martin Corporation) is the most advanced targeting pod in service in the world today. Based on its predecessor, the LANTIRN targeting pod, it is far superior in range (3-5 times the range of LANTIRN), resolution, stability and in many other parameters. The first time in the history of targeting pods, it allows pilots to pick out even individual enemy soldiers on the ground from outside jet noise ranges. It is highly reliable, having anMTBF value (mean time between failures) of over 600 (!) hours. Its hardware and software configuration featuring “plug-and-play” flexibility across services and multiple platforms, Sniper XRcan be used on A-10, B-1, B-52, F-15E, F-16 and F-18 aircraft. Source @f-15e.info
Italian Typhoons demonstrate air-to-ground IFF capability
SIT 422/5 – IFF Interrogator Mode 5 and Mode S
The SIT422/5 is part of a family of MkXIIA (MkXII + Mode 5) and Mode S interrogators developed under the NGIFF program in order to provide a state-of-the-art IFF capability.
Military identification is available with Modes 4 and 5, suppor ted by an embedded crypto module entirely designed by Selex ES; and qualified by NATO Authorities (SECAN);
Variants of the equipment can be provided for non-NATO applications, with a M4-only or National Secure Mode capability. Mode S is also provided in order to monitor civilian air traffic for Situational Awareness purposes. Source @selex-comms.com
The Passive Infra-Red Airborne Track Equipment (PIRATE) system is an infrared search and track (IRST) system mounted on the port side of the fuselage, forward of the windscreen. Selex ES is the lead contractor which, along with Thales Optronics (system technical authority) and Tecnobit of Spain, make up the EUROFIRST consortium responsible for the system’s design and development. Eurofighters starting with Tranche 1 block 5 have the PIRATE. The first Eurofighter Typhoon with PIRATE-IRST was delivered to the Italian Aeronautica Militare in August 2007. More advanced targeting capabilities can be provided with the addition of a targeting pod such as the LITENING pod.
PIRATE is linked to the pilot’s helmet-mounted display
PIRATE operates in two IR bands, 3–5 and 8–11 micrometres. When used with the radar in an air-to-air role, it functions as an infrared search and track system, providing passive target detection and tracking. In an air-to-surface role, it performs target identification and acquisition. By supercooling the sensor even small variations in temperature can be detected at long range. Although no definitive ranges have been released an upper limit of 80 nm has been hinted at, a more typical figure would be 30 to 50 nm. It also provides a navigation and landing aid. PIRATE is linked to the pilot’s helmet-mounted display. It allows the detection of both the hot exhaust plumes of jet engines as well as surface heating caused by friction; processing techniques further enhances the output, giving a near-high resolution image of targets. The output can be directed to any of the Multi-function Head Down Displays, and can also be overlaid on both the Helmet Mounted Sight and Head Up Display.
The IIR sensor has a stabilised mount so that it can maintain a target within its field of view. Up to 200 targets can be simultaneously tracked using one of several different modes; Multiple Target Track (MTT), Single Target Track (STT), Single Target Track Ident (STTI), Sector Acquisition and Slaved Acquisition. In MTT mode the system will scan a designated volume space looking for potential targets. In STT mode PIRATE will provide high precision tracking of a single designated target. An addition to this mode, STT Ident allows for visual identification of the target, the resolution being superior to CAPTOR’s. Both Sector and Slave Acquisition demonstrate the level of sensor fusion present in the Typhoon. When in Sector Acquisition mode PIRATE will scan a volume of space under direction of another onboard sensor such as CAPTOR. In Slave Acquisition, off-board sensors are used with PIRATE being commanded by data obtained from an AWACS for example. When a target is found in either of these modes, PIRATE will automatically designate it and switch to STT.
Using the new helmet system, the pilot can now look at multiple targets, lock-on to them, and then, by voice-command, prioritise them.
- Radar in the nose of the Typhoon detects enemy aircraft hidden from his view in the airspace below.
- As the pilot looks down the position of the enemy aircraft is projected onto his visor. He can then lock-on to the aircraft by voice-command so it is tracked by the aircraft’s weapons systems.
- The pilot can also lock-on to enemy aircraft number 2 closing rapidly in over his right shoulder.
- He can then prioritise his targets by voice command before engaging his weapons.
Once a target has been tracked and identified PIRATE can be used to cue an appropriately equipped short range missile, i.e. a missile with a high off-boresight tracking capability such as ASRAAM. Additionally the data can be used to augment that of CAPTOR or off-board sensor information via the AIS. This should enable the Typhoon to overcome severe ECM environments and still engage its targets. Additionally PIRATE has a passive ranging capability although the system remains limited when it comes to provide passive firing solutions, as the PIRATE lacks laser rangefinder.
Attack and Identification System
Traditionally each sensor in an aircraft is treated as a discrete source of information; however this can result in conflicting data and limits the scope for the automation of systems, hence increasing pilot workload. To overcome this, the Typhoon employs what are now known as sensor fusion techniques (in a similar fashion to the U.S. F-22 Raptor).
In the Typhoon fusion of all data sources is achieved through the Attack and Identification System, or AIS. The AIS combines data from the major on-board sensors along with any information obtained from off-board platforms such as AWACS, ASTOR, and Eurofighter own Multi-function Information Distribution System (MIDS). Additionally the AIS integrates all the other major offensive and defensive systems such as the DASS, Navigation, ACS and Communications.
In practice the AIS should allow the Eurofighter to identify targets at distances in excess of 150 nm and acquire and auto-prioritise them at over 100 nm. In addition the AIS offers the ability to automatically control emissions from the aircraft, so called EMCON (from EMissions CONtrol). This should aid in limiting the detectability of the Typhoon by opposing aircraft further reducing pilot workload.
In July 2007, Indian Air Force Su-30MKI fighters participated in the Indra-Dhanush exercise with Royal Air Force’s Typhoon. This was the first time that the two jets had taken part in such an exercise. The IAF did not allow their pilots to use the MKI’s radar during the exercise to protect the highly classified N011M Bars. RAF Tornado pilots stated the Su-30MKI had superior manoeuvrability, but the IAF pilots were also impressed by the Typhoon’s agility. However, in one to one dogfights the Typhoon was found to be superior due to the fighter’s ‘next generation’ technology
Radar signature reduction features
Although not designated a stealth fighter, measures were taken to reduce the Typhoon’s radar cross section (RCS), especially from the frontal aspect. An example of these measures is that the Typhoon has jet inlets that conceal the front of the jet engine (a strong radar target) from radar. Many important potential radar targets, such as the wing, canard and fin leading edges, are highly swept, so will reflect radar energy well away from the front sector. Some external weapons are mounted semi-recessed into the aircraft, partially shielding these missiles from incoming radar waves. In addition radar-absorbent materials (RAM), developed primarily by EADS/DASA, coat many of the most significant reflectors, such as the wing leading edges, the intake edges and interior, the rudder surrounds, and strakes.
The Typhoon is a multi-role fighter with maturing air-to-ground capabilities. The initial absence of air-to-ground capability is believed to have been a factor in the type’s rejection from Singapore’s fighter competition in 2005. At the time it was claimed that Singapore was concerned about the delivery timescale and the ability of the Eurofighter partner nations to fund the required capability packages.Tranche 1 aircraft could drop laser-guided bombs in conjunction with third-party designators but the anticipated deployment of Typhoon to Afghanistan meant that the UK required self-contained bombing capabilities before the other partners. On 20 July 2006, a £73m deal was signed for Change Proposal 193 (CP193) to give an “austere” air-to-surface capability using GBU-16 Paveway II and Rafael/Ultra Electronics Litening III laser designator for the RAF Tranche 1 Block 5 aircraft.Aircraft with this upgrade were designated Typhoon FGR4 by the RAF.
Similar capability will be added to Tranche 2 aircraft on the main development pathway as part of the Phase 1 Enhancements. P1Ea (SRP10) will enter service in 2013 Q1 and adds the use of Paveway IV, EGBU16 and the cannon against surface targets. P1Eb (SRP12) adds full integration with GPS bombs such as GBU-10 Paveway II, GBU-16 Paveway II, Paveway IV and a new realtime operating system that allows multiple targets to be attacked in a single run. This new system will form the basis for future weapons integration by individual countries under the Phase 2 Enhancements. A definite schedule has not yet been agreed, but will likely see the Storm Shadow and KEPD 350 (Taurus) cruise missiles integrated in 2015, followed by Brimstone anti-tank missiles. An anti-shipping capability is required by 2017, and such a capability is also important for potential export customers such as India; Eurofighter is studying integrating the Boeing Harpoon or MBDA Marte or Sea Brimstone missiles onto the Typhoon for a maritime attack capability.The Typhoon can accommodate two RBS-15 or three Marte-ERP under each wing but neither has been integrated yet.
GBU-10 Paveway IIGBU-16 Paveway IIPaveway IVStorm ShadowTaurus KEPD 350 is a German/Swedish air-launched cruise missile, manufactured by Taurus SystemsBrimstone anti-tank missiles
Boeing Harpoon anti-ship missileMBDA Marte anti-ship missile
Sea Brimstone missiles
RBS-15 (Robot system 15) is a long-range fire-and-forget surface-to-surface and air-to-surface, anti-ship missile.
Spear missile fired from Eurofighter Typhoon airplane: Here
The Eurofighter is produced in single-seat and twin-seat variants. The twin-seat variant is not used operationally, but only for training. The aircraft has been manufactured in three major standards; seven Development Aircraft (DA), seven production standard Instrumented Production Aircraft (IPA) for further system development and a continuing number of Series Production Aircraft. The production aircraft are now operational with the partner nation’s air forces.
The Tranche 1 aircraft were produced from 2000 onwards. Aircraft capabilities are being increased incrementally, with each software upgrade resulting in a different standard, known as blocks. With the introduction of the block 5 standard, the R2 retrofit programme began to bring all Tranche 1 aircraft to that standard.
- German Air Force – 180 ordered, of which 113 had been delivered by November 2015.
- Italian Air Force – 121 ordered, of which 76 have been delivered as of November 2015
- Kuwait Air Force – 28 ordered.
- Royal Air Force of Oman – 12 ordered.
- Royal Saudi Air Force – 72 ordered, of which 49 have been delivered as of November 2015.
- Spanish Air Force – 87 ordered, of which 55 have been delivered as of November 2015.
- Ala 11, Seville-Morón Air Base
- 111 Operational Squadron
- 113 Squadron, OCU Tactical pilot training and evaluation
- Ala 14, Albacete-Los Llanos Air Base
- 142 Operational Squadron
- Ala 46, Gando Airbase
- 462 Operational Squadron
- Ala 11, Seville-Morón Air Base
- Royal Air Force – 232 ordered, of which 134 have been delivered as of November 2015.
- RAF Coningsby, Lincolnshire, England.
- RAF Lossiemouth, Moray, Scotland.
- RAF Mount Pleasant, East Falkland, Falkland Islands
- Past Units.
- No. 17 Squadron RAF, OCU Tactical pilot training and evaluation
Data from RAF Typhoon data, Air Forces Monthly, Superfighters, and Brassey’s Modern Fighters
- Crew: 1 (operational aircraft) or 2 (training aircraft)
- Length: 15.96 m (52.4 ft)
- Wingspan: 10.95 m (35.9 ft)
- Height: 5.28 m (17.3 ft)
- Wing area: 51.2 m² (551 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 11,000 kg (24,250 lb)
- Loaded weight: 16,000 kg (35,270 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 23,500 kg (51,800 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Eurojet EJ200 afterburning turbofan
- Dry thrust: 60 kN (13,490 lbf) each
- Thrust with afterburner: >90 kN (20,230 lbf) each
- Fuel capacity: 5,000 kg (11,020 lb) internal
2 × Eurojet EJ200 afterburning turbofan
- Maximum speed:
- At altitude: Mach 2 class(2,495 km/h or 1,550 mph)
- At sea level: Mach 1.25 (1,470 km/h or 910 mph)
- Supercruise: Mach 1.5
- Range: 2,900 km (1,800 mi)
- Combat radius:
(with 3 external 1,000 l tanks)
- Ground attack, lo-lo-lo: 601 km (325 nmi)
- Ground attack, hi-lo-hi: 1,389 km (750 nmi)
- Air defence with 3-hr combat air patrol: 185 km (100 nmi)
- Air defence with 10-min. loiter: 1,389 km (750 nmi)
- Ferry range: >3,790 km (2,350 mi with 3 drop tanks)
- Service ceiling: 19,812 m (65,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: >315 m/s (62,000 ft/min)
- Wing loading: 312 kg/m²(63.9 lb/ft²)
- Thrust/weight: 1.15 (interceptor configuration)
- Maximum g-load: +9/−3 g
- Brakes-off to Take-off acceleration:
- Brakes-off to supersonic acceleration:
- Brakes-off to Mach 1.6 at 11,000 m (36,000 ft):
- Hardpoints: Total of 13: 8 × under-wing; and 5 × under-fuselage pylon stations; holding up to 7,500 kg (16,500 lb) of payload
Typical multi-role configuration for a Tranche 2-P1E would be 4×AMRAAM, 2×ASRAAM/IRIS-T, 4×EGBU-16/Paveway-IV, 2×1000-litre supersonic fuel tanks and a targeting pod.
Source: baesystems.com/eurofighter.com/wikipedia.org/storify.com/from the net
Updated on Oct 11, 2016
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