Dokdo Class Landing Platform Helicopter (LPH)

ROKS Dokdo (LPH 6111) is the Landing Platform Helicopter (LPH) of the Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN). The LPH was built by Hanjin Heavy Industries and Construction in Busan. The ship was named after the Dokdo islets in the East Sea.

The lead ship in its class, ROKS Dokdo (LPH 6111), was launched in July 2005 and commissioned into the ROKN in July 2007. The ROKN also planned to deploy two similar ships intended for strategic mobile units. The second and third units will be named Marado (LPH 6112) and Baengnyeong (LPH 6113).

ROKS Dokdo (LPH-6111) sails alongside amphibious assault ship USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD 6) and other ships of the Bonhomme Richard Amphibious Ready Group and ROK Navy during exercise Ssang Yong. (U.S. Navy/MC2 Michael Achterling)

Ships in the class

Name Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
Dokdo (LPH 6111) ? 2005 2007

active, in service

Marado (LPH 6112) ? expected in 2020 ?

under construction

Bayengnyeong (LPH 6113) ? ? ?



Dokdo LPH acts as a command and control platform for the maritime mobile fleet and supports three-dimensional landing operations as well as maritime air operations. It can also be deployed in a range of operations including in support of national overseas policy, peacekeeping operations, disaster recovery, counter-terrorism operations and national prestige enhancement.

Dokdo is the largest vessel in the South Korean Navy. It has almost similar specifications compared to the Spanish Navy’s aircraft carrier Príncipe de Asturias and the Thai Navy’s Chakri Naruebet light aircraft carrier.

Príncipe de Asturias: Details

H.T.M.S. Chakri Naruebet: Details

Design and features

The hull is divided into four decks to accommodate helicopters, assault amphibious vehicles (AAV), landing craft air cushion (LCAC), tanks and trucks. Accommodation facilities, command posts and crew life support systems are located on deck 2.

Developed based on the concept of over-the-horizon assaults, Dokdo can conduct amphibious landing operations with high-speed LCAC and helicopters from beyond the horizon.

The ship’s combat data system manages and controls onboard weapons and allows the ship to command support vessels and aircraft in the strategic mobile operation fleet.

The ship has an overall length of 199m, a width of 31m and a draught of 7m. The standard displacement of the vessel is 14,000t and full load displacement is 18,000t. The LPH can carry over 700 marines, 10 trucks, six tanks, six AAVs, three field artillery pieces, 10 helicopters and two LCACs. Dokdo can complement more than 330 crew members.

ROKS Marado 6112 

KBS News

Aircraft capabilities

The flight deck can accommodate five UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters at a time. The aircraft hangar facility is provided for UH-60 helicopter and the AH-1 attack helicopter. The aeroplane shed on the lower deck is a multi-layer structure equipped with elevators.

US Navy MH-60S landing on the flight deck of Dokdo.

The flight deck is covered with Urethane to withstand the heat created by the aircraft during operations.

Image: Image:

The ship can operate short-range and VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) aircraft such as the Harrier or F-35B, when equipped with a ski jump board module.


S. Korea’s military mulls operating F-35B stealth aircraft aboard new amphibious assault ship: Here


South Korea’s military has begun to consider operating F-35B stealth aircraft from its newest amphibious landing ship slated to be deployed in 2020, as part of efforts to strengthen its naval power, sources said Monday.

The authorities have recently discussed whether the second 14,000-ton Dokdo-class vessel can carry the F-35B fighter, a short takeoff and vertical landing variant of the U.S.-made fifth-generation warplane.

“I understand that the military top brass have recently discussed whether they can introduce a small number of F-35B fighters and operate them aboard the new ship that has already been deployed and one to be additionally built,” a military source told Yonhap News Agency, declining to be named.

Weapon systems

The LPH is armed with RIM-116 RAM (rolling airframe missile) system. RAM is an infrared homing surface-to-air missile used against anti-ship cruise missiles.

The missile can travel at a maximum speed of Mach 2 while carrying a blast fragmentation warhead for a range of 9km. The ship is also fitted with two goalkeeper close-in weapon systems (CIWS) supplied by Thales Nederland. The system provides close-point defence against incoming missiles and ballistic shells. The seven barrelled CIWS can fire 4,200 rounds a minute for a maximum range of 2,000m.

RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile Block 1


The RAM program is designed to provide surface ships with an effective, low-cost, lightweight, self-defense system which will provide an improved capability to engage and defeat incoming antiship cruise missiles (ASCMs). RAM is a joint United States and German venture to design an effective, low cost, lightweight quick-reaction, self-defense system which will increase the survivability of otherwise undefended ships. It is a 5 inch missile that utilizes SIDEWINDER technology for the warhead and rocket motor, and the STINGER missiles seeker. Cueing is provided by the ships ESM suite or radar. The MK-31 RAM Guided Missile Weapon System (GMWS) is defined as the MK-49 Guided Missile Launching System (GMLS) and the MK-44 Guided Missile Round Pack (GMRP).


The RAM Block 0 has a five-inch diameter airframe that rolls in flight and dual mode, passive radio frequency/infrared (RF/IR) guidance. Initial homing for RAM Block 0 is in RF, using an ASCM’s RF seeker emissions. If the ASCM’s IR radiation is acquired, RAM transitions to IR guidance.


Effective against a wide spectrum of existing threats, the RAM Block 1 IR upgrade incorporates a new IR “all-the-way-homing” guidance mode to improve AW performance against evolving passive and active ASCMs. The Block 1 missile retains all capabilities of the Block 0 missile while adding two guidance modes, IR only and IR Dual Mode Enable (IRDM). The IR only mode guides on the IR signature of the ASCM. The IRDM will guide on the IR signature of the ASCM while retaining the capability of utilizing RF guidance if the ASCM RF signature becomes adequate to guide on. RAM Block I can be launched in an IR all-the-way mode, as well as the dual mode (passive RF, followed by passive IR) used by Block 0.


The launching system and missiles comprise the weapon system. Source

Goalkeeper close-in weapon systems (CIWS)

The system automatically performs the entire process from surveillance and detection to destruction, including selection of the next priority target. The crucial importance of a last-ditch defence system has been proven on numerous occasions. To provide for this need, Thales developed Goalkeeper, an extremely effective system, that incorporates the 30 mm, 7-barrel Gatling gun with special missile-piercing ammunition. The combination of MPDS ammunition and a firing rate of 4200 rds/min gives the system the power necessary to destroy missile warheads.

Goalkeeper provides excellent performance against surface targets. Search and track radars, weapon control and integration of the total system are Thales’ strengths. A high detection probability for small targets is ensured in all weather conditions by the use of an I-band search radar. Pin-point target tracking is achieved by the dual frequency I/K-band track radar. Continuous search with track-while-scan ensures rapid engagement of the next priority target in multitarget scenarios.

Goalkeeper’s capabilities have been proven many times during sea-going trials. U.S. trials in which 3 types of live missiles were destroyed by Goalkeeper, conclusively confirmed the capabilities of this proven Close-In Weapon System.

Goalkeeper is operational in the navies of Belgium, Chile, the Netherlands, Portugal, Qatar, South Korea, the UAE and the UK.




ROKS Marado 6112 



Currently a little larger than the form of the VLS KVLS mounted on the KD-2 and KD-3

If only the hyeonyong KVLS compared with MK.41, new KVLS is comparable to MK.57 mounted on the zoom Walt.

This will not only of the existing cruise missiles for the navy and Korean ASROC Hong Tianlong sharks, to a large degree geotteun presumably missiles than can operate. Source

Korean Surface-to-Air Anti-Missile (SAAM, or K-SAAM)

SAAM is a homing missile mounted on surface ships to intercept multiple homing missiles, aircraft, warships and guided bombs fired toward friendly ships, capable of engaging multiple targets simultaneously. Although the existing homing missiles mounted on surface ships to intercept homing missiles fired toward friendly ships are mostly introduced from abroad, the R&D project is underway in Korea to develop domestic surface-to-air anti-missiles that are superior in performance, stable in production and low in cost. Source

Radar technology

The ship’s long range volume search radar is the Thales SMART-L. The radar can detect and track targets within the range of 400km. The ship is also equipped with MW08 surface search radar and AN/SPS-95K navigation radar.

Thales SMART-L

Related image

Main features
• Multibeam architecture
• Pulse-Doppler processing over complete coverage
• Wide Elevation coverage
• One single mode
• Fast reaction capability
• Mission selectable illumination patterns
• Simultaneous air- and surface surveillance channel

Functional Aspects
• Long range air surveillance:
– Build-up of recognised air picture
– Fighter direction
– Non-Cooperative Target Recognition
– Local ATC
• Surface surveillance up to radar horizon
• Passive Jamming surveillance.

• Ballistic Missile Defense support
• Military Patrol Aircraft : ~400 km
• Stealth missile : ~65 km

Technical Data
Instrumented data:
• Range (air) : 400km
• Elevation : 70°
• Capacity : >1000 tracks

• Polarisation : Vertical
• Horizontal beamwidth : 2.2°
• Update rate : 5 seconds
• Electronic stabilisation
• Very low sidelobes
• Integrated IFF Antenna
• Maintenance from inside the antenna

• Frequency : D-band
• Solid State

Processing capacity
• Digital beamforming
• Multipath suppression using beams under the horizon
• Doppler FFT processing including radial speed determination
• Cluttermap and jamming map
• Least jammed frequency operation
• Multiple hypothesis tracking

Detection Ranges
• 2 km against RHIB
• 7 km against FPB


ELM-2248 MF-STAR (ROKS Marado LPH-6112)

ROKS MaradoLPH-6112

The MF-STAR (ELM-2248) is a multi-function solid-state digital active phased array radar system for the new generation of naval platforms. The radar system delivers high quality situation picture and weapon support, under severe target/environmental conditions in the current and future naval arena. Incorporating advanced technology and robust system architecture, the MF-STAR employs multi-beam and pulse Doppler techniques as-well-as cutting edge ECCM techniques to extract low RCS targets from complex clutter and jamming environments. MF-STAR’s basic TR element digital output enables software only adaptive beam forming and mode variations to form a software defined radar. The MF-STAR antenna includes 4 active arrays in S-Band frequency. The hardware architecture and technology ensures high system availability, low maintenance and low life cycle cost. The MF-STAR incorporates a lightweight antenna that can be tailored to fit even relatively small ship sizes (corvettes and above).

ROKS MaradoLPH-6112 – 유용원의 군사세계


  • Fast threat alert response time
  • Very high tracking update rate and accuracy for priority targets
  • Short search frame/TWS revisit time
  • Mid-course guidance of active/semi-active anti-air missiles
  • Illuminator enslavement for semi-active missiles
  • Automatic splash detection and measurement for gunnery support
  • Instantaneous multi-beam
  • Advanced beam forming techniques for ECCM
  • Lightweight antenna
  • Scalable, modular active solid-state phased array
  • High reliability and high availability


MW08 surface search radar
Type 3D Air/Surface Search
Frequency G band
Range 0.1m2 target: 17 km
1m2 target: 27 km
2m2 target: 32 km
Altitude unknown
Azimuth unknown
Elevation unknown
Precision Resolution
In bearing: 20
In range: 90 m
Tracking accuracy In bearing: 0.250
In range: 40 m
In elevation: 1.20
Tracking capacity Air targets: 20 (basic configuration)
Surface targets: 8 (basic configuration)Surface targets: 2 (gun-fire accuracy control)
Power 50 kW (Peak)


SPS-550K 3D air and surface surveillance radar (ROKS MaradoLPH-6112)

ROKS MaradoLPH-6112

3D Surveillance Radar for FFX is a 3D medium-range multi-beam surveillance radar mounted on Ulsan-I class ships capable of collecting information such as distance, bearings, and altitude of mid-range anti-ship/anti aircraft threats in Korea’s cluttered marine environment and amid the threat of electronic warfare. As it can detect targets up to 250km away, it is expected to play a pivotal role in guarding our territorial waters. Source

–  3D S-Band medium range radar with a full solid state Active Phased Array antenna.
– Deliver high quality situation pictures and weapon supports under severe target and environmental conditions.
– Employs Digital Multi-Beam forming, Pulse Doppler and Medium PRF Techniques to extract low RCS targets and to suppress the multipath effects from complex


– Automatic detection and tracking of aircrafts, missiles, helicopters, and
– surface ships simultaneously
– Simultaneous digital multi-beam forming techniques for multipath suppression
– Continuous, gapless, near hemispherical 3D surveillance envelope
– Two types of operational mode : medium range/long range
– Track While Scan(TWS) channel for Anti Surface Warfare gun fire support
– Identify the position of splash spotting generated by gun fire
– Electronic antenna stabilization both in azimuth and elevation
– Easily integrated in various Combat Management System and completely remote controlled

Source LIGNex1

AN/SPS-95K navigation radar

SPS-95K is a lightweight, G-Band low-volume surface search and navigation radar suitable for installation aboard destroyers, frigates and corvettes. The equipment comprises an antenna, transceiver and a remote control unit and is described as making extensive use of solid-state technology. Electronic counter-countermeasures provision includes pulse repetition frequency jitter, sector radiation, sensitivity time controlfast time constantautomatic/manual gain and frequency control, pulse interference suppression and constant false alarm rate. Available interfaces comprise video (four outputs), indicator trigger (two), Identification Friend-or-Foe (IFF) trigger (two outputs – SPS-95K incorporates an integral IFF capability), blanking trigger (two), antenna turning signal and gyro.

frequency: 5.45 … 5.825 GHz
pulse repetition time (PRT):
pulse repetition frequency (PRF): 2 400 Hz or 1 200 Hz or 750 Hz
pulsewidth (τ): 0.12 µs or 0.25 µs or 1 µs
receive time:
dead time:
peak power: 250 kW
average power:
instrumented range: 200 km
range resolution:
beamwidth: 1.5º
hits per scan:
antenna rotation:
MTBCF: 600 h
MTTR: 0.75 h


Electronic warfare & decoys


SLQ-200(v)5K SONATA on the ROKS Dae Jo Yeong (DDH-977) at JMSDF Yokosuka Base, Japan (2015 Oct 17). by yasu_osugi
General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 1980s
Sensors / EW:
K/SLQ-200(V)K Sonata [ESM] – (Argo Phoenix mod, AR-700A) ESM
Max Range: 926 km



General data:
Type: Decoy (Expendable) Weight: 0 kg
Length: 0.0 m Span: 0.0 m
Diameter: 0.0 Generation: Not Applicable (N/A)
Targets: Surface Vessel
DAGAIE Mk2 LEM Chaff – Decoy (Expendable)
Surface Max: 1.9 km.


DAGAIE MK2 NG launcher (ROKS MaradoLPH-6112)

As a modernization of DAGAIE® systems, DAGAIE® NG has been designed to defeat all current and emerging missile seekers. This system deploys the same ammunition as the SYLENA LW DLS: high credibility RF and IR decoys, including corner reflectors and morphologic IR technologies. DAGAIE® NG is a mobile system, based on the DAGAIE MK2 system developed in the 80’s / 90’s for the previous generation of corvettes & frigates.

ROKS MaradoLPH-6112

Operationnal capabilities : 
An array of tactical engagements consistent with Lacroix SEACLAD Ammunition :

 SEALEM mortars for seduction
 SEALIR mortars for seduction
 REM rockets for distraction


Propulsion system

Dokdo’s propulsion system is based on combined diesel and diesel (CODAD) plant. The propulsion system integrates four S.E.M.T. Pielstick 16 PC2.5 STC diesel engines. These engines were licence built in Korea by Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction.

Each engine, rated at 7,650kW, is equipped with sequential turbo charging (STC) system. The CAE Integrated Platform Management System (IPMS) monitors and controls the hull, propulsion, electrical distribution, steering and battle damage control systems. The propulsion system provides a maximum speed of 23kt and cruising range of 10,000nm at 18kt speed.

4 x S.E.M.T. Pielstick 16 PC2.5 STC diesel engines

S.E.M.T. Pielstick 16 PC2.5 STC diesel engine – fairbanksmorse.comS.E.M.T. Pielstick 16 PC2.5 STC diesel engine –


General characteristics
Type: Landing Platform Helicopter
Displacement: 14,300 tons (empty) / 18,800 tons (full)
Length: 199 m (653 ft)
Beam: 31 m (102 ft)
Draught: 7 m (23 ft)
  • 23 knots (43 km/h) maximum
  • 18 knots (33 km/h) cruising
Boats & landing
craft carried:
Capacity: Up to 200 vehicles (Including Tanks)
Troops: 720 marines
Crew: 330[2]
Sensors and
processing systems:
SMART-L air search radar, MW08 surface search radar, AN/SPS-95K navigation radar, TACAN, VAMPIR-MB optronic sight
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
ESM/ECM:SLQ-200(v)5K SONATA, Chaff launcher
Aircraft carried:
Aviation facilities: Flight deck with 5 landing spots and hangar


Main material source

Updated May 31, 2018


K130 Braunschweig Class Corvette

In December 2001, Germany placed an order for five K130 corvettes based on the MEKO A design from the Arge K130 consortium. The Arge K130 consortium consists of ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems Blohm +Voss in Hamburg (lead yard) and Nordseewerke in Emden, with Friedrich Lurssen Werft based in Bremen.

The corvettes replace the German Navy’s Tiger Class and Albatross Class missile fast patrol boats which no longer meet operational requirements. The K130 corvettes will be based at Warnemunde.

Tiger-class fast attack craft

Tiger-class vessel S54 Elster –

The Type 148 Tiger-class fast attack craft is a modification of the French La Combattante IIa design for the German Navy. The La Combattante IIas had been designed by Lürssen of Germany for Israel, but were built in France by Constructions Mécaniques de Normandie in Cherbourg (CMN) for political reasons. Eight of the boats were laid down by CMH, but completed by Lürssen.

The boats were commissioned into the Bundesmarine in the mid-1970s, replacing the Jaguar-class vessels of the 3rd and 5th Squadrons. At first the boats did not receive names, only numbers, but these were introduced later at the insistence of the crews.

The ships served for 30 years, and received major updates in 1982—84 and 1990—92.

After decommissioning they were scrapped or sold to different countries. No direct replacements were procured as due to the changed operating conditions the Deutsche Marine has reduced the number of these fast attack boats drastically and procured instead a smaller number of corvettes.

General characteristics (After last refit)
Type: Fast Attack Craft
Displacement: 265 tonnes (261 long tons)
Length: 47 m (154 ft 2 in)
Beam: 7 m (23 ft)
Draught: 2.70 m (8 ft 10 in)
Speed: 36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph)
  • 570 nmi (1,060 km) at 36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph)
  • 1,600 nmi (3,000 km) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph)
Complement: 30
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Notes: The ships have been updated twice (1982—84 and 1990—92), this represents the last update that was performed on all ships.


Albatros-class fast attack craft

P-6119 FGS Habicht – Kiel 1985 –

The Type 143 Albatros class was a German class of missile bearing fast attack craft. Each vessel is named after a bird of prey including the albatross, condor and cormorant. Constructed by German shipbuilders Lürssen and Kröger, the vessels were intended to replace the Type 141 Seeadler class.[1]The German Navy retired the class in 2005 and sold the boats off to Tunisia and Ghana.

General characteristics
Type: Fast attack craft
Displacement: 398 long tons (404 t)
Length: 57.80 m (189 ft 8 in)
Beam: 7.80 m (25 ft 7 in)
Draught: 2.60 m (8 ft 6 in)
Propulsion: 4 shafts, 4 MTU 16V 956 TB91 diesels 17,700 hp (13.2 MW)
Speed: 40 knots (74 km/h; 46 mph)
Range: 1,300 nmi (2,400 km; 1,500 mi) at 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph)
Complement: 40
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • 1 × SMA 3 RM 20 navigation radar
  • 1 × WM27 search and fire-control radar
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
  • Decoy launcher HOT DOG
  • Chaff launcher DAG 2200 Wolke


K130 Braunschweig Class corvette development

Keel-laying of the first of five new K130 corvettes for the German Navy began in December 2003. The first and the fourth corvette were built by Blohm + Voss, the second and fifth by Lürssen and the third by Nordseewerke.

The first of class ship, the FGS Braunshweig (F260), built by Blohm+Voss, was launched in April 2006 and commissioned in April 2008 in the Baltic port of Warnemünde in Northeast Germany. The Braunshweig and the other four ships are to be retrofitted with bow thrusters in order to improve manoeuvrability in port.

The remaining four K130 ships are: FGS Magdeburg (F261) built by Lurssen, launched in September 2006, commissioned in September 2008; FGS Erfurt (F262) built by Thyssen Nordseewerke, launched in March 2007, yet to be commissioned; FGS Oldenburg (F263) built by Blohm + Voss, launched in July 2007, yet to be commissioned; FGS Ludwigshafen (F264) built by Lurssen, launched in September 2007, yet to be commissioned. The gearing problems on FGS Braunshweig and FGS Magdeburg have delayed the commissioning of the remaining vessels.

Ships in class

Name Shipyard Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
F260 Braunschweig Blohm + Voss 3 December 2004 19 April 2006 16 April 2008 In active service
F261 Magdeburg Lürssen-Werft 19 May 2005 6 September 2006 22 September 2008 In active service
F262 Erfurt Nordseewerke 22 September 2005 29 March 2007 28 February 2013 In active service
F263 Oldenburg Blohm + Voss 19 January 2006 28 June 2007 21 January 2013 In active service
F264 Ludwigshafen am Rhein Lürssen-Werft 14 April 2006 26 September 2007 21 March 2013 In active service


German Navy to receive five additional K130 corvettes: Here


Germany will buy an additional five K130 type corvettes in 2017 to offset delays to the MKS 180 Multi-Role Combat Ships (MRCSs) programme, the German coalition government announced on 14 October.

“To meet new security needs in the Baltic Sea, in the Mediterranean Sea, and globally, the coalition plans to buy five new corvettes for EUR1.5 billion [USD1.64 billion] for the German Navy,” the two rapporteurs for the ruling coalition on the influential parliamentary budget committee, Johannes Kahrs and Eckhard Rehberg, said in a joint statement.

The news follows the German Ministry of Defence (MoD) notifying parliament in early October that the final contract negotiations concerning the planned four MKS 180 MRCSs needed to be extended, delaying the project by six months.

K130 corvette design and features

The K130 corvettes are designed with stealth features, low draft, and highly automated weapons and defence systems to support littoral warfare and particularly for operations of a multi-national crisis reaction force.

The corvettes have a continuous maximum speed of over 26kt and a cruising range of more than 2,500nm. The displacement is about 1,580t, overall length 88m and breadth 13.2m. The K130 corvettes have an endurance of seven days or, with tender support, 21 days.

A high level of automation and integration, including the automated and integrated bridge, allows the corvettes to be operated by a crew of 50. Some important technologies featured in the type 124 frigates have been incorporated into the K130, including network technology with distributed computer software for weapon, command and control systems.

Command and control

F 264  –  FGS Ludwigshafen am Rhein – Wilhelmshaven 26.08.2008 – Images: Günter Janßen

The K130 is equipped with a Thales Netherlands SEWACO sensor, weapon control and command system, together with link 11 and link 16 tactical communications.

Bridge of Brunswick –

Thales Nederland Mirador provides electro-optic surveillance and fire control.

Mirador’s sensors include colour TV camera, infrared camera and an eye-safe laser rangefinder. The identification friend or foe (IFF) is a MSSR 2000 I-type system from Cassidian.

FSG Braunschweig class Corvette K130 German Navy Marine

K130’s integrated communications suite includes a UHF satellite-communications (SATCOM) and UHF / VHF / HF communications supplied by EADS.

Thales Nederland Mirador

MIRADOR is a lightweight, compact, electro-optical multi-sensor.

It is a surveillance, tracking and fire control system of a stealthy design, which will contribute to a ship’s effort to remain undetected.

MIRADOR is designed for use on a wide range of platforms, from small patrol craft to large carriers, where it acts as an observation system and fire control director for distant optical investigation, as well as anti-surface and anti-air warfare.

The MIRADOR fire control system incorporates the latest technological features such as carbon fibre shell structure and a direct-drive servo system.

Thanks to its four sensors MIRADOR is capable of combining optical surveillance (good image quality) and tracking capabilities (good contrast).

It uses two daylight TV cameras (surveillance & tracking), and an IR camera (tracking).


An eye-safe laser range finder and an optronic tracking unit ensure that accurate target position indication is carried out.

Main features

  • Optimal combination of surveillance and tracking characteristics due to an extensive optronic sensor suite, comprising colour TV camera, fixed-focus TV camera, IR camera, and an eye-safe laser range finder.
  • Very fast engagement sequence thanks to:
    • direct drive brushless servo system,
    • auto-acquisition algorithms.
  • Stealthy design.
  • Operational features:
    • naval gunfire support,
    • splash spotting.


MSSR 2000 I-type system from Cassidian identification friend or foe (IFF)

The standard MSSR interrogator for the ASR-E system is the MSSR 2000 I.

The Interrogator MSSR 2000 I is of modular design. The system fulfills all requirements for a European Mode S Station for elementary surveillance as well as for enhanced surveillance, ground/air data link including de-centralized control in a cluster application.

The Interrogator MSSR 2000 I includes reasonable growth capability to allow the incorporation of new modes or features in the future as a result of its modern technology.

The MSSR 2000 I operates in the following modes which conform to ICAO Annex 10 and STANAG 4193 part 1 – 4 requirements:

  • Mode 1,2,3/A,C,4
  • Mode S (level 4)
  • Mode A/C/S All-Call
  • Mode A/C only All-Call
  • Mode 1,2,3/A,C mode interlace
  • Supermode

The MSSR 2000 I can interrogate in “interlace modus”, (sequences of different modes freely programmable by the user through menu guided input)e.g. M1:M1 or A:A:C or any other desired sequence. The design of the MSSR 2000 I includes the capability to be upgraded to the new military Mode 5. Source:

K130 missiles

The German Navy has authorized on 3 June 2016 the use of the surface-to-surface Saab RBS-15 Mk3 missiles aboard the K130-class corvettes. This type of missiles will give the Marine the capability to engage land targets from the sea.An RBS15 Mk3 is launched from German Navy Braunschweig class corvette “Magdeburg” during operational test in 2015. Picture: Diehl

The German BWB Federal Office for Defence Technology and Procurement and the German Navy selected the RBS 15 mk3 surface-to-surface missile for the K130 corvettes. The RBS 15 mk3, developed by Saab Bofors Dynamics and Diehl BGT Defence, is a fire-and-forget day and night anti-ship missile with land-attack capability.

The K130 class carries four RBS15 missiles. The missile uses active Ku-band radar homing and has a range of more than 200km. The missile has a high subsonic speed, Mach 0.9, and is armed with a 200kg warhead.

German Navy K130 Corvettes Ready for Saab RBS-15 Mk3 Anti-Ship Missiles: Here


The German Navy (Marine) has authorized on 3 June 2016 the use of the surface-to-surface Saab RBS-15 Mk3 missiles aboard the Braunschweig class (K-130) corvette. This type of missiles will give the Marine the capability to engage land targets from the sea.

The K130 class corvettes are armed with two Raytheon / RAMSYS Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) 21-cell mk49 surface-to-air missile launchers. The RAM guided-missile weapon system is a naval self-defence system for engagement of hostile aircraft and incoming missiles. The RAM missile has a dual-mode radar / infrared seeker and a range of 9.5km.

SAAB RBS15 MK3 Anti Ship Missile

Developed as an upgrade of combat proven RBS15 Mk2 missile, the Mk3 was successfully test fired at an FMV (the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration) test range in October 2008. The first missile was assembled outside Sweden in Germany in December that year.

The RBS15 Mk3 is a fire-and-forget, subsonic cruise type missile launched from ships and trucks. The missile can be used for anti-ship missions and land strikes.

Variations of RBS15 Mk3 missile

The RBS15 Mk3 is available in three versions – ship-launched, truck-launched and air-launched. The ship-launched variant can be installed on small and large sized warships such as fast patrol boats, frigates and corvettes. The missile is easily integrated with the combat management system and can be operated as stand-alone or fully integrated architecture.

The air-to-ship launched version is suitable for modern fighter aircraft. The rapidly deployed truck-launched missile battery provides coastal defence against hostile forces. The highly mobile launch platforms allow the launch of the missile from hidden positions located far away from the coast.

RBS15 Mk3 design and features

The forward part of the RBS15 Mk3 missile includes guidance and electronics section followed by warhead and fuel section. The rearward section consists of wings and turbojet engine and two parallel booster motors. The missile has cruciform wings that can be retracted during storage.

The missile has a length of 4.35m, fuselage diameter of 0.5m and a wing span of 1.4m. The launch and in-flight weights of the missile are 800kg and 650kg respectively. The RBS15 Mk3 can strike targets within the range of 200km, while travelling at a subsonic speed of 0.9Mach.

RBS15 Mk3 guidance system

The RBS15 guidance and control system includes an inertial navigation system and a GPS receiver, a radar altimeter and a Ku-band radar target seeker. The RBS15 missiles are resistant of enemy countermeasures. Two or more missiles can be programmed to hit the target simultaneously from various directions to better penetrate the air defences of warships.

The missile features low radar cross section and IR signature. It has sophisticated target discrimination and selection capabilities. It is extremely resistant to chaff, active jammers, decoys and other electronic countermeasures (ECM).

The RBS15 Mk3 is a low sea-skimming missile performing unpredictable evasive manoeuvres. The missile increases its thrust in the terminal phase to defeat missiles, guns and close-in weapon systems (CIWS). The missile engagement planning system (MEPS) provides advanced user interface for generating plans for different scenarios.

Warhead and propulsion of RBS15 Mk3 SSM

The missile can be equipped with an optimised heavy HE blast-fragmentation warhead. The highly efficient warhead can penetrate into the hull of any modern vessel.

The ship and truck-launched RBS15 Mk3 variants are launched by two booster motors. The missile is powered by TR 60-5 variable-thrust turbo-jet engine developed by Microturbo (a Safran Group company and subsidiary of Turbomeca). The TR60-5 engine incorporating a 3-stage-axial compressor delivers a thrust of 350 to 440daN. Source

TR60-5 engine


The TR 60-5 family is primarily used for applications of the drone or target drone type.

As such, this engine range powers most of the target drone in service in the united states within the US AirForce AFSAT program and the US NAVY SSAT Program.

Moreover, it perfectly meets the requirements for heavy missile applications such as the RBS 15Mk 3.



Length 4.35 m
Fuselage   diameter 0.50 m
Wingspan 1.40 m
Weight (in flight) 630 kg
Weight (w.   boosters) 800 kg
Seeker Active   radar
Speed 0.9 Mach   (subsonic)
Range >200 km
Trajectory Multiple 3D waypoints


The K130 class corvettes are armed with two Raytheon / RAMSYS Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) 21-cell mk49 surface-to-air missile launchers. The RAM guided-missile weapon system is a naval self-defence system for engagement of hostile aircraft and incoming missiles. The RAM missile has a dual-mode radar / infrared seeker and a range of 9.5km.

Raytheon / RAMSYS Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM)

RAM Block 1A Missile

A supersonic, lightweight, quick-reaction, fire-and-forget weapon, the RAM system is designed to destroy anti-ship missiles. Requiring no additional direction upon launch, its passive radio frequency and infrared guidance design provide high-firepower capability for engaging multiple threats simultaneously. The missile is continually improved to stay ahead of the ever-evolving threat of anti-ship missiles, helicopters, aircraft and surface craft. Source

General Characteristics, RAM Block 1A Missile Specifications

General Characteristics, RAM Block 1A Missile Specifications
Primary Function: Ship Self Defense.
Contractor: Raytheon.
Date Deployed: August 1999
Propulsion: Solid-propellant rocket.
Length: 9.3 ft 2.83 m
Diameter: 5 inches (12.70 centimeters)
Wingspan: 17.5 in / 44.5 cm
Weight: 164 lbs. (74.4 kilograms)
Speed: Supersonic
Amphibious Assault Ships (LHA/LHD)
Landing Platform Dock Ships (LPD)
Carriers (CVN)
Dock Landing Ships (LSD)
Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)
Warhead: 7.9 lbs. (explosive weight).


RAM Mark49 Launcher

General Characteristics, RAM Mark49 Launcher Specifications

General Characteristics, RAM Mark49 Launcher Specifications 
Primary Function: Ship Self Defense
Above-Deck Weight: 11,466 lbs. (5,201 kg) loaded with Block 1 missiles; 12,081 lbs (5428kg) with Block 2 missiles
Below-Deck Weight: 2,068 lbs (938 kg)
Working Circle: 129 in./3.28 m
Train: +360 degrees
Elevation: -25 degrees to +80 degrees
Missile Capacity: 21
Contractor: Raytheon.


K130 guns

F 260  –  FGS Braunschweig –

The ship’s main gun is the Oto Melara 62-calibre 76mm Super Rapid naval gun, which has a rate of fire of 120 rounds a minute. The corvette also carries two 27mm Mauser guns.

Oto Melara 62-calibre 76mm Super Rapid naval gun

Canon de 76mm et système RAM (© BUNDESWEHR) – Source –

The Oto-Melara / Oto-Breda 76/62SR 76mm (3-inches) 62-caliber Super Rapid gun is a lightweight, automatic loading, rapid fire naval gun system used against shore, sea and air targets.

The ready-ammunition magazine for one of the 76mm gun mounts. Variants of the lightweight Oto Melara are one of the most popular gun mounts in the world, in no small part because of their minimal impact on ship designs. The revolving ready-ammunition magazine for one of the 76mm gun mounts

Manufacturer: 1963-2001 Oto-Melara / 2001- OtoBreda
Produced: Compact: 1963- / Super Rapid: 1988-

Technical data:
Caliber: 3 inches / 76,2 mm
Barrel lenght: 186 inches / 4,72 meters (= 62 caliber)
Weight: 7900kg, empty (Super Rapid)
Shell: 76 x 900 mm / 12,34 kilograms
Elevation: – 15° to + 85°
Traverse: 360°
Rate of fire: Compact: 85 rpm / Super Rapid: selectable from single shot up to 120 rpm
Muzzle Velocity: 925 m/s (1100 m/s – DART)
Magazine: Compact: 80 rounds / SR: 85 rounds

16 kilometers with standard ammunition
20 km with extended range ammunition
up to 40 km with VULCANO ammunition

– Compact
– Super Rapid
– Stealth casing
– DAVIDE/STRALES radio frequency guidance system for DART guided ammunition

– HE (high explosive) – 6,296kg / Range 16km / effective range 8km (4km vs. air targets at elev. 85°)
– MOM (multi-role OTO munition)
– PFF (pre-formed fragmentation) – anti-missile ammunition
– SAPOM (semi-armored piercing OTO munition) – 6,35kg / Range 16km
– SAPOMER (semi-armored piercing OTO munition, extended range) – Range 20km
– DART (driven ammunition reduced time of flight) – sub-calibre guided ammunition against multiple targets
(missiles and maneuvering targets at sea) 4,2kg in barrel / 3,5kg in flight / 660mm lenght / effective range >8km
– VULCANO (76mm unguided and guided extended range ammunition) – under development


2 × 27 mm MLG 27 remote-controlled autocannons YouTube

This is the navalized version of the 27 mm BK 27 aircraft gun used on the Tornado and Gripen fighter aircraft. Fire control is provided by a system from STN Atlas Elektronik with target tracking, fire control computation as well as gun control performed from a remote operator console. Sensors include a thermal imager, TV camera, laser range finder and automatic target tracking system with a video tracker.

27 mm MLG 27 remote-controlled autocannons

This weapon was designed by Mauser-Werke Oberndorf Waffensysteme GmbH, a Rheinmetall DeTec subsidiary, to replace older 20 mm and 40 mm guns and the mounting does not require deck penetration. Can be operated remotely or locally with a joystick. 83 of these weapons have been ordered by the German Navy.

This weapon is a gas-operated automatic revolver cannon. Can be assembled for either left- or right-hand feed, and uses linkless ammunition with a case recovery system.

DESIGNATION 27 mm MLG 27 Light Naval Gun System
SHIP CLASS USED ON 122, 123 and 124-class frigates, 332 and 333-class minehunters and minesweepers, 352-class mine countermeasures ships, 404-class tenders and 702-class supply ships
Planned for K 130 corvette class
DATE OF DESIGN about 1990 (Original aircraft design)
DATE IN SERVICE 2003 (Navalized Version)
GUN WEIGHT 37.5 lbs. (17kg)
GUN LENGTH OA 91 in (2.310 m)
RATE OF FIRE 1,700 +/-100 rpm cyclic, lower training rates possible


F 261 FGS Magdeburg


The corvettes have two Rheinmetall Defence decoy-based Multi Ammunition Softkill System (MASS) for protection from sensor-guided missile attacks. MASS uses programmable omni-spectral ammunition (OMNI TRAP) for protection against ultraviolet, electro-optical, infrared and radar-guided weapons.

2 x Rheinmetall Defence decoy-based Multi Ammunition Softkill System (MASS)

The automatic decoy system MASS provides a unique level of protection against modern sensor-guided missiles. MASS can be installed on ships of all types and can be integrated into existing command systems. The new MASS_ISS features built-in sensors for detecting radar and laser threats. Programmable and omni-spectral, the system’s innovative ammunition provides protection in all relevant wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum.


F260_Braunschweig Multi Ammunition Softkill System (MASS) on lower right and MIRADOR is a lightweight, compact, electro-optical multi-sensor on rear mast –

The corvette’s Electronic Support Measures (ESM) system is the EADS SPS-N 5000 radar ESM, operating over frequencies 2GHz to 18GHz. The system intercepts, locates, analyses, classifies and identifies threats and has multiple target tracking capability. The countermeasures suite also includes the EADS SPN / KJS 5000 jammer.


SPS-N-5000 and KSJ-N-5000 ESM systems on main mast

The K-130 corvette will be also equipped with the Ewation (Ulm, Germany) UL 5000K electronic-support-measures/electronic-countermeasures (ESM/ECM) system, based on the Aldebaran system developed for Spain’s F100 frigate. The system consists of an ESM subsystem, working in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz, and an ECM subsystem for active radar jammning. According to some sources, these subsystems are designated SPS-N-5000 and KSJ-N-5000, respectively. The system intercepts and analyzes radar signals and classifies them according to data stored in its reprogrammable threat library. It has multiple-target-tracking capabilities and a high signal- and bearing-measurement accuracy. Interestingly, the system does not control the other countermeasures directly but only provides inputs to a combat-management system, which uses multiple data sources (such as radar, Link 11/16/22) to control the countermeasures launchers. source

General data:
Type: ESM Altitude Max: 0 m
Range Max: 926 km Altitude Min: 0 m
Range Min: 0 km Generation: Late 2000s
Sensors / EW:
SPS-N-5000 – ESM
Role: ELINT w/ OTH Targeting
Max Range: 926 km



EADS Defense Electronics supplied the TRS-3D air and surface search radar which operates at C-band.

The TRS-3D is a 3D multi-mode maritime radar capable of automatic detection and tracking of all types of air and surface threats, including the early detection of low flying or fast moving threats such as missiles, fast boats, unmanned air vehicles and drones.

TRS-3D air and surface search radar

Naval 3D Multi-Mode Surveillance and Target Acquisition Radar

TRS-3D is a modular, highly reliable, countermeasure-resistant, medium-range air and surface surveillance system.

It is a fully coherent multi-mode phased array C band radar capable of fully automatic detection, track initiation, and classification of various types of targets. Even under severe clutter conditions encountered in the littoral,  it detects and tracks with a particular emphasis on small, fast and low-flying aircraft, missiles, hovering helicopters and asymmetric threats. This ensures minimal operator workload and maximises operational effectiveness.


The corvette is fitted with two Raytheon Marine Pathfinder ST mk2 navigation radars operating at E, F and I bands.


The corvette accommodates one medium-sized helicopter. The K130 corvettes could be equipped with two vertical take-off and landing unmanned air vehicles (VTOL UAVs) for air reconnaissance and over-the-horizon targeting (OTHT), but a decision was taken in 2005 not to install UAV systems on the corvettes.

Drone Camcopter S-100 (© BUNDESWEHR) –

However, in August and September 2008, a series of trials with the Schiebel Camcopter S-100 UAV was conducted onboard FGS Braunschweig and FGS Magdeburg. The German Navy ordered the first batch of six UAVs for Braunschweig-class corvettes.

Schiebel Camcopter S-100 UAV


Main rotor diameter 3400 mm (133.9”)
Total length 3110 mm (122”)
Total height 1120 mm (44”)
MTO weight 200 kg (440 lbs)
Empty weight 110 kg (243 lbs)
Payload capacity 50 kg (110 lbs)
Fuel (internal tanks) 57 l (15.0 gal) AVGAS 100LL, JP-5 (NATO F-44), Jet A-1 (NATO F-35)
Payload electrical power 1000 W @ 24 V DC
Data link range Up to 200 km (108 nm) available


Maximum airspeed (VNE) 130 kn (240 km/h) IAS
Dash speed 120 kn (222 km/h) IAS
Loiter speed 55 kn IAS (102 km/h) for maximum endurance
Endurance >6 h with 34 kg (75 lbs) payload plus optional external fuel tank extending endurance to >10 h
Service ceiling 18000 ft in ISA conditions @ reduced GW
Airframe loading +3.5 g to  -1 g rated
Operating temperature -40°C to +55°C (-40°F to +131°F)
Wind (takeoff and landing) Up to 25 kn (46 km/h)


Diesel propulsion

Corvette type K130 in the North Sea (© BUNDESWEHR) – Source:

The K130 is fitted with two MTU 20V 1163 TB 93 diesel engines producing 14.8MW, driving two controllable-pitch propellers.

CAE supplies the vessel’s integrated machinery control system (IMCS).

2 x MTU 20V 1163 TB 93 diesel engines

Engine model 20V 1163 TB93
Rated power to DIN ISO 3046 ICFN
Rated power max. kW ( bhp ) 7400 (9923)
Speed max. rpm 1300
Exhaust emission 10
Dimensions and masses without gearbox
Length (L) mm (in) 5350 (210,6)
Width (W) mm (in) 1898 (74,7)
Height (H) mm (in) 3172 (124,9)
Mass (dry) kg (lbs) 22800.00 (50265.00)
Dimensions and masses with gearbox
Length (L1) mm (in) On request, please contact your MTU dealer ()
Width (W) mm (in) 1898 (74,7)
Height (H1) mm (in) On request, please contact your MTU dealer ()
Mass (dry) kg (lbs) On request, please contact your MTU dealer ()
Gearbox model On request, please contact your MTU dealer
Transmission ratio on request
Engine main data
Bore/Stroke mm (in) 230/280 (9,1/11)
Cylinder displacement l 11,63
Displacement, total l (cu in) 232,7 (14200)
Intake air temparature °C 25
Sea water temperature °C 25
Site altitude above sea level m 100
Barometric pressure mbar 1000
Power reduction at 45/32 °C % 3
Fuel consumption l/h (gal/h) 1998,8 (527,9)


10 = IMO Tier I (Marpol Convention)


Technical Data


Main material source

Updated Jun 24, 2018

From Texas to Thailand: RTA Lakotas enter service without a hitch

24 OCTOBER 2017

In 2014, the Royal Thai Army acquired six UH-72A Lakota helicopters from Airbus Group through the US’s foreign military sales programme. After receiving training and in-country support, the Lakotas’ first two years in operation have gone smoothly, an example of hard work and dedicated personnel.

The Royal Thai Army (RTA) is Thailand’s largest military branch. In addition to conventional military undertakings, its airborne arm is responsible for emergency medical services (EMS), evacuation, reconnaissance and utility services. Its rotorcraft fleet comprises a variety of makes, many of which – as in the case of its Vietnam-era Huey helicopters – are in need of replacement.

To this end, the RTA acquired six new Lakota helicopters from Airbus’ North American division, Airbus Helicopters, Inc., in 2014. For the army’s pilots, like Captain Pongsaton, the commander of the RTA who has experience on the older helicopters, the new aircraft offer a distinct advantage. “The Lakota is very easy to fly. We mainly fly utility, transporting equipment to the mountains or jungle, and we need to take off in confined areas. The Lakota’s instruments and autopilot systems help us avoid obstacles.”

The RTA’s purchase of the Lakotas came with a unique support set-up: five weeks of training for pilots and maintenance personnel at the division’s headquarters in Grand Prairie, Texas, followed by support in the form of one field service and one logistics representative in Thailand.

“The RTA saw that in-country support was needed because it was the first time they had acquired this type of helicopter,” says Chong Eu Chuah, the contractor field service representative (CFSR) from Airbus. “My role is part of Airbus’ support guarantee to ensure a smooth entry into service for the Lakotas in Thailand.”

Originally a technician at Airbus Singapore, Chauh trained for a month in Texas along with Chong Siew Fwai, the contractor logistics service rep (CLSR). They joined a group of six RTA pilots and ten technicians who would complete theory and simulator instruction, as well as flight training on the UH-72A. In all, 18 pilots and 30 technicians trained through the programme. “We got to know our future colleagues well, as well as setting up lines of communication,” says Chuah. “By the time the aircraft arrived in-country we were ready to assume our duties.”

In Thailand, Chuah’s responsibilities vary from troubleshooting and on-the-job training, to supporting maintenance or supplying technical assistance at one of the RTA’s five bases – Phitsanulok, Lopburi, Roi Et, Bangkok, and Nakkon Si Thammarat. “For troubleshooting, I normally drive to the sites,” he says. “If it is too far (Nakhon Si Thammarat is 900 km from Lopburi), I travel by commercial airlines. It is a tiring job but we show commitment to our customer.”

Speaking for the RTA’s technical staff, one mechanic offered the comment, “The RTA’s missions cannot be carried out if we don’t have perfect maintenance and a great contribution from the US Army and Airbus Helicopters in sending someone who is an expert.”

On the logistics side, Chong Siew Fwai set up a warehouse and inventory of Lakota spares, equipment and tools. Based in Bangkok, he handles purchase orders, equipment loans, parts shipments, and consults on nearly all logistics issues that come up with the new Lakotas.

The entry into service was not without a snag. “During the initial entry into service, we faced some avionics problems, possibly due to humidity during the sea journey from the USA coupled with the rainy season in Thailand,” says Chuah. However, with time, his help has shifted from problem-solving to supplying hand’s on – or even remote – training. “As the mechanics gain more experience, I do not travel to the sites as often. I can provide instructions, drawings, photos and video through smartphone.”

During their two years in operation, the RTA’s Lakotas have seen an availability rate of 100% when the aircraft are not scheduled for maintenance. “We selected the Lakota for use as a utility helicopter,” says one pilot, speaking on behalf of his colleagues. “[We] like the UH-72A because it is large, comfortable and easy to fly. It’s almost too powerful when hovering into a nose wind and very stable with low vibration.”

Behind the Lakotas’ success is a team of dedicated people. “Chong Siew Fwai and I stayed on in Grand Prairie after the type course training to meet key personnel at Airbus in the technical support and logistics departments,” says Chuah. “It is easier to help someone you know than a total stranger. I believe these are the reasons for the Lakotas’ smooth entry into service.”

Original post:


Related post:

Airbus Helicopters delivers 400th UH-72A Lakota to U.S. Army

UH-72A Lakota Light Utility Helicopter: Details

H145M Battlefield Support Helicopter: Details

The Australian Navy commissioned the Guided Missile Destroyer HMAS Hobart in Sydney – Video

Main image Royal Australian Navy

Hobart Class Air Warfare Destroyers: Details