The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a fifth-generation single-seat, twin-engine, all-weather stealth tactical fighter aircraft developed for the United States Air Force (USAF). The result of the USAF’s Advanced Tactical Fighter program, the aircraft was designed primarily as an air superiority fighter, but has additional capabilities including ground attack, electronic warfare, and signals intelligence roles. Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor and was responsible for the majority of the airframe, weapon systems, and final assembly of the F-22, while program partner Boeing provided the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, and training systems.
The aircraft was variously designated F-22 and F/A-22 prior to formally entering service in December 2005 as the F-22A. After a protracted development and despite operational issues, the USAF considers the F-22 a critical component of its tactical air power, and states that the aircraft is unmatched by any known or projected fighter. The Raptor’s combination of stealth, aerodynamic performance, and situational awareness gives the aircraft unprecedented air combat capabilities.
The high cost of the aircraft, a lack of clear air-to-air missions due to delays in Russian and Chinese fighter programs, a ban on exports, and development of the more versatile and comparatively lower cost F-35 led to the end of F-22 production. A final procurement tally of 187 operational production aircraft was established in 2009 and the last F-22 was delivered to the USAF in 2012.
With an estimated $34 billion spent to procure the final product, F-22’s would cost an estimated $339 million per aircraft, with a cost of around $150 per each additional unit. The total program cost for the F-22’s is around $66 billion.
Because of the hefty price tag, there was a debate throughout the early 2000’s as to whether this was a viable program to complete. Staunch opposition came from Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, as well as Senator John McCain. Nevertheless, Congress decided to continue the F-22’s production in 2008 by way of a new spending bill. Source historyinorbit.com
In 1981 the U.S. Air Force developed a requirement for an Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) as a new air superiority fighter to replace the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon. Code named “Senior Sky“, this program was influenced by the emerging worldwide threats, including development and proliferation of Soviet Su-27 “Flanker”- and MiG-29 “Fulcrum”-class fighter aircraft. It would take advantage of the new technologies in fighter design on the horizon, including composite materials, lightweight alloys, advanced flight control systems, more powerful propulsion systems, and stealth technology. The request for proposals (RFP) was issued in July 1986 and two contractor teams, Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics and Northrop/McDonnell Douglas, were selected on 31 October 1986 to undertake a 50-month demonstration phase, culminating in the flight test of two technology demonstrator prototypes, the YF-22 and the YF-23.
Each design team produced two prototype air vehicles, one for each of the two engine options. The Lockheed-led team employed thrust vectoring nozzles on YF-22 for enhanced maneuverability in dogfights. The ATF’s increasing weight and cost drove out certain requirements during development. Side-looking radars were deleted, and the dedicated infra-red search and track (IRST) system was downgraded from multi-color to single color and then deleted as well. However, space and cooling provisions were retained to allow for future addition of these components. The ejection seat requirement was downgraded from a fresh design to the existing McDonnell Douglas ACES II.
After the flight test demonstration and validation of the prototypes, on 23 April 1991, Secretary of the USAF Donald Rice announced the YF-22 as the winner of the ATF competition. The YF-23 design was considered stealthier and faster while the YF-22 was more maneuverable. The aviation press speculated that the YF-22 was also more adaptable to the U.S. Navy’s Navalized Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF), but by 1992, the Navy had abandoned NATF.
Production and procurement
The F-22 had several design changes from the YF-22. The swept-back angle of the leading edge was decreased from 48° to 42°, while the vertical stabilizers were shifted rearward and decreased in area by 20%. To improve pilot visibility, the canopy was moved forward 7 inches (18 cm), and the engine intakes moved rearward 14 inches (36 cm). The shapes of the wing and stabilator trailing edges were refined to improve aerodynamics, strength, and stealth characteristics. Increasing weight during development caused slight reductions in range and aerodynamic performance.
In April 2006, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) assessed the F-22’s cost to be $361 million per aircraft, with $28 billion invested in development and testing; the Unit Procurement Cost was estimated at $178 million in 2006, based on a production run of 181 aircraft. It was estimated by the end of production, $34 billion will have been spent on procurement, resulting in a total program cost of $62 billion, around $339 million per aircraft. The incremental cost for an additional F-22 was estimated at about $138 million in 2009. The GAO stated the estimated cost was $412 million per aircraft in 2012.
OUT OF TIME: DO NOT REVIVE THE F-22: Here
Ban on exports
The IAF would be happy to equip itself with 24 F-22s, but the problem at this time is the U.S. refusal to sell the aircraft, and its $200 million price tag. Israeli Air Force (IAF) chief procurement officer Brigadier-General Ze’ev Snir.
Some Australian politicians and defense commentators proposed that Australia should attempt to purchase F-22s instead of the planned F-35s, citing the F-22’s known capabilities and F-35’s delays and developmental uncertainties. However, the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) determined that the F-22 was unable to perform the F-35’s strike and close air support roles. The Japanese government also showed interest in the F-22 for its Replacement-Fighter program. The Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) would reportedly require fewer fighters for its mission if it obtained the F-22, thus reducing engineering and staffing costs. However, in 2009 it was reported that acquiring the F-22 would require increases to the defense budget beyond the historical 1 percent of GDP. With the end of F-22 production, Japan chose the F-35 in December 2011. Israel also expressed interest, but eventually chose the F-35 because of the F-22’s price and unavailability.
Throughout the 2000s, the need for F-22s was debated due to rising costs and the lack of relevant adversaries. In 2006, Comptroller General of the United States David Walker found that “the DoD has not demonstrated the need” for more investment in the F-22, and further opposition to the program was expressed by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Deputy Secretary of Defense Gordon R. England, Senator John McCain, and Chairman of U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services Senator John Warner. The F-22 program lost influential supporters in 2008 after resignation of Secretary of the USAF Michael Wynne and General T. Michael Moseley. Nevertheless, in 2008, Congress passed a defense spending bill funding the F-22’s continued production and the Pentagon released $50 million of the $140 million for four additional aircraft, raising the total orders for production aircraft to 187 and leaving the program in the hands of the next administration.
In November 2008, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates stated that the Raptor was not relevant in post-Cold War conflicts such as in Iraq and Afghanistan, and in April 2009, under the new Obama Administration, he called for ending F-22 production in fiscal year (FY) 2011, leaving the USAF with 187 production aircraft. In July, General James Cartwright, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, stated to the Senate Committee on Armed Services his reasons for supporting termination of F-22 production. They included shifting resources to the multirole F-35 to allow proliferation of fifth-generation fighters for three service branches and preserving the F/A-18 production line to maintain the military’s electronic warfare (EW) capabilities in the Boeing EA-18G Growler.
See details of F35: HERE
See details of EA-18G Growler: HERE
Boeing EA-18G Growler
Issues with the F-22’s reliability and availability also raised concerns. After President Obama threatened to veto further production, the Senate voted in July 2009 in favor of ending production and the House subsequently agreed to abide by the 187 production aircraft cap. Gates stated that the decision was taken in light of the F-35’s capabilities, and in 2010, he set the F-22 requirement to 187 aircraft by lowering the number of major regional conflict preparations from two to one.
In 2010, USAF initiated a study to determine the costs of retaining F-22 tooling for a future Service Life Extension Program (SLEP). A RAND Corporation paper from this study estimated that restarting production and building an additional 75 F-22s would cost $17 billion, resulting in $227 million per aircraft or 54 million higher than the flyaway cost. Lockheed Martin stated that restarting the production line itself would cost about $200 million. Production tooling will be documented in illustrated electronic manuals stored at the Sierra Army Depot. Retained tooling will produce additional components; due to the limited production run there are no reserve aircraft, leading to considerable care during maintenance. Later attempts to retrieve this tooling found that the containers were empty.
F-22 with drop tanks
The Pentagon cannot continue with business as usual when it comes to the F-22 or any other program in excess of our needs.
Any guesses as far as its operating cost? In 2008, the Air Force claimed that the F-22 cost $44,259 per flying hour.
But the Office of the Secretary of Defense later stated that it was $49, 808. The former fighter, F-15, had an average cost of $30,818. Source historyinorbit.com
See details of Chinese J-31: HERE
In 2011, Gates explained that Chinese fifth-generation fighter developments had been accounted for when the number of F-22s was set, and that the U.S. would have a considerable advantage in stealth aircraft in 2025, even with F-35 delays. In December 2011, the 195th and final F-22 was completed out of 8 test and 187 operational aircraft produced, the aircraft was delivered to the USAF on 2 May 2012.
The first combat-capable Block 3.0 aircraft first flew in 2001. Increment 2, the first F-22 upgrade program, was implemented in 2005 and enables the aircraft to employ Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM).
An F-22A Raptor of USAF 27th Fighter Squadron, 1st Fighter Wing, Langley, Virginia releases a GBU-32 JDAM bomb (Photo Source: USAF via Air Power Australia)July 17, 2008 (by SrA Julius Delos Reyes) – On July 11, the 411th Flight Test Squadron passed a milestone as an F-22 Raptor travelling at supersonic speed dropped a GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb for the first time. (f-16.net)
Increment 3.1 provides improved ground-attack capability through synthetic aperture radar mapping and radio emitter direction finding, electronic attack and the GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb (SDB); testing began in 2009 and the first upgraded aircraft was delivered in 2012. Increment 3.2 is a two-part upgrade process; 3.2A focuses on electronic warfare, communications and identification, while 3.2B will allow the F-22 to fully exploit the AIM-9X and AIM-120D missiles.
Second EMD prototype F-22A 91-4002 fires an AIM-9 Sidewinder. (photo, Lockheed Martin)Internal weapon bay carriage of the JDAM and AMRAAM (USAF Photo).
The subsequent Increment 3.3 may include the adoption of an open avionics platform and air traffic control updates. Upgrades due in 2015 will allow the F-22 to employ the AIM-9X and have full Link 16 reception and transmission capability, and an upgrade scheduled in 2018 will integrate the AIM-120D into the weapons suite. The F-22 fleet is planned to have 36 Block 20 training and 149 Block 30/35 combat aircraft by 2016.
The first guided launch of the AIM-9X from an F-22 Raptor took place on 26 February Source: David Henry/Lockheed MartinThis F-22A Raptor from the 27th FS at Langley AFB fires an AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile at an aerial target drone over the Gulf of Mexico during a Combat Archer mission February 14. 2006. This missile is one of the first fired from an F-22A Raptor.Image @ausairpower.net
To enable two-way communication with other platforms, the F-22 can use the Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN) as a gateway. The originally planned MADL integration was cut due to the lack of system maturity. Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman are currently competing to connect the F-22 with other platforms while maintaining stealth. (see below)
Talon HATE pod: Details
F-15 fitted with Talon HATE pod for communication with F-22
This will allow American F-15C/D and other so-called “legacy” fighters, allied aircraft, ships, and ground and command-and-control assets that use MIDS/JTIDS Link 16 data links common to NATO countries to see what the F-22 sees. It does this by receiving and translating the F-22’s proprietary and stealthy Intra-flight data link (FIDL) transmissions into data the MIDS/Link 16 data link terminals can display.
F-22 Getting Software Update 6 for Datalink and Sensor Targeting Technology: Here
The Air Force is in the early phases of designing new sensors for its stealthy 5th-generation F-22 Raptor as it proceeds with software upgrades, hardware adjustments, new antennas and data link improvements designed to better enable to connect the F-22 and F-35 sensor packages to one another, industry officials explained.
Sensor interoperability, two-way data links and other kinds of technical integration between the two 5th-Gen stealth aircraft are considered key to an Air Force combat strategy which intends for the F-22 speed and air-to-air combat supremacy to complement and work in tandem with the F-35’s next-gen sensors, precision-attack technology, computers and multi-role fighting mission ability.
“The F-22 is designed to fly in concert with F-35. Software Update 6 for the F-22 will give the Air Force a chance to link their sensor packages together. Sensors are a key component to its capability. As the F-22 gets its new weapons on board – you are going to need to upgrade the sensors to use the new weapons capability,” John Cottam, F-22 Program Deputy, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics, told Scout Warrior in an interview.
Software Update 6 Details
In 2012, Government Accountability Office (GAO) documents show that the USAF plans to bring 143 F-22As to the Block 35 standard with full Increment 3.2 upgrades at a total cost of $1.5653 billion and a unit cost of $10.298 million per airframe. These 143 airframes likely consist of 123 PMAI (Primary Mission Aircraft Inventory) aircraft as well as those squadron’s accompanied 12 BAIs (Backup Aircraft Inventory) airframes and the remaining 8 airframes would plausibly be assigned to Nellis for TES or USAF Weapons School roles. Major F-22 upgrade programs are detailed below, the upgrades are generally understood to be associated with the following Block designations:
- Increment 2.0 = Block 20 – earlier airframes upgraded to this baseline
- Increment 3.1 = Block 30
- Increment 3.2 = Block 35
In addition to the upgrade programs below, the F-22 is receiving additional upgrades through the Increment 3.2 follow-on, “Budget Program Activity Code [BPAC]: 674788 – F-22 Tactical Mandates” which consists of Update 5 and Update 6.
GAO vs USAF description of F-22 modernization effort components retrieved via CRS. Auto GCAS capability has been withdrawn from the Increment 3.2 upgrade and is now featured within the Update 5 software modification. Much more detailed examination of F-22 upgrades is available here: http://manglermuldoon.blogspot.com/2014/03/the-uncertain-future-of-americas.html – Image: manglermuldoon.blogspot.com
The F-22 Tactical Mandates series of software upgrades have three principal objectives: reduce the risk of fratricide, improve fourth-to-fifth generation communication, and complete risk reduction measures for the Increment 3.2B upgrade via partial integration of the AIM-9X. The most substantial Tactical Mandates components not listed under either Update 5 or Update 6 are Link-16 transmit capability and Identification friend or foe (IFF) mode 5 integration. A total of 72 F-22As will receive Link-16 transmit capability by 2020; the distribution of these 72 aircraft among the PMAI squadrons and the nature of the Link-16 modification, i.e. use of L-3 developed “Chameleon” waveform to reduce probability of detection, have not been specified.  In the interim period prior to the 2020 Link-16 upgrade, Raptor pilots will continue to utilize a series of ad-hoc operational procedures to share information over UHF and VHF radio with 4th generation pilots when there are no Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN) aircraft is not present; Update 5 modified aircraft will also be able to utilize the Intra-Flight Data Link (IFDL) GWY Mode as a means to communicate with 4th generation aircraft.
In 2014, pilots from the 422d TES tested the Scorpion helmet mounted cueing system (HMCS) for integration with the F-22. However, the Scorpion was ultimately not funded as the Air Force was struggling to fund Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) mandated items such as mode 5 IFF as part of the Tactical Mandates program. While integration of a HMCS or helmet mounted display (HMD) may seem of greater utility to F-22 combat capabilities than IFF upgrades, aircraft than have not featured the latest available IFF standard have often been relegated to subordinate roles or have had to adhere to strict rules of engagement which greatly diminish the capabilities of their aircraft. For example, F-4 Phantoms often struggled to identify distant radar contacts in the early years of the Vietnam War such that full use of the Phantom’s beyond visual range (BVR) capabilities was not realized until the fielding of the APX-80 IFF in 1972.
BAE PowerPoint slide showing contract award for AN/DPX-7 transponder integration into the F-22. TACAN = Tactical Air Navigation, ADS-B = Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast, M5L2 = Mode 5 Level 2 – Broadcast. Image Credit: BAE systems. Image: manglermuldoon.blogspot.com
The APX-80 IFF was developed under the “Combat Tree” program in which the U.S. covertly acquired Soviet SRO-2 IFFs from Arab MiGs downed during the Six Day War. APX-80 equipped Phantoms enabled pilots to not only recognize friendly IFF contacts, but also to definitely recognize adversary aircraft at BVR.
The Update 5 software modification component of the Tactical Mandates program is actively being integrated within the F-22 fleet, “The Update 5 Operation Flight Program (OFP) includes Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (AGCAS), Intra Flight Data Link Mode 5th to 4th generation IFDL capability (IFDL GWY Mode), and basic to Block I AIM-9X missile launch capability”. Full integration of the more capable AIM-9X Block II requires Increment 3.2B upgrades which prove two-way datalink functionality between the F-22 and AIM-9X Block II thereby enabling lock-after launch (LOAL) capability. Furthermore, the symbology, possibly the weapons engagement zone (WEZ), for the AIM-9X is displayed with AIM-9M characteristics on the F-22’s HUD under the Update 5 modification. Increment 3.2B will rectify the symbology issues but is not scheduled to incorporate a HMD which facilitate AIM-9X HOBS. However, Raptor pilots will still be able to fully utilize the AIM-9X’s increased range and maneuverability enhancements over the AIM-9M as a result of the Update 5 modification. While the AIM-9X integration component of Update 5 is significant, the AGCAS capability is critical to mitigating the potential of future write-offs within the small F-22 fleet; the Update 5 modification also improves general software stability.
Update 6 appears to be geared towards both denying potential adversaries a source of signals intelligence and bolstering the cyber security, and possibly the resilience of, of Link-16 and IFDL:
U6 will develop, test and field new capabilities and capability enhancements including changes driven by real world evolving threats, emergency/safety of flight issues, and deficiency reports. U6 Interoperability provides cryptographic updates required by the National Security Agency (NSA) to IFDL, Link-16, and Tactical Secure Voice (TSV) and development to maintain interoperability with the enhancements to Link-16 and Secure Voice networks. The U6 Interoperability program will absorb and build upon the development work already accomplished in the KOV-20 Cryptographic Modernization Program and integrate that development into a single Operational Flight Program (OFP) for fleet release. In addition, U6 Interoperability will develop and deliver software fixes identified as critical to the operational community. – Exhibit R-2, RDT&E Budget Item Justification: PB 2016 Air Force – PE 0207138F: F, 2015. [Emphasis added]
While the current F-22 modernization program represents a holistic approach to increasing the combat capabilities of the fleet with respect to suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD)/destruction of enemy air defense (DEAD) roles, augmenting the F-22’s already formidable beyond visual range (BVR) and within visual range (WVR) capabilities, and improving 4th to 5th generation compatibility – planned upgrades to not remedy deeper design deficiencies within the F-22A. While the F-22 is unambiguously the most lethal air-to-air platform in existence, the F-22 was designed during the 1980s and 1990s under a different threat and technological environment. Namely the F-22’s antiquated internal computing capabilities, software, high maintenance requirements, and limited combat radius degrade the utility of the F-22 within the context of operating in the Asia-Pacific against increasingly capable great power threats. Source manglermuldoon.blogspot.com
Thales Scorpion Helmet Mounted Cueing Systems (HMCS)
Thales to supply Scorpion® helmet display
- This is the first helmet mounted display that features colour symbology and video imaging for both daytime and nighttime missions.
- Thales will be responsible for the viability study, testing phase, integration with test aircraft, qualification support and integration in the fleet.
Thales will also be responsible for the development and production of the specific configuration for the Spanish Air Force EF-18. The system is already operational in multiple platforms in the United States
Image @thalesvisionix.comImage @thalesvisionix.com
Scorpion® is a ‘force multiplier’ system offering full colour symbology (navigation, intelligence, combat, etc.) for both nighttime and daytime missions, in addition to target cueing in potentially degraded visual environments, therefore easily allowing target designation and allocation of points of interest with the aircraft’s sensors. Scorpion® is fully interchangeable between helmets/pilots as it is installed directly over standard helmets, allowing the total amount of equipment necessary for the fleet to be reduced, thus favouring maintenance and reducing life-cycle costs.
Sensor Video Capability @thalesvisionix.com
Thales will be responsible for the viability study, testing phase, integration with test aircraft, qualification support and integration in the fleet. Thales will also be responsible for the development and production of the specific Scorpion® configuration for the Spanish EF-18 including ejection safety analysis. The qualification phase includes inter-operability with the IRIS-T missile and the daytime/ nighttime-imaging pod for cueing lightening targets.
Note to editors
The HMCS uses the patented and innovative HObIT (Hybrid Optical based Inertial Tracking) technology, the hybrid reference system that warrants high precision with minimum cabin intrusion. For nighttime missions, Scorpion can be operated with standard unmodified night vision goggles (NVG), therefore offering the same quality colour/video imaging symbol combination.
The system is already operational on multiple platforms in the United States such as the F16 Block 30/32 and the A10 ‘Thunderbolt II’ and has been flight tested on the F-22, the NH-90 and many other platforms. At present, the system is being actively evaluated by other clients globally.
The different AIM-9X envelopes (credit: Hughes via The War Zone) – theaviationist.com
F-22 complets operational tests of air-to-air missiles against an aerial target: Here
The USAF Is Adding a Newish F-22 to its Fleet of Flight Test Raptors: Here
The U.S. Air Force may have shot down recent plans to restart production of the F-22 Raptor, but it will soon add one more of the stealth fighters to its active fleet. The service has pulled one the jets out of mothballs in order to expand its operational test force as work continues to expand the capabilities of the combat-coded jets.
The Air Force confirmed to FlightGlobal that it was in the process of rehabilitating an Raptor, with the serial number 91-4006, at Edwards Air Force Base in California. Edwards is home to the 411th Flight Test Squadron, which oversees the F-22 Combined Test Force (CTF).
The Raptor, which is a Block 10 aircraft, had been in flyable storage. An Air Force spokesperson told FlightGlobal that it would take $25 million bring the plane’s avionics up to Block 20 standards, as well as update its electrical and hydraulics systems and flight controls.
Air Force F-22 Conducts Operational Testing of New Weapons Tech: Here
The Air Force is now conducting operational tests of new software and weapons technology for the F-22 designed to help modernize the stealth fighter and expand the range
The Air Force is now conducting operational tests of new software and weapons technology for the F-22 designed to help modernize the stealth fighter and expand the range of weapons it is able to fire in combat, service and industry officials said.
Air Force officials have told Scout Warrior that, by 2019, the service will begin upgrading F-22 functionality for the AIM-120D and AIM-9X Air-to-Air missiles as well as enhanced Air-to-Surface target location capabilities. The F-22 currently carries the AIM-9X Block 1 and the current upgrade will enable carriage of AIM-9X Block 2.
Current operational testing of the F-22 is focused upon a 3.2B software upgrade for the fighter, allowing it to quickly integrate weapons upgrades, a story in Aviation Week stated.
Raytheon AIM-9X weapons developers explain that the Block 2 variant adds a redesigned fuze and a digital ignition safety device that enhances ground handling and in-flight safety. Block II also features updated electronics that enable significant enhancements, including lock-on-after-launch capability using a new weapon datalink to support beyond visual range engagements, a Raytheon statement said.
Another part of the weapons upgrade includes engineering the F-22 to fire the AIM-120D, a beyond visual range Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM), designed for all weather day-and-night attacks; it is a “fire and forget” missile with active transmit radar guidance, Raytheon data states. The AIM-120D is built with upgrades to previous AMRAAM missiles by increasing attack range, GPS navigation, inertial measurment units and a two-way data link, Raytheon statements explain.
20 Years of the Mighty F-22 Raptor Stealth Fighter: Here
The Raptor is being upgraded with new avionics and software, but eventually the jet will need a complete overhaul of its computer hardware. “Sometime between 2025 and 2030 we’re going to have to take a serious look at the supportability of some of the systems onboard the Raptor and upgrading those,” McIntyre said. “We’re currently in the very early stage of looking at that.”
Despite the Raptor’s stealth and blistering performance, by 2030 the F-22 will no longer be the top of the line as the enemy catches up. Potential adversaries like Russia and China are designing measures to defeat the Raptor and American air superiority writ large.
Comparison of control surfaces of F-22 and T-50
Detailed comparison of PAK FA T50 VS F22 Raptor: Here
The Raptor’s aerodynamic performance, sensor fusion, and stealth work together for increased effectiveness. Altitude, speed, and advanced active and passive sensors allow the aircraft to spot targets at considerable ranges and increase weapons range; altitude and speed also complement stealth’s ability to increase the aircraft’s survivability against ground defenses such as surface-to-air missiles.
Key avionics include BAE Systems EI&S AN/ALR-94 radar warning receiver (RWR), Lockheed Martin AN/AAR-56 infrared and ultraviolet Missile Launch Detector (MLD) and Northrop Grumman AN/APG-77 active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar. The MLD features six sensors to provide full spherical infrared coverage.
AN/ALR-94 radar warning receiver (RWR)
|Type: ESM||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 926 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Late 2000s|
|Sensors / EW:|
|AN/ALR-94 – ESM
Max Range: 926 km
Lockheed Martin AN/AAR-56 infrared and ultraviolet Missile Launch Detector (MLD)
|Type: Infrared||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 9.3 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0 km||Generation: Early 2010s|
|Properties: Continous Tracking Capability [Visual]|
|Sensors / EW:|
|AN/AAR-56 PMAWS – (F-22) Infrared
Role: MAWS, Missile Approach Warning System
Max Range: 9.3 km
The RWR is a passive radar detector with more than 30 antennas are blended into the wings and fuselage for all-round coverage. Tom Burbage, former F-22 program head at Lockheed Martin, described it as “the most technically complex piece of equipment on the aircraft.” The range of the RWR (250+ nmi) exceeds the radar’s, and can cue radar emissions to be confined to a narrow beam (down to 2° by 2° in azimuth and elevation) to increase stealth.
Depending on the detected threat, the defensive systems can prompt the pilot to release countermeasures such as flares or chaff. According to Bill Sweetman, experts had said the ALR-94 can be used as a passive detection system capable of searching targets and providing enough information for a radar lock on.
Stealth changes the tactical environment in fundamental ways. The first result of stealth is that the opponent cannot see the stealthy fighter on radar, or detect its radar on a warning receiver. Therefore, the stealthy fighter can locate, identify and stalk its opponent without being detected. A stealthy fighter can therefore exploit von Richtoven’s fundamental axiom, approach its victim undetected and shoot from six o’clock before the opposing fighter even knows it is there.
To fully exploit its technological advantage, the stealthy fighter will therefore need to adopt hit-and-run ambush tactics and avoid being drawn into a “turn-and-burn” knife-fight-in-a-phone-booth. At ranges inside 3 miles, a stealthy fighter loses its basic advantage of undetectability, as it may be tracked visually, and an opposing fighter’s radar and missiles can detect it and track it.
Therefore a stealthy fighter will maximise its survivability and lethality by staying outside its opponent’s visual engagement envelope, positioning itself for a shot and then shooting a fire-and-forget missile. Source ausairpower.net
The AN/APG-77 AESA radar
|Type: Radar||Altitude Max: 0 m|
|Range Max: 222.2 km||Altitude Min: 0 m|
|Range Min: 0.2 km||Generation: Late 2000s|
|Properties: Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) [Side Info], Non-Coperative Target Recognition (NCTR) – Narrow Beam Interleaved Search and Track [Class Info], Continous Tracking Capability [Phased Array Radar], Track While Scan (TWS), Low Probability of Intercept (LPI), Pulse Doppler Radar (Full LDSD Capability), Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA)|
|Sensors / EW:|
|AN/APG-77(V)1 AESA – (LPI) Radar
Role: Radar, FCR, Air-to-Air & Air-to-Surface, Medium-Range
Max Range: 222.2 km
The F-22’s software has some 1.7 million lines of code, the majority involving processing radar data. Former Secretary of the USAF Michael Wynne blamed the use of the DoD’s Ada for cost overruns and delays on many military projects, including the F-22. Cyberattacks on subcontractors have reportedly raised doubts about the security of the F-22’s systems and combat-effectiveness. In 2009, former Navy Secretary John Lehman considered the F-22 to be safe from cyberattack, citing the age of its IBM software.
Cockpit of the F-22, showing instruments, head up display and throttle top (lower left)
The F-22 has integrated radio functionality, the signal processing systems are virtualized rather than as a separate hardware module. There have been several reports on the F-22’s inability to communicate with other aircraft, and funding cuts have affected the integration of the Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL). Voice communication is possible, but not data transfer.
ACES II (Advanced Concept Ejection Seat)
F-22 Raptor pilots wear a new anti-g suit which incorporates an upper body counterpressure garmet along with the traditional lower body “speed jeans” G suit
BAE picked to Modernize HUD for F-22s: Here
Digital Light Engine Head-Up Display (HUD)
BAE Systems has been a leader in HUD development and production for more than 50 years, a position gained through continuous investment in technology and innovation. BAE Systems:
- has produced over 14,000 head-up displays
- that are in service on over 50 different aircraft types
- and for more than 50 countries
- Better situational awareness for the military aviator
- Allows some freedom of head movement, reducing pilot fatigue
- Backward compatible to any existing aircraft interface which offers minimal impact on display performance
Designed for mission effectiveness, the DLE HUD has addressed obsolescence issues by:
- removing the conventional cathode ray tube (CRT) technology powering the display and
- introducing a more advanced digital display solution
With more military aircraft upgrade advancements to digital display solutions, the DLE HUD offers easy integration into existing HUD space. Offering more than 20 percent life cycle cost reduction and at least four times greater Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF), the DLE HUD is a future proof investment in the advanced display technology segment.
Typical performance specification
|Specification Display Source||Analogue Symbol Generator, EU, AEU, MLU, IMDC|
|Display Surface Resolution||1280 x 1024 pixels|
|Field of View||25° x 22°|
|Display Luminance||0 to > 2000 ftL|
|Luminance Uniformity||< 20% within a 10° diameter area|
|< 30% over the TFoV|
|Secondary Images||< 2% of primary|
|Display Contrast||> 1.2:1 against an ambient of 10,000 ftL|
|> 1200:1 Sequential|
|Outside World Transmission||> 75%|
|Image Positional Accuracy||< 0.8mR error within 5° of CFoV < 1mR elsewhere within FoV|
|Mass||< 20.1 Kilograms (ballast may be applied to maintain C of G position if required)|
|Operating Temperature||-40°C to +75°C|
|Storage Temperature||-40°C to +85°C|
|Operating Altitude||0 to 70,000 ft|
|Dimensions||Form Fit Function|
The pilot garments were developed under the Advanced Technology Anti-G Suit (ATAGS) project and are to protect against chemical/biological hazards and cold-water immersion, counter g-forces and low pressure at high altitudes, and provide thermal relief. Suspicions regarding the performance of the OBOGS and life support equipment have been raised by several mishaps, including a fatal crash.
The main bay can accommodate six LAU-142/A launchers for beyond-visual-range missiles @mscsoftware.com (See below how it works)
Each side bay has an LAU-141/A launcher for short-range missiles (See below for details)Image @defenceindustrydaily.comImage @ausairpower.net
The F-22 can also carry air-to-surface weapons such as bombs with Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) guidance and the Small-Diameter Bomb, but cannot self-designate for laser-guided weapons. Internal air-to-surface ordnance is limited to 2,000 lb.
M61A2 Vulcan 20 mm cannon
Rate of fire
4,000/6,000 shots per minute
8 milliradians diameter, 80 percent circle
3,380 feet (1,030m) per second
Average recoil force
Hydraulic, electric, pneumatic
Linked or linkless
An internally mounted M61A2 Vulcan 20 mm cannon is embedded in the right wing
An internally mounted M61A2 Vulcan 20 mm cannon is embedded in the right wing root with the muzzle covered by a retractable door to maintain stealth. The radar projection of the cannon fire’s path is displayed on the pilot’s head-up display.
F-22 with external weapons pylons @ausairpower.net
Port tail boom rear view – Image @aircraftresourcecenter.comEngine exhaust – Image @aircraftresourcecenter.comPort tail boom – Image @aircraftresourcecenter.comArrestor hook. If you look at the fly-by picture, you won’t see the hook. It’s faired in when it’s retracted (see below). – Image @eaa42.orgDetails of arrestor hook housing – Image @aircraftresourcecenter.com
The effectiveness of the stealth characteristics is difficult to gauge. The RCS value is a restrictive measurement of the aircraft’s frontal or side area from the perspective of a static radar. When an aircraft maneuvers it exposes a completely different set of angles and surface area, potentially increasing radar observability. Furthermore, the F-22’s stealth contouring and radar absorbent materials are chiefly effective against high-frequency radars, usually found on other aircraft. The effects of Rayleigh scattering and resonance mean that low-frequency radars such as weather radars and early-warning radars are more likely to detect the F-22 due to its physical size. However, such radars are also conspicuous, susceptible to clutter, and have low precision. Additionally, while faint or fleeting radar contacts make defenders aware that a stealth aircraft is present, reliably vectoring interception to attack the aircraft is much more challenging. According to the USAF an F-22 surprised an Iranian F-4 Phantom II that was attempting to intercept an American UAV, despite Iran’s claim of having military VHF radar coverage over the Persian Gulf.
Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 engines
Thrust Vectoring – uses the powerful Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 engines with built-in single dimension thrust vectoring that enables the Raptor to make tight maneuvers
On April 23, 1991, the F119 was selected to power the F-22 Raptor with ground testing commencing in late 1992. The F119 was selected over General Electric‘s F120 variable cycle turbofan engine. On August 2, 1991, Pratt & Whitney was awarded $1.38 billion in contracts. In September 1997, the F-22 made its first flight and, in December 2000, the first production engine was delivered. On December 15, 2005, the U.S. Air Force announced that the F-22 Raptor was combat-ready, thus achieving Initial Operating Capability (IOC) status. On December 12, 2007, the F-22 achieved Full Operational Capability (FOC) status.
In February 2012, the F119 surpassed the 200,000 flight hour milestone. By January 2013, F119 engines had accumulated more than 250,000 flight hours. On January 17, 2013, Pratt & Whitney Military Engines delivered the 507th and final F119 production engine.
The F119 Heavy Maintenance Center (HMC) at Tinker Air Force Base in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma completed the first depot overhaul of an F119 engine in March 2013.
Manufacturer: Pratt & Whitney (United Technologies)
Thrust: 35,000 pounds
Overall Pressure Ratio at Maximum Power: 26.8
Thrust-to-Weight Ratio: Unknown
Compressor: Two spool, axial flow, three-stage fan
LP-HP Compressor Stages: 0-6
HP-LP Turbine Stages: 1-1
Combustor Type: Annular
Engine Control: FADEC
Length: 203 in (5.16 m)
Dry Weight: Unknown
Platforms: F-22A Raptor
From my research and readings it seems the Russians and Chinese are extensively deploying L-band radars :-
Chinese KJ-2000 and KJ-200 AEW&C/AWACS radars, all operate in the L-band
Chinese KJ-2000 AWACS: HERE
Chinese KJ-2000 AWACS
- YF-22A – pre-production technology demonstrator for ATF demonstration/validation phase; two were built.
- F-22A – single-seat production version, was designated F/A-22A in early 2000s.
- F-22B – planned two-seat variant, but was canceled in 1996 to save development costs.
- Naval F-22 variant – a carrier-borne variant of the F-22 with variable-sweep wings for the U.S. Navy’s Navy Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF) program to replace the F-14 Tomcat. Program was canceled in 1993. Former SoAF Donald Rice has called the possibility of the naval variant the deciding factor for his choice of the YF-22 over the YF-23.
The FB-22 was a proposed medium-range bomber for the USAF. The FB-22 was projected to carry up to 30 Small Diameter Bombs to about twice the range of the F-22A, while maintaining the F-22’s stealth and supersonic speed. However, the FB-22 in its planned form appears to have been canceled with the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review and subsequent developments, in lieu of a larger subsonic bomber with a much greater range.
The X-44 MANTA, or multi-axis, no-tail aircraft, was a planned experimental aircraft based on the F-22 with enhanced thrust vectoring controls and no aerodynamic surface backup. The aircraft was to be solely controlled by thrust vectoring, without featuring any rudders, ailerons, or elevators. Funding for this program was halted in 2000.
Primary Function: Air dominance, multi-role fighter
Contractor: Lockheed-Martin, Boeing
Power Plant: Two Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 turbofan engines with afterburners and two-dimensional thrust vectoring nozzles.
Thrust: 35,000-pound class (each engine)
Wingspan: 44 feet, 6 inches (13.6 meters)
Length: 62 feet, 1 inch (18.9 meters)
Height: 16 feet, 8 inches (5.1 meters)
Weight: 43,340 pounds (19,700 kilograms)
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 83,500 pounds (38,000 kilograms)
Fuel Capacity: Internal: 18,000 pounds (8,200 kilograms); with 2 external wing fuel tanks: 26,000 pounds (11,900 kilograms)
Payload: Same as armament air-to-air or air-to-ground loadouts; with or without 2 external wing fuel tanks.
Speed: Mach 2 class with supercruise capability
Range: More than 1,850 miles ferry range with 2 external wing fuel tanks (1,600 nautical miles)
Ceiling: Above 50,000 feet (15 kilometers)
Armament: One M61A2 20-millimeter cannon with 480 rounds, internal side weapon bays carriage of two AIM-9 infrared (heat seeking) air-to-air missiles and internal main weapon bays carriage of six AIM-120 radar-guided air-to-air missiles (air-to-air loadout) or two 1,000-pound GBU-32 JDAMs and two AIM-120 radar-guided air-to-air missiles (air-to-ground loadout)
Unit Cost: $143 million
Initial operating capability: December 2005
Inventory: Total force, 183
- AN/APG-77radar: 125–150 miles (200–240 km) against 1 m2 (11 sq ft) targets (estimated range)
- AN/AAR-56 Missile Launch Detector (MLD)
- AN/ALR-94 radar warning receiver (RWR): 250 nmi (463 km) or more detection range
- MJU-39/40 flares for protection against IR missiles
Main material source Wiki
Updated Jan 27, 2018